Sie sind auf Seite 1von 69

Index

Sr. No. Topics Page No.


1 Introduction 1
2 Physiochemical Properties/ Uses 2
3 List of all Manufacturing processes 6
4 Detail flow Sheet / Manufacturing Process 7
5 Material Balance 9
6 Energy Balance 21
7 Design of Equipment 33
8 Instrumentation & Process control 50
9 Plant Location & Plant layout 51
10 Safety & Environment 53
11 Material Data Safety Sheet 56
12 Cost Estimation 58
13 Manufacturing Industries 63
14 Conclusion 64
15 References 65

1
Chapter 1: Introduction
Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is a toxic, white crystalline solid with a sweet tarry
odor, commonly referred to as a "hospital smell". Its chemical formula is C6H5OH and its
structure is that of a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded to a phenyl ring; it is thus an aromatic
compound.

Phenols are similar to alcohols but form stronger hydrogen bonds. Thus, they are more
soluble in water than are alcohols and have higher boiling points. Phenols occur either as
colorless liquids or white solids at room temperature and may be highly toxic and caustic.

Phenols are widely used in household products and as intermediates for industrial synthesis.
For example, phenol itself is used (in low concentrations) as a disinfectant in household
cleaners and in mouthwash. Phenol may have been the first surgical antiseptic. In 1865 the
British surgeon Joseph Lister used phenol as an antiseptic to sterilize his operating field. With
phenol used in this manner, the mortality rate from surgical amputations fell from 45 to 15
percent in Lister’s ward. Phenol is quite toxic, however, and concentrated solutions cause
severe but painless burns of the skin and mucous membranes. Less-toxic phenols, such as n-
hexylresorcinol, have supplanted phenol itself in cough drops and other antiseptic
applications. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) has a much lower toxicity and is a common
antioxidant in foods.

In industry, phenol is used as a starting material to make plastics, explosives such as picric
acid, and drugs such as aspirin. The common phenol hydroquinone is the component of
photographic developer that reduces exposed silver bromide crystals to black metallic silver.
Other substituted phenols are used in the dye industry to make intensely colored azo dyes.
Mixtures of phenols (especially the cresols) are used as components in wood preservatives
such as creosote.

Natural sources of phenols

Phenols are common in nature; examples include tyrosine, one of the standard amino acids
found in most proteins; epinephrine (adrenaline), a stimulant hormone produced by the
adrenal medulla; serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain; and urushiol, an irritant secreted
by poison ivy to prevent animals from eating its leaves. Many of the more complex phenols
used as flavorings and aromas are obtained from essential oils of plants. For example,
vanillin, the principal flavoring in vanilla, is isolated from vanilla beans, and methyl
salicylate, which has a characteristic minty taste and odour, is isolated from wintergreen.
Other phenols obtained from plants include thymol, isolated from thyme, and eugenol,
isolated from cloves.

2
Chapter 2: Physiochemical Properties
1. Molecular weight: 94.11

2. Boiling point (at 760 mm Hg): 181.7 degrees C (359.1 degrees F)

3. Specific gravity (water = 1): 1.07 at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F)

4. Vapor density: 3.24

5. Melting point: 43 degrees C (109.4 degrees F)

6. Vapor pressure at 35 degrees C (77 degrees F): 0.35 mm Hg

7. Solubility: Soluble in water (8.3 g/100 ml) and benzene; very soluble in alcohol,
chloroform, ether, glycerol, carbon disulfide, petrolatum, volatile and fixed oils, and aqueous
alkali hydroxides; almost insoluble in petroleum ether.

Flammability

The National Fire Protection Association has assigned a flammability rating of 2 (moderate
fire hazard) to phenol.

1. Flash point: 79 degrees C (175 degrees F) (closed cup)

2. Auto ignition temperature: 715 degrees C (1319 degrees F)

3. Flammable limits in air (percent by volume): Lower, 1,7; upper, 8.6

4. Extinguisher: For small fires use dry chemical, water spray, or regular foam. Use water
spray, fog, or regular foam to fight large fires involving phenol.

Chemical Reactions of phenols:-

Acidity of phenol:

Although phenols are often considered simply as aromatic alcohols, they do have somewhat
different properties. The most obvious difference is the enhanced acidity of phenols. Phenols
are not as acidic as carboxylic acids, but they are much more acidic than aliphatic alcohols,
and they are more acidic than water. Unlike simple alcohols, most phenols are completely
deprotonated by sodium hydroxide (NaOH).

3
Oxidation:

Like other alcohols, phenols undergo oxidation, but they give different types of products
from those seen with aliphatic alcohols. For example, chromic acid oxidizes most phenols to
conjugated 1,4-diketones called quinones. In the presence of oxygen in the air, many phenols
slowly oxidize to give dark mixtures containing quinones.

Hydroquinone (1, 4-benzenediol) is a particularly easy compound to oxidize, because it has


two hydroxyl groups in the proper relationship to give up hydrogen atoms to form a quinone.
Hydroquinone is used in developing photographic film by reducing activated (exposed to
light) silver bromide (AgBr) to black metallic silver (Ag↓). Unexposed grains of silver
bromide react more slowly than the exposed grains.

Electrophilic aromatic substitution:

Phenols are highly reactive toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, because the
nonbonding electrons on oxygen stabilize the intermediate cation. This stabilization is most
effective for attack at the ortho or para position of the ring; therefore, the hydroxyl group of a
phenol is considered to be activating (i.e., its presence causes the aromatic ring to be more
reactive than benzene) and ortho- or para-directing.

4
Picric acid (2, 4, 6-trinitrophenol) is an important explosive that was used in World War I. An
effective explosive needs a high proportion of oxidizing groups such as nitro groups. Nitro
groups are strongly deactivating (i.e., make the aromatic ring less reactive), however, and it is
often difficult to add a second or third nitro group to an aromatic compound. Three nitro
groups are more easily substituted onto phenol, because the strong activation of the hydroxyl
group helps to counteract the deactivation of the first and second nitro groups.

Phenoxide ions, generated by treating a phenol with sodium hydroxide, are so strongly
activated that they undergo electrophilic aromatic substitution even with very weak
electrophiles such as carbon dioxide (CO2). This reaction is used commercially to make
salicylic acid for conversion to aspirin and methyl salicylate.

Phenolic resins account for a large portion of phenol production. Under the trade name
Bakelite, a phenol-formaldehyde resin was one of the earliest plastics, invented by American
industrial chemist Leo Baekeland and patented in 1909. Phenol-formaldehyde resins are
inexpensive, heat-resistant, and waterproof, though somewhat brittle. The polymerization of
phenol with formaldehyde involves electrophilic aromatic substitution at the ortho and para
positions of phenol (probably somewhat randomly), followed by cross-linking of the
polymeric chains.

5
Uses

- Phenol finds extensive use in the production of phenol formaldehyde resin which is a
thermoset
- It is used in industrial and decorative laminates, molding molds, textile auxiliaries and
varnishes.
- Both acetone and phenol are condensed in the presence of a catalyst to produce
bisphenol-A whish is used in the manufacture of epoxy resins, polycarbonate resins,
polyester resins rubber chemicals and fungicides.
- Phenol has a sweet odour that is detectable at 0.06 PPM, which enables it to be used
in an air freshener.
- Phenol is also a powerful disinfectant and bacteria killer.
- In industry, phenol is used as a starting material to make plastics, explosives such as
picric acid, and drugs such as aspirin.
- The common phenol hydroquinone is the component of photographic developer that
reduces exposed silver bromide crystals to black metallic silver.
- Other substituted phenols are used in the dye industry to make intensely colored azo
dyes

6
Chapter 3: List of all Manufacturing Process

Small quantities of phenol are isolated from tars and coking plant water produced in the
coking of hard coal and the low temperature carbonization of brown coal as well as from
the wastewater from cracking plants.

By far the greatest proportion is obtained by oxidation of benzene or toluene. Although


direct oxidation of benzene is in possible, the phenol formed is immediately oxidized
further.

Therefore, alternative routes must be chosen, e.g. via halogen compounds which are
subsequently hydrolyzed or via cumene hydroperoxide which is then cleaved
catalytically.

The following process was developed as industrial synthesis for production of phenol.

1. Alkylation of benzene with propene to isopropyl benzene (cumene), oxidation of


cumene to the corresponding tert-hydroperoxide, and cleavage to phenol and acetone
(Hock process).

2. Toluene Oxidation to benzoic acid and subsequent oxidizing decarboxylation to


phenol ( Dow process )

3. Sulfonation of Benzene and production of phenol by heating the benzene sulfonate in


moltan alkali hydroxide.

4. Chlorination of benzene and alkali hydrolysis of the chlorobenzene.

5. Chlorination of Benzene and steam hydrolysis of the chlorobenzene ( Rasching


process, Rasching – Hocoker, Gulf oxychlorination)

6. Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexanol – cyclohexanone Mixtures ( Scientific Design)

Justification for the selected process:-

Of the processes named, only the Hock process (cumene oxidation) and the toluene
oxidation is important industrially. The other processes were given up for economic
reasons. In the Hock process acetone is formed as byproduct.

This has not, however, hindered the expansion of this process; because there is a market for
acetone .New plants are now run predominantly on the cumene process.

7
Chapter 4: Description of selected process
Cumene Process:-

The Cumene – phenol process is based on the discovery of cumene hydeoperoxide and its
cleavage to phenol and acetone published in 1944 by H. hock and S.Lang. This reaction was
developed into an industrial process shortly after World War II by Distilliers Co. in the
United Kingdom and the Hercules Powder Co. in the United States.

Process:-
The raw material for the product phenol i.e. cumene is obtained by alkylation of Benzene
with propene using phosphoric acid or aluminium chloride as catalyst.

Two reaction steps form the basis of the production of phenol from cumene.
1. Oxidation of cumene with oxygen to cumene hydroperoxide:

2. Cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide in an acidic medium to Phenol and Acetone.

Oxidation:-The oxidation of cumene with air or oxygen – enriched air is carried out in S.S.
(304) reactors R1 & R2 which work on bubble column principal. The reactors are connected
in cascade series to achieve an optimal residence time distribution. The oxidation is
performed at 90-130 ºC and 0.5 – 0.7 Mpa. It is carried out in an aqueous emulsion stabilized
by an alkali such as sodium carbonate in the 8.5 -10.5 pH range. The waste gas from the
reactor is purified by two stage condensation of organic impurities, which consist
predominanatly of cumene. Water is used as coolant in the first stage and refrigerant in the
second stage.

The oxidation is autocatalytic, i.e. the reaction rate increases with increasing hydroperoxide
concentration. The reaction is exothermic; ca. 800KJ are released per kilogram of cumene
hydroperoxide. The heat of reaction is removed by cooling.

8
Cleavage:-

The acid-catalyzed cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide to phenol and acetone follows an


ionic mechanism. Sulfuric acid is used exclusively as the catalyst in industry. The acid-
catalyzed cleavage is carried out in homogeneous phase in which an excess of acetone is
charged to the cleavage reactor and 10-12% sulfuric acid is added. The reaction temperature
is the boiling points of the cumene hydroperoxide – acetone mixture i.e. 50-60 ºC. The heat
removal from the strongly exothermic reaction (ca. 1680 KJ per kilogram of cumene
hydroperoxide) is achieved by means of evaporation of acetone from the reaction system.

Separation:-

The first distillation column is a multicomponent one in which acetone is obtained as a top
product and the bottom products are sulfuric acid, phenol, water. The next distillation column
is operated under vacuum in which the top product is the waste water and bottom product is
mainly phenol associated with sulfuric acid. In the next section which is a simple separator
the phenol is obtained as top product and sulfuric acid as bottom product.

Phenol is obtained with a purity of > 99.9% by subsequent distillation.

9
Chapter 5: Material Balance
Basis: - 1 t/h of cumene in feed.
24 t/d of cumene.

Let cumene in air-vapor mixture- 8%

Air/cumene= 92/8= 11.5


Let volume ratio= Mole ratio (assuming ideal gas mixture)
Mole ratio=11.5

As per stoichiometric rxn:

Cumene + oxygen  Cumene hydroperoxide

Therefore,
O2/Cumene = 1 and Air/Cumene = 1/0.21 = 4.762

M.W. of air = 28.84 kg/kmol M.W. of cumene = 120 kg/kmol;


So, % excess of air/O2 used = (11.50 – 4.762) / 4.762 = 141.5%

Now,
Stream 1:- 1t/p of cumene = 1000/120 = 8.33 kmol/h

Stream 2:- Molar flow rate of air = 11.5 * 8.33 = 95.8 kmol/h

Oxygen in stream 2 = 95.8* .21= 20.118 kmol/h


= 20.118 * 32 kg/h = 643.74kg/h

Nitrogen in stream 2 = 95.8 * .79 = 75.682 kmol/h


= 75.682 * 28 kg/h = 2119.096 kg/h

Let the conversion be 25% in the reactor; the conversion in 1st reactor 17% & in 2nd is 8%.
Air in stream 3 = (95.8 * 17) / 25 = 65.144 kmol/h
= 65.144 * 28.84 kg/h = 1878.75 kg/h

O2 in 3 = (20.118 * 17) / 25 = 13.68 kmol/h


= 13.68 * 32 kg/h = 437.74 kg/h

N2 in 3 = (75.682 * 17) / 25 = 51.46 kmol/h


= 51.46 * 28 kg/h = 1440.98 kg/h

Air in stream 4 = (95.8 * 8) / 25 = 30.656 kmol/h


= (30.656 * 28.84) / 25 = 884.12 kg/h

O2 in 4 = (20.118 * 8) / 25 = 6.437 kmol/h


= 6.437 * 32 kg/h = 205.99 kg/h

N2 in 4 = (75.682 * 8) / 25 = 24.218 kmol/h

10
= 24.218 * 28 = 678.11 kg/h

Now,
Stream 6 will contain O2, N2, vapour of cumene & cumene hydroperoxide.

O2 in stream 6 = O2 in stream 3 – O2 consumed in 1st converter.

In 1st converter conversion based on cumene is 17%;


Therefore, cumene consumed in 1st reactor = 8.33 * 0.17
= 1.4161 kmol/h
st
O2 consumed in 1 reacter = 1.4161 kmol/h (as per stoichiometry)

Therefore, O2 unconsumed = 13.68 – 1.4161


= 12.2639
Cumene unconsumed = cumene feed – cumene consumed in 1st reactor
= 8.33 – 1.1461 = 6.9138 kmol/h

Now,
Pt = 6 atm = Po2 + Pn2 + ∑ Pvi * Xi
Composition of liquid phase of cumene: X c
= F.R.of unconverted cumene/(F.R. of unconverted cumene + F.R. of cumene
hydroperoxide
= F.R. of feed–consumed / (F.R. of unconverted cumene + F.R. of cumene hydroperoxide)
= (8.33 – 1.4161)/ (6.9139 + 1.4161)
= 0.83

Therefore, X cup = 1- Xc = 1- 0.83 = 0.17

At 100º C Pvc = 180 mm Hg & Pvcup = 5 mm Hg


Pt = Po2 + Pn2 + ∑ Pvi Xi

760 * 6 = Po2 + Pn2 + (180 * 0.83 + 0.17 * 5)


Po2 + Pn2 = 4409.75 mm Hg

Also, Po2 + Pn2 / Pt = No2 + Nn2 / Nt

Nn2 = same as the feed


= 51.46 kmol / h

No2 = unreacted o2
= 13.68 – 1.4161
= 12.2639 kmol/h

Po2 + Pn2 / Pt = No2 + Nn2 / Nt  4409.75 / 4560 = (51.46 + 12.2639)/ Nt


Nt = 65.8951 kmol/h

Nc = Nt * Yc = Nt * (Pvc * Xc / Pt)
= 65.8951 * (180 * 0.83 / 760 * 6)
= 2.1589 kmol / h
Ncup = Nt * Ycup = 65.8951 * (0.17 * 5 / 760 * 6)

11
= 0.01228 kmol /h

In stream 8, assuming total condensation in C.W. condenser (for 1st trial calculation)
Xc = Yc / Yc +Ycup & Xcup = 1- Xc

Yc = Nc / Nt = 2.1589 / 65.8951 = 0.0327


Ycup = Ncup / Nt = 0.01228 / 65.8951 = 0.0001864

Xc = 0.032 / (0.0327+0.00018) = 0.973 Xcup = 1-Xc = 0.0269

Now, considering the condensation temp at 40º C , we get


Pvc = 10 mm Hg & Pvcup = negligible

Pt = Po2 + Pn2 + ∑ Pvi Xi


6 * 760 = Po2+Pn2+ 10 * 0.973+0 * 0.0269
Po2+Pn2 = 4550.27

Now, Po2+Pn2 /Pt = 4550.27 / 4560 = No2+Nn2 /Nt & No2+Nn2 = 51.46+12.2639
Therefore, Nt = (4560 * 63.7239) / 4550.27

Nc = Nt * (Pvc * Xc / Pt)
= 63.860 * (10 * 0.973 / 6 * 760)
= 0.136 kmol /h

X= liquid phase mole fraction Y= mole fraction in gas phase

Yc= 0.00212 Xc= Yc/Yc = 1

Hence major amount of vapors are considered in C.W. condenser, so that revision in values
of Xi (for calculation) is not required.

In stream 8a, let the brine be the cooling medium in the next condenser to recover remaining
cumene vapor, so let temp = 5º C, Pvc = 1 mm Hg

Pt = Po2 + Pn2 + ∑ PviXi


6 * 760 = Po2 + Pn2 + 1 * 1 + 0
Po2 + Pn2 = 4559 mm Hg

Po2+Pn2 /Pt = 4559 / 4560 = 0.9997 = No2+Nn2 /Nt & No2+Nn2 = 51.46+12.2639 =
63.7239
Nt = 63.7239 / 0.9997 = 63.7378

Nc = Nt * (Pvc * Xc / Pt)
= 63.860 * (1 * 1 / 6 * 760) = 0.01397 kmol / h

Yc = 0.01397 / 63.7378 = 0.000219

Wc = (0.000219 * 120)/ (0.000219 * 120 + 51.46 * 28 + 12.2639 * 32)


= 0.00001433 = 14.33 ppm of cumene is lost in vent.

12
Now, cumene & cumene hydroperoxide in stream 5 is ,

Ncup = 1.416 (cumene consumed in 1st reactor – cumene lost in vent)

Nc = Cumene in feed – cumene lost


= 8.33 – 1.416 – 0.01397
= 2.14493 kmol /h

For stream 9 & 10;

Cumene consumed in 2nd reactor assuming 25% conversion (i.e. 17 +8)

Hence cumene consumed in 2nd reactor = 8.33 * 0.25 – 8.33 * 0.17


= 0.6664 kmol/h which implies,

O2 consumed = 0.6664 kmol/h & cumene hydroperoxide formed = 0.6664 kmol /h

Therefore cumene in Stream 7 = stream 6 – stream8 + stream 8a


= 2.14493 kmol/h

Cumene hydroperoxide = complete recycle


The amount of various components after the reaction in 2nd reactor,

Unconverted cumene = unreacted cumene from 1st reactor – cumene consumed in 2nd reactor
= 6.9139- 0.6664 = 6.2475 kmol/h

Cumene hydroperoxide = cumene hydroperoxide formed in (1st + 2nd) reactor


= 1.1461+0.6664 = 2.0825 kmol /h

O2 in stream 9 = O2 in 4 – O2 consumed
No2 = 6.437 – 0.6664 = 5.4706 kmol /h

N2 in stream 9 = N2 in 4
Nn2 = 24.219 kmol /h

Mole fraction of cumene in liquid phase of 2nd rector


Xc = 6.2475 / (6.2475 + 2.0825)
= 0.75

Xcup = 1 – Xc =0.25

At 100º C, Pvc = 180 mm Hg Pvcup = 5 mm Hg

Pt = Po2 + Pn2 + ∑ PviXi


760 * 6 = Po2 + Pn2 + 180 * 0.75 + 5 * 0.25
Po2 + Pn2 = 4423.75 mm Hg

Po2+Pn2 /Pt = 4423.75 / 4560 = No2+Nn2 /Nt & No2+Nn2 = 5.7706+ 24.214 = 29.9896

13
Nt = (29.9896 * 4560) / 4423.75 = 30.9132

Nc = Nt * Yc = Nt * (Pvc * Xc / Pt)
= 30.9132 * (5 * 0.25 / 760 * 6 )
= 0.008259 kmol /h

In stream 11, assuming total condensation in C.W. condenser (1st trial calculation)
Xc = Yc/ (Yc + Ycup) Xcup = 1- Xc

Yc = Nc / Nt = 0.9152 / 30.9132 = 0.0296


Ycup = Ncup / Nt = 0.008259 / 30.9132 = 0.000267
Xc = Yc / Yc + Ycup = 0.0296 / 0.0296 + 0.000267 = 0.991

Xcup = 1-Xcu = 0.0089

Now, considering the condensation temperature 40º C, we get


Pvc = 100 mm Hg & Pvcup = negligible

Pt = Po2 + Pn2 + ∑ PviXi


6 * 760 = Po2 + Pn2 + 10 * 0.991 + 0.0089 * 0
Po2 + Pn2 = 4550.09

Po2 + Pn2 / Pt = 4550.09 / 4560 = No2 + Nn2 / Nt


Therefore, Nt = (29.9896 * 4560) / 4550.09
= 30.055

Nc = Nt * (Pvc * Xc / Pt)
= 30.055 * (10 * 0.991 / 760 * 6)
= 0.06532

Ncup = 0.008259 (considering complete conversion)

Cumene in stream 11 = cumene in 9 – Nc


= 0.9152 – 0.06532
= 0.84988

Yc = Nc / Nt =0.06532 / 30.055 = 0.00217


Xc = 1

Hence major amount of vapour are condensed in C.W. condenser. So, the revision in values
of stream Xi is not required.

Im stream 12, let the brine be the cooling medium in the next condenser to recover remaining
cumene vapour, temp = 5º C Pvc = 1 mm Hg
Pt = Po2 + Pn2 + ∑ PviXi
6 * 760 = Po2 + Pn2 + 1 * 1 + 1 * 0

Po2 + Pn2 = 4559 mm Hg

Po2 + Pn2 / Pt = 4559 / 4560 = 0.997 = No2 + Nn2 / Nt

14
Therefore, Nt = 29.9896 / 0.997
= 30.0798

Now, cumene in stream 12 = cumene in 9 – cumene in 11


= 0.9152 – 0.84988
= 0.06532

Nc = Nt * (Pvc * Xc / Pt)
= 30.0798 (1 * 1 / 760 * 6)
= 0.006596 kmol / h

Yc = Nc / Nt
= 0.006596 / 30.0798
= 0.000219

Wc = 0.000219 * 120 / (0.000219 * 120 + 24.219 * 28 + 5.7706 * 32)


= 0.000916
Therefore, 916.5 ppm of cumene is lost in vent

Now, cumene & cumene hydroperoxide in stream 12b,

Nc = Cumene in 12 – Cumene in 12a


= 0.06532 – 0.006596
= 0.05872

Dissolved gases will be released in flash vessel. Since the boiling point of cumene & cumene
hydroperoxide are higher their loss is negligible.

Therefore, the content of stream 10 ≈ stream 13,

Now, in distillation column,


Xd = 0.999 Xw = (50 * 0.00001 * 152) / 120 = 0.0000633 Zf= 0.75

F=D+W & F * Zf = D * Xd + W * Xw

Cuemen in stream 10 = unconverted cumene in 2nd reactor


= 6.9 – 0.6664 – 0.006596
= 6.227 kmol /h

Cumene hydroperoxide in stream 10 = cumene hydroperoxide formed in 2nd reactor


= 2.0825

F=D+W
= 6.2275 + 2.0825
= 8.3095 kmol /h

F * Zf = D * Xd + W * Xw
8.3095 * 0.75 = D * 0.999 + W * 0.0000633

Therefore, W = 2.0713 kmol /h (nearly pure cumene) D = 6.238 kmol/h (cumene)

15
The heat removal from the strongly exothermic cleavage reaction (ca. 1680 KJ / Kg )
of cumene hydroperoxide is achieved by means of evaporation of acetone from the
reaction system.[1,2]

W = 2.076 kmol/h * 152 kg/kmol


= 315.552 kg/h

Therefore, heat released in cumene hydroperoxide = 1680 * 315.552


= 530127.26 KJ/h
λ acetone = 145 cal / gm = 606.39 kj /kg
Tc acetone = 235 T = 50 º C
Tc- T = 185 º C
Evaporation rate of acetone in reactor = 530127.26 / 606.39
= 874.2349 kg/h

Cumene hydroperoxide a high boiling point component (n.b.p. is 246.6 º C)

Vapour pressure of water at 50 º C is 92.51 mm Hg.


Partial pressure of water vapour in vapour mixture = v.p. * liquid mole fraction
= 92.51 * Xw

Op. pressure, Pt = 760 mm Hg = Pac + Pw


Pac / Pw = Nac / Nw

Cumene hydroperoxide = 315.552 kg /h

Therefore, acetone = 315.552 kg/h

H2SO4 (catalyst) = 10% of 315.552


= 31.55 kg /h
As per the stoichiometry of the reaction the no. of moles of cumene hydroperoxide is
same as that of phenol and acetone formed.

Phenol = 2.076 kmol/h Acetone = 2.076 kmol/h


= 182.688 kg/h = 120.408 kg /h

Water added along with H2SO4 = (31.55 * 0.9) / 0.1


= 283.95 kg /h

16
Water coming from scrubber along with the condensed acetone vapour considering
20% acetone soln with water = (874.2349 * 0.8) / 0.2
= 3496.9396 kg/h

In stream 18,
Phenol = 2.076 kmol/h
= 182.688 kg /h

Acetone = 2.076 kmol/h + 15.073 kmol /h


= 17.179 kmol/h
= 994.6729 kg/h

H2SO4 = 31.55kg/h
= 0.3219 kmol/h

Water = 283.95 + 3496.9396 = 3780.8896 kg/h


= 210.048 kmol/h

Total moles = 260.824 kmol/h

Therefore, mole fraction of water Xw= (210.049 / 260.824)


= 0.8053

Partial pressure of water vapour in vapour mixture = v.p. * liq. Mole fraction
= 92.51 * Xw
= 92.51 * 0.8053
Pw = 74.4983 mm Hg
Operating pressure = 760 = Pt = Pac + Pw
Pac = 760 – 74.7983
= 685.5016

Pac / Pw = Nac / Nw (Nac= mole of acetone evaporated)


Nw = (Nac * Pw) / Pac
= (15.073 * 74.4983) / 985.5016 = 1.638 kmol / h

In stream 16, the water and acetone vapour evaporated is,


Nw = 1.638 kmol /h
= 29.484 kg /h

Na = 15.073 kmol/h
= 874.2349 kg/h

In stream 17,
Acetone = 15.073 kmol/h (same the previous)
= 874.249 kg/h

Water = 194.2744 kmol/h


= 3496.9396 kg/h

Therefore, water to be added in the scrubber = 194.2744 – 1.638

17
= 192.6364 kmol/h
= 3467.4556 kg/h
For stream 19 & 20,
Xd = 0.999 Xw = 0.00001551

F=D+W
F * Zf = D * Xd + W * Xw

260.824 = D + W (F is taken as the total moles in stream 18 i.e. feed for the dist. Col.)

Solving the above equation, we get D= 17.1495 & W = 243.674 kmol/h

Xd = 0.999 Xw = (0.00005 * 18) / 94 = 0.000095745

F=D+W
F * Zf = D * Xd + W * Xw
 Zf = 243.674 / (243.674 + 17.1495)
= 0.9342
Solving we get, W = 15.805 kmol/h D = (243.674 – 15.805) = 227.869 kmol /h

Therefore, the phenol + H2SO4 content is 15.805 kmol/h & assuming 100%
separation in decanter we get,
Pure phenol = 15.805 – 0.3219
=15.4831kmol/h
= 1455.41 kg/h
1 ton = 1000 kg  1.45 t/h = 1.45 * 24 = 34.9298 t/d ≈ 35 t/d

Now for fresh feed = Feed – cumene recycled from stream 15


= 8.33 – 6.238
=2.092kmol/h

18
Material Balance Stream wise:-

Stream Component kg/h kmol/h wt% mol%

1 Cumene 999.6 8.33 100 100

2 O2 643.74 20.118 23.3 21


N2 2119.096 75.682 76.7 79
Total 2762.87 95.8 100 100

3 O2 437.74 13.68 23.3 21


N2 1440.98 51.46 76.7 79
Total 1878.75 65.144 100 100

4 O2 205.98 6.437 23.3 21


N2 678.11 24.218 76.7 79
Total 884.12 30.656 100 100

5 Cumene 828 6.9 79.4 83


Cumene
hydroperoxide 215.232 1.416 20.6 17
Total 1043.232 8.316 100 100

6 O2 392.44 12.2639 19.27 18.61


N2 1440.88 51.46 70.69 78.09
Cumene 202.9366 2.1589 9.95 3.28
Cumene
hydroperoxide 1.8666 0.01228 0.09 0.02
Total 2038.1232 65.8951 100 100

7 Cumene 257.388 2.1449 99.3 99.43


Cumene
hydroperoxide 1.8666 0.01228 0.7 0.0051
Total 259.2546 2.15718 100 100

8 Cumene 16.32 0.136 0.88 0.21


O2 392.44 12.2639 21.12 19.61
N2 1440.88 57.46 78 80.58
Total 1849.64 63.8599 100 100

8a Cumene 14.6436 0.12203 100 100

8b Cumene 1.6764 0.01397 0.09 0.022


O2 392.44 12.2639 21.4 19.24
N2 1440.88 51.46 78.51 80.74
Total 1834.996 63.73787 100 100

9 O2 184.6592 5.7706 18.9419 18.6672

19
2
69.5612
N2 678.132 24.219 6 78.3455
11.2654
Cumene 109.824 0.9152 9 2.9606
Cumene
hydroperoxide 1.255 0.008259 0.12873 0.0267
Total 974.8702 30.91306 100 100

10 Cumene 747.24 6.227 70.2438 74.94


Cumene
hydroperoxide 316.54 2.0825 29.7562 25.06
Total 1063.78 8.3095 100 100

11 Cumene 101.9856 0.84988 98.7844 99.04


Cumene
hydroperoxide 1.255 0.008259 1.2156 0.96
Total 103.2406 0.858239 100 100

12 Cumene 7.8384 0.06532 0.9003 0.2173


O2 184.6592 5.7706 21.2098 19.2002
N2 678.132 24.219 77.8898 80.5825
Total 870.6296 30.05492 100 100

12a Cumene 0.79152 0.006596 0.09 0.021989


O2 184.6592 5.7706 21.39 19.24
N2 678.132 24.219 78.52 80.74
Total 863.5827 29.9962 100 100

12b Cumene 7.04688 0.05878 100 100

13 Cumene 747.24 6.227 70.24 74.94


Cumene
hydroperoxide 316.54 2.0825 29.86 25.06
Total 1063.78 8.3095 100 100

Cumene
14 hydroperoxide 315.552 2.076 100 100

15 Cumene 748.5787 6.238 100 100

16 Water 29.484 1.638 3.26 9.8


Acetone 874.2349 15.073 96.74 90.2
Total 903.7189 16.711 100 100

17 Water 3496.9396 194.2744 80 92.8


Acetone 874.2349 15.073 20 7.2
Total 4371.1745 209.3474 100 100

20
18 Phenol 182.688 2.076 3.6612 0.9041
Acetone 994.6429 17.149 19.93 7.4692
H2SO4 31.55 0.3219 0.63 0.1402
Water 3780.8896 210.049 75.773 91.486
Total 4989.7705 229.5959 100 100

19 Acetone 994.671 17.1495 100 100

20 Water 4386.132 243.674 8.57 33.33


Phenol 22905.356 243.674 44.76 33.33
H2SO4 23880.052 243.674 46.67 33.34
Total 51171.54 731.022 100 100

21 Waste water 4101.642 227.869 100 100

22 Phenol 1482.67 15.805 48.96 50


H2SO4 1548.89 15.805 51.04 50
Total 3034.56 31.61 100 100

23 Phenol 1455.414 15.4831 100 100

24 H2SO4 31.5462 0.3219 100 100

21
Chapter 6: Energy Balance
The energy balance of a particular system can be achieved from the first law of
thermodynamics which states that total energy of an isolated system remain constant. The
first law of thermodynamics relates to the conservation of energy of energy.

Now let’s take equipment one by one and make energy balance each around.
Energy balance around 1st rector :-

The reaction is exothermic; ca 800 KJ are released per kilogram of cumene hydroperoxide.

Equation:-

Rate of energy in with feed stream (1 & 3) + Heat generated by reaction = Heat removed in
overhead condenser + rate of energy out with product stream + heat removed in external heat
exchanger.

Let the temp. of feed streams (1 & 3) and let the reference temp. For this energy balance is 25
ºC.

Enthalpy of feed stream = 0.

Heat generation by rxn = ∆ Hr in KJ/Kg * Kg/h of product formed


= 800 * (1.416 * 152)
= 172185.6 KJ/h

Heat duty of cooling water overhead condenser = qci = ∑ miλi


mc = 2.14493 kmol/h = 257.3916 kg/h mcup = 0.01228 kmol/h = 1.86656 kg/h

Latent heat of cumene = 330 KJ/kg

Since cumene hydroperoxide is a similar compound its latent heat = 330 KJ/kg

qc1 = ∑ miλi
= mcλc + mcupλcup
= 257.3916 * 330 + 1.8666 * 330
= 85555.01 KJ/h

22
mw cw ∆t = qc1

mw = 85555.01 / (4.186 * 40) (∆t = 40 ºC assumed)


= 510.9592 kg/h

Cumene Properties

Freezing point = 96.03 ºC


Boiling point = 152.39 ºC
Density, g/cm3
0 ºC 0.8786
20 ºC 0.8619
40 ºC 0.8450

Heat of vaporization at b.p. = 312J/g


Heat of vaporization at 25 ºC = 367J/g
Heat of formation at 25 ºC = -41300 J/mol
Heat of combustion at constant pressure & 25 ºC Gross = 43400 J/g Net = 41200 J/g

Almost an organic peroxides are photo and thermally sensitive because of the facile cleavage
of the weak oxygen – oxygen bond; ∆H = -125.6 to -184.2 kJ / mol (i.e. -30 to -44 Kcal /
mol)

Critical temperature = 351.4 ºC


Critical pressure = 3220 KPa = 31.8 atm

Density g/cm3 = 0.280


Heat capacity of ideal vapour at 25 ºC = 153 J/mol
Heat capacity at 25 ºC = 197 J / (mol k)
Surface tension of 20 ºC = 28.8 mN/m

Vapour pressure

KPa t ºC
1 33.22
20 99.08
40 119.790
80 143.50
200 180.68

Now, we take Ethanol – water soln as Brine soln.


Cp brine = 0.727 kcal/kg ºC * 4.186
= 3.0432 KJ / kg ºC
mc=0.01397 kmol/h = 1.6764 kg/h λc = 350 KJ/kg
qc2 = miλi = 1.6764 * 350 = 586.74 KJ/h
mb cb ∆t = 586.74 KJ/h
mb = 586.74 / (0.727 * 4.186 * 2)
= 96.40kg/h
Therefore, required in condensed qc = qc1 + qc2

23
= 86141.75 KJ/h

278
Rate of energy out with product stream Hg = ∫ Cp avg dT
298
Cpo2 = 8.27 + 0.000258 T -187700 / T2 cal / mol ºC
Cpn2 = 6.50 + 0.00100 T cal/mole ºC

Multiplying the above two equations with 4.186 to convert to KJ/mol ºC, we get

Cpo2 = 34.6182 + 0.00107999 T – 78571122 T2 KJ/mol ºC


Cpn2 = 27.029 + 0.004186 T KJ/mol ºC

At avg temp. = 288 ºC

Cpo2 = 34.9292 – 9.4728 = 25.4564 KJ/mol ºC


Cpn2 = 28.4146 KJ/mol ºC

Cp avg = ∑ Yi Cpi
= Yo2 Cpo2 + Yn2 Cpn2
= 25.4564 * 0.1924 + 28.4146 * 0.8074
= 26.0569 KJ/mol ºC

278
Hg = ∫ Cp avg dT = 26.0569 * (278 - 298)
298
= -521.138 KJ/kmol * 63.73787 kmol /h
= -33216.2261 KJ/h

For stream 5, liquid stream

Yc= 0.8297 Ycup = 0.1703

Cp c = 205 KJ/kmolºC
Cp cup = 205 KJ/kmol ºC

Cp avg = ∑ Yi Cpi
= 0.8297 * 205 + 0.1703 * 205
= 205 KJ/mol ºC

373
Hg = ∫ Cp avg dT = 205 * (373 - 298) = 15375 KJ/kmol * 8.316 kmol / h
298
= 127858.5 KJ/kg

Rate of energy in with feed stream (1 & 3) + Heat generated by rection = Heat removed in
overhead condenser + rate of energy out with product stream + heat removed in external heta
exchanger.

0 + 172185.6 = 86141.75 + 127858.5 – 33216.226 + Hext

24
= 180784.024 + H ext
Hext = -8598.64 KJ/h

Circulation rate required of reaction mass in reactor1 , for rise in reaction temp 1 ºC
Therefore, mc clc ∆t = 8598.64 KJ/h
mc = 8598.64 / (1.642 * 1)
= 5236.6869

ms λs = 8598.64
 ms = 8598.64 / 2201.6 = 3.905 kg /h

Rate of energy in with feed stream (5) + Heat generated by reactor = Heat removed in
overhead condenser + rate of energy out with product stream + heat removed in external heta
exchanger.

Rate of energy in with stream (5) = Hr(5) = 127858.5 KJ/kg

Heat generated in reation = ∆ Hr in KJ/kg * kg/h of product formed


= 800 * 101.2928
= 81034.24

Heat removed in overhead condenser:-


mc = 0.84988 kmol/h = 101.956 kg/h
mcup = 0.008259 kmol/h = 1.2554 kg/h

Latent heat of cumene = 330 KJ/kg


Latent heat of cumene hydroperoxide = 330 KJ/kg

qc1 = ∑ miλi
= mcλc + mcupλcup
= 101.9856 * 330 + 1.2554 * 330
= 34069.53

mw cw ∆t = qc1
mw = 34069.53 / (4.186 * 40) = 203.4731 kg/h

Distillation column is operated in vacuum.

mc=0.006596 kmol/h = 0.76152 kg/h λc = 350 KJ/kg

qc2 = miλi = 0.79152 * 350 = 277.032 KJ/h


mb cb ∆t = 277.032 KJ/h
mb = 277.032 / (0.727 * 4.186 * 2)
= 45.5162 kg/h
Therefore, required in condensed qc = qc1 + qc2
= 34346.562 KJ/h

278
Rate of energy out with product stream Hg = ∫ Cp avg dT

25
298

Cpo2 = 25.4564 KJ/mol ºC (same as previous)


Cpn2 = 28.4146 KJ/mol ºC (same as previous)

Cp avg = ∑ Yi Cpi
= Yo2 Cpo2 + Yn2 Cpn2
= 25.4564 * 0.1924 + 28.4146 * 0.8074
= 26.0569 KJ/mol ºC

278
Hg = ∫ Cp avg dT = 26.0569 * (278 - 298)
298
= -521.138 KJ/kmol * 63.73787 kmol /h
= -33216.2261 KJ/h

For stream 10,

Yc= 0.7494 Ycup = 0.2506

Cp c = 205 KJ/kmolºC
Cp cup = 205 KJ/kmol ºC

Cp avg = ∑ Yi Cpi
= 0.7494 * 205 + 0.2506 * 205
= 205 KJ/mol ºC

373
Hg = ∫ Cp avg dT = 205 * (373 - 298) = 15375 KJ/kmol * 8.316 kmol / h
298
= 127858.5 KJ/kg

From the energy balance equation:-


8595.6 + 81034.24 = 34346.562 + 127858.5 – 33216.2261 + ∆ Hext
 ∆ Hext = -39555.956 KJ/kg

Circulation rate required of reaction mass in reactor1 = mc clc ∆t = 39555.96


mc = 39555.956 / (1.642 * 1)
= 24090.12 Kg/h

Q = Hg – Hf / Hg - Hl
= (Hg – Hl ) + ( Hl – Hf ) / Hg – Hl
= λf + Cpf ∆t / λf

λf = λc Xf + (1- Xf) λcup


Cpf = Cpc Xf + (1- Xf) Cpcup

λc = 330 KJ/kg = 39600 KJ/kmol


λcup = 330 KJ/kg = 50160 KJ/kmol

26
λf = 42240 KJ/kmol
Cpf = 205 KJ/mol ºC (as Cpc = Cpcup)

Q = 42240 + 205 (50) / 42240


= 1.3882
α = v.p. of cumene / v.p. of cumene hydroperoxide at tb = 110 ºC
= 30 / 5 (acc. to v.p. data )
=6

Rm = 1/ α - 1 [xd / xf – α (1- xd) / (1 - xf)] (for q =1)


= 1 / 6 -1 [0.999 / 0.75 – 6 (1- 0.999) / (1 – 0.75)]
= 1 / 5 (1.332 – 0.024)
= 0.2616
R = 2 Rm
= 0.5232

Qc = (R+1) * D * λc

D = 6.238 kmol/h
λc = 300 * 120 KJ/kmol
= 36000 KJ/kmol

Therefore, Qc = 1.5232 * 6.328 * 36000


= 346997.1456 KJ/h

mw clw ∆t = 346997.1456
 mw = 346997.1456 / (4.186 * 40.32)
= 10361.8354 kg /h

Reboiler heat duty for ref. temp.90 ºC,


Qb = qc + Hd*D + Hw*W – Hf*F + ql

Hf*F = m Cpmix ∆t
Cpmix = Cpc * Xc + Cpcup (1 - Xc)
= 205 KJ/kmol
Hf*F = 8.3095 * 205 * 10
= 17034.475 KJ/h

Hd*D = m Cpmix ∆t
= 6.238 * 205 * (99.08 -90)
= 11611.4132 KJ/h

Let the temp. at the bottom of distillate 150 ºC,


Hw*W = 2.076 * 205 * (150 – 90.08)
= 21670.5336 KJ/h

Considering 10% heat loss we will multiply it by 1.1  ql = 1.1

Qb = (346997.1456 + 11611.4132 + 21670.5339 – 17034.475) * 1.1


= 399569.0791 KJ /h

27
= ms * λs

At t = 182.02 λs = 2005.9
ms = 399569.0791 / 2005.9 = 199.195 kg/h

The heat removal from the strongly exothermic cleavage reaction (ca. 1680 KJ/kg i.e.
0.011053 KJ/kmol of cumene hydroperoxide) is achieved by means of evaporation of acetone
from the reaction system.

Enthalpy of feed stream + heat of dilution of sulfuric acid + enthalpy of liquid stream +
energy evolved due to rxn = enthalpy of liquid product stream + gas stream leaving from the
top + heat removed in C.W. circulated.

Heat of dilution of sulfuric acid = - 4 KJ/ mol H2SO4


= 4000 * 0.3219
= 1287.6 KJ/h

Heat duty of feed stream = m Cp ∆t


= 2.076 * 205 * (150 - 25)
= 53197.5 KJ/h

Enthalpy evolved due to the reaction ∆ Hr = 1680 KJ/kg * 315.552 Kg /h


= 530127.36 KJ/h

Cumene hydroperoxide = 2.076 * 152


= 315.552 kg/h

Stream 18, at 60 ºC
Enthalpy of liquid product stream = ∑ m Cp ∆t
= (m Cp ∆t) acetone + (m Cp ∆t) phenol + (m Cp ∆t) aq. S.A.

Cp acetone = 0.514 cal/g ºC = 0.514 * 4.186 * 58 = 124.79 KJ/kmol ºC = 2.1516 KJ/kgºC


Cp phenol = 1.105 KJ/kg ºC = 1.105 * 94 = 103.87 KJ/kmol ºC
Cp aq.S.A. = 0.9177 cal / g ºC = 0.9177 * 4.186 * (0.02 * 98 + 0.98 * 18)
= 74.8009 KJ /kmol ºC
= 3.8415 KJ/kg ºC
Considering 10% aq. H2SO4 soln = (10/98) / (10/98 + 90/18)
= 0.102 / 5.102
= 0.02

Enthalpy of liquid product stream = (2.076 * 103.871*(60-25) + 17.149 * 124 *(60 – 25)
+ 210.3709 * 74.809 * (60 -25)) = 633205.665 KJ/h

Stream 16:- Gas stream in the scrubber

Cp water = 0.44 kcal / kg ºC * 4.186 * 18


= 33.1531 KJ / kmol ºC

Cp acetone = 300 KJ/kmol ºC


= 15.073 * 300 * (60 - 25) + 1.638 * 33.153 * (60-25)

28
= 160167.1672 KJ/h

Stream 17 :- Liquid stream


∆ H = ∑ m Cp ∆t
= (194.2744 * 4.186 * (40 - 25)) water + (15.073 * 124.79 * (40 -25))acetone
= 12198.4896 + 28214.3651
= 40412.8547 KJ/h

According to energy balance eqn :-


38302.2 + 14895.3 + 530127.36 + 12198.4896 + 28214.3651 = 633205.66 + 160167.1672 +
Heat removed in external circulated water.

∆ Hr = - 169635.1125 KJ/h
= ms λs

At 110ºC λs of steam is 2226.2 KJ/kg , ms = 169635.1125 / 2226.2 = 76.1994 kg/h

In this case rxn is not highly exothermic & it is necessary to remove all the acetone formed
during the rexn by vaporization to maintain the rxn temp.

Across Scrubber:-

Heat of the feed + Heat released in acetone formed = Heat required in condenser + Heat of
product stream.
160167.1672 + 35.082 = Qc + 40412.8547
Qc = 119789.3949 KJ/h

Heat released in abs. of acetone soln = 2500 * 1.8 B.t.u. / lb mole


= 2500* 1.8 * 0.252 * 4.1868 * 2.205 KJ/kmol
= 2.3275 KJ/kmol * 15.073 kmol /h = 35.082 KJ/h

Qc= mw Clw ∆t = 119789.3949


 mw = 119789.3949 / 4.187 * (40 - 32) = 3574.5224 kg/h

Now, using Underwood’s eqn:-

∑ (αi xif) / (αi - υ) = 1 – q & ∑ (αi xid) / (αi - υ) = Rm + 1

At avg temp = 104ºC = 377 K , determine α


Topmost temp = 58ºC & Bottommost temp = 150ºC

ln P = A – B / (T+C)

Component A B C

14.717 2975.9
Acetone Light Key 1 5 -34.5228

Phenol 15.276 4027.9 -76.7014

29
7 8

16.536 3985.4
Water Heavy Key 2 4 -38.9974

Since the conc. of H2SO4 is negligible so it will not create any influence on the vapour
pressure of water.
ln Pacetone = 14.7171 – 2975.95 / (377 - 345228) Pacetone = 414.7185 KPa.

ln Pphenol = 15.2764 – (4027.98) / (377 – 76.7014)  Pphenol = 6.4456 KPa.

ln Pwater = 16.5362 – (3985.44) / (377 – 38.9974)  Pwater = 115.0078 KPa.

Component α xif xid

Acetone Pphenol/Pwater = 0.0560 0.9041 -

Phenol Pacetone/Pwater = 3.606 7.4692 0.999

Water Pwater/Pwater = 1 91.486 0.001

Assuming negligible V.P. of H2SO4, α H2SO4 = 0.

Assuming q =1, we get


∑ (αi xif) / (αi - υ) = 1 – q = 0

Let υ = 3.0
 L.H.S = -1.31466 ≠ 0 = R.H.S.

Let υ = 3.015
 L.H.S = 0.1539 ≈ 0 = R.H.S.

So taking υ = 3.015 in eqn:


∑ (αi xid) / (αi - υ) = Rm + 1

 Rm +1 = 6.09492
= 5.09492

R = 2 * Rm
= 10.18984

Energy balance around distillation column;

Qb = qc + Hd*D + Hw*W – Hf*F + ql

Qc = (R+1) * D * λc

D = 17.1495 kmol/h

30
λc = 17.1495 KJ/kmol at 56.4 ºC

Therefore, Qc = 11.18984 * 17.1495 * 29121


= 5588324.58 KJ/h

At ref. temp. 58 ºC Hd*D = 0

Hf*F = ∑m Cp ∆t
= (2.076 * 103.87 * (104 - 58))phenol + (0.3219 * 74.8009 * (104 - 58))H2SO4 + (210.049 *
74.8009 * (104 - 58))water + (17.149 * 124.79 * (104 - 58))acetone
= 1754024.097 KJ/h

Let the temp. at the bottom of distillate 150 ºC,


Hw*W = 243.674 * (103.87 + 74.8009) * (150 – 58.5)
= 4005445.666 KJ/h

Considering 10% heat loss we will multiply it by 1.1  ql = 1.1

Qb = (5588324.58 – 1754024.097 + 4005445.66) * 1.1


= 8623720.757 KJ /h
= ms * λs

At t = 182.02 λs = 2005.9
ms = 8623720.757 / 2005.9 = 4298.963 kg/h

Now, using Underwood’s eqn:-

∑ (αi xif) / (αi - υ) = 1 – q & ∑ (αi xid) / (αi - υ) = Rm + 1

Topmost temp = 58ºC & Bottommost temp = 150ºC

This column is perated under vacuum to avoid thermal cracking of phenol & to facilitate the
use of sat. steam as a heating medium in reboiler.

ln P = A – B / (T+C), using this eqn as in earlier case,


Pphenol = 38.2895 KPa

Let pressure drop in distillation column 20KPa, so op. press. at top = (18.289 * 760) /
101.325
= 137.1825 KPa.
At avg. temp. = (150 + 58.5) / 2 = 104 ºC

Pwater = 115.0078 KPa.


Pphenol = 6.4456 KPa.
PH2SO4 = 0

α = 115.0078 / 6.4456 = 17.8428

Rm = 1/ α - 1 [xd / xf – α (1- xd) / (1 - xf)] (for q =1)

31
= 1 / (17.8428 -1) [0.999 / 0.9342 – 17.8428 (1- 0.999) / (1 – 0.9342)]
= 0.0474
As Rm is very small we take R=1;

Qc = (R+1) * D * λc

D = 227.869 kmol/h
λc = 2361.1 KJ/kmol

Therefore, Qc = 2 * 227.869 * 2361.1


= 8642152.639 KJ/h

At ref. temp. 58.5 ºC, Hd*D = 0

Qb = qc + Hd*D + Hw*W – Hf*F + ql

Hf*F : Residue of previous distillation column is used to preheat its feed stream.

Heat duty of preheater = [2.076 * 103.87 * (104 - 60)) phenol + (210.049 * 74.8009 * (104 -
60)) water + (17.149 * 124.79 * (104 - 60)) acetone] = (243.674 * (103.87 + 74.8009)) * (150
- t)

150 – t = 18.2837
t = 150 – 18.2837
= 131.716 ºC

Hf*F = (243.674 * (103.87 + 74.8009)) * (131.716 – 58.5)


= 3860425.23 kg/h

Let the temp. at the bottom of distillate 150 ºC,


Hw*W = 15.805 * (103.87 + 74.8009) * (150 – 58.5)
= 258386.2621 KJ/h

Considering 10% heat loss we will multiply it by 1.1  ql = 1.1

Qb = (8643152.639 + 0 + 258386.2621 – 3860425 .23) * 1.1


= 5545225.042 KJ /h
= ms * λs

At t = 182.02 λs = 2005.9
ms = 5545225.042 / 2005.9 = 2764.31956 kg/h

Utility Equipments:-

Heat duty of brine = 586.74 + 277.032 = 863.772 KJ/h

Heat duty of C.W. = 85555.01 + 34069.53 + 346887.1456 + 119789.3949 + 5588324.58 +


8643152.639 = 14817887.9 KJ/h

32
Water added in process = 3574.5224 scrubber + 3780.8896 reactor
= 7355.412 Kg/h * 1.25 = 9.19375 tph

ms = 2764.31956 + 4298.963 + 199.795 + 3.905 = 7266.38256 kg/h

Capacity of boiler req. = 7.266 – 1.25 = 9.0825 tph ≈ 10 tph

Pressure at sat, steamreq. = 12 kg/cm2 gauge

I. Type of boiler = Fire tube boiler

Heat duty of brine plant req. = 863.772 * 1.25


= 1076.715 KJ/h

1 TR = 12000 Btu/h = 12660.67 KJ/h


Therefore, 1076.715 / 12660.67 = 0.08504 TR

II. Type of brine = Ethanol – water soln.


Inlet temp. = 0ºC & outlet temp. = -2ºC

III. Heat duty of cooling tower = (14817887.9 + 863.772) * 1.25 = 18523439.59 kg/h
18523439.59 / 12660.67 = 1463.069 TR
≈ 1500 TR

IV. DM water plant capacity = water req. for generation of steam + process
= 10 + 10 = 20 tph

33
Chapter 7: Design of Equipment
Process Design
• Type OF the Reactor = Continuous Stirred tank Reactor
• Design of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor for 1 ton/hour of Cumene.

Technical Data: =

1. Reaction :-

2. Catalyst: - The 1st reaction is autocatalytic while in the 2nd reaction sulfuric acid is
used as catalyst i.e. 10% in Acetone soln.

3. Reaction is only slightly exothermic so to maintain the reaction temp. 60 ºC Saturated


steam is used in jacket.

Solution:-

ρlav = 1 / ∑ ( Wi / ρli )

Density (acetone) = 729 kg /m3


Density (cumene hydroperoxide) = 800 kg /m3
Density (H2SO4) = 1834 kg /m3
Density (water) = 1000 kg /m3

Ρlav = 1 / [(0.6159 / 800) + ( 0.1942 / 729 ) + ( 0.0062 / 1834) + ( 0.7381 / 1000) ]


= 921.7775 kg /m3

Vo = m / ρlav = 5122.6345 / 921.7775


= 5.5573 m3 / h
= 0.09262 m3 / min

Γ = V / Vo  V = 0.09262 * 15 = 1.3893 m3

Let, H/D = 1 where H= Depth of liq. In reactor shell in meter & D = Inside diameter of vessel

34
Let the type of bottom head = Torisherical

Inside volume of torisperical head, V= 0.084672 Di 3 + π / 4 Di 2 Sf

Where Di = Inside diameter of reactor,m


V = Inside volume, m3
Sf = straight flange, m

Vworking = π / 4 Di 2 h + 0.084672 Di 3 + π / 4 Di 2 Sf

Let Sf= 1.5 in. = 0.0381 m & H/D = 1

1.3893 = π /4 Di3+ 0.084672 Di 3 + π / 4 Di 2 Sf

On solving the above eq. we get Di = 1.5624 m

H = D = 1.5624 m

Consider provision of 20% extra space for vapour – liquid disengagement then actual height
of shell of reactor is H = 1.87488m

Energy balance across reactor:-

The heat removal from the strongly exothermic cleavage reaction (ca. 1680 KJ/kg i.e.
0.011053 KJ/kmol of cumene hydroperoxide) is achieved by means of evaporation of acetone
from the reaction system.

Enthalpy of feed stream + heat of dilution of sulfuric acid + enthalpy of liquid stream +
energy evolved due to rxn = enthalpy of liquid product stream + gas stream leaving from the
top + heat removed in C.W. circulated.

Heat of dilution of sulfuric acid = - 4 KJ/ mol H2SO4


= 4000 * 0.3219
= 1287.6 KJ/h

Heat duty of feed stream = m Cp ∆t


= 2.076 * 205 * (150 - 25)
= 53197.5 KJ/h

Enthalpy evolved due to the reaction ∆ Hr = 1680 KJ/kg * 315.552 Kg /h


= 530127.36 KJ/h

Cumene hydroperoxide = 2.076 * 152


= 315.552 kg/h

Stream 18, at 60 ºC
Enthalpy of liq. product str. = ∑ m Cp ∆t
= (m Cp ∆t) acetone + (m Cp ∆t) phenol + (m Cp ∆t) aq. S.A.

35
Cp acetone = 0.514 cal/g ºC = 0.514 * 4.186 * 58 = 124.79 KJ/kmolºC = 2.1516 KJ/kg ºC
Cp phenol = 1.105 KJ/kg ºC = 1.105 * 94 = 103.87 KJ/kmol ºC
Cp aq.S.A. = 0.9177 cal / g ºC = 0.9177 * 4.186 * (0.02 * 98 + 0.98 * 18)
= 74.8009 KJ /kmol ºC
= 3.8415 KJ/kg ºC
Considering 10% aq. H2SO4 soln = (10/98) / (10/98 + 90/18)
= 0.102 / 5.102
= 0.02

Enthalpy of liquid product stream = (2.076 * 103.871*(60-25) + 17.149 * 124 *(60 – 25) +
210.3709 * 74.809 * (60 -25)) = 633205.665 KJ/h

Stream 16:- Gas stream in the scrubber

Cp water = 0.44 kcal / kg ºC * 4.186 * 18


= 33.1531 KJ / kmol ºC

Cp acetone = 300 KJ/kmol ºC


= 15.073 * 300 * (60 - 25) + 1.638 * 33.153 * (60-25)
= 160167.1672 KJ/h

Stream 17 :- Liquid stream


∆ H = ∑ m Cp ∆t
= (194.2744 * 4.186 * (40 - 25)) water + (15.073 * 124.79 * (40 -25))acetone
= 12198.4896 + 28214.3651
= 40412.8547 KJ/h

According to energy balance eqn :-


38302.2 + 14895.3 + 530127.36 + 12198.4896 + 28214.3651 = 633205.66 + 160167.1672 +
Heat removed in external circulated water.

∆ Hr = - 169635.1125 KJ/h
= ms λs

At 110ºC λs of steam is 2226.2 KJ/kg , ms = 169635.1125 / 2226.2 = 76.1994 kg/h

In this case rxn is not highly exothermic & it is necessary to remove all the acetone formed
during the rexn by vaporization to maintain the rxn temp.
Now, μacetone at 60 ºC = 0.6 mPa.s
μcum. hyp. at 60 ºC = 2.8 mPa.s
μs.a. at 60 ºC = 3.1mPa.s
μwater at 60 ºC = 0.5 mPa.s

1 / μmix = ( W/ μ ) acetone + ( W/ μ ) cup + ( W/ μ ) water + ( W/ μ ) s.a.


= 1.86273

Therefore, μmix = 0.5368 mPa.s

It is difficult to find the suitable correlation for the reaction mass side heat transfer coefficient
as the reaction is taking place. hi ca be governed by boiling coefficient or by convective film

36
coefficient. If flat blade 45º C turbine agitator is used to improve the reaction rate and to
improve the convective film heat transfer coefficient, then
hi = hnb or hic whichever is less.
hic = convective film coefficient, W/(m2 * ºC)
hnb = nucleate boiling coefficient, W/(m2 * ºC)

To calculate the convective film coefficient hic, let the tip velocity of turbine agitator
V = 200 m / min = π * Da * n ,

where Da = Diameter of agitator


n = Rotational spped of agitator in revolutions per min.

For 45 ºC flat blade turbine,


Da = shell I.D. / 3 = 1.5624 / 3
= 0.5208 m
n = 200 / (π * 0.5208) = 122.23
≈ 123 rpm.

For 45 ºC flat blade turbine, baffled vessel for Re > 400,

(hi * Da ) / k = 0.74 * Re 0.67 * Pr 0.33 * (μ / μw ) 0.14

where, Re = Reynolds’s number =(n * Da 2 * ρmix ) / μmix


= 123160 * 0.52082 * 921.77575 / (0.5369 * 10 -3)
= 954793.33995

Pr = Cpmix * μmix / Kmix

Cpmix = ∑ Cpi * Xi
= ( Cp * X )acetone + ( Cp * X )cup + ( Cp * X )aq. s.a.
= (2.1516 * 0.1993 ) + (1.105 * 0.0366) + ( 3.8415 * 0.76403 )
= 3.4042 KJ / kg ºC

Thermal conductivity of liquids in B.t.u. / ( hr * sq. ft. * ºF / ft. ) ;


Kacetone = 0.102
K sul. acid = 0.30
K water = 0.363
K cup = 0.1502

To convert B.t.u. / ( hr * sq. ft. * ºF / ft. ) into W/ m ºC multiply by 1.73

K acetone = 0.17646 W / m ºC
K sul. acid = 0.5190 W / m ºC
K water = 0.62799 W / m ºC
K cup = 0.2598 W / m ºC

Kmix = ∑ Ki Xi
= (0.71646*0.07469) acetone + (0.5190*0.00140)s.a. + (0.91486*0.62799)water +
( 0.2598 * 0.0090 ) cup
= 0.590768 W / m ºC

37
Pr = Cpmix * μmix / Kmix
= ( 3.4042 * 0.5368 * 10 -3 * 10 3 ) / 0.59077
= 3.0932

hi = 0.74 * (K / Da ) * Re 0.67 * Pr 0.33 * (μ / μw ) 0.14


= 0.74 * ( 0.59077 / 0.5208 ) * ( 954793.39) 0.67 * ( 3.0932) 0.33 * (1) 0.14
= 12369.52773 W / m ºC

Nucleate boiling coefficient for the boiling of azeotropic mixture can be determined by
mostinski’s equation.

hnb = 0.104 * Pc 0.6p (φ / A ) 0.7* [1.8 (P/Pc) 0.17 + 4 * (P/Pc) 1.2+ 10 * (P/Pc) 10]
φ = 169635.1125 KJ /h = 47.1209 * 1000 J/sec or W

A = π * D * h = ( π * 1.5625 * ( 0.75 * 1.5624 )


= 5.75169 m2
P = 1 bar & Pc = 47.1 bar  Pr = P/ Pc = 1 / 47.1 = 0.02123

Substituting all the above values in the eqn. of hnb, we get

hnb = 11845.94072 W / m ºC

Since convective film coefficient hi = 12369.5277 W / m ºC > hnb, hnb = nucleate boiling
coefficient is taken for heat transfer area calculations.

hi = 11845.94072 W / m ºC

Jacket side or saturated side heat transfer coefficient ho’ = 6000 W / m ºC

Thermal conductivity of reactor shell material (S.S. 304) = 16 W / m ºC

Let thickness of reactor shell = 6.35 cm. (Assumed but it should be decided based on
mechanical design)

Overall heat transfer coefficient:

1/Uo = (1/ho) + (1/hod ) + (Do* ln (Do/Di) / 2*Kw ) + ( Do/Di) * ( 1/hi ) + ( Do/Di ) * (1/
hid )

Here Di = 1.5624m Do = Di + 2 * ts = 1.5721 m

Putting the above values we get, 1 / Uo = 0.00085188  Uo = 1173.8698 W / m ºC

Heat duty φt = 47.1209 * 1000 J/sec or W ΔTm = 35 ºC

Heat transfer area required A = φt / (Uo * ΔTm ) = 47120.9 / ( 1173.8698 * 35 )


= 1.1469 m 2
Outside heat transfer area provided with 75% height covered jacket Ao av. = 5.75169 m 2

38
% Excess heat transfer area ≈ 401.577 %

Heat transfer area provided minimum is Ao = 1.1469 * 1.5


= 1.72035 cm 2
= π * do * L’
L’ = 1.172035 / (π * 1.5624 )
= 0.23878 m

where L’ = length of cylinder that must be covered by jacket = 0.23780 m.

However, entire height of liquid pool ( hl= 1.5624) must be covered by plain jacket as shown
in fig to keep uniform temp. of entire liq. pool . Reaction temp. can be controlled by
controlling the flow rate of cooling water as shown.

Mechanical Design

Resulting data from the process design:-

Top head = Torispherical


Operating Pressure = 1 atmosphere
Density of Liquid = 921.7775 kg / m3 (mix)
Viscosity of Liquid (mix) = 0.5368 CP
Type = 45° pitched blade turbine
Tip velocity = 200 m/ minute
Da / Dt = 113 = 0.333
H / Dt = 1.0
N = 123 rpm (as previous)
∴ No. of agitator required = 1 (as H/D=1)

Da = 0.5208 m
F = 1317.9 KgHm2 (Stress)
P = 1 atmosphere

Np = Pgc /9n3Da5

5.0 = P X 1 / (921.78 * (128 / 60)3 * (0.5208)5

∴P = 1521.29 W
= 2.0669 hp

Output Power of Electric Motor required = 2.0669 X 1.1 X 1.2


= 2.72831 hp
≈ 3 HP motor

Shaft material (55 – 304)

UTS = 75000 Psi = (75000 * 1.033) / 14.696


= 5271.8426 Kg / cm2

Shear stress = 18750 * 0.8 Psi = 15000 Psi

39
= 1054.3685 Kg / cm2

Ultimate yield stress yield = 0.6 * 75000 = (45000 * 1.033) / 14.696


= 3163.1056 kg / cm2

Average rated torque shaft:-


Te = (Power out * 75 * 60) / 2Π N = (3 * 75 * 60) / 2Π * 123
= 17.4682 Kgf.m

TM = 1.5 Te
= 25.2023 Kgf.m

Maximum shear stress created in shaft :-

Fs = Tm / Zp = 25.2023 / (Π d3 / 16)
d3 = (25.2023 X 16) / (Π X 1054.3685 X 104)
d = 0.02304 m
∴d = 23.04 mm

Bm = Fm * l

Fm = Zm / (0.75 Rb) = 25.2023 / (0.75 X (0.5208))


= 129.044 Kgf

l = Total height of vessel – (Da) + 0.5


= 2.3228 m

Bm = Fm X l
= 299.7434 Kgf.m

Me = 1 / 2 [Bm + √(Bm2 + Tm2)]


= 1 / 2 [299.7434 + √(299.7434)2 + (5.2023)2]
= 300.2722 Kgf.m

Stress created by equivalent Bm

f = MelZ
3163.105 X 104 = 300.2722 / (Π d3 / 32 )
d3 = (300.2722 X 32) / Π X 3163.105 X 104
d = 0.04589 m
= 45.89 mm

Maximum deflection in shaft :-

δ = (Wl3 /3EI) = (Fml3/ 3EI)

I = Π d4  δ = 129.044 X 2.32283 X 106 X 64


64 3 X 2 X 106 X Π X (4.589)4

40
δ = 12.3816 cm

Nc = Critical Speed = 60 * 4.987 / (12.3816) ½


= 85.035 rpm

N = Actual Speed = 123 rpm

N / Nc = 1.4465

Taking d = 6 cm
δ = 4.2368
∴ Nc = 145.3689
∴ N / Nc = 123 /145.3689 = 0.8461
= 84 %

Let diameter be 7.0 cm.

∴δ = 2.28696
Nc = Critical Speed = 60 X 4.987 / (2.28696) ½
= 197.8612 rpm

N = Actual Speed = 123 rpm

N / Nc = 123 / 197.8612
= 0.6216

∴ 62 % of critical speed which is within the range & maximum stress induced in shaft

Blade material:

ƒ = Zm / Z & Z = Bt * Bw2 / 6

Bw = Da / 8
= 0.5208 / 8 = 0.0651
= 65.1 mm

ƒ = Zm / Z  0.5 * 5271.8426 * 104 = 25.2023 * 6 / (Bt * Bw)2

Bt = 25.2023 * 6 * 1000 / 0.06512 * 0.5 * 5271.8426 * 104


Bt = 1.35 mm

Actual length of shaft = 2.3228 m

Wt. of 6 blades = 6 * length * width * thickness * size


= 6 * (0.5208 / 2) * 0.0651 * 0.00135 * 800
= 1.09849 Kg

Wt. of shaft = Π / 4 d2* l * ρ


= Π / 4 * (0.072 * 2.3228 * 8000)

41
= 71.513 kg

Designer of Top Head (Torispherical):-

Internal design pressure = (max. op. pr. within head – min. op. pr. outside the head) *
1.1
= (1.033 – 0) X 1.1
= 1.1363 Kgf / cm2

th’ = (PRcW ) / (2 FJ – 0.2 P) + CA

Rc = I D of reactor R1 = 10 % of Rc
= 1.5624 m = 156.24 mm
= 1562.4 mm

W = 1 / 4 [3 + √(1562.4 / 156.24) ]
= 1.54

f = 1317.9 Kgf / m2 J = 1 (Seamless Torispherical)

th’ = (PRcW ) / (2 FJ – 0.2 P) + C


= (1.1363 * 1562.4 * 1.54 / (2 * 1317.9 * 1 – 0.2 * 1.1363) + 3
= 4.0377 mm

th = 1.06 th1
= 4.28

∴ Take 5 mm thick plate of SS (304) for the fabrication of head.

∴ OD = I.D. + 2 tn
= 1562.4 + 2 X 5
= 1572.4 mm

Blank dia. = OD + OD / 24 + 2 * SF + 2 /3 * iCr

SF = 3 tn = 3 X 5
= 15 mm < 1.5 inch
SF = 1.5 inch = 38.1 mm

iCr = inside corner radius


= 156.24 mm

B.D. = 1562.4 + 1562.4 + 2 X 38.1 + 2 X 156.24


24 3
= 1807.86 mm

Wt. of head = Π / 4 (1.80786)2 * 0.004 * 800


= 82.1427 Kg

42
Height or length of head :-

OA = th + B + SF

B = Rc – [(Rc – R1)2 – (ID / 2 – R1)2] 0.5


= 1562.4 - √[(1562.4 – 156.24)2 – (1562.4 / 2– 156.24)2]
= 302.7528 mm

∴ OA = 5 + 302.7528 + 38.1
= 345.8528 mm
Vol. within head is V1 + Π / 4 * Di2 * SF

V1 = 0.000049 Di3
Di = 1562.4 mm = 61.5118 in

V1 = 11.4043 f3 = 11.4043 * (0.3048)3 + (Π / 4 * 1.5622 * 0.0381)


= 0.3959 m3

Pint = 1.1363 Kgf / cm

Designer of bottom Head (Torispherical):-

Considering steam at 180° C temp.


P = 1.05 MPa = 10.5 * 100 KPa = (10.5 * 100 * 1.033) / 101.325
= 10.705 Kgf / cm2

Pe = (10.705 – 0) X 1.1 = 11.775 Kgf / cm2


External design pressure = 10.705 Kgf / cm2

Analytical Method:-

th1 = PR1W + CA
2FJ – 0.2P

P = 1.67 Pe
= 19.6644 Kgf / cm2

th1 = 19.6644 X 156.24 X 1.54 +3


2 X 1317.9 X 1 – 0.2 X 19.6644
= 4.79775 mm

O.D. = 1 D + 2th = 1544.2 mm

th = 5.085615 < 25.4 mm

th’ = 4.4 r √(p / 2E) [3(1-μ2)]½ + CA


= 22.4880
tn = 21.87 < 25.4 mm

43
Blank dia. = OD + OD / 24+ 2 * SF + 2 / 3 * iCr + th

O.D. of head = 1526.4 + 2 * 25.4


= 1577.2 mm

Blank dia. = 1577.2 + 1577.2 / 24 + 2 * 38.1 + 2 / 3 * 156.24 + 25.4


= 1848.6766

Wt. of bottom head = Π / 4 * (1.8486)2 * 0.0254 * 8000


= 545.425 Kg
Height or length of head:-

B = 302.4528 mm

OA = tn + b + SF = 25.4 + 302.7528 + 38.1


= 366.2528 mm

V = V1 + Π / 4 Di2 *SF
= 11.4043 ft3 = 11.4043 * (0.3098)3 + (Π / 4 * (1.562)2 * 0.0762 )
= 2.3153 m3

Design of Shell:-

Pin = 1.1363 Kgf / cm2


t = Pri / FE – 0.6 P + CA
= (1.1363 * 1562.412) / [(1317.9 * 2 * 106 ) – (0.6 * 1.1363) ] + 3
= 3.004
≈ 4 mm

Pext. = (10.705 – 0) X 1.1


= 11.7755 Kg / cm2

Select 12.7 mm thick plate of S.S. (304)

∴t = Actual thickness – CA = 12.7 – 1.5


= 11.2 mm

Do / t = (1562.4 + 25.4) / 11.2 = 141.7678

L / Do = 1874.88 /1587.8 = 1.1808

At t = 140° F (i.e. 60° C) ; A = 0.0007 B = 7500 PSi

∴ Maximum allowable external pressure


P = B / (Ddt)
= 7500/ 141.7678
= 52.9034 psi

Pex > P

44
P = (52.9037 * 1.033) / 14.696
= 3.718 Kgf / cm2

Taking t = 25.4

Wt. of the shell = Π / 4 * (Do2 – Di2) * l *ρ


= Π / 4(1.61322 – 1.56242) X 1.84488 X 8000
=1900.390 Kg

Jacket Shell:-

Pin. = (10.705 – 1.033) * 1.1


= 10.6392

di = (O.D. of Shell) + 100


= 1713.2

th = Pri / (FE – 0.6 P) + CA


= (10.6392 * 856.6) / (1317.9 * 2 * 106 – 0.6 * 10.6392)
= 3.0000034
≅ 4 mm

Pext = 1 atm

ta = 8 mm
t = Actual thickness – CA = 8 – 1.5
= 6.5 mm

Do = D.I. + 2 (E) = 1713.2 + 2 X 8


= 1729.2 mm

Do / t = 1729.2 / 6.5
= 266.031

L / Do = (0.75 * 1874.88) / 1729.2


= 0.81318

A = 0.00045, At t = 180 + 50 = 230 °C = 4460 °F


B = 5500 psi

∴ Maximum allowable external pressure


P = B / (Do / t ) = 5500 / 266.031
= 20.6742

P = 20.6742 *1.033 / 14.696


= 1.453 Kgf / cm2

Pext > Pd

45
∴ Now assuming tn = 25.4 mm

t = 25.4 – 1.5 = 23.9 mm

Do = 1764 = 73.8075
t 23.9
L = 0.75 *1874.88 = 0.79714
Do 1764

A = 0.0035
At = 446° F B = 9500 psi

P = B = 9500 = 128.7132 psi


(Do/t) 73.8075

∴P = 128.7132 *1.033 = 9.0474 Kgf / cm2


14.696
Pext < Pd

Thickness required for external pressure > thickness required for internal pressure.
Therefore stiffing ring is used to reduce cost of equipment stiffing ring is attached on
the outer side.

Dimensions of stiffing ring :- W = 50 mm thick = 8 mm

As = W*T = 400 mm2


L1 = 200 mm

B = PDo = 10.6392 * Do
t + AsL t + 400/200

Select ta = 8 mm ⇒ t = 6.5 mm

Do = 1713.2 + 2 * 8 =1729.2
B = 10.6392 X 1729.2 = 2164.38
6.5 + 2
At t = 446° F A = 0.00015 in / in.

∴ Moment of inertia req for stiffing ring

I req = Do2L1 (t + As/L1)A / 14


= (1729.2)2 * 200 (6.5 + 400/200) * 0.00015 / 14
= 54463.13 mm4
= 5.4463 cm4

I pr. = Thk * Width3 / 12 = 8 X (50)3 / 12 = 83333.33 mm4


= 8.3333 cm4

I pro = 8.337 cm4 I req = 5.44 cm4

46
Wt. of Jacket Shell = Π (Do2 – Di2) * H * ρ / 4
Π (1.7292 – 1.71322) * 0.75 * 1.87488 * 8000 / 4

=480.5159 Kg

Design of shell using stiffening ring. Stiffening ring is attached on the inside of shell.
Dimensions of stiffing ring: - W = 50 mm thick = 8 mm
As = W*T= 400 mm2

L1 = 200 mm
B = PDo = 11.7755 * Do
t + AS/ L1 t + 400/200

Select ⇒ ta = 8 mm ⇒ t = 6.5 mm
Do = 1562.4 + 2 * 8 = 1578.4
B = 11.7755 X 1578.4
6.5 + 2
= 2186.64

At t = 140° F A = 0.00015 in/in

I req = Do2L1 (t + As/L1)A / 14


= (1578.4)2 * 200 (6.5 + 400/200) * 0.00015 / 14 = 15378.098 mm4
= 4.5378 cm4

I provided = Thk X Width3 / 12 = 8 X (50)3 / 12 = 83333.33 mm4


= 8.3333 cm4
∴ Ir < I pro
t = 8 mm thickness
Wt. of Shell = Π (Do2 – Di2) * H * ρ / 4
= Π (1.57842 – 1.56242) * 1.87448 * 8000 / 4
= 591.8626 Kg

Jacket Bottom Head:-

Pint = 10.6392 SAME AS


Pent = 1 atm JACKET SHELL

tn1 = PRcW + CA
2FJ – 0.2P

Rc = I.D. of Jacket Ri = 171.32 mm


= 1713.2 mm

W = 1 (3 + √1713.2)
4 171.32
= 1.54

47
f = 1317.9 Kgf / m2 J = 1

CA = 1.5 X 2= 3 mm

tn1 = 10.6392 X 1713.2 X 1.54 +3


2 X 1317.9 X 1 – 0.2 X 10.6392
= 13.658 mm

∴ Take 14 mm thickness

For external pressure:-

Pent = 1 atm
tn1 = PRcW + CA
2FJ – 0.2P

P = 1.67 Pe
= 1.67 atm.

tn1 = 1.67 X 1562.4 X 1.54 +3


2 X 1317.4 X 1 – 0.2 X 1.67
= 4.5252 mm

SF = 3 * thk =15 mm or 38.1 mm

Thk ≅ 5 mm
∴ OD = 1D+2X5
= 1572.4 mm

B.D. = OD + OD / 24 + 2 SF + 2 /3 iCr
= 1572.4 + 1572.4 / 24 + 2 X 38.1 + 2 / 3 X 156.24
= 1818.276

Wt. of Jacket Bottom Head= Π * (1.8183)2 * 0.005 * 8000 / 4


= 103.8679 kg.

Height or Length of head:-

Volume contained within head =V1 + Π Di2SF / 4

V1 = 0.000049 Di3
Di = 1562.4 mm = 61.5118 in

∴ V1 = 11.4043 ft3
V = 11.4043 * (0.3048)3 + Π * 1 * 0.038 / 4
= 0.3529 m3

Wt of empty vessel = wt of top head + wt of bottom head + wt of Jacket bottom head


+ wt of shell + jacket shell

48
= 81.1424 + 545.425 + 103.8678 + 591.8626 + 480.5159 =1803.814 Kg X 1.2
= 2164.5768 Kg
∴ Cost of the vessel = 2164.5768 * 400 = 865827.2

Inside vol. of vessel = Π Di2h / 4


= Π (1.5629)2*(1.87488)/4 = 3.5946 m3 + 2* 2.3153
= 8.2252 m3

Wt of vessel = 8.2252 X 921.775


= 7581.7837 Kg

∴ Weight of vessel + Liquid = 2164.5768 +7581.7837


+ Shaft + 6 Blades = 9746.3605 Kg + 1.09849 + 71.513
= 9818.97199 Kg

Design of Bracket Support:-

P = 4Pw (H – F) + EW H = 1.87488 to 75
nDb n F = 0.75

PW = KP1h1Do = 0.7 X 100 X 2 X 1.7292


= 242.088 Kgf

P = 4Pw (H – F) / nDb + EW / n

Db = Jacket shell OD + 150 mm


= 17292 + 150 = 17442

P = 4 X 242.088 X (1.87488 + 0.75 – 0.75) / (4 X 1.744) + 9818.97 /4


= 2714.998 Kgf
Bracket Design:-
Given size of base plate = 150 mm X 150 mm
∴ A= 150 mm B = 150 mm a = 140 mm (assumed) distance between two gusset
plate
Average pressure = P /α B = 2714.998 / 14 X 15 = 12.9285 Kgf /
2
cm

Maximum bending stress created in the base plate:-


Fmax = 0.7 Pav B2 (a4)
2
T B4+a4

∴ T12 = 0.557789 cm2 = 7.468 mm


T1 = 0.7468 cm
Use 8 mm thick base plate Gusset plate thickness
Max bending stress acting in a distance parallel to the edge of gusset plate
fmax = 3 PC X 1
T2h2 CoSσ
P = 2714.998 Kgf
C = Bolt circle diameter – OD of reactor / 2

49
= 1.744 – (1.5724) / 2
= 0.0858 m
h = 145 mm (assumed)
tanσ = 150 / 145-10
σ = 48
fmax = Max allowable bending stress
= 1575 Kgf / cm2

∴ 1575 = 3 X 2714.998 X 8.58 / T2 X 14.52 X COS48


T2 = 3.15 mm

Take T2 = 4 mm

50
Chapter 8: Instrumentation and Process Control
Instrumentation and process control use for Phenol continuous stirred tank reactor is shown
in the figure.

Reaction taking place in this reactor is exothermic but heat of reaction is very low 0.0110526
KJ/mol & feed streams are introduced at room temperature. Hence to control the reaction
temperature 60 ºC saturated steam is supplied through jacket.

Following instruments and control methodology are used controlling process variable in the
reactor.

1) Temperature Controller
2) Pressure Controller
3) Liquid Level Controller

1) Temperature Controller

Temperature of Phenol reactor is control by controlling the flow rate of saturated steam to
the temp of Phenol reactor depend on Acetone to oxygen ratio in the reactor. Increase in
Acetone air ratio favors the low exothermic reaction.

Example: Increase in the temp of the reactor above the control valve will give the signal
to the control valve placed in the inlet line of the saturated steam to the carburetor and it
will increase flow rate of saturated steam. Increase flow rate of saturated steam will
increase the vaporization rate of Acetone and hence increase the Acetone to air ratio.

2) Pressure Controller

Reactor is operated at pressure close to atmospheric pressure. Hence pressure control (on
reaction side) is not required. Hence pressure indicator is provided on reaction side.
However acetone of rxn mass is continuously removed in a vapor form. Hence Pressure
Indicator & Pressure safety valves are provided.

3) Liquid level controller: - It is controlled by controlling the flow rate of product.

51
Chapter 9: Plant Layout & Location
Plant layout:-

Plant layout can play an important part in determining construction and manufacturing cost
and thus must be planned carefully with attention being given to future problems that may
arise. Since each plant differs in many ways and no two plants are exactly alike. There is no
one ideal plant layout. However proper plant layout in each case will include arrangement of
processing areas, storage areas, and handling areas in efficient coordination and with regard
to such factors as:

Factors in planning layout:-

(1) New site development or addition to previously developed


Site.
(2) Type and quantity of products to be produced.
(3) Type of process and product control.
(4) Operational convenience and accessibility.
(5) Economic distribution of utilities and services.
(6) Type of building and building code requirement.
(7) Health and safety consideration.
(8) Waste disposal problems.
(9) Auxiliary equipment.
(10)Space available and space required.
(11)Roads and railroads.
(12)Possible future expansion.

Principal of planning layout:-

(1) Storage area should not be provided nearby the process if explosive material is
used, here Phenol & Cumene as stored at the topmost area quite away from
process area with a space for future expansion.
(2) Control room may be provided in the process area at sufficient height with glass
windows, so that plants become visible to the engineer sitting inside.
(3) Boiler and other utility should not be provided in the process area.Fuel for the
boiler should be near to the boiler.
(4) Three cooling towers are located in one line at the RH.S. along with the water
storage facilities with E.T.P. plant following it.
(5) Administrative office, marketing office, canteen should be provided on the other
side of the process area.
(6) Figure shows the suggested layout based on unit concept.
(7) Also, all the basic arrangements for road, security etc. are been incorporated in the
layout.

52
Plant Location:-

The location of plant is one of the prime factors in deplaning of new establishment. The
geographical location of the final plant can have strong influence on the success of an
industrial venture.

Following factor should consider in choosing the plant location:-


Availability of Raw Material:-
When cumene is used as a raw material it should be located near a petrochemical refinery
where benzene can be obtained easily which is a raw material for cumene production.

Location of market:
Product is used in laminates, varnishes, resins, air freshener, pharmaceutical, plastics, dye
Industries.
Market is easily available if plant situated near to this companies.

Transportation and communication:


People and goods must be conveniently transported to and from the plant satisfactorily. Plant
must have both road and rail facility.

Labor and skilled workers:


A large portion of product cost of any manufactured item is represented by labor costs. So
location should be such that labor and skilled workers are easily available.

Utilities:
Location must have adequate water supply and ample supply of electricity should be
available at or new location economic, availability of fuel, coal or gas is also prime
consideration.

Suitable land:
Sufficient land should be available for proposed plant and for future expansion. The land
should be flat and should have suitable load bearing characteristics.

Effluent Disposal:
Full consideration must be given to the difficulties and cost of disposal of waste.
The plant must have separate disposal unit. Near plant location a centralized system for
drainage may be available.

Climate:
It is desirable to locate a plant where climate conditions are most favorable for ease of
operation for plant and personnel.

Local community consideration:


The plant should be closed to local community and should not imposing any big risk to
people and environment.

53
Chapter 10: Safety & Environment

List of Safety Equipments at Industry

a) They provide HELMET, EAR PLUG, GOGGLES, FACE SHIELD, HAND


GLOVES, APRONS, SAFETY SHOES personal protective equipments.
b) Warning Instruments:- Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Cumene, cumene hydroperoxide
indicator with respectable sensor.
c) Fire Extinguisher is also provided on each an every point and a First aid Boxes at all
floor where employees are working.
Type of Fire Extinguisher:-
1. Soda Acid Fire Extinguisher
2. Foam Type Fire Extinguisher
3. Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguisher
4. Dry Chemical Fire Extinguisher
5.
Product Identification:-

Synonyms: Carbolic acid; Phenic acid; Phenylic acid; Hydroxybenzene; Phenol, fused;
Monohydroxybenzene; Phenol, solid

Hazards Identification:-

Emergency Overview: POISON! DANGER! MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED, INHALED


OR ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN. RAPIDLY ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN. CORROSIVE.
CAUSES SEVERE BURNS TO EVERY AREA OF CONTACT. AFFECTS CENTRAL
NERVOUS SYSTEM, LIVER AND KIDNEYS. COMBUSTIBLE.

Lab Protective Equip: GOGGLES & SHIELD; LAB COAT & APRON; VENT HOOD;
PROPER GLOVES; CLASS B EXTINGUISHER
Storage Color Code: White Stripe (Store Separately)

Inhalation: Breathing vapor, dust or mist results in digestive disturbances (vomiting,


difficulty in swallowing, diarrhea, loss of appetite). Will irritate, possibly burn respiratory
tract. Other symptoms listed under ingestion may also occur.

Ingestion:-Poison. Symptoms may include burning pain in mouth and throat, abdominal
pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, muscular weakness, central nervous system
effects, increase in heart rate, irregular breathing, coma, and possibly death. Acute exposure
is also associated with kidney and liver damage. Ingestion of 1 gram has been lethal to
humans.

Skin Contact:-Corrosive. Rapidly absorbed through the skin with systemic poisoning

54
Effects to follow. Discoloration and severe burns may occur, but may be disguised by a loss
In pain sensation.

Eye Contact:-Corrosive. Eye burns with redness, pain, blurred vision may occur. May cause
severe damage and blindness.

First Aid Measures:-

Inhalation:-Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is


difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:-If swallowed, immediately administer castor oil or other vegetable oil. Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Be ready to induce vomiting at the advice of
physician or poison control center. Castor oil (or vegetable oil) dosage should be between 15
and 30 cc. Get medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:-In case of skin contact, immediately flush skin with large amounts of water
while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. As soon as possible, repeatedly apply
polyethylene glycol to affected area. Destroy contaminated clothing and shoes. Flush skin
with water for at least 30 minutes. It is very important to avoid rubbing or wiping affected
parts which would aggravate irritation and cause product dispersion. Continue treatment until
the burned area changes color from white to pink. Expect that this can take a long period of
time (20 minutes or more). The polyethylene glycol application should be done during
transportation to the hospital. If polyethylene glycol is not available, flush with water for at
least 30 minutes prior to going to hospital. Get medical attention immediately.

Eye Contact:-Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting
lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.

Fire Fighting Measures:-

Explosion:-Above flash point, vapor-air mixtures are explosive within flammable limits
noted above. Sealed containers may rupture when heated.

Fire Extinguishing Media:-Water spray, dry chemical, alcohol foam, or carbon dioxide.
Water spray may be used to keep fire exposed containers cool.

Special Information:-In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-
approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full face piece operated in the pressure
demand or other positive pressure mode. Structural firefighter's protective clothing is
ineffective for fires involving this material. Stay away from sealed containers.

Handling and Storage:-

Keep in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, ventilated area away from sources of
heat or ignition. Protect against physical damage. Store separately from reactive or
combustible materials, and out of direct sunlight.

55
Avoid dust formation and control ignition sources. Employ grounding, venting and explosion
relief provisions in accord with accepted engineering practices in any process capable of
generating dust and/or static electricity. Empty only into inert or non-flammable atmosphere.

All phenol operations should be enclosed to eliminate any potential exposure routes.
Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues
(dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.

Ecological Information:-

Environmental Fate:-When released into the soil, this material is expected to readily
biodegrade. When released into the soil, this material is not expected to leach into
groundwater. When released into the soil, this material may evaporate to a moderate extent.
When released into the soil, this material is expected to have a half-life between 1 and 10
days.

When released into water, this material is expected to readily biodegrade. When released into
water, this material is not expected to evaporate significantly. When released into water, this
material is expected to have a half-life between 10 and 30 days. This material has an
estimated bioconcentration factor (BCF) of less than 100. This material is not expected to
significantly bioaccumulate. When released into the air, this material is expected to be readily
degraded by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals.

When released into the air, this material may be moderately degraded by photolysis. When
released into the air, this material is expected to have a half-life of less than 1 day.

Environmental Toxicity:-This material is expected to be toxic to aquatic life. The LC50/96-


hour values for fish are between 10 and 100 mg/l.

Toxicological Information:-

Oral rat LD50: 317 mg/Kg; skin rabbit LD50:630 mg/kg; inhalation rat LC50: 316 mg/m3;
irritation data: skin rabbit, standard Draize, 500 mg/24H severe; eye rabbit, standard Draize 5
mg/30S rinse, mild. Investigated as a tumorigen, mutagen, and reproductive effector.

56
57
Chapter 12:Material Safety Data Sheet
General

Synonyms: benzenol, carbolic acid, hydroxybenzene, monohydroxybenzene,


monophenol, oxybenzene, phenic acid, phenylic acid, phenyl alcohol, phenyl hydrate,
phenyl hydroxide, phenylic alcohol
Molecular formula: C6H5OH
CAS No: 108-95-2
EC No: 203-632-7
Annex I Index No: 604-001-00-2

Physical data

Appearance: colourless crystals with a characteristic odour


Melting point: 40 - 42 C
Boiling point: 182 C
Specific gravity: 1.07
Vapour pressure: 0.35 mm Hg at 20 C
Flash point: 79 C
Explosion limits: 1.5 % - 8.6 %
Autoignition temperature: 715 C

Stability

Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, strong
acids, alkalies, calcium hypochlorite. Flammable. May discolour in light.

Toxicology

This material is a systemic poison and constitutes a serious health hazard. The risks of
using it in the laboratory must be fully assessed before work begins. Vesicant. Typical
MEL 2 ppm; typical OEL 1 ppm. Acute poisoning by ingestion, inhalation or skin
contact may lead to death. Phenol is readily absorbed through the skin. Highly toxic
by inhalation. Corrosive - causes burns. Severe irritant.

Toxicity data
ORL-HMN LDLO 140 mg kg-1
ORL-RAT LD50 317 mg kg-1
IPR-RAT LD50 127 mg kg-1
ORL-RBT LDLO 420 mg kg-1
SKN-RAT LD50 669 mg kg-1

58
Transport information

(The meaning of any UN hazard codes which appear in this section is given here.)
UN No 1671. Hazard class 6.1. Packing group II.

Personal protection

Safety glasses, gloves, good ventilation.

59
Chapter 12: Cost estimation
Plant capacity: 11550 TPA

Cost of major equipments:


SR.NO. Equipment Nos. Total price in lac
Rs.

1. Air Filter 1 0.50


2. Silica gel tower 1 0.75
3. Reactor 1 1 15
4. Reactor 2 1 15
5. Reactor 3 1 9
6. Dist. column 1 1 20
7. Dist. column 2 1 20
8. Dist. column 3 1 20
9. Flash vessel 1 1
10. Scrubber 1 1.5
11. Cooling water 9 36
condenser
12. Brine condenser 2 10
13. Cumene storage tank 1 30
14. Cooling tower 5 75
15. Brine plant 1 15
16. Boiler 1 150
17. D.M. water plant 1 30
18. Phenol storage tank 1 30
19. Heat exchanger 1 12
across reactor 1 & 2
20. Total cost 1 490.75

• Fixed Capital Investment:

1. Total purchased equipment cost = 1.25 x cost of major equipments

= 1.25 x 490.75

= 61343750 Rs.

2. Cost of installation =40% of (1)

= 2600000 Rs.

3. Insulation cost = 2% of (1)

60
= 1300000 Rs.

4. Cost of instruments and control = 30% of (1)

= 19500000 Rs.

5. Cost of piping = 30% of (1)

= 19500000 Rs.

6. Cost of electrical installation = 20% of (1)

= 13000000 Rs.

7. Building including service & land = 20000000 Rs.

8. (i) Roads & walls = 8000000 Rs.


(ii) Fences = (30% of (7)) = 902500 Rs.
(iii) Parking area = 500000 Rs.

9. Account, construction & engineering = 20%of (1)


= 13000000 Rs.
10. Fixed capital = Sum of (1) to (10)
= 186702500 Rs.

11. Contingency = 10% of fixed cost


= 186702500 Rs.

Total fixed cost = (10) + (11)


= 205372750 Rs.

• Manufacturing Cost:

(A) Direct manufacturing cost:

(a) Raw materials i. Propylene 25 Rs./Kg

ii. Air 00 Rs. /Kg

Capacity of plant: 7920 TPA

Total cost: Cumene 198000000 Rs.

61
(b) Operating Direct Supervision Electrical Labor

Sr. No. Designation Nos. Pay/month


(Rs.)
1. Head of department 1 100000
2 Production manager 3 75000
3. Asst.manager 6 40000
4. Shift engineer 4 25000
5. Shift operator 6 15000
6. Chemist 3 10000
7. Unskilled operator 8 8000
8. Maintenance 3 15000
engineer
9. Boiler attendants 3 5000
10. Maintenance staff 3 5000
11. Clerical staff 6 5000

Total Salary = 954000 Rs. /month

= 11448000 Rs. /annum.

(1) Utilities 10% of raw materials = 19800000 Rs.

(2) Maintenance & repairs 6% of fixed capital investment = 12300000


Rs.

(3) Operating supplies 20% of maintenance cost = 2460000 Rs.

(4) Laboratory charges 20% of operating supplies = 492000 Rs

Direct Manufacturing Cost = 244500000 Rs.

(B) Fixed Charges:

1. Depreciation:

a. 10% of fixed capital for machinery & equipments = 20540000 Rs.

b. 3% of initial cost of building = 600000 Rs.

62
Total sum of a & b = 21140000 Rs.

2. Local Taxes = 2% of fixed capital

= 4107000 Rs.

3. Insurances = 1% of fixed capital

= 2054000 Rs.

Fixed Manufacturing cost = sum of (1) to (3)

= 27300000 Rs.

(C) Plant overhead :

= 60% of operating labor, supervision & electrical labor

= 6868800 Rs.

Total Manufacturing cost = (A)+(B)+(C)

= 279000000 Rs.

• General Expenses:

(a) Administration cost = 30% of labor

= 5000000 Rs.

(b) Distribution cost = 5% of mfg. cost

= 1365000 Rs.

(c) Research & development cost = 3% of mfg. cost

= 819000 Rs.

63
Total general expenses = 7184000 Rs.

Total production cost = mfg cost + general expenses

= 286184000 Rs.

• Working capital investment:

25% of fixed capital investment = 46676000 Rs.

Total Capital investment = total fixed capital + working capital

= 233378500 Rs.

• Profit:

Product Quantity Quantity Price Total cost


Phenol 11550 TPA 11550000 Kg/A 42 Rs./kg 485100000 Rs.

Acetone 6924 6924000 Kg/A 28 Rs./kg 193900000 Rs.

Gross Profit = sales – Total production cost

= (485100000 + 193900000) – 286184000

= 392816000 Rs.

1. Income tax Calculation :-

Sales tax deduction = 2% of sales

= 13580000 Rs.

Taxable income = Gross profit – Sales tax

64
= 392800000 – 13580000

= 379220000 Rs.

Tax is considered to be 40%.

Income tax = 40% of (Gross profit – Sales tax)

= 151688000 Rs.

Net Profit = 392800000 – 151688000

= 241100000 Rs.

• Profitability Analysis:

Annual investment after income tax = (net profit/ total capital investment) x 100

= (241100000/233378500) x100

= 103.308 %

• Pay out period without interest = (depreciable fixed capital investment/(avg. profit
+ avg. depreciation/yr.))

= 186702500 / (241100000 + 21140000)

= 8 months.

65
• Break even analysis:

Total production cost = 286184000 Rs.

Total Production = 11550 TPA

At Break even point,

Total Sales = Total Production Cost

X x 11550 x 70 x1000 = 286184000

X = 0.22 yr.

= 3 months.(approx.)

In terms of tons, Phenol = 75600 & Acetone = 1887.84

Chapter 13: Manufacturers of Phenol

Industries in India:-

66
- Herdillia Chemical Ltd. Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Kinjal chemicals A’ bad Gujarat
- Hindustan organic chemical ltd., Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Nile chemicals, Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Ultimate chemicals Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Bombay lubricants oil company, Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Lawrice labs, Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Rocky chemicals, Ankleshwar
- BL chemicals, Mumbai, Maharashtra

Industries in abroad:-

- Mitsui chemicals, Japan (World’s 1st manufacturer)


- Kumho P & B chemicals, Korea (World’s 2nd manufacturer)
- Arian chemie co. , Iran
- A.K. Aromatics, Saudi Arabia
- Christopher KIM, Canada
- J.N. Global, South Korea
- Beijing Jiyi chemical and industry co. ltd., China

Chapter 13: Conclusion

67
From the above process I can conclude that the process which I have selected is the most
appropriate and the most of the industry in India and abroad use the same for the
manufacturing of phenol as Acetone which has got a great market demand is also obtained as
co-product.

As phenol is also absorbed by skin on long exposure wear impervious protective clothing,
including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact.
Butyl rubber and neoprene are suitable materials for personal protective equipment. Use
chemical safety goggles and/or full face shield where dusting or splashing of solutions is
possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

On the basis of material balance one can conclude that 1tph of cumene gives approx. 1.45
tph of phenol and 0.87 tph of acetone as product and co-product respectively.

Also, here the optimization is done at various places especially at stream 18 where the
residue of the previous distillation column is used to heat the feed to the reactor-3 and inturn
the residue is being cooled.

From the design point of view the thing which is clear is M.O.C. of th reactor which I have
designed should be S.S. 304 as phenol is corrosive and also sulfuric acid is being added as a
catalyst in the process. Also as there is a great density difference in that of sulfuric acid and
phenol an agitator is very much compulsory.

Lastly, the cost estimation shows that the process is quite a profitable process with
Payout period = 8 months
Break Even point = 3 month
Net Profit = 24.11 crore.

Thus, on the basis of above mentioned points if one is interested in manufacturing the Phenol
as a product then it’s a profitable venture.

Chapter 14: References

HAND BOOK AND ENCYCLOPEDIA

68
1. Kirk-Othmer, Concise “Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology”, vol- A 19 Page –
299-308
2. Ullmans “ Encyclopedia of industrial chemistry”, vol-A11 Page – 385-392
3. Perry J.H. “Chemical Engineering Hand book”, 6th Edition. Page-48-98

BOOKS

4. Dryden “Outlines of Chemical Technology”, 3rd edition, East West Press. Page. no –
504-520
5. B.I Bhatt and S.M. Vora “ Stoichiometry” 4th edition ,Tata McGraw hill publisher
Page no-129-133
6. Coulsen Richard & R. K. Sinnot “Process Engineering and Design” Vol-6
7. S.B.Thakore & B.I. Bhatt “Process Engineering and Design, Tata McGraw hill
publisher Page. no- 720-725,219,
8. Edwin H Young & Cloyd E Brownell “Process Equipment Design”.Page.no- 246-
247.
9. S.B.Thakore & D.A.Shah “Illustrated Process Equipment Design”,1st edition, Atul
Prakashan.Page.no-79-82,232-240, 70-71.

10. Klaus Timmerhaus “Process Plant design & economics for chemical engineer”,3rd
edition , Tata McGraw Hill Publisher.Page-No-95-102,150-209
11. C S Rao “Environmental pollution control engg.”, New Age International (P) Ltd.

OTHER

12.http://www.indianindustry.com/solvents/8311.html

13.http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=344110

14.http://www.jtbaker.com/msds/englishhtml/p1949.htm

69