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Network Definition
l A network can be defined as two or more computers connected
together in such a way that they can share resources.
l The purpose of a network is to share resources.

A computer network can be two computers connected:

A computer network can also consist of, and is usually made for, more than
two computers:

A resource may be:

l A file
l A folder
l A printer
l A disk drive
l Or just about anything else that exists on a computer.

A network is simply a collection of computers or other hardware

devices that are connected together, either physically or
logically, using special hardware and software, to allow them to
exchange information and cooperate. Networking is the term that
describes the processes involved in designing, implementing,
upgrading, managing and otherwise working with networks and
network technologies.

Advantages of networking
l Connectivity and Communication
l Data Sharing
l Hardware Sharing
l Internet Access
l Internet Access Sharing
l Data Security and Management
l Performance Enhancement and Balancing
l Entertainment

The Disadvantages (Costs) of Networking

l Network Hardware, Software and Setup Costs
l Hardware and Software Management and Administration
l Undesirable Sharing
l Illegal or Undesirable Behavior
l Data Security Concerns
The three types of networks are: the Internet, the intranet, and the extranet.

Internet: is a worldwide system of computer networks - a network of

networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have
permission, get information from any other computer (and sometimes
talk directly to users at other computers).

Intranet: An intranet is a private network that is contained within an

enterprise. It may consist of many interlinked local area networks and
also use leased lines in the wide area network.
An extranet is a computer network that allows controlled access from the
outside, for specific business or educational purposes. An extranet can be
viewed as an extension of a company's intranet that is extended to users
outside the company, usually partners, vendors, and suppliers. It has also
been described as a "state of mind" in which the Internet is perceived as a
way to do business with a selected set of other companies (business-to-
business, B2B), in isolation from all other Internet users. In contrast,
business-to-consumer (B2C) models involve known servers of one or more
companies, communicating with previously unknown consumer users. An
extranet is like a DMZ in that it provides access to needed services for
channel partners, without granting access to an organization's entire
Fundamental Network Classifications
Local Area Networks (LANs):
l A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a
small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):
o A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that
interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic
area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area
network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area
network (WAN). The term is applied to the interconnection of
networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then
also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also
used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks
by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also
sometimes referred to as a campus network.

Wide Area Networks (WANs):

l Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a
broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross
metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). Or, less formally,
a network that uses routers and public communications links
l The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the
l WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks
together, so that users and computers in one location can
communicate with users and computers in other locations

Client and Server computer role in networking

l Server computer is a core component of the network, providing

a link to the resources necessary to perform any task.
l A server computer provides a link to the resources necessary to
perform any task.
l The link it provides could be to a resource existing on the server
itself or a resource on a client computer.
l Client computers normally request and receive information over
the network client. Client computers also depends primarily on
the central server for processing activities

Wired technologies

· Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for

telecommunication. Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that
are twisted into pairs. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two
insulated copper wires twisted into pairs. Computer networking
cabling consist of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both
voice and data transmission. The use of two wires twisted together
helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. The
transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 100
million bits per second. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms which
are Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded twisted-pair (STP)
which are rated in categories which are manufactured in different
increments for various scenarios.
· Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems, office
buildings, and other work-sites for local area networks. The cables
consist of copper or aluminum wire wrapped with insulating layer
typically of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant, all of
which are surrounded by a conductive layer. The layers of insulation
help minimize interference and distortion. Transmission speed range
from 200 million to more than 500 million bits per second.
· Optical fiber cable consists of one or more filaments of glass fiber
wrapped in protective layers that carries a data by means of pulses of
light. It transmits light which can travel over extended distances. Fiber-
optic cables are not affected by electromagnetic radiation.
Transmission speed may reach trillions of bits per second. The
transmission speed of fiber optics is hundreds of times faster than for
coaxial cables and thousands of times faster than a twisted-pair wire.
A recent innovation in fiber-optic cable is the use of colored light.
Instead of carrying one message in a stream of white light impulses,
this technology can carry multiple signals in a single strand.
Wireless technologies

· Terrestrial microwave – Terrestrial microwaves use Earth-based

transmitter and receiver. The equipment looks similar to satellite
dishes. Terrestrial microwaves use low-gigahertz range, which limits all
communications to line-of-sight. Path between relay stations spaced
approx, 30 miles apart. Microwave antennas are usually placed on top
of buildings, towers, hills, and mountain peaks.
· Communications satellites – The satellites use microwave radio as
their telecommunications medium which are not deflected by the
Earth's atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in space, typically
22,000 miles (for geosynchronous satellites) above the equator. These
Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice,
data, and TV signals.

· Cellular and PCS systems – Use several radio communications

technologies. The systems are divided to different geographic areas.
Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device
to relay calls from one area to the next area.
· Wireless LANs – Wireless local area network use a high-frequency
radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio
technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable
communication between multiple devices in a limited area. An
example of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology is IEEE.

· Infrared communication , which can transmit signals between devices

within small distances not more than 10 meters peer to peer or ( face
to face ) without any body in the line of transmitting.

there are two types of network configuration, peer-to-peer networks and

client/server networks.

Peer-to peer network

l A peer-to-peer network is a network where the computers act as
both workstations and servers.
l great for small, simple, and inexpensive networks.
l In a strict peer-to-peer networking setup, every computer is an
equal, a peer in the network.
l Each machine can have resources that are shared with any
other machine.
l There is no assigned role for any particular device, and each of
the devices usually runs similar software. Any device can and
will send requests to any other.
Client/Server Networking
l In this design, a small number of computers are designated as
centralized servers and given the task of providing services to a
larger number of user machines called clients
Peer-to-Peer Networks vs Client/Server Networks

Peer-to-Peer Networks Client/Server Networks

· Easy to set up · More difficult to set up

· Less expensive to install · More expensive to install

· A variety of operating systems

· Can be implemented on a can be supported on the client
wide range of operating computers, but the server needs to
systems run an operating system that
supports networking

· More time consuming to · Less time consuming to maintain

maintain the software being the software being used (as most
used (as computers must be of the maintenance is managed
managed individually) from the server)

· High levels of security are

· Very low levels of security
supported, all of which are
supported or none at all. These
controlled from the server. Such
can be very cumbersome to set
measures prevent the deletion of
up, depending on the
essential system files or the
operating system being used
changing of settings

· No limit to the number of

· Ideal for networks with less
computers that can be supported
than 10 computers
by the network

· Requires a server running a

· Does not require a server
server operating system

· Demands that the network

· Demands a moderate level administrator has a high level of IT
of skill to administer the skills with a good working
network knowledge of a server operating

Basic Hardware Components

Network Cables

Cable is used to connect computers. Although we are planning to use as

much wireless as possible, you should always have one or more cables
around. In our network, we will use Category 5 cable RJ-45. The ends of the
cable appear as follows:
They can be in different colors:

Category 5 cable
Category 5 cable (Cat 5 or Chady) is a twisted pair high signal integrity cable
type. This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks
such as Ethernet and ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), and is also used
to carry many other signals such as telephony and video. Most Category 5
cables are unshielded (UTP), relying on the twisted pair design for noise
rejection. Category 5 has been superseded by the Category 5e specification.


An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub or hub is a device
for connecting multiple twisted pair or fiber optic Ethernet devices together
and making them act as a single network segment.

A hub is rectangular box that is used as the central object on which

computers and other devices are connected. To make this possible, a hub is
equipped with small holes called ports. Here is an example of a hub:
Although this appears with 4 ports, depending on its type, a hub can be
equipped with 4, 5, 12, or more ports. Here is an example of a hub with 8

When configuring it, you connect an RJ-45 cable from the network card of a
computer to one port of the hub.

In most cases for a home-based or a small business network, you may not
need a hub.

Routers: Wired or Wireless

A router is a device that forwards data packets across computer networks.

Routers perform the data "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A
router is a microprocessor-controlled device that is connected to two or
more data lines from different networks.

Like a hub, a router is another type of device that acts as the central point
among computers and other devices that are part of a network. Here is an
example of a wired router:
A router functions a little differently than a hub. In fact, a router can be
considered a little "intelligent" than the hub.

Like a hub, the computers and other devices are connected to a router using
network cables. To make this possible, a router is equipped with holes, called
ports, in the back. Here is an example:

Based on advances in the previous years from IEEE and other organizations
or research companies, there are wireless routers. With this type, the
computers and devices connect to the router using microwaves (no physical

In our (small) network, we wish to use a wireless router. Therefore, this is the
kind we suggest you purchase. You can purchase a wireless router from a
computer store or on the internet (,,, etc). You can also buy a
wireless router from a computer store.

Wired Network Cards

A network card, network adapter, or NIC (network interface card) is a piece
of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a
computer network. It provides physical access to a networking medium and
often provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC

A network interface controller (also known as a network interface card,

network adapter, LAN adapter and by similar terms) is a computer
hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.

In order to connect to a network, a computer must be equipped with a device

called a network card. A network card, or a network adapter, also called a
network interface card, or NIC, allows a computer to connect to the exterior.

Wireless Network Cards

Depending on your network budget or your customer's, instead of using

wired network cards, you can use wireless ones. A wireless NIC appears as
its wired counterpart. Here are two examples:
Overall, the physical installation of a wireless network card follows the same
rules as that of a wired NIC. They normally come with easy to follow
instructions but it may be a good idea to install the wireless network adapters
after installing the wireless router. Also, it may be a good idea to purchase
the network cards and the wireless router from the same manufacturer.

Most desktop computers (workstations) come without a wireless network

card. If you purchase a computer from one of the big companies on the
Internet, you can choose to have it shipped with a wireless NIC. Some
companies may propose to install it before shipping the computer. If you buy
a computer from a store and if you want to use wireless networking, you can
buy a wireless network card separately. As stated already, a wireless network
card is not particularly difficult to install.


A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal, cleans it of

unnecessary noise, regenerates it, and retransmits it at a higher power level,
or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer
distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations,
repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters. A repeater
with multiple ports is known as a hub. Repeaters work on the Physical Layer
of the OSI model. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the
signal. This can cause a propagation delay which can affect network
communication when there are several repeaters in a row. Many network
architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row (e.g.
Ethernet's 5-4-3 rule).

A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at

a higher level and/or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction,
so that the signal can cover longer distances.


A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer
(layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port on
which the broadcast was received. However, bridges do not promiscuously
copy traffic to all ports, as hubs do, but learn which MAC addresses are
reachable through specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an
address, it will send traffic for that address to that port only.

Like a repeater, a bridge can join segments or workgroup LANs.

However, a bridge can also divide a network to isolate traffic or
problems. For example, if the volume of traffic from one or two
computers or a single department is flooding the network with data
and slowing down entire operation, a bridge can isolate those
computers or that department.

In the following figure, a bridge is used to connect two segment

segment 1 and segment 2.

Bridges can be used to:

· Expand the distance of a segment.

· Provide for an increased number of computers on the network.
· Reduce traffic bottlenecks resulting from an excessive number of
attached computers.


A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams
(chunks of data communication) between ports (connected cables) based on
the MAC addresses in the packets.[9] A switch is distinct from a hub in that it
only forwards the frames to the ports involved in the communication rather
than all ports connected. A switch breaks the collision domain but represents
itself as a broadcast domain. Switches make forwarding decisions of frames
on the basis of MAC addresses. A switch normally has numerous ports,
facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches.[10]
Some switches are capable of routing based on Layer 3 addressing or
additional logical levels; these are called multi-layer switches. The term
switch is used loosely in marketing to encompass devices including routers
and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by
application content (e.g., a Web URL identifier).

A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that

connects network segments.

The term commonly refers to a multi-port network bridge that processes and
routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches that
additionally process data at the network layer (Layer 3) and above are often
referred to as Layer 3 switches or multilayer switches.


Firewalls are the most important aspect of a network with respect to security.
A firewalled system does not need every interaction or data transfer
monitored by a human, as automated processes can be set up to assist in
rejecting access requests from unsafe sources, and allowing actions from
recognized ones. The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in
parallel with the constant increase in 'cyber' attacks for the purpose of
stealing/corrupting data, planting viruses, etc.

What is Network Cabling?

Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one
network device to another. There are several types of cable which are
commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one
type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of
cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and
size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how
they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a
successful network.

Ethernet Cable - Color Coding Diagram

The information listed here is to assist Network Administrators in the color
coding of Ethernet cables. Please be aware that modifying Ethernet cables
improperly may cause loss of network connectivity. Use this information at
your own risk, and insure all connectors and cables are modified in
accordance with standards. The Internet Centre and its affiliates cannot be
held liable for the use of this information in whole or in part.

T-568A Straight-Through Ethernet Cable

The TIA/EIA 568-A standard which was ratified in 1995, was replaced by the
TIA/EIA 568-B standard in 2002 and has been updated since. Both standards
define the T-568A and T-568B pin-outs for using Unshielded Twisted Pair
cable and RJ-45 connectors for Ethernet connectivity. The standards and
pin-out specification appear to be related and interchangeable, but are not
the same and should not be used interchangeably.

T-568B Straight-Through Ethernet Cable

Both the T-568A and the T-568B standard Straight-Through cables are used
most often as patch cords for your Ethernet connections. If you require a
cable to connect two Ethernet devices directly together without a hub or
when you connect two hubs together, you will need to use a Crossover cable

RJ-45 Crossover Ethernet Cable

A good way of remembering how to wire a Crossover Ethernet cable is to

wire one end using the T-568A standard and the other end using the T-568B
standard. Another way of remembering the color coding is to simply switch
the Green set of wires in place with the Orange set of wires. Specifically,
switch the solid Green (G) with the solid Orange, and switch the green/white
with the orange/white.

Ethernet Cable Instructions:

1. Pull the cable off the reel to the desired length and cut. If you are
pulling cables through holes, its easier to attach the RJ-45 plugs
after the cable is pulled. The total length of wire segments
between a PC and a hub or between two PC's cannot exceed
100 Meters (328 feet) for 100BASE-TX and 300 Meters for
2. Start on one end and strip the cable jacket off (about 1") using a
stripper or a knife. Be extra careful not to nick the wires,
otherwise you will need to start over.
3. Spread, untwist the pairs, and arrange the wires in the order of
the desired cable end. Flatten the end between your thumb and
forefinger. Trim the ends of the wires so they are even with one
another, leaving only 1/2" in wire length. If it is longer than 1/2" it
will be out-of-spec and susceptible to crosstalk. Flatten and
insure there are no spaces between wires.
4. Hold the RJ-45 plug with the clip facing down or away from you.
Push the wires firmly into the plug. Inspect each wire is flat even
at the front of the plug. Check the order of the wires. Double
check again. Check that the jacket is fitted right against the stop
of the plug. Carefully hold the wire and firmly crimp the RJ-45
with the crimper.
5. Check the color orientation, check that the crimped connection is
not about to come apart, and check to see if the wires are flat
against the front of the plug. If even one of these are incorrect,
you will have to start over. Test the Ethernet cable.

Ethernet Cable Tips:

· A straight-thru cable has identical ends.

· A crossover cable has different ends.
· A straight-thru is used as a patch cord in Ethernet connections.
· A crossover is used to connect two Ethernet devices without a
hub or for connecting two hubs.
· A crossover has one end with the Orange set of wires switched
with the Green set.
· Odd numbered pins are always striped, even numbered pins are
always solid colored.
· Looking at the RJ-45 with the clip facing away from you, Brown
is always on the right, and pin 1 is on the left.
· No more than 1/2" of the Ethernet cable should be untwisted
otherwise it will be susceptible to crosstalk.
· Do not deform, do not bend, do not stretch, do not staple, do not
run parallel with power cables, and do not run Ethernet cables
near noise inducing components.

To Set Up a Direct Cable Connection Between Two Computers in

Windows XP

A direct cable connection is a link between the input/output (I/O) ports of

two computers by using a single cable rather than a modem or other
interfacing device. In most cases, you make a direct cable connection with a
null modem cable. You can use a direct cable connection to transfer
information between the computers to exchange files, access resources, and
so on.

Back to the top

To Make a Direct Cable Connection

1. Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click Network

2. Under Network Tasks, click Create a new connection, and then click
3. Click Set up an advanced connection, and then click Next.
4. Click Connect directly to another computer, and click Next.
5. Choose the role this machine will play in the communication. If this
computer has the information to which you need to gain access, click
Host. If this computer will access information from the other
computer, click Guest.

Back to the top

To Set Up the Host Computer

1. Click the connection device that you want to use for this connection (a
parallel or serial port, or an infrared port), and then click Next.
2. Grant access to the users who are allowed to connect by selecting the
appropriate check boxes, and then click Next.
3. Click Finish to end the configuration process.

Back to the top

To Set Up the Guest Computer

1. Type a name to identify this connection, and then click Next.

2. Click the connection device that you want to use for this connection (a
parallel or serial port, or an infrared port), and then click Next.
3. Decide whether this connection will be available for all users (click
Anyone's use), or only for you (click My use only), and then click Next.
4. Click Finish to end the setup process.

Back to the top


· To create a direct network connection that acts as a host, you must be

logged on as Administrator or be a member of the Administrators
group. Guest direct network connections do not require
administrator-level rights.
· If you specify your connection as a host when you create it, the
connection appears as Incoming Connections in the Network
Connections folder.
· You can create multiple direct connections by copying them in the
Network Connections folder. You can then rename the connections
and modify connection settings. By doing so, you can easily create
different connections to accommodate multiple ports, host
computers, and so on.
· Direct connections can bypass authentication requirements. This is
useful for devices such as handheld computers. You must configure
this setting in the host incoming connection.
· If you create a direct connection by using a serial (RS-232C) cable, the
port that you select in the New Connection Wizard is enabled for
connections that use a null modem.
· If you are logged on to your computer as Administrator or a member
of the Administrators group when you create a direct connection, you
see a list of connection devices to choose from that includes all of the
parallel ports for the computer, infrared ports that are installed and
enabled, and COM ports. If you are logged on as a user who is not a
member of the Administrators group and you create a direct
connection, the list of devices includes the parallel ports for the
computer, infrared ports that are installed and enabled, and only the
COM ports that are configured with null modems. If you need to use a
COM port for a direct connection, ask your system administrator to
configure one of the COM ports on your computer with a null modem
by using the Phone and Modem Options tool in Control Panel.

Configure Internet Connection Sharing in Windows XP

This article describes how to set up and use the Internet Connection Sharing
feature in Microsoft Windows XP. With Internet Connection Sharing, you
can use networked computers to share a single connection to the Internet.

Back to the top

How to use Internet Connection Sharing
To use Internet Connection Sharing to share your Internet connection, the
host computer must have one network adapter that is configured to connect
to the internal network, and one network adapter or modem that is
configured to connect to the Internet.

On the host computer

On the host computer, follow these steps to share the Internet connection:

1. Log on to the host computer as Administrator or as Owner.

2. Click Start, and then click Control Panel.
3. Click Network and Internet Connections.
4. Click Network Connections.
5. Right-click the connection that you use to connect to the Internet. For
example, if you connect to the Internet by using a modem, right-click
the connection that you want under Dial-up.
6. Click Properties.
7. Click the Advanced tab.
8. Under Internet Connection Sharing, select the Allow other network
users to connect through this computer's Internet connection check
9. If you are sharing a dial-up Internet connection, select the Establish a
dial-up connection whenever a computer on my network attempts to
access the Internet check box if you want to permit your computer to
automatically connect to the Internet.
10. Click OK. You receive the following message:

When Internet Connection Sharing is enabled, your LAN adapter will

be set to use IP
address Your computer may lose connectivity with other
computers on
your network. If these other computers have static IP addresses, it is a
good idea to set them
to obtain their IP addresses automatically. Are you sure you want to
enable Internet
Connection Sharing?

11. Click Yes.

The connection to the Internet is shared to other computers on the local

area network (LAN). The network adapter that is connected to the LAN is
configured with a static IP address of and a subnet mask of

To view a video about how to configure the host computer for Internet
Connection Sharing, click the Play button (
Collapse this imageExpand this image

) on the following Windows Media Player viewer:

Note To view this video, you must use Windows Media Player 7.0 or later.

For additional information about how to obtain Windows Media Player

version 7.1, click the following article number to view the article in the
Microsoft Knowledge Base:
299321 ( ) Description and
availability of Windows Media Player 7.1

On the client computer

To connect to the Internet by using the shared connection, you must
confirm the LAN adapter IP configuration, and then configure the client
computer. To confirm the LAN adapter IP configuration, follow these steps:

1. Log on to the client computer as Administrator or as Owner.

2. Click Start, and then click Control Panel.
3. Click Network and Internet Connections.
4. Click Network Connections.
5. Right-click Local Area Connection, and then click Properties.
6. Click the General tab, click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) in the This
connection uses the following items list, and then click Properties.
7. In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click Obtain
an IP address automatically (if it is not already selected), and then
click OK.

Note You can also assign a unique static IP address in the range of to For example, you can assign the
following static IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway:
8. IP Address
9. Subnet mask
10. Default gateway

11. In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, click OK.
12. Quit Control Panel.

To view a video about how to confirm the LAN adapter IP configuration, click
the Play button (
Collapse this imageExpand this image
) on the following Windows Media Player viewer:

Note To view this video, you must use Windows Media Player 7.0 or later.

For additional information about how to obtain Windows Media Player

version 7.1, click the following article number to view the article in the
Microsoft Knowledge Base:

299321 ( ) Description and

availability of Windows Media Player 7.1

To configure the client computer to use the shared Internet connection,

follow these steps:

1. Click Start, and then click Control Panel.

2. Click Network and Internet Connections.
3. Click Internet Options.
4. In the Internet Properties dialog box, click the Connections tab.
5. Click the Setup button.

The New Connection Wizard starts.

6. On the Welcome to the New Connection Wizard page, click Next.
7. Click Connect to the Internet, and then click Next.
8. Click Set up my connection manually, and then click Next.
9. Click Connect using a broadband connection that is always on, and
then click Next.
10. On the Completing the New Connection Wizard page, click
11. Quit Control Panel.

When you now start Microsoft Internet Explorer, the client computer will try
to connect to the Internet by using the host computer's shared Internet

To view a video of how to configure the client computer to use the shared
Internet connection, click the Play button (
Collapse this imageExpand this image

) on the following Windows Media Player viewer:

Note To view this video, you must use Windows Media Player 7.0 or later.

For additional information about how to obtain Windows Media Player

version 7.1, click the following article number to view the article in the
Microsoft Knowledge Base:

299321 ( ) Description and

availability of Windows Media Player 7.1

Back to the top

When you turn on Internet Connection Sharing on the host computer, the
host computer's LAN adapter is automatically assigned the IP address of Therefore, one of the following situations may occur:

· IP address conflict
Each computer on the LAN must have a unique IP address. If more
than one computer has the same IP address, an IP conflict occurs, and
one of the network adapters turns off until the conflict is resolved. To
resolve this conflict, configure the client computer to automatically
obtain an IP address, or assign it a unique IP address.
· Loss of network connectivity
If your network is configured with a different IP address range than
Internet Connection Sharing uses, you will lose network connectivity
with the host computer. To resolve this issue, configure the client
computers to automatically obtain an IP address, or assign each client
computer a unique IP address in the range of to

Network topology
l A topology is a way of “laying out” the network. Topologies can
be either physical or logical.
l Physical topologies describe how the cables are run.
l Logical topologies describe how the network messages travel
l Bus (can be both logical and physical)
l Star (physical only)
l Ring (can be both logical and physical)
l Mesh (can be both logical and physical)

l A bus is the simplest physical topology. It consists of a single
cable that runs to every workstation
l This topology uses the least amount of cabling, but also covers
the shortest amount of distance.
l Each computer shares the same data and address path. With a
logical bus topology, messages pass through the trunk, and each
workstation checks to see if the message is addressed to itself. If
the address of the message matches the workstation’s address,
the network adapter copies the message to the card’s on-board
l it is difficult to add a workstation
l have to completely reroute the cable and possibly run two
additional lengths of it.
l if any one of the cables breaks, the entire network is disrupted.
Therefore, it is very expensive to maintain.

• Simple and inexpensive to install, very limited cabling is
• Easy to include additional stations without disruption of the

• The whole network is dependant on a single cable, hence if the
cable fails the whole system fails too
• Difficult to locate cable failure.
• Network performance is directly related to traffic.
• Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large
• Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable
along with T-Junctions at each work station
Star Topology
l A physical star topology branches each network device off a
central device called a hub, making it very easy to add a new
l Also, if any workstation goes down it does not affect the entire
network. (But, as you might expect, if the central device goes
down, the entire network goes down.)
l Some types of Ethernet and ARCNet use a physical star
topology. Figure 8.7 gives an example of the organization of the
star network.
l Star topologies are easy to install. A cable is run from each
workstation to the hub. The hub is placed in a central location in
the office.
l Star topologies are more expensive to install than bus networks,
because there are several more cables that need to be installed,
plus the cost of the hubs that are needed.

• If one cable fails, other stations are not effected
• Consistent performance even when the network is heavilly
• Reliable
• No problem of data collision as each station has its own
• New stations may be included with the addition of new cables
• Easy to install and wire.
• No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing
• Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.

• Generally, costly to install due to the amount of cabling
required and hub(s).
• If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled

l Each computer connects to two other computers, joining them in
a circle creating a unidirectional path where messages move
workstation to workstation.
l Each entity participating in the ring reads a message, then
regenerates it and hands it to its neighbor on a different network
l The ring makes it difficult to add new computers.
l Unlike a star topology network, the ring topology network will go
down if one entity is removed from the ring.
l Physical ring topology systems don’t exist much anymore, mainly
because the hardware involved was fairly expensive and the
fault tolerance was very low.

• No collision is possible due to the token system.
• Performance is effected if heavy load is encountered.

• Network is disrupted if additional stations are added (the system
must be updated in terms of new addresses being added).
• A break in the network will stop the system.

l The mesh topology is the simplest logical topology in terms of
data flow, but it is the most complex in terms of physical design.
l In this physical topology, each device is connected to every other
l This topology is rarely found in LANs, mainly because of the
complexity of the cabling.
l If there are x computers, there will be (x × (x–1)) ÷ 2 cables in
the network. For example, if you have five computers in a mesh
network, it will use 5 × (5 – 1) ÷ 2, which equals 10 cables. This
complexity is compounded when you add another workstation.
l For example, your five-computer, 10-cable network will jump to
15 cables just by adding one more computer. Imagine how the
person doing the cabling would feel if you told them you had to
cable 50 computers in a mesh network—they’d have to come up
with 50 × (50 – 1) ÷ 2 = 1225 cables!
l Because of its design, the physical mesh topology is very
expensive to install and maintain.
l Cables must be run from each device to every other device. The
advantage you gain from it is its high fault tolerance.
l With a logical mesh topology, however, there will always be a
way of getting the data from source to destination.
l It may not be able to take the direct route, but it can take an
alternate, indirect route. It is for this reason that the mesh
topology is still found in WANs to connect multiple sites across
WAN links. It uses devices called routers to search multiple
routes through the mesh and determine the best path.
l However, the mesh topology does become inefficient with five or
more entities.