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Prepared by P.APPIREDDY
Nanotechnology is a field of applied science focused on
the design , synthesis , characterization and applications of materials and
devices on the nanoscale.
* Nano size or nano means one billionth of a meter i.e 1nm =
1/1,000,000,000 meter
• when a bulk materials is changed into Nano sized particle then the
properties are also changed .
• physical properties ------- ex ; melting points
• chemical properties ------- ex :Reactivity and reaction rates
• Electrical properties ------- ex : conductivity
• Optical properties ---------- ex : color , transparency

Ex : Bulk gold looks yellow but 12 nm nanosized gold particles look red

• DNA width is 2nm , RBC is 500nm and your HAIR is 100,000nm

• NANOPARTICLES are the particles with in the size ranging from 1-50nm
• Nanomaterials are the materials having components within size less than
100 nm at least in one dimension .
Q . 1 .What are nano materials ? explain

Ans : The material that has structured components with at least one
dimensions and lies less than 100nm scale range is known as nanomaterial .
Ex ; carbon nano tubes ,C60 , etc
Nano materials are constructed by two process

1.Top –down techniques 2. Bottom –up techniques

1.Top –down techniques : In this process we start with bulk material and
go on grinding or etching it to nanoscale by some suitable techniques .

Ex :By etching of to create circuits on surface of silicon chip .

2. Bottom –up techniques : In this process atom by atom or molecule by

molecule of self assembly in to a structure due to their properties.

Ex: semi conductor crystal are assembled .

Nanomaterials can be produced that are nanoscale in one, two and three
1. nanoscale in one dimensional nanomaterials are such as thin films , thin
surface coating have been developed and used for decades in fields such
as electronic devices , chemistry and engineering .
ex : silicon chip.
2. Nnanoscale in two dimensional nano material are such as nanotubes and
nanowires .
Ex : 1.carbon nano tubes 2 .Nanowires 3.Biopolymers
3. nanoscale in three dimensions nano materials are such as precipitates ,
colloids and quantum dots .
ex ; 1.Nano particles 2. C 60 [ fullerene] 3.Quntum dots

Q . 2 .What are carbon nano tubes [CNT’s] ? explain various types of

Ans : Carbon nano tubes rare excented tubes of rolled graphite sheets .
These are discovered in 1991 by S.Iijima . they are different lengths ,diameter .
CNT’s are allotropes of carbon with a nanostructure having a length – to –
diameter ratio greater than 100,000

Carbon nanotubes are classified in to two types on the number of graphite sheets
rolled .
1. Single walled nano tubes [SWNT’s] 2.Multi walled nano tubes [MWNT’s]

1. Single walled nano tubes [SWNT’s] :

single walled nanotubes are formed
by wrapping a one- atom thick layer [tube] of graphite called graphene into a
seamless cylinder . there is only one tube of graphite rolled in around it self .

2.Multi walled nano tubes [MWNT’s] :

Multi walled nano tubes contains multi rolled layers ( concentric tubes ) of
graphite sheets.
The diameter of these tubes is only a few nano materials . while their
lengths range from mm to cm . Based on the rolling of graphite sheets .
The carbon tubes are again classified into different types
Ex : chiral , zigzag and armchair .

They are differentiated with respect to their cross section . every

concentric single walled nanotubes can posses a different structure . the
properties of the nanotubes like density , electrical ,thermal conductivity are
influenced by their structure and diameter .
MWNT’s are more complex than SWNT’s due to larger arry of atoms in
them .

Q .3.Explain the fabrication of carbon nano tubes ?

Ans : carbon nanotubes can be fabricated by using a number of
methods .But there are three methods which are presently being used for
CNT’s ,they are

1. carbon arc method

2.laser vaporation method
3.chemical vaporation method.

1. carbon arc method ;

In this method, carbon nano tubes are created by arc vaporization of two
carbon rods kept end to end. The two roads are separated by a distance of 1m
and are placed in an enclosure consisting of inert gas (He,Al) at a low pressure
(400 mbs) .A direct current 20V treats to a high tempareture discharge between
the two electrodes, The discharge vaporizes one of the carbon rods and forms a
small rod shaped deposit on the other rod.
As a production of carbon nanotubes in high yield is dependent on the
plasma are uniformity and the temperature of the deposit formed on the carbon
In the method can produce SWNT’S of diameters 0.6-1.4 nm and
MWNT’S of diameter 1-3 nm.

Laser Evaporation Method:

In 1995,smalley’s group at Rice University for the synthesis of nano tubes by
laser vaporization.
CNT’S were initially fabricated by using dual pulsed or continuous lasers
are used to vaporize a graphite target in an oven at 1200 0c.when pulsed lasers
to demand a higher light on tensity.(12 kw/cm2).
The oven is filled with He or As gas in order to keep the pressure at 500
jors. The first vaporization was followed by second one to vaporize the target
uniformely.These consecutive lasses pulses reduces the carbon deposited as
root. the laser particles formed due to the first pulse are broken by the second
pulse to feed them into the nanotube.The diameter of these CNT’S range from
10-20 mm while their length is about 100m or more the average diameter and
size can be altered by altering the catalyst composition, temperature and other
process parameters.
4. Chemical Vapour deposition:
The chemical vapour deposition of acetylene with cobalt and iron catalyst
supported by silica or zeolite results in the formation of large quantities of
carbon nanotubes. the carbon deposition depends on the cobalt content of
catalyst while the selectivity of carbon nanotubes depends on the pH of
catalyst. CNT’s formed by using ethylene with the support of catalyst like
Fe,Ni,Co etc. contain a single or a mixture of metals which reduce growth
of isolated single walled nano tubes.mplybdenum (M0) and M0-Fe alloys
havealso been used for the production of single walled and double walled
nano tubes.
Q. 4. Explain the properties of carbon nanotubes [Nano materials]?
The properties of carbon nano tubes such as electrical conductivity,
Density, lattice structure, and thermal conductivity, get influenced by the
structure of cabbon nano tubes, these are many useful and unique .’

Mechanical Properties:
1. Strength:
Carbon nano tubes are one of the strongest and stiffest
materials known, in terms of tensile strength and elastic modulus
respectively. This strength results from the covalent sp 2 bonds formed
between individual carbon atoms.
Under excessive tensile srrain, the tubes will undergo plastic
deformation, which means the defirmatin is pertmanent . this deformation
beings at strains of approximately 5% and can increase the maximum
strain the tube undergoes before fracture by releasing strain energy.

2. Electrical Property:
Carbon nano tubes can be metalicor semi conducting
depending on their structure. This depends on the symmentry oand
unique electronic structure of graphene, the structure of a nanotubes
strongly effects its electrical properties for a given (n,m) nanotubes.
If n=m the nano tube metallic if n-m is multiple of 3. then the
nanotube is semi conducting with a very small band gap, otherwise the
nano tube is a moderate semi conductor. The metallic nantubes can have
an electrical current density more than 1000 times greater than metals
such as Ag and Copper.
3. Thermal property:
All nano tubes are expected to be very good thermal conductors along the tube,
exhibiting a property, known as “Ballistic Conduction”.but good insulators
laterally to the tube axies. It is predicted that carbon nano tubes will be alde to
transmit upto 6000 watts per meter per Kelvin at room tempareture . the
temperature stability of carbon nano tubes is estimated upto 28000 c in vaccum
and about 7500c in air.
4. Vibrational Properties:
Atoms in carbon nano tubes are continuously vibrating back to forth
they have two normal modes of vibrations.
• A, G mode: it involves “In” and “out”.
• E2g mode: here oscillation between “sphere and ellipse”.

Q.5. Explain briefly the applications of Nano materials?

Applications of nano materials:
Some of current applications of nano materials are discussed below.
1. Sunscreens and cosmetics:
Nano sizes Tio2 and Zno are used in some sunscreens as they absorb and
reflect u.v rays and yet are trasprarent to visible light.
Nanosized Fe2o3 is present in some lipsticks.
2.composites : An important use of nanoparticles in composites ,materials
that combine one or more component s and which are designated to exhibit
overall the best properties of each component . this functionality applies not only
to mechanical properties but extends to optical , electrical and magnetic
.currently carbon fibers and bundles of MWNT’s are used in polymers to control
conductivity .
3 .clays : clays containing naturally occuring nanoparticals have long been
important as construction materials , clay particles have plastics and nanosized
flakes are also used in various applications such as in car bumpers .
4 .coatings and surfaces : Nanoparticles are used for scratch – resistant hard
coatings as intermediate layer between the hard outer layer and the substrate .
such intermediate layers give excellent bonding and thermal properties to
improve adhesion .
Ex : Tio2 is used for coating self cleaning window
5.Tougher and harder cutting tools : cutting tools are tougher and harder ,Hence
they are also used as the drills used to bore holes in circuit boards .
Cutting tools made of nano crystalline materials such as Tungsten
carbide , Tantalum carbide and titanium carbide
6.Batteries: There is a great demand for light weight, high energy density batteries
used in portable electronic equipments such as mobile phones, laptops, computers and
remote sensors. To fulfill this demand nano crystalline materials synthesized by sol gel
method are used for separator plates in batteries due to their foam-like structure. These
are more energy than others.

6. Explain the properties and applications of carbon nanotubes?

Ans: Properties of CNT’S: Q.NO5 Answer

Applications of carbon nanotubes:

The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these
structures make them a very unique material. So widely used in various sectors.
1. They find application in conductive and high strength composites; energy storage and
energy conversion devices, sensors, radiation sources; Hydrogen storage media,
nanometer sized semi conductor devices.
2. They are used as nanoprobes in metrology and biological and chemical investigations
3. Applications in Fuel cells:
a. Hydrogen can be stored in the carbon nanotube, which is turn used for the fuel
cells in electric vehicles.
b. A new improved fuel-cell electrode that is very light weight and thin.
c. CNT’S can replace platinum as the catalyst in fuel cells. Which is reduces the
fuel cell cost and resistance to corrosion.
d. The electric power densities produced using the Pt/CNT electrodes are greater
than that of the Pt/CB (carbon Black) by a factor of 2 to 4 on the basis of the Pt load per
4. Application in Catalysis:
a. A catalyst having CNT’S makes a reaction milder, safer and more selective.
b. Oxidized CNT’S with phosphorus added are selective catalyst for the oxidation
dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene.

→ +other butanes+CO2+H2O+CO

c. Some chemical reactions are carried out inside the nanotubes

i. Reduction of Nickel oxide (NiO) to the base metal Ni
NiO → Ni
ii. Reduction of AlCl3 to its base metal Al
AlCl3 → Al
iii. Cds crystals have been formed in side the CNT’S by reacting Cdo with H2S
gas at 4000C
Cdo+H2S → Cds+ H2O
5. Applications in Medicine:
CNT’S are highly used in the field of drug delivery and biosensing methods for
disease treatment and health monitoring.
Ex: Gold nano particles.
i. Nanocrystalline “Ag” in the treatment of wounds.
ii. Nano emulsions for used in flu and colds viruses.
iii. Alumino silicate nano particles are help blood clot fastes in open wounds.
iv. Nano particles that target tumos cells such as Iron and gold.
v. Quantum dots nano particles that identity the location of cancer cells in the
6. Applications of Food:
Nanotechnology is having an impact on several aspects of food science in taste,
safety, packaging and health benefits that food delivers.
i. ‘Ag’ nano particles embedded in plastic for storage bins to kill bacteria.
ii. Clay nano particles used in bottles, cartons and films to act as a barrier to
passage of gases and odour.
iii. Plastic films containing silicate nano particles that provide a barrier of
gases or moisture.
iv. Zno nano particles incorporated into plastic packaging to block UV rays
and Antibacterial protection.
7. Applications in Air pollution:
i. Tio2 nano crystals for Air Purifications
ii. Enzyme nano crystals for removal of co2 from industrial
iii. MnO2 nano crystals for removal of volatile organic compounds.
iv. Reducing the amount of ‘Pt’ used in catalytic converters.
8. In gas sensing devices:
* Gas sensor for NO, SO, CO, CO2, CH4 and aromatic Hydro carbons.
* UV sensor is sic
* Smoke dector
* Ice dector
* Ice dector on air craft wings
9. In electronics and opto electronics:
* Nano phosphorus for used in high definition Television and flat panel displays.
* Power or plastic layers using nanoparticles as an active scattering medium.
* Optical switches, fibers are nanoparticles.
Electronics: 1. Computer chips, semiconductor devices.
2. Nano ceramics
In optics: 1. Special plastics lenses
2. Anti-fogging coating for car windows
3. In expensive colored glasses and optical filters.

Q.7. Discuss the types structures and preparation of C60 or fullerenes?

Ans: A Third newly discovered allotrope of carbon is Buckminster

fullerenes named in honors of Buckminster fuller.
Fullerenes were discovered laser experiments at Rice University in 1985.
Types of fullerenes:
“Fullerenes are a family of carbon allotropes molecules entirely composed of
carbon, in the form of hallow, sphere, ellipsoid, tube or plane”
Fullerenes are classified into the following types based on the structure.
1. Spherical fullerene:
They look like a soccer ball and called buck ball.
2. Cylindrical fullerene:
These are called carbon nanotubes or buck tubes.
3. Planar fullerene:
Graphene is an example of planar fullerene sheet.
Fullerenes prepared by evaporation of graphite using a powerful laser. How ever a
more practical method for the production of fullerenes in micro quantities.
When heating of graphite in an electric arc in an inert gas such as He and Ar,
when a sooty material is formed mainly consists of Cn small molecules. The sooty
material is formed mainly consists of C60 fullerenes with small quantity of C10 and trace
of other fullerenes consisting of even number of carbon atoms up to 350 or above.
The C60 and C70 fullerenes can be readily separated from the fullerene soot by
extraction with benzene or Toluene followed by chromatography over Alumina.

i) Electric arc
Graphite Fullerene soot
ii) Condensation (C60 + C70)

Fullerene soot C60 + C70
Over Al2O3

Fullerenes look like a soccer ball. It contains 20 six membered rings and 12 Five
membered pentagonal rings and five membered rings, but five membered rings are
connected only to six membered rings

Q. 8. Explain the properties and applications of fullerenes?

Ans: Properties of fullerenes:

a) Aromaticity:
Fullerenes are stable and unreactivity the SP2-hhybridised carbon atoms. Which
are at their energy minimum in planar graphite, when graphite bent to form the closed
sphere or tube, which produce angle strain. The main reaction of fullerenes of
electrophillic addition at 6, 6 double bonds which reduces angle strain by changing of SP2
carbon in to SP3-carbon and also bond angles to reduce by 1200 to 1090. This decrease in
bond angles allow for the bonds to bend less when closing the sphere or tube, and thus,
the molecule becomes more stable.
b) Solubility:
Fullerenes are soluble in organic solvents as they are covalent in nature.
c) They can be reduced electrochemically and react with alkali metals to form solids
such as K3C60. This compound behaves has super conductors below 180K.
d) It reacts with Pt which adds to form complexes.
The fullerene derivatives have been found to exhibit conducting, magnetic, optical
and mechanical properties.
1. Fullerenes can easily accept electrons, so it is used charge carrier in batteries.
2. Fullerene can be used as organic photo voltaic.
3. Alkali metal fullerides are super conductors.
4. It can also be used as a soft Ferromagnetic.
5. Its spherical structures make it suitable for the use of.
6. They also act as Inhibitors to the activity of HIV virus.
7. They find use in catalytic chemistry and bimolecular recognition.
Ex: They are used catalyst as they to accept and to transfer of Hydrogenation. so
conversion of methane into higher hydro carbons.
8. Fullerenes are powerful antioxidants so as there prevent cell damage or death.
9. Fullerenes are added to polymer to create copolymers.
10. Combination of nano tubes and fullerenes are used in molecular pumps and
11. Fullerenes are in LCD, Touch screens, cell phones and ATM’S.
12. Fullerenes are used in cancer therapy.