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10) WHO’S WHO 49

Broadband Internet access, often shortened to just broadband, is a high data
rate Internet access—typically contrasted with dial-up access using a 56k

Dial-up modems are limited to a bit rate of less than 56 kbit/s (kilobits per
second) and require the full use of a telephone line—whereas broadband
technologies supply more than double this rate and generally without
disrupting telephone use.

Although various minimum bandwidths have been used in definitions of

broadband, ranging up from 64 kbit/s up to 2.0 Mbit/s, the 2006 OECD report
is typical by defining broadband as having download data transfer rates
equal to or faster than 256 kbit/s, while the United States (US) Federal
Communications Commission (FCC) as of 2009, defines "Basic Broadband" as
data transmission speeds exceeding 768 kilobits per second (Kbps), or
768,000 bits per second, in at least one direction: downstream (from the
Internet to the user’s computer) or upstream (from the user’s computer to
the Internet) The trend is to raise the threshold of the broadband definition
as the marketplace rolls out faster services.

Data rates are defined in terms of maximum download because several

common consumer broadband technologies such as ADSL are
"asymmetric"—supporting much slower maximum upload data rate than

"Broadband penetration" is now treated as a key economic indicator

Broadband transmission rates
Transmission data
DS-1 (Tier 1) 1.544 Mbit/s
E-1 2.048 Mbit/s
DS-3 (Tier 3) 44.736 Mbit/s
OC-3 155.52 Mbit/s
OC-12 622.08 Mbit/s
OC-48 2.488 Gbit/s
OC-192 9.953 Gbit/s
OC-768 39.813 Gbit/s
OC-1536 79.6 Gbit/s

Broadband is often called "high-speed" access to the Internet, because it
usually has a high rate of data transmission. In general, any connection to
the customer of 256 kbit/s (0.256 Mbit/s) or greater is more concisely
considered broadband Internet access. The International
Telecommunication Union Standardization Sector (ITU-T) recommendation
I.113 has defined broadband as a transmission capacity that is faster than
primary rate ISDN, at 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s. The FCC definition of broadband is 768
kbit/s (0.8 Mbit/s). The Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) has defined broadband as 256 kbit/s in at least one
direction and this bit rate is the most common baseline that is marketed as
"broadband" around the world. There is no specific bitrate defined by the
industry, however, and "broadband" can mean lower-bitrate transmission
methods. Some Internet Service Providers (ISPs) use this to their advantage
in marketing lower-bitrate connections as broadband. In practice, the
advertised bandwidth is not always reliably available to the customer; ISPs
often allow a greater number of subscribers than their backbone connection
or neighborhood access network can handle, under the assumption that
most users will not be using their full connection capacity very frequently.
This aggregation strategy works more often than not, so users can typically
burst to their full bandwidth most of the time; however, peer-to-peer (P2P)
file sharing systems, often requiring extended durations of high bandwidth
usage, stress these assumptions, and can cause major problems for ISPs who
have excessively overbooked their capacity. For more on this topic, see
traffic shaping. As takeup for these introductory products increases, telcos
are starting to offer higher bit rate services. For existing connections, this
most of the time simply involves reconfiguring the existing equipment at
each end of the connection.

As the bandwidth delivered to end users increases, the market expects that
video on demand services streamed over the Internet will become more
popular, though at the present time such services generally require
specialized networks. The data rates on most broadband services still do not
suffice to provide good quality video, as MPEG-2 video requires about 6
Mbit/s for good results. Adequate video for some purposes becomes possible
at lower data rates, with rates of 768 kbit/s and 384 kbit/s used for some
video conferencing applications, and rates as low as 100 kbit/s used for
videophones using H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. The MPEG-4 format delivers high-
quality video at 2 Mbit/s, at the low end of cable modem and ADSL

Increased bandwidth has already made an impact on newsgroups: postings

to groups such as alt .binaries have grown from JPEG files to entire CD and
DVD images. According to NTL, the level of traffic on their network increased
from a daily inbound news feed of 150 gigabytes of data per day and 1

terabyte of data out each day in 2001 to 500 gigabytes of data inbound and
over 4 terabytes out each day in 2002.

The standard broadband technologies in most areas are DSL and cable
modems. Newer technologies in use include VDSL and pushing optical fiber
connections closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants.
Fiber-optic communication, while only recently being used in fiber to the
premises and fiber to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling
Broadband Internet access by making transmission of information over larger
distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. In a few
areas not served by cable or ADSL, community organizations have begun to
install Wi-Fi networks, and in some cities and towns local governments are
installing municipal Wi-Fi networks. As of 2006, broadband mobile Internet
access has become available at the consumer level in some countries, using
the HSDPA and EV-DO technologies. The newest technology being deployed
for mobile and stationary broadband access is WiMAX.

Multilinking Modems
Roughly double the dial-up rate can be achieved with multilinking
technology. What is required are two modems, two phone lines, two dial-up
accounts, and ISP support for multilinking, or special software at the user
end. This inverse multiplexing option was popular with some high-end users
before ISDN, DSL and other technologies became available.

Diamond and other vendors had created dual phone line modems with
bonding capability. The data rate of dual line modems is faster than 90
kbit/s. The Internet and phone charge will be twice the ordinary dial-up

Load balancing takes two Internet connections and feeds them into your
network as one double data rate, more resilient Internet connection. By
choosing two independent Internet providers the load balancing hardware
will automatically use the line with least load which means should one line
fail, the second one automatically takes up the slack.

Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is one of the oldest broadband
digital access methods for consumers and businesses to connect to the

Internet. It is a telephone data service standard. Its use in the United States
peaked in the late 1990s prior to the availability of DSL and cable modem
technologies. Broadband service is usually compared to ISDN-BRI because
this was the standard broadband access technology that formed a baseline
for the challenges faced by the early broadband providers. These providers
sought to compete against ISDN by offering faster and cheaper services to

A basic rate ISDN line (known as ISDN-BRI) is an ISDN line with 2 data
"bearer" channels (DS0 - 64 kbit/s each). Using ISDN terminal adapters
(erroneously called modems), it is possible to bond together 2 or more
separate ISDN-BRI lines to reach bandwidths of 256 kbit/s or more. The ISDN
channel bonding technology has been used for video conference applications
and broadband data transmission.

Primary rate ISDN, known as ISDN-PRI, is an ISDN line with 23 DS0 channels
and total bandwidth of 1,544 kbit/s (US standard). ISDN E1 (European
standard) line is an ISDN lines with 30 DS0 channels and total bandwidth of
2,048 kbit/s. Because ISDN is a telephone-based product, a lot of the
terminology and physical aspects of the line are shared by the ISDN-PRI used
for voice services. An ISDN line can therefore be "provisioned" for voice or
data and many different options, depending on the equipment being used at
any particular installation, and depending on the offerings of the telephone
company's central office switch. Most ISDN-PRI's are used for telephone
voice communication using large PBX systems, rather than for data. One
obvious exception is that ISPs usually have ISDN-PRI's for handling ISDN data
and modem calls.

It is mainly of historical interest that many of the earlier ISDN data lines used
56 kbit/s rather than 64 kbit/s "B" channels of data. This caused ISDN-BRI to
be offered at both 128 kbit/s and 112 kbit/s rates, depending on the central
office's switching equipment.

• Constant data rate at 64 kbit/s for each DS0 channel.
• Two way broadband symmetric data transmission, unlike ADSL.
• Call setup is very quick.
• Low latency
• ISDN Voice clarity is unmatched by other phone services.
• Caller ID is almost always available for no additional fee.
• Maximum distance from the central office is much greater than it is for

• When using ISDN-BRI, there is the possibility of using the low-
bandwidth 16 kbit/s "D" channel for packet data and for always on
• One of the data channels can be used for phone conversation without
disturbing the data transmission through the other data channel. When
a phone call is ended, the bearer channel can immediately dial and re-
connect itself to the data call

• ISDN offerings are dwindling in the marketplace due to the widespread
use of faster and cheaper alternatives.
• ISDN routers, terminal adapters ("modems"), and telephones are more
expensive than ordinary POTS equipment, like dial-up modems.
• ISDN provisioning can be complicated due to the great number of
options available.
• ISDN users must dial in to a provider that offers ISDN Internet service,
which means that the call could be disconnected.
• ISDN is billed as a phone line, to which is added the bill for Internet
ISDN access.
• "Always on" data connections are not available in all locations.
• Some telephone companies charge unusual fees for ISDN, including
call setup fees, per minute fees, and higher rates than normal for other

These are highly-regulated services traditionally intended for businesses,
that are managed through Public Service Commissions (PSCs) in each state,
must be fully defined in PSC tariff documents, and have management rules
dating back to the early 1980s which still refer to teletypes as potential
connection devices. As such, T-1 services have very strict and rigid service
requirements which drive up the provider's maintenance costs and may
require them to have a technician on standby 24 hours a day to repair the
line if it malfunctions. (In comparison, ISDN and DSL are not regulated by the
PSCs at all.) Due to the expensive and regulated nature of T-1 lines, they are
normally installed under the provisions of a written agreement, the contract
term being typically one to three years. However, there are usually few
restrictions to an end-user's use of a T-1, uptime and bandwidth data rates
may be guaranteed, quality of service may be supported, and blocks of static
IP addresses are commonly included.

Since a T-1 was originally conceived for voice transmission, and voice T-1's
are still widely used in businesses, it can be confusing to the uninitiated
subscriber. It is often best to refer to the type of T-1 being considered, using
the appropriate "data" or "voice" prefix to differentiate between the two. A
voice T-1 would terminate at a phone company's central office (CO) for
connection to the PSTN; a data T-1 terminates at a point of presence (POP) or
data center. The T-1 line which is between a customer's premises and the
POP or CO is called the local loop. The owner of the local loop need not be
the owner of the network at the POP where your T-1 connects to the Internet,
and so a T-1 subscriber may have contracts with these two organizations

The nomenclature for a T-1 varies widely, cited in some circles a DS-1, a
T1.5, a T1, or a DS1. Some of these try to distinguish amongst the different
aspects of the line, considering the data standard a DS-1, and the physical
structure of the trunk line a T-1 or T-1.5. They are also called leased lines,
but that terminology is usually for data rates under 1.5 Mbit/s. At times, a T-1
can be included in the term "leased line" or excluded from it. Whatever it is
called, it is inherently related to other broadband access methods, which
include T-3, SONET OC-3, and other T-carrier and Optical Carriers.
Additionally, a T-1 might be aggregated with more than one T-1, producing
an nxT-1, such as 4xT-1 which has exactly 4 times the bandwidth of a T-1.

When a T-1 is installed, there are a number of choices to be made: in the

carrier chosen, the location of the demarcation point, the type of channel
service unit (CSU) or data service unit (DSU) used, the WAN IP router used,
the types of bandwidths chosen, etc. Specialized WAN routers are used with
T-1 lines that route Internet or VPN data onto the T-1 line from the
subscriber's packet-based (TCP/IP) network using customer premises
equipment (CPE). The CPE typical consists of a CSU/DSU that converts the
DS-1 data stream of the T-1 to a TCP/IP packet data stream for use in the
customer's Ethernet LAN. It is noteworthy that many T-1 providers optionally
maintain and/or sell the CPE as part of the service contract, which can affect
the demarcation point and the ownership of the router, CSU, or DSU.

Although a T-1 has a maximum of 1.544 Mbit/s, a fractional T-1 might be

offered which only uses an integer multiple of 128 kbit/s for bandwidth. In
this manner, a customer might only purchase 1/12th or 1/3 of a T-1, which
would be 128 kbit/s and 512 kbit/s, respectively.

T-1 and fractional T-1 data lines are symmetric, meaning that their upload
and download data rates are the same.

Wired Ethernet
Where available, this method of broadband connection to the Internet would
indicate that Internet access is very fast. However, just because Ethernet is
offered doesn't mean that the full 10, 100, or 1000 Mbit/s connection can be
utilized for direct Internet access. In a college dormitory, for example, the
100 Mbit/s Ethernet access might be fully available to on-campus networks,
but Internet access bandwidths might be closer to 4xT-1 data rate (6 Mbit/s).
If you are sharing a broadband connection with others in a building, the
access bandwidth of the leased line into the building would of course govern
the end-user's data rate.

In certain locations, however, true Ethernet broadband access might be

available. This would most commonly be the case at a POP or a data center,
and not at a typical residence or business. When Ethernet Internet access is
offered, it could be fiber-optic or copper twisted pair, and the bandwidth will
conform to standard Ethernet data rates of up to 10 Gbit/s. The primary
advantage is that no special hardware is needed for Ethernet. Ethernet also
has a very low latency.

Rural broadband
One of the great challenges of broadband is to provide service to potential
customers in areas of low population density, such as to farmers, ranchers,
and small towns. In cities where the population density is high, it is easy for a
service provider to recover equipment costs, but each rural customer may
require expensive equipment to get connected.

Several rural broadband solutions exist, though each has its own pitfalls and
limitations. Some choices are better than others, but are dependent on how
proactive the local phone company is about upgrading their rural technology.

Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISPs) are rapidly becoming a popular

broadband option for rural areas. The technology's line-of-sight
requirements may hamper connectivity in some areas with hilly and heavily
foliated terrain. However, the Tegola project, a successful pilot in remote
Scotland, demonstrates that wireless can be a viable option. In addition,
compared to hard-wired connectivity, there are security risks (unless robust
security protocols are enabled); speeds are significantly slower (2 – 50 times
slower); and the network can be less stable, due to interference from other
wireless devices, weather and line-of-sight problems.

Satellite Internet
Satellites in geostationary orbits are able to relay broadband data from the
satellite company to each customer. Satellite Internet is usually among the
most expensive ways of gaining broadband Internet access, but in rural
areas it may be the only choice other than cellular broadband. However,
costs have been coming down in recent years to the point that it is becoming
more competitive with other broadband options.

Broadband satellite Internet also has a high latency problem is due to the
signal having to travel to an altitude of 35,786 km (22,236 mi) above sea
level (from the equator) out into space to a satellite in geostationary orbit
and back to Earth again. The signal delay can be as much as 500
milliseconds to 900 milliseconds, which makes this service unsuitable for
applications requiring real-time user input such as certain multiplayer
Internet games and first-person shooters played over the connection.
Despite this, it is still possible for many games to be played, but the scope is
limited to real-time strategy or turn-based games. The functionality of live
interactive access to a distant computer can also be subject to the problems
caused by high latency. These problems are more than tolerable for just
basic email access and web browsing and in most cases are barely

For geostationary satellites there is no way to eliminate this problem. The

delay is primarily due to the great distances travelled which, even at the
speed of light (about 300,000 km/second or 186,000 miles per second), can
be significant. Even if all other signalling delays could be eliminated it still
takes electromagnetic radio waves about 500 milliseconds, or half a second,
to travel from ground level to the satellite and back to the ground, a total of
over 71,400 km (44,366 mi) to travel from the source to the destination, and
over 143,000 km (88,856 mi) for a round trip (user to ISP, and then back to
user—with zero network delays). Factoring in other normal delays from
network sources gives a typical one-way connection latency of 500–700 ms
from the user to the ISP, or about 1,000–1,400 milliseconds latency for the
total Round Trip Time (RTT) back to the user. This is far worse than most
dial-up modem users' experience, at typically only 150–200 ms total latency.

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites however do
not have such great delays. The current LEO constellations of Global star and
Iridium satellites have delays of less than 40 ms round trip, but their
throughput is less than broadband at 64 kbps per channel. The Global star
constellation orbits 1,420 km above the earth and Iridium orbits at 670 km
altitude. The proposed O3b Networks MEO constellation scheduled for

deployment in 2010 would orbit at 8,062 km, with RTT latency of
approximately 125 ms. The proposed new network is also designed for much
higher throughput with links well in excess of 1 Gbps (Giga bits per second).

Most satellite Internet providers also have a FAP (Fair Access Policy). Perhaps
one of the largest disadvantages of satellite Internet, these FAPs usually
throttle a user's throughput to dial-up data rates after a certain "invisible
wall" is hit (usually around 200 MB a day). This FAP usually lasts for 24 hours
after the wall is hit, and a user's throughput is restored to whatever tier they
paid for. This makes bandwidth-intensive activities nearly impossible to
complete in a reasonable amount of time (examples include P2P and
newsgroup binary downloading).

The European ASTRA2Connect system has a FAP based on a monthly limit of

2Gbyte of data downloaded, with download data rates reduced for the
remainder of the month if the limit is exceeded. Other Satellite Internet
offers have advanced FAP mechanisms based on sliding time windows. It is
the case for instance for the Too way service that verifies download quotas
during the last hours, days and weeks. The purpose is to allow temporary
excessive downloads when needed while saving volume for the end of the

• True global broadband Internet access availability
• Mobile connection to the Internet (with some providers)

• High latency compared to other broadband services, especially 2-way
satellite service
• Unreliable: drop-outs are common during travel, inclement weather,
and during sunspot activity
• The narrow-beam highly directional antenna must be accurately
pointed to the satellite orbiting overhead
• The Fair Access Policy limits heavy usage, if applied by the service
• VPN use is discouraged, problematic, and/or restricted with satellite
broadband, although available at a price

Cellular broadband
Cellular phone towers are very widespread, and as cellular networks move to
third generation (3G) networks they can support fast data; using
technologies such as EVDO, HSDPA and UMTS.

These can give broadband access to the Internet, with a cell phone, with
Card bus, Express Card, or USB cellular modems, or with cellular broadband
routers, which allow more than one computer to be connected to the Internet
using one cellular connection.

Power-line Internet
This is a new service still in its infancy that may eventually permit broadband
Internet data to travel down standard high-voltage power lines. However, the
system has a number of complex issues, the primary one being that power
lines are inherently a very noisy environment. Every time a device turns on
or off, it introduces a pop or click into the line. Energy-saving devices often
introduce noisy harmonics into the line. The system must be designed to
deal with these natural signaling disruptions and work around them.

Broadband over power lines (BPL), also known as Power line communication,
has developed faster in Europe than in the US due to a historical difference
in power system design philosophies. Nearly all large power grids transmit
power at high voltages in order to reduce transmission losses, then near the
customer use step-down transformers to reduce the voltage. Since BPL
signals cannot readily pass through transformers, repeaters must be
attached to the transformers. In the US, it is common for a small transformer
hung from a utility pole to service a single house. In Europe, it is more
common for a somewhat larger transformer to service 10 or 100 houses. For
delivering power to customers, this difference in design makes little
difference, but it means delivering BPL over the power grid of a typical US
city will require an order of magnitude more repeaters than would be
required in a comparable European city.

The second major issue is signal strength and operating frequency. The
system is expected to use frequencies in the 10 to 30 MHz range, which has
been used for decades by licensed amateur radio operators, as well as
international shortwave broadcasters and a variety of communications
systems (military, aeronautical, etc.). Power lines are unshielded and will act
as transmitters for the signals they carry, and have the potential to

completely wipe out the usefulness of the 10 to 30 MHz range for shortwave
communications purposes, as well as compromising the security of its users.

Wireless ISP
This typically employs the current low-cost 802.11 Wi-Fi radio systems to link
up remote locations over great distances, but can use other higher-power
radio communications systems as well.

Traditional 802.11b was licensed for omni directional service spanning only
100-150 meters (300–500 ft). By focusing the signal down to a narrow beam
with a Yagi antenna it can instead operate reliably over a distance of many
miles, although the technology's line-of-sight requirements hamper
connectivity in areas with hilly and heavily foliated terrain. In addition,
compared to hard-wired connectivity, there are security risks (unless robust
security protocols are enabled); speeds are significantly slower (2 – 50 times
slower); and the network can be less stable, due to interference from other
wireless devices and networks, weather and line-of-sight problems. Rural
Wireless-ISP installations are typically not commercial in nature and are
instead a patchwork of systems built up by hobbyists mounting antennas on
radio masts and towers, agricultural storage silos, very tall trees, or
whatever other tall objects are available. There are currently a number of
companies that provide this service. A wireles Internet access provider s
map for USA is publicly available for WISPS.

World Space
World Space is a digital satellite radio network based in Washington DC. It
covers most of Asia and Europe plus all of Africa by satellite. Beside the
digital audio, users can receive one way broadband digital data transmission
(150 Kilobit/second) from the satellite.

• Low cost (US$ 100) receiver that combines a digital radio receiver and
a data receiver. This technology can be used for transmitting
websites / files from Internet.
• Access from remote places in Asia and Africa.

• One way data transmission.

• Privacy/security.

Broadband worldwide
To promote economic development and reduction of the digital divide,
national broadband plans from around the world promote the universal
availability of affordable broadband connectivity.

Broadband technologies
• Back-channel, a low bandwidth, or less-than-optimal, transmission
channel in the opposite direction to the main channel
• Base band
• Fiber-optic communication
• List of device bandwidths
• Local loop
• Narrowband
• Public switched telephone network (PSTN)
• Residential gateway

Broadband implementations and standards

• Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), digital data transmission over the wires
used in the local loop of a telephone network
• Local Multipoint Distribution Service, broadband wireless access
technology that uses microwave signals operating between the 26 GHz
and 29 GHz bands
• WiMAX, a standards-based wireless technology that provides high-
throughput broadband connections over long distances
• Other wireless technologies, including IEEE standards (802.11b,
802.11g, and 802.11a) and many proprietary wireless protocols. In
2008, with WiMAX still at the top of the learning curve in terms of
price, these technologies dominate the market for fixed wireless
• Power line communication, wireline technology using the current
electricity networks
• Satellite Internet access
• Cable modem, designed to modulate a data signal over cable
television infrastructure
• Fiber to the premises, based on fiber-optic cables and associated
optical electronics

• High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA), a new mobile telephony protocol,
sometimes referred to as a 3.5G technology
• Evolution-Data Optimized (EVDO), is a wireless radio broadband data
standard adopted by many CDMA mobile phone service providers

Future broadband implementations

• Bonded DSL Rings a ring topology at the remote end that enables
400Mb/s over existing DSL
• White Spaces Coalition a group of technology companies aiming to
deliver broadband Internet access via unused analog television
• High-Speed Downlink Packet Access

Broadband applications
• Broadband telephone
• Broadband radio
• List of countries by broadband users

Wireless Broadband
Wireless Broadband is a fairly new technology that provides high-speed
wireless internet and data network access over a wide area.

The term broadband

According to the 802.16-2004 standard, broadband means 'having
instantaneous bandwidth greater than around 1 MHz and supporting data
rates greater than about 1.5 Mbit/s. This means that Wireless Broadband
features speeds roughly equivalent to wired broadband access, such as that
of ADSL or a cable modem.

The acronym "WiBB" is entering the vernacular as a contraction of "Wireless
Broadband", in much the same way as "WiFi" refers to 802.11 or similar
wireless networks.

Technology and speeds

Few Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISPs) provide download speeds of
over 100 Mbit/s; most broadband wireless access services are estimated to
have a range of 50 km (30 miles) from a tower. Technologies used include
LMDS and MMDS, as well as heavy use of the ISM bands and one particular
access technology is being standardized by IEEE 802.16, also known as
WiMAX. WiMAX is highly popular in Europe but has not met full acceptance
in the United States because cost of deployment does not meet return on
investment figures. In 2005 the Federal Communications Commission
adopted a Report and Order that revised the FCC’s rules to open the 3650
MHz band for terrestrial wireless broadband operations. On November 14,
2007 the Commission released Public Notice DA 07-4605 in which the
Wireless Telecommunications Bureau announced the start date for licensing
and registration process for the 3650-3700 MHz band.

Initially, WISPs were only found in rural areas not covered by cable or DSL.
These early WISPs would employ a high-capacity T-carrier, such as a T1 or
DS3 connection, and then broadcast the signal from a high elevation, such as
at the top of a water tower. To receive this type of Internet connection,
consumers mount a small dish to the roof of their home or office and point it
to the transmitter. Line of sight is usually necessary for WISPs operating in
the 2.4 and 5 GHz bands with 900 MHz offering better NLOS (non-line-of-
sight) performance.

Mobile wireless broadband

Also called Mobile Broadband, wireless broadband technologies include new
services from companies such as Verizon, Sprint, and AT&T Mobility, which
allow a more mobile version of this broadband access. Consumers can
purchase a PC card, laptop card, or USB equipment to connect their PC or
laptop to the Internet via cell phone towers. This type of connection would be
stable in almost any area that could also receive a strong cell phone
connection. These connections can cost more for portable convenience as
well as having speed limitations in all but urban environments.

A wireless connection can be either licensed or unlicensed. In the US,
licensed connections use a private spectrum the user has secured rights to
from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In other countries,
spectrum is licensed from the country's national radio communications
authority (such as the ACMA in Australia or Nigerian Communications
Commission in Nigeria). Licensing is usually expensive and often reserved for
large companies who wish to guarantee private access to spectrum for use in

point to point communication. Because of this, most wireless ISP's use
unlicensed spectrum which is publicly shared.


Tikona was started in the year2008 and it starts providing the services
from the financial year of March 2009 with Mumbai as Head quarters.

Tikona is the first company to provide to provide wireless internet services

WI-BRO through a router at a free of cost .we have been helping the
people to build a financial freedom for nearly 3 years . Tikona is one of the
emerging and fast growing private company .Tikona offers its customers a
wide array of value added services with good packages at cheaper cost.
Company is providing the services in four zones Chennai
Mumbai, Hyderabad and Vijayawada and it is going to expand its base to
other areas like Guntur, Visakhapatnam, Nellore.

Tikona crossed 40,000 customers in the first 10 months as it started

services from financial year 2009 and team from Mumbai has completed
1800 plus connections in a month by undertaking private operators like
Mtnl and others .This shows the trust and belief towards the company.
At the present tikona is having the customer base of around 12000. Tikona
client base comprises of corporate offices, commercial complexes
Individuals and other groups of people.

Tikona is the wireless Broadband service which is capable of providing

2mbps speed .And it solves the common problems faced by internet
users that are using cable which yields good benefits to the customers.
Tikona leaders have started or managed in biggest mobile. Class A Internet
service provider (ISP) is provided for Tikona.

Tikona is the first company to use the latest technologies like WAP2
,MIMO,OFDM provide good reliable and accurate services to the customer
at the door step and it provides the features of parental control ,
selfcareportal, antispyware and free antivirus with daily Automatic updates
. Installation service will be provided with in 24 hours of customers
acceptance .It provides special Bandwidth to the corporate offices such
that no other persons cannot use that line .

Tikona provides special packages to bulk of customers from the apartments

and to the corporate offices. There will be minimum guaranteed bill at the
end of each plan.
There is a special technical desk to solve the problems of the customer.
Rapid action advanced customer support.



Our Wireless Broadband to Home (BTH) service ensures delivery of

Broadband to the customers without the risk of digging through the

Homes are getting richer with newer devices and wireless appliances
that connect to the internet - High end phones, PCs, laptops, printers,
digital photo frames, surveillance cameras, media centers etc. Our
customers shall find convenience of using these devices wirelessly in
their homes with our all home wireless solution. The all home wireless
solution promises to simplify the complex task of networking of these
devices without spoiling the interiors.

Customers can be rest assured of the wireless security, thanks to WPA2

and 802.1x security features of Tikona Wireless Broadband service. We
also offer a complimentary licensed anti-virus package with our service
that protects data on customer PC from spyware, viruses and any


Tikona Digital Networks is building an all IP wireless network using 4th

Generation technologies such as OFDM and MIMO in more than 100
towns across India. This network has at its core next generation IT and
internet applicationscapabilityframework.

We believe that this capability foundation shall allow enterprise

customers to explore newer ways of getting internet to their offices and
also to build corporate networks using some path breaking innovative
concepts. Cloud networking is one such concept in which enterprises
can seamlessly connect their branches, extended enterprise network -
comprising dealers, distributors, retail points of sale, employees working
from home to their corporate applications.

These arrangements, interestingly, can co-exist with present leased

VPNs, offering complete investment protection and wired network like

security. In fact they complement the present infrastructure of
enterprises and create an additional layer of redundancy and
robustness in the system, besides simplifying the network management
and expansion challenges.


Customer First

Our core business strategy is guided by customer value, customer sensitivity

and customer convenience.

Respect for Talent

We will create and maintain a transparent and respectful work environment

that helps in attracting, retaining and nurturing the best talent. We
encourage an open work culture that is conducive to making work joyful.

Win -Win for all

We work for the success of our customers, investors, employees and our
ecosystem partners. We believe in empowering, motivating, appreciating
and inculcating a sense of ownership among the members of Tikona eco-


We are accountable to all our stakeholders, regulators, government and

customers and believe in adopting a culture of ethical business practices,
transparency and highest standards of corporate governance.


Founded 2008
Started operations FY2009-10
Headquarters Mumbai, India
World Wide Web
Managing director Prakash bajpayi

Employees 2000
Financial Advisors 15
Bank assurance tie ups 3(ICICI/AXIS/HDFC)
Number of products 1
Presence Through Tikona 75 0ffices in 4cities

Prakash Bajpai
Prakash Bajpai has a rich 31 years of experience in IT and Telecom Industry.
He has been instrumental in building and leading organizations and business
effectively and effeciently with revenue of more than two billion dollars

An engineering graduate from Delhi University, Prakash started his career

with IBM as an electronics engineer. He then moved to Phillips, where he was
involved in the launch of color TV transmission in India. He was one of the
first few employees of Tata Telecom. His experience cuts across geographies
as he worked with AT&T Network Systems in the US. Post returning to India,
he spearheaded the Marketing, Sales & Network Planning activities at Tata
Lucent Technologies. He then joined Hughes Telecom as President & CEO
where he pioneered India's first Integrated Broadband Network in
Maharashtra & Goa. He also led Hughes Telecom to launch India's first IPO
(US$ 225 m) in the telecom sector. Prior to launching Tikona, Prakash was
the President and CEO at Reliance Communications, where he was
responsible for the Broadband, Enterprise, Data Center, PCO and DTH
businesses of the company.

Prakash has also attained graduation from a number of in-house

Management Programs conducted by the AT&T School of Business
Management including mini-MBA in Financial Management.

Tarun Kumar
Tarun has over 19 years of industry experience spanning in IT, broadband
and digital broadcast technologies. He has successfully deployed and
managed operations of many technology intensive projects including

enterprise and retail broadband BSS, cutting edge Interactive IPTV over
metro Ethernet network, service delivery platforms for New-age products
and broadband radio access networks and devices for the purpose of better
usage and utility.

Tarun is an electronics and communication engineer with M Tech (Integrated

Electronics) from Indian Institute of Technology (1990 batch).

Heramb Ranade
Heramb has nearly 21 years of experience in the telecommunications
industry spanning enterprise, carrier infrastructure, telecom operator and
broadband service. Prior to joining TDN, Heramb was leading the product
innovation and lifecycle management function for the enterprise and
broadband businesses of two Pan-India telecom operators. He has a diverse
functional experience covering sales, biz development, marketing, human
resource, product management, innovation, service creation and customer
experience processes.

He has held senior leadership positions in his previous assignments at

Reliance Communications, Hughes Telecom (now Tata Teleservices), Tata
Lucent Technologies (now Alcatel Lucent) and Tata Telecom (now Avaya) and
has made significant contributions in building new capabilities and business
units from scratch in most of his past assignments. He has a wide exposure
to a number of technologies connected with Broadband and application
services space. Heramb has a Bachelors degree in Electronics Engineering.

Rakesh Khurmi
Rakesh holds a Masters Degree in Business Administration (MBA) from
Punjab University and Cost Accountant from Institute of Cost & Works
Accountants of India (ICWAI). He has 17 years of experience of which 15
years have been in the telecom industry. He has worked with various
organizations - Bharti Airtel Limited, Reliance Communications Limited, Spice
Communications, Hutchison Max Telecom, Vodafone essar limited and Nestle
India limited.

Rakesh has exposure of working in various telecom verticals - Mobile, Fixed
Line, Paging, ISP Broadband, and Long distance businesses, in the areas of
financial reporting, Business Planning, Project Finance, Revenue Assurance
and Risk and Compliance management.

M Nagaraju
Head of south zone
Mr.Nagaraju holds a Masters Degree in Business Administration (MBA) from
Nagarjuna University and he has a experience of over 18 yrs in telecom
industry. He worked in reliance for 15 yrs and in 2008 march he joined in
tikona and contributing his valuable services and extending a helping hand
to develop tikona to a national level. He is helping the members of tikona
with his innovative ideas and creative thoughts and he has an exposure of
working in various telecom verticals - Mobile, Fixed Line, Paging, ISP
Broadband, and Long distance businesses.

Chandrakanth Mekala
Zonal manager of south zone
Mr.Chandrakanth Mekala holds his B.Com degree from a university in
Gujarat. He worked in reliance for 12 yrs in various telecom verticals -
Mobile, Fixed Line, Paging, ISP Broadband, and Long distance businesses. He
joined in tikona in 2008 may as an sales executive and within a short span of
time he held a position as zonal manager in tikona .This valuable position
was achieved with help of hard work and innovative thinking .At present he
stands in 1st position among all the zonal managers.

Our vision is to be a leading Broadband and IT services company, offering
innovative products and solutions to home, enterprise and other customers

in India and globally. We believe that our next generation services will
change the way India lives, transacts, and communicates and we believe
that we can make a significant contribution towards a powerful Broadband
enabled India.

TDN mission is to raise the benchmarks of customer experience in the
country for all times to come. TDN will endeavor to deliver enhanced
customer experience through innovation, by use of cutting edge technology
and by extensive knowledge dissemination to members of its customer
support teams.
Tikona plans:
2 Mbps Fixed Monthly Charge Plans - Value For Money:

Details FMC599 FMC799 FMC1499 FMC2499

Monthly Plan Charges (Rs.) 599 799 1499 2499
Installation Charges (RS.) 500 500 500 500
Free Usage With 2 Mbps 4,000 8,000 15,000 50,000
Speed Beyond Free 64 64 128 256
Charges During Reduced Nil Nil Nil Nil

Fun Unlimited Plans—Complimentary bonus bandwidth:

Details FUL FUL 799 FUL 1399 FUL 499
Monthly Plan Charges (Rs.) 599 799 1399 499
Installation Charges(Rs.) 500 500 500 500
Download Speed 300kbps 600kbp 1mbps 150kbps
Bonus Bandwidth of 2 200 400 500 100
BROADBAND PLANS High speed internet

2Mbps Circuit Breaker Plans—

Details CB49 CB299

Monthly Plan Charges (Rs.) 49 299
Installation Charges (Rs.) 500 500

Modem Rental (Rs. / month) 50 0
Free usage (MBs) 100 1000
Charges Beyond Free Usage (Rs./MB) 0.8 1
Circuit Breaker Deposit – One Time(Rs.) 0 300
Guaranteed Maximum Bill Amount(Rs.) 999 599
Speed Beyond Maximum Bill 64 64
Charges During Reduced Speed (Rs.) Nil Nil

It is important for a customer to understand that what is the
importance of the internet usage and the benefits those are drawn through
it. Therefore it is vital for a customer to know about the different internet
service providers who are giving the best packages at economic rate. Tikona
digital networks are one of the fast growing WI-FI services emerging in the
market. The customers are the most important key players to make Tikona a
successful company in the internet sector. Customers of Tikona digital
networks segmented based on different groups


There are many customers who live in the independent houses and are
also playing a major role making Tikona a success. Tikona is providing
special packages for the individual users like circuit breaker and etc….


Company is providing special line and bandwidth with a very high speed
such that no other customers cannot use that bandwidth because low
speed and a minute breakdown can incurr heavy loss for the company .To
avoid that company is providing special bandwidth.


company is targeting particularly this segment because there are many

commercial complexes .special linkages will be provided if a company has
several branches its main branch will be linked with all the branches
through a provision of special linkages.


company also considers all the other groups like schools
,colleges ,hostels ,animation offices ,charitable trusts and other areas with
good and affordable packages and rates will be minimum when
customers are more in number .Free installation will be provided in such


BSNL is the name given to the company that provides high-speed internet
connection with fast bandwidth. It is a quick connection, typically “always-
on” and capable of transmitting data at a much faster rate than a standard
dialup modem connection. BSNL is available in many areas.

• BSNL Broadband will not tie up your phone line, allowing you to use the
internet and telephone simultaneously. BSNL Broadband can be
provided from a dedicated line such as Cable or ISDN, or over the top
of our phone line such as ADSL. Low-band Internet access is typically
running up to 56kbps using a dial-up modem. Mid-band Internet is a
phrase given to dialup that operates at 64kbps or 28kbps. Broadband
starts at 512kbps (approximately ten times faster than typical dialup)
and is also typically available at 1mbps, 1.5mbps and 2.2mbps. Some
companies offer broadband at 4mbps and 8mbps. The maximum
possible for example is around 26mbps and 24mbps for ADSL although
these speeds are not sold commercially due to the high cost required
to upgrade telephone lines to be able to transmit at this speed.


BSNL has also launched a number of BSNL Prepaid Broadband Limited Plans.
These are in addition to the BSNL Prepaid Broadband Unlimited Plans,

It must however be noted that before opting for any of the various Prepaid
unlimited plans, a BSNL Prepaid Broadband Account must be created.

All the BSNL Prepaid Broadband Plans are available only for BSNL landline
users (now). The following are the various BSNL Prepaid Broadband Limited

BSNL Prepaid Broadband Unlimited Plans (Vouchers) has been released by

BSNL BBService (BSNL Broadband Service). It must however be noted that
before opting for any of the various Prepaid unlimited plans, a BSNL Prepaid
Broadband Account must be created.

BSNL Prepaid Broadband Limited Plans:

Rate Grace
Service Usage Per Period
Sl. Voucher MRP Administrative Validity Period ( in
Tax @ Amount MB ( in
No. Type (Rs.) Charge (Rs.) (Days) Days)
10.30% (Rs.) (in Days)
Rs.) *GP-I
`1 50 4.67 15 30.33 0.6 7 15 75
2 100 9.34 20 70.66 0.6 15 15 75
3 250 23.35 25 201.65 0.6 30 15 75
4 500 46.69 50 403.31 0.6 45 15 75
5 750 70.04 0 679.96 0.4 60 15 75
6 1200 112.06 0 1087.94 0.4 75 15 75
7 1600 149.41 0 1450.59 0.4 90 15 75
8 2000 186.76 0 1813.24 0.4 120 15 75
9 5000 466.91 0 4533.09 0.3 210 15 75

• The above BSNL Limited Plans are available with speed upto 2 Mbps,
with limited download.

• For limited Plans, balance usage value if any available will be carried
forward, in case of recharge within the Grace Period *GP-I (i.e. 15

days). Beyond 15 days (*GP-I), balance usage value if any available will
not be carried forward, but the customer can recharge his account
upto another 75 days (**GP-II). After expiry of the additional grace
period of 75 days (**GP-II), the account of the customer shall be
deleted from the system .

Reliance Broadband prepaid plans have a wide range of choices including

Online Speed Select Plan (pay per minute), Data transfer Plan (pay per MB),
Flat Fee — unlimited use Plan and Combo Plan with affordable cost.

Reloaince Pepaid Online Speed Select Plan offers Up to 50 percent discount

during night, a free e-mail ID with 10 MB storage space and the service is
billed on per minute basis.

Reliance Broadband Prepaid Flat fee Plans:

Download speed * Day usage charges (Rs. / hr)
75 Kbps # 13
150 Kbps # 25
300 Kbps 40
• The prepaid account will be deducted on a daily basis irrespective of
the usage
• Installation charges Rs.500 extra. All taxes including service tax, extra
as applicable
• * Speeds indicated are only upto our ISP Node and are given on best
effort basis as per TRAI guidelines.
• # This plan is not a broadband plan as per TRAI

Reliance Broadband Prepaid Combo Plan:

The following are the features of the Reliance Broadband Prepaid Combo

• Attractive plans combining Reliance Broadnet and Reliance Landline
for as low as Rs.333.
• Combo Plan options
o Reliance Landline Phone + Online Speed Select plan of Reliance
o Reliance Landline Phone + Data transfer plan of Reliance
• To avail this plan you will have to load two Startup vouchers of Rs.500
for the Reliance Landline and Reliance Broadnet service respectively.
The Startup Voucher for Reliance Landline gives you free usage worth
Rs.500 on loading, so effectively you pay zero installation charges for
the Reliance Landline service.
• Freedom from separate monthly charges. Single re-fill voucher for
Reliance Broadnet and Reliance Landline. Use either or both of the
above services in any combination.
• What’s more as a prepaid customer you become a member of Reliance
Landline- Free Call Club. You can talk for free to other members within
your club (customers serviced by your Reliance Channel Partner /
Franchisee.). Please check for the latest RL-FCC member’s phone
directory with your Reliance Channel Partner / Franchisee.
• Attractive call rates on Reliance Landline.

Reliance Broadband Unlimited Plans:

Reliance Broadband Unlimited Plans are available at 1 and 2 Mbps as Flat
Fee Plans. These plans let you enjoy 24 hours unlimited internet access for a
fixed monthly charge. Reliance Broadband Unlimited Plans are available at a
wide range of speed and payment options.

Reliance Broadband Unlimited Plans (Flat Fee BIA

Plan Speed * Quarterly Rental (Advance) (Rs)
Rental (Rs)
75 Kbps# 400 1200
150 Kbps# 750 2250
300 Kbps 799 2395
400 Kbps 999 NA
600 Kbps 1399 NA
1 Mbps 2199 6595
2 Mbps 4999 14999

One can subscribe to the half yearly Reliance Broadband unlimited plan and
pay for only 5 months, thereby getting 1 months subscription free of cost.

Half Yearly Flat Fee Reliance BIA Plans:

Monthly rental Half yearly New offer You save
Plan *
(Rs) rental (Rs) (advance)(Rs) (Rs)
2199 13194 10995 2199
4999 29994 24995 4999

You can also subscribe to Reliance Broadband Internet Access yearly

payment plan and pay for only 10 months and get 2 months’ subscription
free of cost.

Annual Flat Fee Reliance BIA Plans:

Monthly rental Yearly rental New offer You save
(Rs) (Rs) (advance)(Rs) (Rs)
400 Rs 4800 4000 800
1Mbps 2199 26388 21990 4398
2 Mbps 4999 59988 49990 9998

Reliance Broadband wireless internet

Reliance Broadband wireless internet services called Reliance Netconnect
are available as both postpaid and prepaid plans. These plans provide
Wireless internet connectivity for laptops and desktops with download
speeds up to 3.1 Mbps and upload speeds up to 1.8 Mbps and good browsing

Reliance Broadband wireless internet services are simple plug and play
services with Connectivity across 25,000 towns and 5 lakhs villages, as well
as along major highways, railway routes, airport lounges and remote
locations in India. Nationwide coverage will ensure Reliance Netconnect

Broadband+ coverage in 36 major cities and seamless integration with High
Speed 1x for National coverage.

Reliance Broadband Wireless Internet Prepaid

Pack Price Validity
Broadband+ 300MB Pack Rs. 250/- 30 Days
Broadband+ 700MB Pack Rs. 500/- 30 Days
Broadband+ 1GB Pack Rs. 715/- 30 Days
Broadband+ 3GB Pack Rs. 935/- 30 Days
Broadband+ 5GB Pack Rs. 1,210/- 30 Days
Broadband+ 10GB Pack Rs. 1,379/- 30 Days
Broadband+ 15GB Pack Rs. 1,925/- 30 Days

• *Additional usage @Rs.1per MB .Pay Rs. 3500/- to get a Reliance

Netconnect Broadband+ USB Modem and get
• FREE data usage of 10 GB valid for a period of 30 days.
• Life time Validity

Reliance Broadband Postpaid Plans:

Free Usage
Free Usage Rental in
Monthly Bundled/Month – Extra
Tariff Plan Bundled/Month – Roaming Money back
Rental Anytime/Day Usage
Night Usage offer (for 12
Broadband+ Rs. 1 /
Rs. 299/- Nil Nil Nationwide* Rs. 299/-
Pay as you go MB
Broadband+ 50
Rs. 499/- 512 MB Nil Nationwide Rs. 499/-
512 MB p/MB
10GB @ Rs. 499/- Nil 10 GB Nationwide Rs. 499/-

Free Usage
Free Usage Rental in
Monthly Bundled/Month – Extra
Tariff Plan Bundled/Month – Roaming Money back
Rental Anytime/Day Usage
Night Usage offer (for 12
Broadband+ 1 50
Rs. 650/- 1 GB Nil Nationwide Rs. 650/-
Broadband+ 2 50
Rs. 750/- 2 GB Nil Nationwide Rs. 750/-
Broadband+ 3 50
Rs. 850/- 3 GB Nil Nationwide Rs. 850/-
Broadband+ 1
GB day, 10 Rs. 849/- 1 GB 10 GB Nationwide Rs. 849/-
GB Night
Broadband+ 2
GB day, 10 Rs. 949/- 2 GB 10 GB Nationwide Rs. 949/-
GB Night
Broadband+ 3
Rs. 50
GB day, 10 3 GB 10 GB Nationwide Rs. 849/-
1049/- p/MB
GB Night
Broadband+ 5 Rs. 50
5 GB Nil Nationwide Rs. 899/-
GB 1099/- p/MB
Broadband+ Rs. 50
10 GB Nil Citywide Rs. 899/-
10 GB City 1099/- p/MB
Broadband+ 5
Rs. 50
GB day, 10 5 GB 10 GB Nationwide Rs. 1098/-
1298/- p/MB
GB Night
Rs. 50
10 GB day, 10 10 GB 10 GB Citywide Rs. 1098/-
1298/- p/MB
GB Night City
Broadband+ Rs. 50
10 GB Nil Nationwide Rs. 1050/-
10 GB 1250/- p/MB
Rs. 50
10 GB day, 10 10 GB 10 GB Nationwide Rs. 1249/-
1449/- p/MB
GB Night
Broadband+ Rs. 50
15 GB Nil Nationwide Rs. 1550/-
15 GB 1750/- p/MB

Just pay Rs. 3500/- and get a Reliance Netconnect Broadband+ USB Modem.
Choose any plan of your choice and get Monthly discount of Rs. 200/- for 12
months (worth Rs. 2400/-) on any monthly rental plan above Rs. 1000/- Day
usage – 6 AM to 10 PM ; Night Usage – 10 PM – 6 AM

• Day/night classification of a particular session will be done on basis of
session start time i.e. If the session starts in Peak time/Day Usage (6
AM to 10 PM), it would be classified as a day session and if the session
starts in Off-peak time/Night Usage (between 10 PM to 6 AM), it would
be classified as night session.

Sify's Broadband Service offers a high-speed, high quality, low cost and easy
to use Internet connection for homes, empowering consumers to explore the
true potential of the Internet.

Sify Broadband as a service is not just ahead of any other service, but is
flexible and scalable to keep pace with increasing Internet needs

Sify Broadband enables:

• High Speeds
• Flexible Products
• No telephone

It therefore does not require a modem, does not block the telephone
line, nor run up telephone call charges. This is because Sify Broadband runs
on a Hybrid Technology that includes an Ethernet Network and Wireless
Network for the last mile to a building

Point of Presence representing a node of Sify's backbone network-India's
largest and most sophisticated today

This unique, cost effective and high quality service is currently available in
108 cities in India covering almost all the states making us one of the leading
broadband Internt service providers in the country.This is a service designed
specially for discerning home users for information, entertainment or



Do More ...... Unlimited
Unlimited Packs
MRP for 30
Data Transfer
Plan Speed days Rs.
1 192 kbps Unlimited Rs. 499
2 256 kbps Unlimited Rs. 749
3 384 kbps Unlimited Rs. 999
Do More ...... Unlimited at Double speed at Night
Double speed @ Night Packs
Download Speed MRP for 30
Data Transfer
Plan Day Night days Rs.
1 256 kbps 384 Kbps Unlimited Rs. 899
2 384 Kbps 512 Kbps Unlimited Rs. 1175
1. Benefits of Double speeds at night, from 10 pm to 8 am.
2. Installation charges & refundable security deposit as applicable.

Do More ...... Unlimited Night After Night

Night Unlimited Packs
Data Transfer Limit MRP for 30
Plan Speed Day Night days Rs.
1 256 kbps 500 MB* Unlimited Rs. 489
2 256 kbps 3 GB* Unlimited Rs. 650
3 512 kbps No day access Unlimited Rs. 575
1. *500 MB & *3 GB Monthly usage is applicable for day time (8 am
to 10 pm) only. On consumption renewal is required to enjoy
unlimited feature.
2. Night unlimited benefits starts from 10 pm to 8 am.
4. Installation charges & refundable security deposit as applicable.

Do More ...... Pay Less

Data Transfer Packs
MRP for 30
Data Transfer
Plan Speed days Rs.

1 256 kbps 3 GB Rs. 349
Installation charges & refundable security deposit as applicable.

Do More & Save More

Multi month Unlimited Packs
MRP in Rs.(
Plan Speed
90 Days 180 Days 360 Days
1 192 Kbps Rs 1275 Rs. 2495 Rs. 4490
2 256 Kbps Day / 384 Kbps Night Rs. 2290 Rs. 4499 Rs. 7999
3 384 Kbps Day / 512 Kbps Night Rs. 2990 Rs. 5875
Multi month Data Transfer Packs
Data Transfer
Plan Speed Validity MRP
1 256 kbps 1.2 GB 90 Days Rs. 795
2 256 kbps 3.6 GB 180 Days Rs. 1550
3 256 kbps 7.2 GB 360 Days Rs. 2790
1. Benefits of Double speeds at night , from 10 pm to 8 am.
2. Installation charges & refundable security deposit as applicable.

Hathway Broadband Tariff Plans:

Hathway Broadband Tariff Plans

It is often said that Hathway Broadband Internet is the first cable ISP in India
and they are trying to revolutionize the life of people across the web. The
high bandwidth is the advantage of the new Hathway Broadband Internet
that will bring you true broadband Internet experience through cables.
Hathway also provides through cable network on subscriber’s PC/Corporate
LAN using cable modem/router.

Hathway Broadband has this fantastic offer to offer unlimited download at

night and the offer comes at unbeatable price. You can choose this Hathway

Broadband plan and have a great night life plan. Whether you wish to get
Hathway Broadband for your home or business, the service provider has
some excellent plans to suit your needs. Hathway Broadband introduced
some wonderful plans to target those audiences who require internet at
specific hours like at Night only and at other time.

Hathway Broadband offers high speed surfing experience of 256 kbps to 512
kbps using the high bandwidth capability of cable. There is no dial up, any
disconnection or repeated logging hassles and you remain always
connected. You complete phone free internet service from Hathway
Broadband. The internet service offered by Hathway Broadband is very much
secure and brings you secure and stable internet service as well. It is based
on DOCSIS that is Data over Cable Services Interface Specifications protocol
that tries to offer some kind of security to dedicated line networks.

Given below are few Hathway Broadband Tariff Plans that suit various

Subscription Plans:
Brand Bandwidt Subscription Download Validity
Name h Upto Charges (Rs.) Limit (Month)


New Max 256 Kbps 3000 7 GB 12
y New
Regular 512 Kbps 600 1 GB 1
y New Quarterly 512 Kbps 1500 4 GB 3
y New Xtra 512 Kbps 3000 9 GB 6

Note :
Registration Charges – Rs 500/-
Modem Refundable deposit – Rs 1000/- . NA on half yearly & yearly plans
Taxes as applicable
Brand Regular/ Bandwidt Subscription Download Validity
Name Xtra h Upto Charges (Rs.) Limit (Month)


New Xtra 256 Kbps 1500 3 GB 6
Quarterly 256 Kbps 750 1.2 GB 3
Liteway –
Regular 256 Kbps 500 1.5 GB 1
Liteway –
Xtra 256 Kbps 3000 10.5 GB 6

Thruway Regular 64 Kbps 500 Unlimited 1

Thruway Xtra 64 Kbps 3000 Unlimited 6

Speed Download Annual Subscription Free
(Kbps) Limit (Rs) E mail
1 MB 1024 Unlimited 4,70,000 64
512 Unlimited 240000 32
256 Unlimited 120000 16
128 Unlimited 60, 000 8

Installation and registration charges Rs. 500/-
Modem refundable deposit Rs. 1000/- (Not Applicable on half yearly plans)
No Modem rental charges
Additional downloads @ 90 paisa per MB
Service tax as applicable. Currently @ 12.36%
Night Unlimited 11pm -9am
Brand Bandwidt Subscription Download Validity
Name h Upto Charges (Rs.) Limit (Month)
512 Blast Quartely 512 kbps 1500/- 3 GB 3 Months
512 Blast Xtra 512 kbps 3000/- 7 GB 6 months

512 Blast Max 512 kbps 6000/- 15 GB 12 months

Hathway Broadband Tariff Plans for Residential Segment:

Usage Subscription Download Validity

Charges (Rs.) Limit (Months)
- 1024
1 Mbps 1100 4GB 4

Unlimited Speed Subscription Download Validity

Plans (Kbps) Charges (Rs.) Limit (Months)
Freeway 2000 Unlimited 3 (Postpaid)
Flexi Kbps

Skyway 512
1600 Unlimited 1 (Postpaid)

Airtel broadband tariff Plans

Bharti Airtel is one leading telecom operator that offers excellent broadband
internet service. Few days back Airtel has reduced the Wireline Broadband
Tariff in different broadband plans by nearly 43 percent. For instance the
monthly rental for 1 Mbps speed wireless connection of Rs 2,999 has been
reduced to 1,699 and it also offers some free valued added services of

And for 512 Kpbs speed the charges have been reduced by 31 percent. Now
instead of Rs. 1,599 one has to pay Rs. 1,099 and both these plans offer
unlimited download capacity. The Airtel has also increased their broadband
bandwidth which enables faster data transfer and connectivity. And those
who used to get 4GB of download can now have 8GB of download.

Airtel Wireless Broadband Tariff Plans:

The following are the tariff plans available for Airtel Data Card:
Postpaid Standard Surf Unlimited
Plan I Plan II
Airtel Data Rs.49 Rs. 350 Rs. 599 Rs. 999
Card Rental
Free Bundled NIL 500 MB 1 GB Unlimited
Additional Data Re.0.10p/10 Rs. 5/- Rs. 3/- NA
Usage (per MB) KB
Free SMS per NA Nil 100 100
Voice Plan Additional Voice Rental Voice Voice Rental
Any Plan Inclusive* Rental Inclusive*

Bharti Airtel has also launched five new plans: Surf, Swift, Turbo, Freedom
and Velocity. All these plans are affordable plans from Airtel and the tariffs
have been considerably reduced to new plans.

Various Airtel Broadband Tariff Plans are given


New Residential Packages

Free E-mail
Bandwidt y Free Hrs
Package Traffic ID /
h Upto Charge (Day/Night)
Limit Space

2/5 MB
Turbo Daytime – 10 hrs
64 Kbps Rs. 249 Unlimited 1 / 5 MB
Starter Nighttime – 25 hrs
in Delhi

Speed Daytime – 10 hrs

256 Kbps Rs. 349 Unlimited 1 / 5 MB
Plus Nighttime – 25 hrs

Flexi –
256 Kbps Rs. 550 Rs. 450* Unlimited 1 / 5 MB

Daytime – 10 hrs
Economy Nighttime – 25 hrs
256 Kbps Rs. 550 Unlimited 1 / 5 MB
Combo and 100 free
voice pulses

Airtel continuously innovate their broadband tariff charges and for that
very reason there is constantly low entry points and they take the lead in
increasing penetration of broadband in country. For that reason there may
be possibility that you may get better plans down the line of few months.
Keep on tracking the Airtel broadband tariff plans in their website from time
to time to get the best deal. They offer those plans to existing customers as

Tata Teleservices has announced its new High Speed Internet Access (HSIA)
wireless solution called Photon Plus. Finally, High speed mobile broadband
services are arrived in India. Nowadays, Tata indicom provides Broadband
services to the people who are interested in using internet. Broad service
includes connectivity, uninterrupted surfing, and super fast downloads, etc.
Some of the current Tata Photon Whiz – Tariffs are given below. Here is
provided all the details regarding TATA Photon Tariff, Photon Plus, Photon
Whiz and Broadband tariff.

The headquarters of TATA Teleservices Limited is situated in the Mumbai city
of India. The chair person of Tata is Mr. Ratan Tata. It was established in
2000. Products such as wireless, telephone, internet, television, etc. are
provided by Tata services. Around 350,000 employees are working under
this company. Tata Teleservices was the first to launch CDMA mobile
services in India. There are 18,000 towers of Tata Indicom around the nation.
Tata Teleservices Limited (TTSL) offers services like mobile services, wireless
desktop phones, Broadband service, public booth telephony, wire line
services, enterprise solutions and so on.

Time/Data Based Plans:

Fixed Additional Usage

Plans Free Usage
Charges Charges
Budget 150 Rs.150/mth 300 Mins (5 Hrs) 50p/min
8 A.M.- 12Midnight:
1800 Mins (30 50p/min 12
Value 325 Rs.325/mth
Hrs) Midnight - 8 AM :
based Unlimited from 50p/min from 7 am
Night 400 Rs.400/mth
11pm to 7 am to 11 pm
8 A.M.- 12Midnight:
3600 Mins (60 50p/min 12
Value 525 Rs.525/mth
Hrs) Midnight - 8 AM :

Data ME
Rs.500/mth 1 GB Rs.2/MB
based Economy
ME Jumbo Rs.650/mth 1.5 GB Rs.2/MB
Unlimited data
Unlimited usage (Voice and
Data Plan Rs 799/mth -
Plan SMS charges are
as per the tariff)

Tata photon plus tariff:

Infinity Infinity Infinity
Infinity Infinity Infinity
Plan Name 384 512 1 Mbps
384 512 1 Mbps
Speed* 384 Kbps 384 Kbps 512 Kbps 512 Kbps 1 Mbps 1 Mbps
Free Usage
Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
Charges 1000 1200 1500 1700 2500 2700
Adv Rentals
Waiver of
4 Months 4 Months 4 Months 4 Months 2 Months 2 Months
Charges and

There are two types of environment that is:

1. Micro Environment
2. Macro Environment


• Good relationship between the Sales Executives, Team Leaders & Area
• All the level of employees is allowed to participate in decision making.
• High level of interaction between employees.
• FA’s are also allowed to be in contact with higher authorities.
• Recognition is not biased.


• It is one of the best professionalized companies.

• Company provides good benefits to the employees as well as to the
• The plans and packages that are offered by the company are very
good and beneficial to the customers.

Corporate Social Responsibility

We imbibe in high standards of social and civic responsibility, as we firmly
believe that we should contribute to the society in which we operate. We aim
at providing the community our technologies and solutions to support them
in their growth and development. TDN is deeply committed to the cause of
reducing the digital divide that exists in the country across geographies and
different socio-economic segments. In this regard, TDN plans to extend
Broadband and IT services at marginal costs to schools, healthcare institutes
and government or non-government establishments engaged in providing
services to masses that do not have access to such services.


Device Manufacturers
Device manufacturers have the opportunity to develop handsets that support
applications that optimize the usability of WAP applications by capitalizing on
new WAP 2.0 features, such as the ability to include color, multimedia
messaging, large-file downloading, improved navigational functions, and
user friendly menus.

Network Operators

Network operators will benefit from the ability to provide new services that
have increased appeal by exploiting the benefits of WAP 2.0. These new
services have the potential to increase user traffic,3 leading to increased
revenue and bringing operators the benefits of their investment in 2.5G and
3G network

The Technical Evolution and Benefits of WAP 2.0

As WAP continues convergence with Internet specifications, WAP 2.0 builds
upon the latest Internet standards: XHTML, TCP/IP, HyperText Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1), and Transport Layer Security (TLS).

Utilizing standards developed by the W3C, WAP adopts XHTML and CSS
Mobile Profile as part of WML 2.0 (while maintaining backwards compatibility
with WML 1.x), to reduce the time necessary to create and test applications
and manipulate content for various devices. At the protocol level WAP 2.0
adopts IETF specifications as follows: In the transport layer, WAP 2.0 features
TCP/IP for those networks capable of transporting data over IP. In the session
layer, WAP 2.0 adopts HTTP/1.1 as a protocol. WAP 2.0 adds further security
features, including the adoption of the TLS protocol, to provide improved
end-to-end security and integration with the wired Internet security to enable
secure use of mobile commerce, mobile banking applications, and service

New technologies of WAP 2.0 that will improve the user experience are Data
Synchronization, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), Persistent Storage

Provisioning and Pictograms. 4 Additionally, Wireless Telephony Application

(WTA), Push, and User Agent Profile (UAPROF) utilize more advanced
features in WAP 2.0 than in previous versions.

For Data Synchronization WAP 2.0 adopts the Sync protocol in order to
ensure a common solution framework with a multitude of devices. The Sync
messages are supported over both the Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) and
HTTP/1.1 protocols. MMS provides the framework to develop applications
that support feature-rich messaging solutions, permitting delivery of varied
types of content in order to tailor the user experience. The Persistent
Storage Interface provides a set of storage services that allow the user to
organize access, store and retrieve data on wireless devices. The new
Provisioning feature permits the network operator to manage the devices on
its network with a common set of tools. The Pictogram feature permits the
use of a set of tiny images, allowing users to quickly convey concepts in a
small amount of space while transcending traditional language boundaries.

Push technology allows trusted application servers to proactively send

personalized content to the end-user, such as a sales offer for a product a
person might be interested in buying, a new email notification, or a location-
dependent promotion. Push technology complements the traditional “pull”
model of the Internet where users request specific information from a Web
site. UAPROF enables application servers to send the appropriate content to

the user and to recognize the capabilities of devices, such as screen size and
color to maximize performance potential, bringing the user increased

WTA provides a range of advanced telephony services within the application

environment, enabling a host of call handling functions such as making and
answering calls, placing them on hold, and redirecting them even while
performing data-centric tasks. The availability of these services enables
operators to offer customers a unique user interface to control complex
network features, such as call forwarding options.

In radio, multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO, is the use of multiple
antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve communication
performance. It is one of several forms of smart antenna technology.

MIMO technology has attracted attention in wireless communications,

because it offers significant increases in data throughput and link range
without additional bandwidth or transmit power. It achieves this by higher
spectral efficiency (more bits per second per hertz of bandwidth) and link
reliability or diversity (reduced fading). Because of these properties, MIMO is
a current theme of international wireless research.

Wireless standards
In the commercial arena, Iospan Wireless Inc. developed the first
commercial system in 2001 that used MIMO-OFDMA technology. Iospan
technology supported both diversity coding and spatial multiplexing. In 2005,
Airgo Networks had developed a pre-11n version based on their patents on
MIMO. Following that in 2006, several companies have fielded a MIMO-OFDM
solution based on a pre-standard for IEEE 802.11n WiFi standard. Also in
2006, several companies have developed MIMO-OFDMA based solutions for
IEEE 802.16e WIMAX broadband mobile standard. All upcoming 4G systems
will also employ MIMO technology. Several research groups have
demonstrated over 1 Gbit/s prototypes.

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), essentially identical to
coded OFDM (COFDM) and discrete multi-tone modulation (DMT), is a
frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) scheme utilized as a digital multi-
carrier modulation method. A large number of closely-spaced orthogonal

sub-carriers are used to carry data. The data is divided into several parallel
data streams or channels, one for each sub-carrier. Each sub-carrier is
modulated with a conventional modulation scheme at a low symbol rate,
maintaining total data rates similar to conventional single-carrier modulation
schemes in the same bandwidth.

OFDM has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital

communication, whether wireless or over copper wires, used in
applications such as digital television and audio broadcasting, wireless
networking and broadband internet access.

The primary advantage of OFDM over single-carrier schemes is its ability to

cope with severe channel conditions without complex equalization filters.
Channel equalization is simplified because OFDM may be viewed as using
many slowly-modulated narrowband signals rather than one rapidly-
modulated wideband signal. The low symbol rate makes the use of a guard
interval between symbols affordable, making it possible to handle time-
spreading and eliminate inter symbol interference (ISI). This mechanism
also facilitates the design of single frequency networks (SFNs), where
several adjacent transmitters send the same signal simultaneously at the
same frequency, as the signals from multiple distant transmitters may be
combined constructively, rather than interfering as would typically occur in a
traditional single-carrier system.

• The wireless LAN (WLAN) radio interfaces IEEE 802.11a, g, n and
• The digital radio systems DAB/EUREKA 147, DAB+, Digital Radio
Mondale, HD Radio, T-DMB and ISDB-TSB.
• The terrestrial digital TV systems DVB-T and ISDB-T.
• The terrestrial mobile TV systems DVB-H, T-DMB, ISDB-T and MediaFLO
forward link.
• The cellular network's FLASH-OFDM.
• The mobile broadband 3GPP Long Term Evolution air interface named
High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA).
• The wireless MAN/fixed broadband wireless access (BWA) standard
IEEE 802.16 (or WiMAX).
• The mobile broadband wireless access (MBWA) standards IEEE 802.20,
IEEE 802.16e (Mobile WiMAX) and WiBro.
• The wireless personal area network (PAN) ultra-wideband (UWB) IEEE
802.15.3a implementation suggested by WiMedia Alliance.

In September 2009 the technology proposals have been submitted to ITU-R
as 4G candidates. Basically all proposals are based on two technologies:

• LTE Advanced standardized by the 3GPP

• 802.16m standardized by the IEEE

First set of 3GPP requirements on LTE Advanced has been approved in June
2008. LTE Advanced will be standardized in 2010 as part of the Release 10 of
the 3GPP specification. LTE Advanced will be fully built on the existing LTE
specification Release 10 and not be defined as a new specification series. A
summary of the technologies that have been studied as the basis for LTE
Advanced is summarized in a technical report.

Primary Building Network (PBN)

The Company’s main server will be placed at the top of the building to
provide signals to the customers that are using the service.

Secondary Building Network (SBN)

Maximum 6 or minimum 2 access points will be placed at the corner of

the terrace and with the help of the line of sight propagation signal will be
received from the main server.

Tertiary Building Network (TBN)

Only one access point will be placed at the corner of the terrace and
with the help of the line of sight propagation signal will be received from the
SBN. Each network point will be covered a minimum of 200 mts from the
places of access points.
It is imported from Canada with latest technology the main function of
the router is to receive the signals that are generated by the PBN.

Connection can be established in two ways one is for wire and other is
wireless. In the case of wireless connection can be given through the G-45
cable where in the wired the connection can be established through wire.

If the signal strength is received as two points by the router then the
connection can not be established and if the signal strength is received as
three points then connection can be established with help of wire which
we use nano technology and wire is drawn through the access point in
order to get the full signal strength. Signal strength and speed will be shown
to the customer with the help of demo.

• As CPE is provided by TIKONA additional WI-FI router is not required.
• 2X more coverage with latest 4th Generation OFDM, MIMO AND
• Latest WAP2 and 802.1 technology with security.
• Free basic antivirus provided with every connection
• Anti spy-ware to provide privacy.
• Daily automatic updates
• Supports Windows-XP/Vista/O7S
• Parental control and blocking sites that are inappropriate for the
children will be restricted of using them.
• Self care portal like view and pay bill, view usage and register
• It is for multipurpose usage (Minimum 3 systems including laptop can
be accessible at a time)

• There will be very less effect of radiation (3.04)
• Solves the common problems that are faced by the internet users who
use cables.
• There will be minimum guaranteed bill for all types of plans.
• Connection will not be suspended even after exceeding the usage limit
provided to the customers, their- speed will be reduced.


• Customer can register his complaint through online with in a minute of

• Customer can call Toll-free number and register his complaint.
• Customer can call upon Sales Executives and register their complaints.
• Technical Help-Desk to address technical problems instantly.


• Late entry into the Indian Market.

• There are no promotional activities.
• Poor technical service.
• Customers are not aware about the company.
• Mindset of the customers towards the private companies is not in a
satisfactory manner.
• Poor response towards the complaints of the customers.
• Bulk of complaints receiving everyday regarding technical services and
• Low signal strength.


• Increasing the customer awareness.

• Flexible packages to cover all groups of people.
• Customers are ready to accept a product which is private.
• Changes in the technical environment.


• Competitors.
• Limited to few areas.
• No coverage of 35% in Hyderabad.

Business Objectives :
• Eight sales per day as follows :
• Area manager -2, Team leader-1 & one BPM, Sales

NUMBER Target Assigned Per Advisor

Week-1 Commercial Area Manager, Team
Complexes ,Training Leader
Week-2 Data Collection, Area Manager, Team
Market survey Leader
Week-3 Data Collection, Area Manager, TEAM
Market survey Leader
Week-4 Data Collection, Area Manager, Team
Market survey Leader



A two day training program was conducted and mediated by M.SIRAJ

(Company trainer) at Tikona wi-bro services, Hyderabad. The training
sessions mainly dealt with preparing the trainees with product knowledge,
company exposure, trends of the market, expectation of the customer and
behavioral skills. The session were very interactive and information and
provided all round support. On the first day of the training we were informed
about the company profile, which included company market share in various
zones. Then we started with the product training.

We were trained on the product for two days and the product that was
explained clearly along with different plans, tariff, packages and benefits
that they are going to provide to the customers. It is also explained that how
to give a mock demo to the customers to close a sale and which type of plan
to be highlighted to the different groups of customer. The most important
part was that it was just not one side speech or class. We were also asked to
give presentation on what we have learned so far about the product. We
were divided into two teams and were provided with two team leaders for
the team. We were also motivated to do hard work and earn as much can we
do and how we can get recognition in the company as a whole.

It was a session that is going to help us in the Whole Internship

Program. We were also addressed by zonal manager Mr.chandrakanth and
zonal head Mr.Nagaraju. They also mentioned that they have some high
expectations from us and we were asked us to move freely and closely with
them. They explained about various techniques like spin and also explained
about their previous experiences, what are the ways to approach the
customers in a lucid manner which helped us a lot in the practical arena .we
were asked to grab as much as knowledge that we can from this internship
program in the company.

It can be concluded that all together the orientation in the company was
very motivated and also knowledge giving, which will surely help us not only
in this Internship program but also in the future life.