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Historic Background

The Middle Ages

In the Middle Ages, the western roman empire collapsed. Results in collapse of political,
military, and economical systems. This was a result of the empire being expanded too vastly
with corrupt systems. Organized barbarian attacks eventually caused the collapse. This
resulted in the lack of food in the city. This eventually leads to the decline of cities and rise of
the rural population. The people are concentrated on getting food and security.

The economical system of manorialism was developed. Farmers work the land for the land
lords in exchange for enough food to survive and protection. In hundreds of years, the castles
start to get more elaborate as the land lords get richer. Life was harsh, life expectancy was
short. Large families are created for labour and due to mortality rates.

Due to the harsh life, the hopes of a normal person will be in heaven. The catholic church
promised eternal life in heaven, as such, people became very religious. A hierarchy is
developed in the church in which the Pope is at the top of the hierarchy. This developed into
the political hierarchy of feudalism. This political system will develop into a social system as
well as marriages occur in the same class, and class rights are birth rights.

King --> Lords --> Knights --> Serfs

During the 11 and 12th century, the pope was concerned about the Islamic forces taking over
the holy land, where Jesus Christ was born. This resulted in the holy wars, known as the
crusades. When these soldiers travel, they would go through present day Turkey, including
Constantinople. Constantinople was the major city of the Eastern Roman Empire. They had
goods from the Eastern countries (China, India, etc.) which awed the soldiers of Western
Europe. Spices and silks were popular. As such, as dangerous as traveling are due to the
Vikings, Italy started trading in order to get the spices. They ran into the Arabs in Egypt, who
had all the spices they could want. As such, a monopoly was created: Italy will buy all the
spices, but Arabs are only allowed to sell to Italy. These merchants became enormously
wealthy as a result and started to stimulate the economy. Peasants began to go towards to
the city for jobs and this starts the growth of Italian city states. This is the start of the
Renaissance, where money is the power instead of the land. Feudalism crumpled due to the
influx to the city as well as the discovery of gun powder that rendered castles vulnerable.

The Renaissance

The world is changing in the Renaissance. Wealthy merchants start to educate their children
educated, resulting in a similar curriculum as today. Other countries start to explore the
oceans in the Age of Explorations for Spices. Portugal sent people to India and Spain sent
people west, such as Christopher Columbus. This leads to the future explorers such as Cortez,
which leads to world wide hyper-inflation because of the influx of gold from the Aztecs.

During this time, the ancient Greek and Roman knowledge were re-discovered, resulting in
the philosophy of humanism. Humanism focuses on not only the afterlife but also the normal
human life. During this time, scientists start to emerge and challenge the older theories
presented by ones such as Aristotle. One such scientist is Galileo Galilee. Galileo was the first
to push the idea of heliocentric theory, which suggests the sun at the center. While Galileo
was forced to apologize by the church, the church also suffered from its corruptness due to
indulgences. As such, the Church split into the protestant and the catholic.

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The Enlightenment

Protestant Church was easier at publishing some of the scientific works. A famous scientist,
Sir Isaac Newton, published the work The Principles of Mathematics. He seems to be able to
explain the working of the universe. One of which important theory is that of gravity. In the
18th century, other scientists begin to focus inward onto natural laws. Because Newton had
said he found his natural laws by using reason, logic, and rational thought, as such, the
scientists begin to use the same techniques to discover the natural laws. This is why the
Enlightenment is also known as the Age of Reason.

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John Locke
10:40 AM
1690 - John Locke's Two Treatises of Government and Essay concerning Human
Understanding is published.
• English, born into a Puritan family
○ Parliament rose up and threw out the King
 Forced the King to recognize them
• John Locke was trained as a physician, went to serve one of the nobles and
became a private physician.
○ The noble was a member of the parliament
• Very interested in writing about politics
○ Two Treatises of Government
○ The Essay concerning Human Understanding
○ Both are very important philosophies today
• Promoted an idea: Tabula Rasa
○ Blank Slate
 Born as a blank slate, everything that shapes us and make us who
we are we learn through experience.
 Believes the environment and experiences shape the individual
 Up until that time they believed one came equipped with a sense of
good and evil given by god
• The Social Contract (1688, The Glorious Revolution/ The Bloodless Revolution)
○ There is a social contract between the people and the sovereign.
 As long as the sovereign grants the protection, the safety, and
consults the will of the people, the people are willing to allow the
sovereign to rule.
 If the sovereign consistently defies the will of the people, then the
people have the right to overthrow the sovereign.
○ Seems to justify how the British are able to do this without bloodshed
• Fled to Holland, accused of being involved in a plot
○ Comes back to England after the glorious revolution.
• 20 years of no monarchy after the resolution.
○ Oliver Omwell who led the parliament was a puritan.
○ Charles II came back bought back the exciting things. Known as the "Marry
 He died without a heir
○ James II became the King of England.
 Raised by his mother, a Catholic French princess.
 Influenced by the Catholics.
 Got kicked out by Parliament in 1688.
○ Mary, Jame's daughter who was married to William, King of Netherlands
 Died without an heir
○ Anne, Mary's sister became Queen. 17 Children and did not have an heir.
○ George I, raised in Germany.
 Did not speak English.
 The first Prime Minister.
○ The current royal family of Britain, the Winsor family, changed their name
during WWI.
• John Locke is a very important early philosophs (French for thinker).
• The enlightenment is a world wide movement that built on the philosophs.
• The heart of the enlightenment is to take place in France, and thus start the
French Revolution.

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Louis XIV and his Legacy
9:49 AM

"Everyman has two countries: The home country and France."

• Started Louis XIV

○ Built Versailles to impress everyone.
 Hall of Mirrors
 Houses 10,000
 All the important nobles went to live with him at Versailles
 Dominated the World
○ Ruled for over 70 years. Outlived his son and grandson.
○ Slingshot rebellion caused Louis to distrust the Nobles.
 They had to learn the new rules.
 Sucked up to the King big time.
 Kept the nobles busy
□ Rising and putting to bed of the King was a big ceremony.
 200 friends would wake him up and put him to bed.
 Nobles became his servants.
□ Everyone tries to be in the "inner group"
□ Court Gossip is very important
□ The case of the chair:
 Chairs with arms
 Chairs with only backs
 Stools
□ Keep up with fashion
○ Versailles, by setting up this status of the little group, became the envy
of the world
• Everybody spoke French, became a universal language.
○ Louis XV will carry on the legacy of Louis XIV.
○ Louis XVI will not, because he was not expected to be king. His older
brother died of a fever.

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France during Enlightenment
10:50 AM

• Philosophers are considered "worldly man".

○ Man of thinking and of experiment
○ It is important to get a taste of everything instead of just thinking and talking
• France was set apart by
○ Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert
○ Denis Diderot
• They became co-editors of the most famous publication of its age
○ These ideas did not fit well into the Louis XV
 Did not like change
 The sensors would try to suppress publications
○ Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire Raisonné des Sciences, des Arts et des Métiers.
 First modern sophiscated large encyclopaedia
□ To present modern thinking to the world
 22 Written volumes and 11 Pictorial volumes

• Because of the sensor, the encyclopaedia had articles randomly put in to get past the
• Diderot's offered up his library for money for his daughter when she married
○ Catherine the Great of Russia bought the library and got paid to be manager of
the library.
 "Liberian of the North"
 No longer his to leave to his family
○ Caused Diderot to "love" Catherine the Great for the help.
○ Went to Russia to visit Catherine
○ He wrote very flattering things about her
• This set of books took over 20 years of work
○ 1750s
○ 20 years until the French Revolution
• The goal of the book was to make the world less corrupt and less superstitious.

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Montesquieu, Voltaire, Quesnay
10:37 AM

• Charles de Secondat, Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu

○ Known as Baron of Móntesquieu
○ Politician
 Looked after himself by marrying a woman who had a lot of money
 His uncle died just after, thus inheriting the Chateau de la Bréde as well as money
 President of his provincial government
○ Writer
 The Persian Letters
□ Satire, poked fun at the ridiculous traditions.
 Two Persian man try to make sense of what they saw
□ Letters written back to Persia about what they saw in Europe
 1748, The Spirit of the Laws
□ Extremely influential
□ Catherine the Great's favourite book
□ Enormous influence on the Americans
 Direct impact on the post-revolution American government
□ Some comments are controversial
 Politics can be decided by the size and climate of the country
□ Most important point: Check and Balances
 No one level of government would dominate
 American:
◊ President can appoint executives, but need to be approved by the
 Separation of Powers
• "Voltaire" Francois-Marie Arouet
○ Pen names to remain anonymous
○ Most famous man of his age because he pushed for the ideas of the enlightenment: reason
and science
○ Extremely witty and clever man
○ Great supporter of liberty and freedom
 Hated the censors and always pushing the parameters
 Freedom of Speech
 Freedom of Press
 "I might not agree with the words you said, but I will defend to the death the right
for you to say"
○ Deism
 Rational approach to religion
 The idea that god created the universe, but he was not a personal god
 Does not listen to individual needs or personal prayer
 Should respect all viewpoints and condemns those that says "my way is the way of
 Criticizes the catholic church
○ Enlightened Despotism
 Uneducated populace
 The best thing one could do is to educate a ruler on the enlightenment
 Pen-pals with Catherine the Great of Russia, and Frederick the Great of Prussia
□ Lasted about 2 years with Frederick, just like Diderot
○ Candide, a famous book
 Young boy travelling around the world
 Satirizes the traditionsb
○ Emilie de Chatelet
Brilliant in mathematics and in physics

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 Brilliant in mathematics and in physics
 Translated into French the works of Newton
 Married but lived with Voltaire at the Chateau away from Paris
□ Friends/Scientists came to visit them
□ Showcased how life could be without the rituals
 Conflict with Voltaire after a science contest
□ Voltaire won but Emilie's project was better
□ Drifted away
 At age 42 she got pregnant with an officer and died from it
• François Quesnay
○ Physician
 Louis XV's personal doctor
○ Physiocrats
 Economics, forerunners to Adam Smith
 Believed in Lassie-Faire Capitalism
 Land is the biggest source of output (agricultural)

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
9:37 AM
• Associated with the controversial elements of the French Revolution
• Works are completed from 1761 to 1762.
• Progressive Education
○ Tutor, school'ed young man
○ Major work: Émile or Education
 Novel that is considered a philosophy
 A little boy who grows up
 Emile gets a tutor that lives with him
 Invited the tutor to live with him
1. Force
i. Emile was very opposed to the use of force
ii. Allow the child to learn at their own pace
iii. Use of violence
2. Experience
i. Labs
ii. Learn concepts from doing it
3. Motivation
i. Teacher's job to motivate
• Nudism
○ The Noble Savage
 In more primitive times, the people were more motivated to live their
life and carry on
 Not be crashed under the weight of its institutions
○ Mistakenly credited to him
• Julie or The New Héloise
○ Young girl, Julie, fell in love
○ Had an affair, she got pregnant
 Got renounced by her parents
 Lost the baby
○ Married a rich guy
 Hired the former lover as a tutor
 Tries to win her back
○ Fell ill and at deathbed confessed her love
○ Forerunner to the Romantic Era
○ Caused Square Dancing, Romantic love
• The Social Contract
○ Nebulous, unclear, foggy
○ Referred to throughout the Reign of Terror
○ Equality
 All the citizens get together and form a contract
 Choose to form a community based on their values and beliefs
○ The General Will
 Believes of the general population all mixed together
 Don't need to talk about them in great detail
 Everyone is aware of the General Will
○ Free to Conform ("Forced to Free")
○ Man is born free, yet everyone he's in chains
○ Caused many different interpretations because it is not focused
 Hitler
□ What we want is what everybody wants, so one don't want it,
they will be forced
Reign of Terror

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 Reign of Terror
□ Justify the murders of counter-revolutionary based on the fact
they were protecting the society of the majority
 Totalitarians
□ The use of "force" is aproved

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Cesare Beccaria
11:16 AM

• Italian
• Essay on Crimes and Punishment
○ Justice System
○ Have the most lasting effect on others and least on the body of the
 Rejected torture and Capital Punishment
○ Swift and fit for crime

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Frederick II (Frederick the Great)
10:44 AM
• Friedrich of Prussia
○ Small country around the edge of Russia and Poland
○ Expanded out to the north, what makes him great
○ Aggrandizement
 Expansion
• Father: Friedrich Wilhelm I
○ "Frederick William I" in English
○ Inherited a small state that is on the edge of bankruptcy
○ Wanted to copy Louis XIV
 Lavish spending
 Palace
○ Pushed the country to bankruptcy
○ Loves:
○ Money
○ Militaries
○ Giants (tall man)
○ Wife
○ Had porphyria
○ Mental condition
○ Hallucinations
○ Violent, especially against his son
□ Little Fritz, the crown prince
□ Saw him as a replacement
□ Verbally and Physically abusive
○ Once almost chocked his son to death
○ Emphasized military and money
○ No literature, art, music
○ Took up art and carpentry
○ Became a little less abusive
• Education of Frederick II
○ Taught himself Latin
○ Tutor was French and English
○ Told to only educate about the basics
○ Collected a secret library of 3000 books
○ Musician, played the flute. Loved the art
• At age 18, he ran away from the palace
○ Father wanted to kill him
○ Best friend Von Katte, who helped him escape, was found guilty of treason
○ Escaped to a small town in isolation
○ Federick was forced to watch the execution of his best friend
○ "It was worth it, I'd do it again!"
○ February of 1732 he was finally allowed to be in Berlin
○ Did what his father wanted when he was finally allowed back
○ Studied the economics, military etc.
• In 1740, his father died and he became Friedrich II
○ Family name: Hohenzollern
• Holy Roman Emperor was Charles VI at the time
○ Hapsburg ruler of Austria
○ Did not have a heir to the throne
○ Only had a daughter: Maria Theresa
Salic Law

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○ Salic Law
○ No female could inherit the throne
○ Wanted to change the law so his daughter can inherit the throne
○ 331 States, 7 powerful princes
□ Got the 7 to sign what's called "Pragmatic Sanction"
 "It would be ok if his daughter inherited"
○ Just the Empress of Austria
○ Her husband, Francis I, was elected the Holy Roman Emperor
○ Takes over Austria in 1740, the most powerful country
□ Cause some crisis
• Frederick looks to Austria and wants to make a move
○ Silesia
○ Valuable resources and agricultural rich land
○ Frederick wants it
○ Took it by military conquest
○ Charges Maria Theresa
□ Starts a major war
□ Brings in many of the power countries in Europe
□ Becomes a World War
• The War of the Austrian Succession, 1740-1748
○ Allies Prussia with the different states
○ Most powerful ally: France
□ Large military
○ Allies Austria with the different states
○ Most powerful ally: England
□ Did not have a large military
□ Navy and money
○ Very costy war that contributes to American and French Revolution
○ Won by Frederich
• Maria Theresa brings in French, Austrian and Russia
○ Results in Prussia gaining England
○ The Diplomatic Dance
○ Maria Lured French
○ Catholic
○ Royal Marraige
○ Frederick lured Britain
• The Seven Years War, 1756 to 1763
○ The French and Indian War in North America
○ Maria Theresa had the upper hand
○ Bigger army
○ 1762 Frederick was going to have to surrender
○ But, in 1762, Empress Elizebeth of Russia died
○ Nephew Tsar Peter III
□ Came to Russia to the German states
□ Loved Frederich and anything Prussian
○ Took command and ordered his army to switch sides
□ Army was devasted and furious at Peter III
○ Tsar Peter III's wife is the future Catherin the Great
□ Also German, original name Sofia
□ Converted to Russian Orthodox
□ Peter can not stand her, plotted to get rid of her
○ Catherin took up the plan
□ Took up with an army officer
□ Coup with the military
 Disliked Peter
□ Seizes of control in her own name
□ Placed Peter under "protective custody"

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□ Placed Peter under "protective custody"
○ Federich quickly goes back into battle and won by 1763
○ Federick got the title "The Great" from this
• Invited Voltaire to live with him for 2 years
• Study of crops and agricultural changes
• Insisted on "scientific forestry"
○ Replanted forests
• Not "enlightened"
○ Discriminated against Jews
○ Only "Junkers" (nobles) could be officers
○ Did not promote social equality (favoured nobles)

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Catherine the Great
11:12 AM

• Age 14, minor German noble

• Not a descendent from Russian Monarchy
• Peter was brought up in German, nephew to Elizebeth
○ Silly and immature
○ Attacked by smallpox
○ Turned him brutal
 Tortured small animals
 Beat up on his soldiers marching in Prussian uniforms
• Elizebeth wanted to find a woman of some intelligence to guide the Czar
○ Sofia and mother went to Russia
 A bit of a pushy mother
 Caught with a letter to Frederich
 Got kicked out of Russia
• Converted to the Russian Orthodox
○ Very devoted
○ Raised a Lutheran
○ Made herself very popular
• At age 16, married Peter
○ Unhappy marriage
○ Childless for 8 years
 Everyone blamed her
• Empress Elizebeth encouraged them to take on other lovers
• Elizebeth took the boy, Paul, and raised him alone
○ Never really a close bond between Paul and Catherine
• Took on another lover: Gregory Orlov
○ 4 brothers in the army
○ Very influential
• With the help of the guards, was able to set up a coup
○ Didn't do the coup in the name of her son
○ Took over in her own name
 Wasn't Russian, wasn't a Romanov, no relations
• Peter had annoyed everyone
○ Very pro-German
 Called off the army on the verge of triumph against Federick the Great of Prussia after 6
 Tick off the church when he said "you must dress like Lutheran ministers"
□ Rarely attended church
 Annoyed the senate by saying they need to adopt "Prussian style of government"
• Catherine was German but more Russian than Peter
○ Adopted orthodox faith
 Attended church
○ Spoke fluent Russian and understands culture
○ Beloved with the people
• Wore a regimental uniform dress and rode out to the barracks
○ "Let's save Russia!", Orlov had prepared the army
○ Arrested the Tsar
• Sent Gregory Orlov to Poland as an Ambassador to cut off any connections
• First Act:
○ Commission to codify the laws of Russia
 Each area had their own laws
○ Wanted universal and modernized
○ Called important men from all over Russia to work in the Commission
 Personally wrote a book called "Instruction"
□ Based on Montesquieu and the "Spirit of the Laws" and Beccaria's "Essay on Crimes
and Punishment"
□ Personal interpretation of how laws should work
Grateful for this honour

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 Grateful for this honour
○ They decided to give her a "title"
 Debated for 3 days
 Most neutral title was "The Great"
○ Dismissed them without achieving anything
 Trouble with the "nobles"
• Made a deal with the nobles
○ If they established local communities with schools, hospitals, markets etc., they would be exempt
from many things from her
• Church was the heaviest employer of serfs
○ Died young because of it
○ She took serfs away from the church because she couldn't take them away from Nobles
○ Announced they would be under the administration of the state
• Founded a school for girls
○ Girls would only get school from tutors
○ The Smolny Institude for Girls
○ Next day to the palace
 Had them dress in white uniform to the court
○ When they graduated, they went back to the nobles and married
 The same jobs as any other woman
 Not much use for their education
• Founded a teacher's college and a Medical training school
○ Admired for their academic credentials
○ Founded many hospitals
• Struggled against infectious diseases
○ Heard of a smallpox vaccine
 Volunteered first for it
 Insisted all the other people at court have the vaccine
○ Russia should be equipped to make medical supplies
• Relaxed censorship rules, allowed private publishing houses
○ As long as it's not treason, anything is allowed
○ Freedom of the press
• Founded the "Free Economic Society"
○ Modernization of argriculture
• Did expand Russia
○ Moved into the Balkens
○ Help of Potemkin
 Love of her life
 War with the Ottoman's Turks
 Almost like a prime minister
 Remained very close to her after the affir
 Wanted Catherine to believe she's such a good ruler to the people. Tour with Joseph.
□ Handed out costumes
□ Set up a Hollywood scene (packed up to the next place)
□ Building fronts (with no backs)
 Potemkin-like: To give a false assumption
• Paul loved his "father"
○ Adopted everything Prussian
○ His first wife died
○ Second wife had a few children, 2 of which were close with Catherine
○ Alexander was to be appointed heir by Catherine.
 Wrote a paper about it
 Was going to be presented in New Year's
□ Died before she could
• Paul took over as Tsar but was hated
○ Imperial regiment guard arrested and strangled him
○ Alexander becomes Tsar Alexander I of Russia, Grandson of Catherine the Great
 Haunted by the death of his father all of his life

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Maria Theresa
9:48 AM

• Rivals with Frederick II

• "Least deserving" of the title
○ Encouraged by her son, Joseph
 Holy Roman Emperor in 1765
○ Drained treasury
○ Forced tax
○ 11 different ethical groups to adopt German
○ Opposed to the Jews
• Believed in reform
○ Admired Frederick's efficiency, copied him
• Increased taxes on nobles and church
• Confiscated the church land
• Limit on maximum tax etc.
• Expelled Juesuits

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Joseph II
9:57 AM
• Everything in his empire is to be guided by enlightened philosophy
• 17,000 laws in 10 years (4.6/day 24/7)
• Granted toleration to all religious groups, including the Jews
○ No more tax, badges, etc.
○ Vienna had a huge Jewish population, this was a change
• "Josephism", state controlled religion.
○ Cut in half the number of monks nuns
○ Decreased religious holidays
○ Suppressed 700 monasteries
 Sold or leased the lands
 Used the money to build hospitals
□ Gained the reputation of being the greatest medical center in Europe
• Large education rates
○ Teachers and textbooks for primary schools
○ A lot of children attended primary schools (1/4, best in Europe)
• Enlightenment is based on "nature"
○ Invited everyone to use the park and enjoy nature regardless of class
○ Prater park
 First major park in central Europe
• Legal code
○ Beccaria
○ Only monarch to abolish death penalty
○ Abolished most of the tortures
○ Equality with law (nobles were treated the same as peasants)
• Commoners to high government posts'
• Abolished serfdom
• Followed Federick to get the title `Great`
○ 1788, looked around for an enemy
○ Transovenia (Ottoman Empire)
 Alliance with Catherine
 City of Belgrade
○ Words spread in the empire that Joseph wanted to go into war
 Frederick, nephew of Frederick the Great, was a nice and sociable person
□ Said to Joseph, "I have a good relationship of sublime porte"
 Joseph doesn't want a negotiation
□ Furious at Frederick
 In turn got Frederick very angry
□ Swiss asked them to join the alliance against Russia (Austria's ally)
• Joseph:
○ Army of 1/4 million men
○ Commander: Laezy
 Yes-man
 Wrong person to the job
○ "Forgot to tell the Ottoman empire they're at war
○ 16 of Mary, 1788: planted army
○ Russians were busy up north against Prussia etc
○ Army suffered Malaria (mosquitoes)
○ Army got very sic, only 30,000 died
○ Multi-cultural army
 Language banarriers
None spoke the language of their officeers

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○ None spoke the language of their officeers
• Ottoman used physophical war
○ Fires the commander
○ Bought Laudon
 Faught with his mother, expeienced
 Use malphite
• Re-create that "glorious victoy"
• 100,000 with him
• September 19, the night
○ Moonless light, dark
○ Sent the Calvavy to run patols
○ Drank Schnapps, negotiated with the Egypsies
 Bought all the drinks and some women
 Started party
○ Foot soldiers approaches the calvary men
 First of the soldiers in the foot division and suggested "share"
○ Started shooting at eachother between the two Austrian Forces
 "What if we say 'The turks are here?""
 Started screaming "Turts"
 Everyone's shooting at everybody
○ Scared the hosrses in the middle of the empampment
 Ran around "charging"
 Thought the Turks are here
○ Infantry started to blast things away
○ Few officers:
 "I don't think this is the turks"
 Yelled "halt'
□ "alla", Turkish Gods
□ Opened fire on the officers
○ Joseph was trying to get on the horse
 Army ran him over, fell down the embankment
 Crawled to a hut
○ Whole army chased eachother from village to village, looting and raping
○ Took two days to calm down the
 10,000 dead/wounded
 Money making ability (getting paid per head)
• Joseph's gone down in history:
○ Killed his army by disease
○ Killing itself
• Eventually won a few victory and forced the Turks to sign an agreement
• The title of "the Great" was not given

• Never quite recovered from the disaster

• Died within a year and half. "I've worked myself to death, and nobody appreciates me"

• One of the most hated rulers

○ Catholic church: state control
 Took away land
 Catholics who supported the church were against him
○ Nobles did not appreciate class equality
 No serfs
 Justice equality
○ Serfs became homeless and unemployed
 Abolished serfdom
○ Jews hated him
 Think he planned to assimilate the Jews and make them like everyone else
Formed secret police that angered population

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○ Formed secret police that angered population
 For the laws and policies

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 20

Essay Writing
10:49 AM
Can put in quotations and hook, not needed.

1. Introduction
a. General background information
i. Who? What? Where? When?
1) Example: Leonardo as a genius
a) Who: Leonardo, talented renaissance artist who dealt with many areas
b) Where: Italy and France
c) What: A genius who engaged in engineering, inventing, defence arts etc.
d) When: Date and Facts
2) Should be around 3 sentences
b. Controversial Term
i. Different interpretations of a word. Needs to be defined.
1) Example: Leonardo as a genius.
a) A genius is enormously gifted person in many areas
2) Should be 1 sentence.
3) Does not always exist
a) Example: Why did World War I start?
b) If does not exist, add a bit more to the general background.
c. Thesis
i. Answer to the question posed in the essay topic
1) Always pick a side.
ii. Thesis Statement
1) Why? Indicate.
a) Example: Leonardo da Vinci is a genius because of his revolutionary artwork,
him excelling in many areas, and his visions went beyond his time period.
b) Don't put in all the examples but expand on it.
i) World World I was caused by imperialism because of rivary in Africa. It is
caused by militarism because of the construction of war machines, and
nationalism because of national pride.
2) If rushed and not sure, fake it with the criteria.
a) Criteria is examples, not necessary why.
i) World World I was caused by imperialism, militarism, and nationalism.
iii. Criteria
1) Narrowing
2) The paragraph headings
2. Body
a. Examples
i. Criteria
1) Summary
a) Tells of all information regarding this.
b) Easiest way to impress people is to showcase knowledge.
2) Reasons. Prove
a) How?
b) Why this example?
3) Example:
a) Imperialism is a cause of WWI. Imperialism in Africa resulted in the Bulcan
league….(members, wars, etc.) and causing the expand of nations (Germany,
Britain etc.)
b) Refer to sequence of events to WWI and mobilizing, shows how the alliance
system exactly causes WWI.
4) Follow chronology
3. Conclusion
a. Be in proportion with the essay. Balanced.
In a timed situation, a short conclusion can be forgiven.
b. Good conclusion
i. Reminds the reader of all the important points that you make

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 21

i. Reminds the reader of all the important points that you make
ii. Do not make this by making a list or by using the same phrases over and over again
iii. Use different wordings and phrasing
1) Example: Revolutionary = change the world forever
iv. Remind what the arguments in the essays are
c. Should be about the same length of the introduction.

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 22

French Monarchy
9:59 AM

• Henri IV
○ First Bourbon King of France (16th century)
○ Huguenot (Protestant)
○ Had to convert to Catholism
 Allegedly said: "Paris was worth a mass"
○ Treated the Huguenot very well
 Passed the Eddic of Nantes
□ Gave them some rights
○ Well liked, great monarch
○ Murdered
• Louis XIII
○ Became King as a young men
○ Advised by Cardinal Richelieu, Jesuit priest
 "Evil Character" because of a fictional work
○ His wife: Queen Anne
 Did not get along
 Storm and an inn, resulted in Louis XIV
○ Died when Louis XIV was a young child
○ Cardinal Mazarin and Queen Anne ruled as regents
• Louis XIV
○ Legend was he locked himself in his room for two rooms after Mazarin died
 Walked out and answered the question "Who will be your first minister?" With "I"
○ Becomes the example of absolute monarch
○ Created Versailles
 Whole little world to himself
 Invited all his nobleman to come and reside with him
 20 km outside of Paris
• Louis XV
○ Well known for his mistresses
 Madame de Pompadour
 Madame du Barry
○ Austrian Succession was draining the treasury
 "Apres moi", after me
• Louis XVI
○ Married a Arch-duchess of Austria
 Maria Antoinette
□ Didn't get along with Madame du Barry
□ Came to France as a young girl
□ Had to strip off all her Austrian clothes, dressed in French style
□ Didn't appreciate the Versailles life
□ Tried to get some more young and lively friends
 Comte d'Artois (Future Charles V)
 Princess de Lamballe (quiet etc.)
 Duchess de Polignac (scandalous and got Maria Antoinette in some trouble)

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 23

People at Versailles
10:41 AM

• Louis XIV
○ Built Versailles
○ Not really enlightened
○ Outlived son, grand-son
• Louis XV
○ Rule: 1715-1774
○ Great-grandson of Louis XIV
• Louis Ferdinand
○ Dauphin of France, heir to the throne
○ Province of Dauphine
○ Died of tuberculosis in 1765
• Louis Joseph Xavier, older brother of Louis XVI died at age 9
○ Fell off his toy horse
○ Die of tumor
○ The "apple" of his father's eye (Louis Ferdinand)
 Lively, sparkling, laughter
 Seem to have the attributes to make a good king
• Louis-August, Louis XVI
○ Not very socially skilled person
○ Taking the place of Joseph Xavier, never managed to impress his father
• Louis Stanislas
○ Comte de Provence, future Louis XVIII
• Charles Philippe
○ Comte d'Artois, future Charles X
○ Tall and slender, most handsome
○ Believed in status, privilege
○ Led France into another revolution
• Marie Antoniette
○ Wife of Louis XVI
○ Went to France at a young age
 Not used to be "center stage" at Versailles
○ Wedding was held on the theatre
 Watching the royal family eat their wedding
○ Asked Louis XVI for her own home
 Petit Trianon
 Distracted the whole political stance
 Noble families who had relied on sucking up to the King
 She didn't understand the devastating impact on the monarchy
 Resulted in lack of access to both King and Queen
 Nobles are missing their "center of universe"
○ Asked for a country village behind Versailles
 Massive maintenance costs
 Only invited close friends to "play"
○ Princess de Lamballe
 Quiet, First close friend of hers
 Duchess de Polignac
□ Going into Paris without the King
□ Laughing, opera house
○ Spent a lot of money on fashion, hair
 Used to be elaborate, wig on wig with boats etc.
 Altered the image later on because her hair was thinning out
 Changed to the "simple" hairdo
 See-through dress
Count Fersen

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 24

○ Count Fersen
 Swedish nobleman
 Army officer in the France army
 "Fascination" between the two
□ Seems very dashing and handsome
 Became a loyal friend to her
○ The Diamond
 Rococco style, done for Madame du Barry
 Called "The river"
 From the neck to the waist
 Marie Antoniette hated the style
 Tried to sell to the queen, she rejected
 Unscrupulous thieves at court decided they can steal the necklace and blame the queen.

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 25

Old Regime
9:34 AM
• Old Regime (Ancient Regime) - Anything before 1789 the French Revolution
○ Traditional world
• 1774 Louis XVI becomes King
○ Raised during the enlightenment
○ Envisions himself as an enlightened despot
○ Sees himself of being a good father figure
• Debt
○ French debt: Royal debt
○ Louis XIII in 1614 abolished the parliament
 No national parliament
□ Estates-General
 Provincial parliaments existed
 Parlaments (Law courts)
• King sold noble titles
○ Noblesse de robe (new nobles)
○ Noblese d'epee (runs in the family, allowed to wear swords)
• Louis XVI decided to reinstate the parliament to be enlightened
○ With full power in 1775
• Minister of Finance: Controller General
○ Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
 First controller general appointed by Louis XIV
 Sympathetic to the viewpoint of the enlightenment
 Interested in the physiocrats and their views, considered a liberal
 Wanted a parliament
 Attempted a reform by replacing travel taxes 1775
□ Picked a bad year, grain shortage
□ Mobs swarmed Versailles
 Captain of the guard promised a set price (2)
□ Free trade is wrecked
□ Called the "Flour War"
 Fired in 1796 due to the council
• Debts from the War
○ War of Austrian Succession, 1740-1748: 1 billion livres
○ Seven Year's War, 1756 - 1763: 1.8 billion livres
○ By 1764, the debt took up 60% of the budget
• Taxes
○ Tithe: Church Tax
○ Taille: Land Tax
○ Tax Farmers
 Meeting, bidding for tax collection
 Pays some to the agent, the rest's profit
 Richest people, 2nd largest army
○ Soldiers will steal whatever's of value if tax can not be paid
○ The king received maybe 1/3 of his tax
• Jacques Necker
○ Director-General (1777-1781)
○ Protestant, not allowed to be a Controller
○ Very famous banker
○ Targeted the Nobles
 Removed all the useless jobs in court the nobles bear
 Removed the necessarily of the tax farmers with their army
○ Dismissed in 1781 because of the foreign minister Vergennes
○ Returned in 1788
• 1781 Compte Rendu
○ King's Chief Advisor Maurepas and Foreign advisor Vergennes said no
○ Dismissed Necker
Joly de Fleury 1781-1783

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 26

○ Joly de Fleury 1781-1783
• 1783 Charles de Calonne as Director General
○ Misread the Compte Rendu, not a trained economist
○ Destroyed all the works of Necker
○ Messed French up
○ Influenced by Vergennes
 Vision for French
 Major global power
□ A powerful army and powerful navy
○ Spent money in 1783 during peace time
 500 million livre on building a Navy
 When they are supposed to be saving money
 Not wise investments
□ Cherbourg, man made harbour
□ King travelled to Cherbourg
□ Some workers were killed that day
□ Big cones of wood
 Eaten away and sunk
 Wasted all the money
○ Starts to panic at the end of the 1780s with the short term loans
 Raised the tax, unpopular move
• 1783 Laki volcanic eruption
○ 6 million people dying globally
○ Over a 8 month period from 1783 to 1784
 From the fissue and adjoining Grimsvotn volcano pouring out an estimated 14 km2
 Killed a lot of the livestock leaving to famine
○ The sulphur Dioxide dropped temperature causing crop failures
 8 months emission of sulphuric aerosols
 Cause the Saine river to freeze
□ Not normal for the river in Paris to freeze
□ Weather conditions were horrible
 Snow lay on the ground in the south
 Falls of snow every other day between February 26 and April
 Many became landless because the crops are failing
□ Number of homeless was increasing
□ Labourers can't get seasonal works
□ City didn't have enough work
□ 100,000 in Paris
• Seven's Year's War
○ French Indian War
○ Montcalm's loss and Wolfe's victory
○ 1763, ended the war
○ Britain
 3 times the size of the debt than France
 Proclamation of 1763
□ Said they are going to stop the escorts into Indian area
□ Americans are on their own if they want to expand
 Sugar Act of 1764
□ Tax on sugar products
 Currency Act of 1764
□ Only British money can be used for trading
□ Americans had their own currency
 Stamp Act of 1765
□ All paper products
□ Paying for the stamp
 Started their idea of "No taxation without representative"
 Stamp Act Congress
□ Sons of liberty
□ Organized protests
 Britain eventually cancelled the stamp act
 Declaratory Act
□ They had the right to tax the colonies
Townshend Act

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 27

 Townshend Act
□ Taxed paper, lead, paint, and tea.
 Boston Massacre of 1770
□ Protests, troops opened fire
 Gaspee Affair of 1772
□ Boarded a grounded British ship and stole the supplies
 Government receded all the townshend class except for tea.
□ Really cheap British tea
 Boston Tea Party of 1773
□ Threw the tea into the ocean, dressed up as indians
 The Intolerable Acts of 1774
□ Series of acts that shuts down the Boston harbor, shut down elections, Quebec act
□ Restuled in the Continental Congress
□ Lexington and Concord
 'The shot that was called across the world"
□ Followed by the Declaration of Independence
• 1777, American Revolution
○ 4th July, 1776
○ Changed the mind of Louis XVI to join the American Revolution
 The battle of Saratoga
□ Upper New York
□ Americans won the battle
□ Benjamin Franklin used this to impress Louis XVI
 Necker says he can get the money
□ 91% of the money that went to pay for the war was raised by Necker
□ Short term loans due by the end of 1780s
 French revolution 1789
□ Thought he could get the money by trading with the United States
□ Left 1781, wasn't there for the end of the war
• Thomas Paine
○ Book: "Common Sense"
○ More rights should be given to the people

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 28

American Revolution
10:35 AM
• 1777, American Revolution
○ 4th July, 1776
○ Changed the mind of Louis XVI to join the American Revolution
 The battle of Saratoga
□ Upper New York
□ Americans won the battle
□ Benjamin Franklin used this to impress Louis XVI
 Necker says he can get the money
□ 91% of the money that went to pay for the war was raised by Necker
□ Short term loans due by the end of 1780s
 French revolution 1789
□ Thought he could get the money by trading with the United States
□ Not written into the Compte Rendu
□ Left 1781, wasn't there for the end of the war
• Boston Tea Party December 1773
○ Dressed up as Indians and destroyed the British East Indian Company's tea
○ British tea was cheap in comparison, taxed by the Britain
• The intolerable Acts of 1774
○ Series of acts
○ Named by the Americans
○ The Boston Harbor Act
 Shut down the harbor
○ Shut down elections
○ Passed the Quebec Act of 1774
 The French could expand their territory into the Ohio valley
• The Continental Congress
○ The Declaration of Independence
○ Declaring their rights and they would like to uphold them
○ Largest signature: John Hanhook
 Better so that King George can see it so he can hang me
○ George Washington was in charge of the Continental Army
 Skilled marksman, very devoted
 Small rebels
 The French helped by supplying the navy
□ The British Navy could have starved them to death
 Dutch and the French supplied ships that transported goods from atlantic
□ Kept the British from moving troops into key areas
○ The European environment was absolute necessary
• In France, the returning soldiers are treated as heroes
○ How enlightened ideals were put into action in America
○ Will be glamorizing it
• Duc d'Orlean
○ Spent time in the American Revolution, thought he was a war hero
○ Cousin to the King, tension after the American Revolution
○ Palace in the heart of palace, called "Palais-Royal"
○ Opened it up to commoners
 Stalls in long hall ways for commerce
○ Maria Antoinette
 Blamed by Duc d'Orlean

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 29

10:00 AM

• Nicole le Guay d'Oliva, faking to be the Queen

○ Comes out of the balcony wearing a mask at 11pm
○ Give Nicole a white rose and has one line to deliver
 "You know what this means"
○ Goes away after
○ Met the Cardinal
• A letter signed "Queen Marie Antoniette de France"
○ Should've been a dead giveaway
○ Cardinal's too excited
○ January, turned over to the Cardinal
• The jewellery was torn apart
○ Jean became very wealthy from selling the stone
 Declared herself a Baroness
 Huge court dresses
○ Her husband went to London to sell the rest
• The plot was found out
○ Cardinal was sent to Bastille
○ Everyone else was arrested
○ Summer of 1785 all were put on trial
 Nicole was "corrupted" by Marie Antoinette
 Jean was found guilty but the public did not believe it
□ "Marie Antoinette" was her lesbian lover
□ Sentenced to Salptriere
 Public branding and Whipping
 Crowd all screaming it's all Marie Antoinette's fault
 The brander slipped and branded her breast
 Rescued in 2 years and went to England
□ End up in poverty and fall out of window to her death

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 30

Raise of Tax pre-French Revolution
10:35 AM

• Calonne misread the Compte Rendu

○ Realised there were no money left for the short-term loans
○ Informs the King that they would need to raise tax
• Assembly of Notables
○ 144 of the most important men in all of France
○ The seriousness of bankruptcy explained to these men who will approve the tax
○ The parliament will then register the tax raise
○ Meet on February 22, 1787, a year after the Diamond Necklace
• Weather pattern had shifted
○ The volcano eruption Laki
○ People didn't have jobs or money
○ Already heavily taxed, crops are failing, raising unemployment
○ Conditions were not right for raising taxes
• Proposed the following taxes:
○ A new land tax (everyone), flexible depending on the harvest
○ Local assemblies will be formed to access, distribute and administer the new tax
○ Corvée, the service tax where they give labour for free, changed to a sum of money
• Assembly said:
○ We will not approve this until you show us the budget
• Spring of 1787
○ March, 32 million short
○ 8th of April, 1787, Calonne was dismissed
○ A new controller General by the name of Cardinal Etienne Charles Lomenie de Brienne (Brienne)
○ Showed the assembly of notables the budget
○ Added one more tax to fix the 32 million additional shortage
 The stamp tax
□ American Revolution (no taxation without representation)
• The nobles demanded to see the budget
○ To get some power back
○ To prove that the King needs the nobles's help to administrate
○ In 1614 with Louis XIII, the Estates-General (parliament) was dissolved
○ The nobles will not approve the taxes unless the estates-general was reformed
 Brienne dismissed the assembly on May 25, 1787
○ 2nd of July, the law courts (parliament) rejected the stamp tax
○ Two weeks later, the land tax was rejected
• August 6, 1787 Lit de Justice
○ Appears before the Paris Parliament
○ Fell asleep in the parliament during the session
○ Ordered the Lit de Justice
○ The law court rejected the order
• Brienne exiled all the magistrates to Troyes
○ Censored the newspapers
○ Swiss guard occupying the palace
• The September Compromise, September 1787
○ A 5% income tax
○ The magistrates will be forgiven
○ A estate-general in 5 years
○ The compromise was rejected in October
• In November the King issued another Lit
• April of 1788, the law courts issued that all edicts must be registered by the law courts
• On May 3, 1788, the magistrates said only an estate general can pass the tax
○ The king issues the lettres de cachet
 Arrest without trial
○ The 6th of May, arrested the magistrates in Paris
 Starts the arrest of all magistrates in France
○ Immediately reduced parliaments to 7, not 13
○ They can only settle issues with the clergy and the nobles, no more power about edicts
• On June 7, 1788

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 31

• On June 7, 1788
○ Grenoble France
○ Saturday, market day, town filled with people
○ On this day, the letter de cachet was put into effect here
○ The people knew this, the mobs of people gathering have decided they are not going to allow
their magistrates to leave or get arrested
○ By 10 am in the morning they have shut down all the market stalls and walled themselves in
○ Everyone assembling in the middle of the market
○ The governor faces an impossible choice
 Send out armies to start a civil war
 Run a risk of not obeying
○ The governor sent out small groups of the soldiers
 The mobs feel more powerful
 Some people decided to climb up to the rooftops
□ Started to throw roof tiles at the soldiers
 The troops shot a boy and a hatter
○ The governor retreated afraid of a civil war
○ Became known as the day of the tiles
• All over France, everyone knows of this day and in open defiance of the King started protecting their
• The King approved the estate-general on 8th August 1788
○ Meet on 1st of May, June 1789
• 25th of August, Brienne Resigned
○ 100 000 people partied at Palace Royale
• The King re-appointed Jacques Neckar
○ Protestants can now hold government positions
○ Hired him as the Controller General
• Neckar immediately raised enough money for France to carry on
○ From corporations and markets
• The nobles have their power back
○ The exact same format as 175 years back
○ The first estate
 Clergy, dominated by the archbishops and bishops, coming from the noble classes
 300 delegates
 1 vote
○ The second estate
 Nobles
 300 delegates
 1 vote
○ The third estate
 Everyone else
 300 delegates
 1 vote
• Third estate demanded to have more representation
○ The third estate demanded vote by head
 Was rejected
○ Demanded to have 600 delegates
 Still only have 1 vote
 Electing lawyers, doctors, teachers

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 32

Leading up to French Revolution
9:22 AM

• May 5th, opening ceremonies

○ Pushed back from May 1st
• 28th of April 1789, electing delegates in the poorest sections of Paris
○ Réveillon
 Very generous employer
 Gave a speech at the election
 Said "Lower prices and lower wages so everyone can afford"
○ The mob only heard "lower wages"
 Attacked the factories
• The next day, the mob surrounded the Reveillon factory and home
○ The duchess wanted to go through the Barricade
○ Causes the factory and home to be destroyed
• The combination of the two days is called Réveillion Riots
• Shows the violence and power of the crowd
• First Meeting:
○ Misunderstanding
 The King was the only one allowed to wear hat
 The third estate doesn't understand
 The Queen glared at them
○ The king announced the three estates will meet separately
○ Deadlock
 The third estate wanted vote by head (600)
□ Wanted to change the way it works
□ Lawyers etc.
 The other estates didn't want look at those issues
• The Heir to the Throne dies, 6th of June
○ A state funeral of 6000 livres
○ The people were furious
 The expense on a funeral in a time of economic difficulty
• June 17, 1789 the estate-general announced they are forming one political body
○ The National Assembly
○ Taxes are illegal without approval
• June 23, 1789 Seance Royale
○ Wanted to build a throne
○ The 20th of June 1789
 His guards stopped the 600 delegates in the rain
 The estate moved to the tennis court
□ Got a table for the president Jean Sylvain Bailly
 Decided to take the hall back over
 Tennis Court Oath
 The national assembly will not disband until there is a constitution
□ Switches France from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy
 Some lower clergy and lower noblemen joined them
○ Delivered a long speech
 Gave some of the things the third estate wanted
□ Too little, too late
 Wanted the third estate to be gone
• 27th of June agreed to the national assembly
○ Ordered the 1st and 2nd estate to join them
○ Allows a constitution
○ Secretly started to pull troops
• The king blamed Necker for all of this
○ He was running around giving people what they want
On Sunday, 11th of July, he fired Necker

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 33

○ On Sunday, 11th of July, he fired Necker
• The people learned on the 12th of July
○ Necker was fired
○ King was amassing troops
○ At the Palais-Royale
 Young men were trying to get people to be angry
□ Especially by the name of Camille Desmoulins
□ Gave a speech about a disaster of Necker and Paris being threatened
□ Ripped off a branch and said "green's our color"
 Green's the color of the youngest brother, abandoned green and moved to red
and blue
 (The French flag of red white and blue is a result of the revolution reuniting with
 Went into the armoires and factories and armed themselves
 They lacked ammunition
○ Amassed an army
 Called the "national guard"
 Maquis de Lafayette in charge
• The Bastille, there's 250 barrels of gun powder
○ 900 people will actually engage in this attempt
○ 14th of July
 Demanded the governor, Bernard-Rene de Launay, turn over the gun powder
 Invited the delegation for breakfast
□ The mob outside was getting restless
□ Sent in a second delegation. They were invited for lunch.
 Men climbed up to the shops near the bastille and hacked down the drawbridge
 Fighting breaks out
□ Used fire to provide cover for the cannons
 The governor dropped a note
□ "I will blow up the gun powder and blow up this section of Paris"
 One of his men convinced him to give out the gun powder
□ The man got his arm cut off
○ They killed the guards and captured De Launay.
 Hauled him through the streets to the city halls
 Taunting him
□ He had enough and decided to resist
□ Got killed by the mob
□ The head was cut off by a butcher life and paraded around on a pike
• La Grande Peur
○ The great fear
○ Open rebellion all over France following the Bastille
• Night of August 4th, 5th
○ Started renouncing feudal dues in the national assembly
○ The end of noble privilege and federalism
○ Nobles striped their own privileges
○ Fled France, known as the émigrés
• August 26th
○ The estates-general, now called the "National Assembly" ,authorized the Declaration of Rights of
Man and the Citizen
○ The influence of the enlightenment and the philosophes

Social Studies 20-1 IB Page 34

March of the Fishwives
11:05 AM

• One regiment will be called to Versailles to protect the royal family

○ 'The Flander's Regiment"
○ Arrived on the 2nd October, a Banquet was held to welcome them
 Fires up a situation/crisis
 The newspapers recorded the regiments tore off their tri-color cockade
□ Handed out white and black for the King and Queen
 Danced and stumped on the symbol of the revolution
 Enraged the crowd
 They had just been forced to pay the October rents on the 1st and heard about the banquet
○ On the 4th of October, the poor women, fishwives
 "Poissardes", quite muscular because they do manual work
 The price of the bread went up again
 Grabbed a baker and hauled him to the hotel and wanted to hang him
 The National Guard were able to save the baker
 Someone screamed "it's all Marie Antoinette's fault, let's march to Versailles and demand
 The men tried to calm down the women
 Decided to meet the next day and stole items from the shops around the hotel
○ On October 5th, they marched 6 hours in the rain to Versailles
 Making up dirty witty rhyming songs in the lower class French about Marie Antoinette
 The National Guards decided to follow the women
□ Going to demand the King let them be the guards
□ And demanding the royal family to move to Paris
 The women will arrive at approx 6pm, men at midnight
 Known as the March of the Fishwives
○ They sent a 17 yo flower girl to confront the King
 Fainted right in front of the King
 The king was sympathetic and promised food
 The women said that's too easy
 The National Guard and the women camped out after midnight
□ He patrolled all night long, went to sleep at 5
□ Everyone rushed through the palace
 The women went into her bedroom and slashed her bed to ribbons
○ The General, Lafayette goes through and tells the King and Queen to agree to everything
 The king agreed to food, guards and moving to Paris
 The Queen was forced to stand alone facing them
 Lafayette bows before the Queen, takes her head and kisses her
 The crowd gave up and cheered
○ The Queen and King moved back to Paris
 Led by the two heads of the luckless guards on pikes
○ Lived in the Tuilleries Palace
 In no condition for them
 The King and Queen are under virtual enclosure
○ Realizing that they can't do anything without the King, the National Assembly moved back to Paris
in the Tuilleries
• Bishop Talleyrand
○ Went into the Church because his family didn't see him as a viable man to inherit

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French Revolution 1790-1791
10:44 AM

• In 1790s people of France began to plant trees and swearing oaths around it
• Hired Pierre Francois Palloy to tear down the Bastille
○ Planted 83 trees (83 provinces) on top of the old grounds
○ A party (Fete de la Federation) was thrown for the storming of the bastille
○ The national guardsman marched in for hours, to speak the oath
 Lafayette was going to speak for all
 "Je le jure"
 Oath of loyalty to the new government
○ It was raining
• Civil Constitution of the Clergy
○ The Clergy had an issue with the oath (State first, God second)
○ Louis XVI was very ill
 Signed the Civil Constitution in the sick state
 Regretted it almost immediately after
○ Spring of 1791, only 50% took the oath
○ Pope spoke up in Spring saying he's against
• April of 1791, the loyal family wanted to goto St. Cloud, near Paris, for Easter
○ A mob stormed the Tuileries and would not let the King leave
○ Some national guardsman sided with him ("Veto")
○ Lafayette had to tell the King "you better go back inside for your safety"
 He finally realized he was a prisoner
 Began to plot his escape
□ Going to goto the border of the Austria where a noble is loyal
□ Have to sneak past the palace, past the gates of Paris, and past the country
• Count Fersm and the escape
○ Marie Antoinette's lover
○ Helped to plan their escape
 The governess had papers for a Russian Noble
 The King's Sister (Elizebeth) plays the governess
 King and Queen as servants
○ Count came with the King's costume for 2 weeks, left at night
○ The family got out ok
○ At a town, the ran into a postmaster while picnicking at the side
 The postmaster grew suspicious
 Servant who lived in Versailles recognized the King
 The family were escorted back to Paris
○ The king left behind a document that said he opposed the constitution
 Published in the newspaper
○ The mobs glared at them in silence
• The national assembly has a problem
○ No Constitutional Monarchy without a monarchy that doesn't support it
• July 3, 1791, the National Assembly passed a law
○ If you're unemployed, you have two choices:
 Leave Paris or join the army
○ Very unpopular
• 17th of July, 16,000 people went to the old Bastille and there were some tables leftover and some
homeless men
○ The mobs called them the King's spies and protested the reinstatement of the King
○ Martial law was declared
○ The national guard was sent in to arrest all of the mob
 50 people were killed
 Known as the Champ de Mars Massacre
• Suggested the state uses Church land as collateral to print paper money
Virtually steal the land from the Church

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○ Virtually steal the land from the Church
○ Starts the conflict between the Church and the State
○ Gets the assembly off the hook of having to raise taxes
• Ending 1789, the people are thrilled
○ No new taxes
○ The king's in Paris
○ The National Assembly can work on a new constitution

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Reign of Terror I
9:23 AM

• The Girondins
○ Leaders from province of Girond
○ Wants to sway the plain
• The king had the right to veto
○ Delay by 4 years
• The Girondins decided to pass unpopular pieces of legislation from the assembly that will
tick off the King and make him use his veto power, granted by the constitution
• 31 of October, 1791, the Girondins convinced the legislative assembly that the Emigree are a
○ Little armed camps
○ Passed the legislation that they all must be gone by January of 1792
○ If they stay, they would be called conspirators and traitors
○ The King veto'ed this
• The 9th of November
○ Decided that Compte de Provance (3rd to the throne), must return to France within 3
○ Veto'ed
• The 20th of November
○ All princes must return or their properties will be confiscated
○ Sent a letter asking them to return, but veto'ed the confiscation of property
○ 1st of January
 Even through the King veto'ed the bill, the assembly announced the confiscation
○ 17th of January
 Austria demanded this not apply to the royal family
• 25th of January, 1792
○ Demanded Leopard the II explain the support of the émigré, due on March 1st
○ February 7, 1792
 Alliance formed between Austria and Prussia in case war breaks out
○ March 1, 1792
 Leopard II died
○ March 1, 1792 The King wanted war
 Appointed the Girondins to his cabinet
 Foreign Minister Dumouriez
 Finance Minister Claviere
 Minister of Interior Roland
• April 20, 1792
○ France declared war on Austria
○ Started the 'Foreign Wars' (1792-1815)
○ The French Army had problems
 Normally the officers are the nobles
○ No fighting takes place for 2 months
• June 12, 1792
○ Legislative Assembly rebutes that the King used veto power on the priest
○ The King fired all 3 Girondin ministers, replacing them with Constitutional Monarchists
• June 20 of June
○ The King fled and captured at Roen the year before
○ The mob stormed the Tuilleries and the King is forced to put on a revolutionary cap
○ Lafayette proposed they do martial law again as a result but was refused
• July 2, 1792
○ The Girondin overruled the veto by the king to celebrate Bastille day
○ Duke of Brunswick issued Brunswick Manifesto
 If anything happens to the royal family, he would level Paris
• Passed Emergency powrs to Lafayette
○ The army didn't leave Paris and hanged around Palace Royale
• August 6, 1792
○ Decided the King was ruining the war
○ Ultimatum and gave the legislative assembly 3 days to respond
• August 9, 1792
○ Mob and the army set up a revolutionary government
• The 10th of August there were new rumors about troops going to add to the swiss guards
The mobs stormed the Tuilleries, the royal family escaped through the back door but

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○ The mobs stormed the Tuilleries, the royal family escaped through the back door but
forgot to tell the guards
○ The guards were overran and massacred
○ The royal family escaped to the legislative assembly and asked for protection
○ The legislative assembly turned the family over to the mob for arrest
○ Ended the monarchy
• The family was sent to the fortress prison called "The Temple"
• A fit of fear of people they threw into the prison, between September 2 to September 6
○ Killing all the people in the prisons
○ Called the September Massacre, over 1,400

• September 20, 1792, the France won against Austria at Valmy

○ Led by Dumouriez
• By November 6, 1792, the army forced Austria back for the winter
• On 19th of November, the convention issued the Decree of Fertility and Health
• November 20th, 1792 some carpenters found an iron chest
○ Found the King's documents
○ Used this as information intended to send to Austria as evidence
• December 19th, 1792, he was found guilty of treason
• January 4, 1793, Louis XIV was executed
• France declared war
○ Britain, Holland on Feb 1, 1793
○ Spain on March 7, 1793
• April 5, 1793 Demouriez defected to the enemy
○ Frustrated by the government
○ Formed a committee of public safety
 Emergency measure to organize things for public safety
 Georges Danton
□ Great public speaker
□ Knew how to touch the common man
□ Big voice
• France engaged in civil war
○ Venne
 Loyal to the catholic church and monarchy, refused to allow their young men to be taken
• Attacks on the Girondins
○ Newspapers
 Jacques Rene Herbert
□ Les enragés(the madman)
 Jean Paul Marat
○ Jacques Brissot was the leader of the Girondins (known as Brissotins)
 April of 1793, he arrested Jean Paul Marat
□ He was acquitted by the people
□ Came back more vicious against the government
 May of 1793, arrested Hebert and some of his followers
□ Worsened the criticism of the government
• June 2, 1793
○ 80,000 people demonstrate in front of the national convention and ordered the arrest of the 29
top Girondin leaders including Brissot
• Marie-Anne Charlotte Corday
○ Kicked out of the nunnery
○ Her parents place was next door to where the Girondins used to meet
○ Became a fervent Girondin supporter, very passionate
○ Very upset at the arrests and decided to kill Jean Paul Marat
 Says he destroyed the revolution
○ The landlord of Marat was his future father in law
 Didn't let her go in
Marat went shopping and got her hair done, bought a black hat

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○ Marat went shopping and got her hair done, bought a black hat
○ Gave out names to Marat and killed him later
○ Was captured, questioned and put on trial
○ Marat's body was put on display
• Committee of Public Safety
○ Took over from the failing Girondin government
○ Maximillien Robesiere is one of the 12 elected to the safety
○ Ceased emergency powers and never gave them back
 The national convention became a rubber stamp
• Levée en Masse
○ August 23, 1793
○ Creates the first National Army
○ Everyone can do something for the war effort
 Beginning of the concept of total warfare
○ 3-4 million French National Army
○ Carnot
 Techniques of warfare with the new army
 Creates an efficient national army
• Maximilien Robespierre
○ "No I can not be a magistrate because I can not sentence anyone to death"
 Irony
○ Led the committee of public safety
○ Stirred up the mobs of Paris about how to deal with counter revolution/terrorism
 Circular argument
 Terror is virtue, and virtue is terror. If you adopt the evil of your enemy and use it to destroy
them, that is the ultimate achievement.
 September 5, 1793
□ Mobs went to the National Convention
 "Let terror be the order of the day"
• September 17, 1793, Law of Suspects
○ One can be arrested for being suspected of counter revolutionism

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Reign of Terror II
10:36 AM

• October of 1793
○ 16th, Marie Antoniette executed
 Put on trial with trumped up charges
 Most vicious was that she was a sexual deviate and forced her son to have sex with her
 "Widow Capet" was taken to the guillotine in an open cart with wrecked hair
○ 31th, Jacobin leaders executed
• Revolutionary Calendar
○ 10 months, 10 day week, 30 days of a month
• Metric System Adapted
• Guerrilla Warfare
○ Attack the government then hideout
○ Uprisings in the Vendee
○ Went to the towns and asked for the Guerrilla fighters. If not, all inhabitants will be killed.
○ Maoiest style of countering Guerrilla Warfare
• British Navy occupied the port city of Toulon
○ They were pushed out December 18th
○ Napoleon Bonaparte
 Born in Corsica
 Met a friend near Tulon who was working for the comittee of public safety
□ On the 14 of Frimaire Year 2 (4th December 1793) passed a law that all government
officials would report directly to the committee
□ The friend was an agent
□ Artillery officer was killed in the battle against Britain, offered Napoleon the position
 Had a plan for retaking Tulon, the General didn't like it
 Went to the friend on the committee and ordered the General to carry out the plan
□ Napolean took his hill, the general didn't
□ The General was asked to retire and a new one appointed
 18 of December, 1793
□ Napolean battled at night in a rainstorm
□ Took the hill
 The 19th of December the British retreated
 The last foreign army on French soil was gone
 Promoted to Brigadier General and invited to Paris
□ Greatly admired the Jacobins
• Desmoulins and Danton were arrested on charges of treason
• Spring of 1794, Robespierre invented a new religion
○ The Cult of Supreme Being
○ Festival of Supreme Being
 Robespierre walked down steps with a white robe on
 People started to laugh at him
• George Couthon introduced into the national convention the law that sparks the Grand Terror
○ Authorized by Robespierre two days after the festival
○ 22 of Prairial (June 10)
 The law of 22 of Prairial
 Suspects can not have access to lawyers
 All suspects will be tried in groups
• Ended with the death of Robespierre
○ July 28, 1794
○ Guillotined
○ Shot in the jaw, they ripped the bandages off and screamed "bloody murder"
○ Killed along other members
• The Thermidoream Reaction

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• The Thermidoream Reaction
○ Known as the White Terror
○ Jeunesse dorée
 The gilded youth
 Went around killing people who didn't approve of them

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New Government: The Directory
10:44 AM

• The Thermidoream Reaction

○ Known as the White Terror
○ Jeunesse dorée
 The gilded youth
 Went around killing people who didn't approve of them
• The new government is elected under the new constitution in 1785
○ Constitution of Year 3
• New government is created called The Directory
○ Executive Branch
 5 Directors
□ Lazare Carnot
□ Jean-Francois Rewbell
□ Paul Francois Jean Nicholas, Viscomte of Barras
□ Louis-Marie de Lareveilliere-Lepaux
□ Charles-Louis Francois Letourneur
○ Legislative Branch
 2 houses
□ Upper House: Council of Elders (Ancients)
□ Lower House: Council of 500
• Napolean was arrested for 2 weeks as a "Jacobin Sympathizer"
○ Released because he knew Paul Barras

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