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Original Title: 04-1 - Frequency Domain Filtering Fundamentals

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Frequency domain filtering

fundamentals

by Gleb V. Tcheslavski: gleb@ee.lamar.edu

http://ee.lamar.edu/gleb/dip/index.htm

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 1

Preliminaries

For a digital image f(x,y) the basic filtering equation is

Where H(u,v) and F(u,v) are DFTs of the image and of the filter.

Their product is defined by array (element-by-element)

multiplication. Specifications of H(u,v) are simplified considerably

when using functions symmetric about their centers.

centers This requires

that F(u,v) is also centered, which is accomplished by multiplying

the input image by (-1)x+y before computing its transform.

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 2

1

4/28/2008

Simple filters

Considering the following image with centered (and scaled) DFT

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 3

Simple filters

One of the simplest filters would be H(u,v) having 0 at the center

and 1 elsewhere. Such filter will reject the DC (constant) term and

l

leave everything

thi else

l unchanged.

h d

Since the DC term

represents an average

intensity, setting it to zero

results in reduction of

average intensity to zero.

Therefore, the resulting

image appears darker.

Actually, aero average

implies negative intensities.

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 4

2

4/28/2008

Simple filters

Low frequencies in the transform are related to slowly varying

intensity components of image. High frequencies are caused by

sharp transitions in intensity (edges, noise).

since it eliminates DC component. Adding a small constant to a

HPF does

d nott affect

ff t sharpening

h i properties

ti but

b t prevents

t elimination

li i ti

of DC term and, thus, preserves contrast.

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 5

Simple filters

a=0.85

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 6

3

4/28/2008

Zero‐padding

Periodicity implied by DFT

leads to a “wraparound”

error: data from adjacent

periods aliases leading to

incorrect results of

convolution.

To avoid “wraparounds”,

convolved functions must

be zero padded

be zero‐padded.

Correct result

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 7

More on zero‐padding

Sample image

p g Blurred without padding

p g Blurred with padding

p g

Blurred images are not uniform: top white edges are blurred but

side edges are not (without zero‐padding). The zero‐padding leads

to an expected result.

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 8

4

4/28/2008

More on zero‐padding

Image

Image

No padding With padding

Due to periodicity implicit while using DFT, a spatial filter passing

through the top edge of the image encompasses a part of the image

and also a part of the bottom of the periodic image right above it.

Padding helps to avoid this…

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 9

Zero‐padding and ringing

Considering an ideal LPF

and its spatial representation

obtained via multiplication

by (-1)u and IDFT, we

notice that zero-padding

will lead to discontinuities.

If we compete DFT of zero-

padded filter (to obtain its

f

frequency characteristic),

h t i ti )

ringing (Gibbs?) will occur.

Ideal – infinite sinc –

truncation – ringing!

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 10

5

4/28/2008

Appearance of ringing

Results of filtering

with ILPF… Notice

ringing

appearance.

zero-padding

padding at the same time!

One approach would be to zero-pad images and then create filters

(of the same zero-padded size) in frequency domain. However, this

will produce (insignificant though) wraparounds since the filter

won’t be zero-padded.

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 11

On phase angle

Since DFT of an image is a complex array, say

F (u , v) = R(u , v) + jI (u , v)

The filtered image would be

g ( x, y ) = ℑ−1 { H (u, v) R (u, v) + jH (u , v) I (u , v)}

We are interested in filters

affecting the real and

imaginary

ag a y paparts

ts equa

equallyy –

zero-phase-shift filters.

Even small changes in the

phase angle may have

drastic effect!

Phase multiplied by 0.5 Phase multiplied by 0.25

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 12

6

4/28/2008

Summary of steps

1. For the input image f(x,y) of size MxN, form the zero-padded

image fp(x,y) of size PxQ (typically P = 2M, Q = 2N), where

P ≥ 2 M − 1;

1 Q ≥ 2N −1

2. Obtain fc(x,y) multiplying fp(x,y) by (-1)x+y to center its transform;

3. Compute the DFT of the fc(x,y);

4. Generate a real, symmetric filter function H(u,v) of size PxQ with

center at coordinates (P/2, Q/2);

5. Form the product G(u,v) = H(u,v) F(u,v) via array multiplication;

6 Obtain

6. Ob i theh processedd image

i

( )

g p ( x, y ) = real ⎡⎣ ℑ−1 {G (u, v)}⎤⎦ ( −1)

x+ y

7. Finally, extract g(x,y) – the MxN region from the top left quadrant

of gp(x,y).

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 13

Summary of steps

The original image

– zero-padded –

( 1)x+y –

scaled by (-1)

DFT – DFT of LPF

– DFT of filtering

result – IDFT –

extracted filtered

image.

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 14

7

4/28/2008

Spatial vs. Frequency domains

The link between filtering in spatial and in frequency domains is the

convolution theorem...

h( x, y ) ⇔ H (u , v)

However, DFT implements a circular convolution.

Considering

next the image

and its spectrum

(magnitude of

its DFT) of size

600 x 600

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 15

Spatial vs. Frequency domains

We attempt to use a 3x3

Sobel mask…

Therefore, we need to

zero-pad both the image

and the mask to size of

602 x 602 (keeping the

mask at the center to

preserve symmetry) to

avoid wraparounds.

The

h filter

fil I n frequency

f

domain…

Results of frequency-

domain filtering and

spatial filtering are same.

Spring 2008 ELEN 4304/5365 DIP 16

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