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in brief business woman
4 Amazon’s Tijuana Warehouse 45 Jacinda Ardern

5 Why Don’t Employers Advertise coaching


Salaries?

 oments
m 50 The Carrot and the Stick

in history
travel
6 The History of Amnesty 55 Malta
International
62 Europe’s Best Business
environment Locations

8 Wind Farms – An Ill Wind? managing people


66  ary Vaynerchuk – A Pure-bred
G
Entrepreneur

business language
70 Business Dialogues: Setting
Goals

at the end
72  Influential People
73  Book & Film Reviews

die beilage
international 75 Remote Working

12 Financial Mismanagement at
the Vatican

16 Brexodus
20 The Booker Prize
30 Parental Control – the Bizarre
Case of Britney Spears

36 Netflix and Thrill!

41 Amber – The Baltic’s Gold

cover story

25 New Race to the Moon


IN BRIEF

by Jonathan Sidor

Amazon’s Tijuana in order to cut costs6. Amazon, howev- to circumvent12 painful13 Trump-era tariffs14.
Warehouse er, denies7 this and claims that this facility8 The number of online orders in the United
only serves9 Mexican customers. Even if States (and worldwide) has skyrocketed15
Amazon found itself in hot water1 re- this is true, a number of e-commerce10 firms during the COVID-19 pandemic, so it
cently when it opened a warehouse2 in are opting to establish11 distribution cen- looks like every small player is jostling
a dilapidated3 part of Tijuana, Mexico. tres in Canada and Mexico, even though for16 a piece of the pie17. In Tijuana, Amazon
Observers assumed4 that the mega-com- most of their orders come from American is likely doing nothing more than trying to
pany had specifically chosen to set up the customers. Apparently, many of the com- establish a foothold18 in the lucrative Latin
fulfilment centre5 outside the United States panies doing this are Chinese firms trying American market. n

1
 in hot water ɪn hɒt ˈwɔːtə(r) in Schwierigkeiten 7
 to deny tə dɪˈnaɪ v
 erneinen, leugnen 13
 painful ˈpeɪnfl s chmerzhaft
2
 warehouse ˈweəhaʊs L
 agerhalle, Depot 8
 facility fəˈsɪləti E
 inrichtung, Anlage 14
 tariffs ˈtærɪfs Z
 ölle
3
 dilapidated dɪˈlæpɪdeɪtɪd b
 aufällig, schäbig 9
 to serve sb tə sɜːv ˈsʌmbədi jdm. dienen 15
 to skyrocket tə ˈskaɪrɒkɪt s prunghaft
4
 to assume sth tu əˈsjuːm ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. 10
 e-commerce iːˈkɒmɜːs I nternethandel, ansteigen
annehmen Onlinehandel 16
 to jostle for sth tə ˈdʒɒsl fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ u
 m etw.
5
 fulfilment centre fʊlˈfɪlmənt ˈsentə(r) 11
 to establish sth tu ɪˈstæblɪʃ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. rangeln
Abwicklungszentrum errichten, aufbauen 17
 a piece of the pie ə piːs əv ðə paɪ e
 in Stück
6
 to cut costs tə kʌt kɒsts K
 osten senken/ 12
 to circumvent sth tə ˌsɜːkəmˈvent ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. vom Kuchen
einsparen umgehen 18
 foothold ˈfʊthəʊld Halt, sichere Stellung

4 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


IN BRIEF

Why Don’t Employers


Advertise Salaries?

S urveys1 show that the top factor most


workers care about when finding a
new job is compensation2
. However, many
companies refuse to3 post a specific salary
in their ads4. What gives?5 Well, it turns out
that6 companies are simply too scared to
be honest. Employers feel that posting sal-
aries can push away7 qualified8 candidates
who have higher expectations9. In addi-
tion, companies are scared to breed10 re-
sentment11 among their current staff12 who
might see remuneration13 figures14 higher
than their own. Another source of fear is
competing15 companies. If you post your
salaries, your rivals can just poach16 can-
didates by offering higher pay. So, what
can be done about this bizarre17 game of cat
and mouse18? A growing number of stake-
holders19 are calling for transparency20, but
relying on21 corporate goodwill22 might go
nowhere. Some are calling for legal re-
quirements to force companies to post sal-
aries on ads in the future. n

1
 survey ˈsɜːveɪ U
 mfrage, Studie
2
 compensation ˌkɒmpenˈseɪʃn Vergütung,
Entlohnung
3
 to refuse to do sth tə rɪˈfjuːz tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ
ablehnen/sich weigern, etw. zu tun
4
 ad (advertisement) æd ədˈvɜːtɪsmənt W
 erbung,
Reklame
5
 what gives? ˈwɒt ɡɪvz Was soll das? Was ist
da los?
6
 to turn out that... tə tɜːn ˈaʊt ðæt s ich
herausstellen, dass...
7
 to push sb away tə pʊʃ ˈsʌmbədi əˈweɪ jdn. 13
 remuneration rɪˌmjuːnəˈreɪʃn V
 ergütung, Gehalt 19
 stakeholder ˈsteɪkhəʊldə(r)
vertreiben 14
 figure ˈfɪɡə(r) Z
 ahl Interessenvertreter
8
 qualified ˈkwɒlɪfaɪd qualifiziert 15
 competing kəmˈpiːtɪŋ k
 onkurrierend 20
 transparency trænsˈpærənsi T
 ransparenz
9
 expectations ekspekˈteɪʃnz E
 rwartungen 16
 to poach sb tə pəʊtʃ ˈsʌmbədi jdn. abwerben 21
 to rely on sth tə rɪˈlaɪ ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf etw.
10
 to breed sth tə briːd ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. 17
 bizarre bɪˈzɑː(r) s eltsam, bizarr stützen, vertrauen, verlassen
verursachen, züchten 18
 a game of cat and mouse ə ɡeɪm əv kæt ənd 22
 goodwill ˌɡʊdˈwɪl Kulanz, 
11
 resentment rɪˈzentmənt Ä
 rger, Groll maʊs Katz-und-Maus-Spiel Wohlwollen
12
 staff stɑːf P
 ersonal, Belegschaft

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MAGAZIN
IN
MOMENTS
BRIEF IN HISTORY

14
 belief bɪˈliːf Glauben, Überzeugung
The History of Amnesty International 15
 prisoner of conscience ˈprɪznə(r) əv ˈkɒnʃəns
politischer Häftling

F rom a British lawyer’s appeal1 to help the CIA and British intelligence36 services. By  to release sb tə rɪˈliːs ˈsʌmbədi jdn. freilassen
16

two Portuguese student prisoners2, to a 1969, the number of members has grown to 17
 to mobilise sb tə ˈməʊbəlaɪz ˈsʌmbədi jdn.
global movement working for the protec- 15,000. After Benenson’s resignation, Seán mobilisieren
tion of human rights3, Amnesty International MacBride and Martin Ennals take over as37 18
 violation ˌvaɪəˈleɪʃn V
 erstoß, Verletzung
is a respected4 organisation the world over5. leaders of the group, widening the group’s 19
 ultimately ˈʌltɪmətli letztlich, letztendlich
In 1961, two Portuguese students are scope38 of activities during the 1970s. In par- 20
 to establish sth tu ɪˈstæblɪʃ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
jailed for6 raising a toast to7 freedom. Hearing ticular, the group campaign against the use of gründen, einrichten
the news, British lawyer Peter Benenson torture, aiming to39 raise public awareness of40 21
 permanent ˈpɜːmənənt d
 auerhaft, ständig
writes an article appealing for8 amnesty. He the practise and get it abolished. In 1977, this 22
 the very first X ðə ˈveri ˈfɜːst d
 as allererste X
classifies people persecuted for9 their non- work is recognised, as Amnesty International 23
 throughout θruːˈaʊt d
 urchweg, immer
violent10 expression of11 faith12, political views is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The 24
 to ensure tu ɪnˈʃʊə(r) s icherstellen
or other conscientiously13 held beliefs14 as preceding41 year saw the first of a series of 25
 the mid-X ðə mɪd M
 itte der X
‘prisoners of conscience’15 and states that all events held to raise funds for42 the group’s ac- 26
 regarding sth rɪˈɡɑːdɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. betreffend
such people should be released16. His letter is tivities: called The Secret Policeman’s Ball 27
 following sth ˈfɒləʊɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ nach etw.
published in The Observer newspaper with these London shows included the most popu- 28
 imprisonment ɪmˈprɪznmənt H
 aftstrafe, Haft
the aim of mobilising17 public opinion. The lar comedy artists and (later) rock musicians. 29
 to qualify for sth tə ˈkwɒlɪfaɪ fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ sich
letter describes violations18 of human rights In 1979, the number of members stands at43 für etw. qualifizieren
not only in Portugal, but around the world 200,000 with bigger resources44 and strength 30
 to advocate sth tu ˈædvəkeɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
and is ultimately19 an Appeal for Amnesty than ever before. befürworten, unterstützen
(The Forgotten Prisoners). The text is re- In the 1980s, Amnesty International draws 31
 poll pəʊl U
 mfrage, Befragung
printed by many large, international news- increasing criticism45 from governments for 32
 unanimously juˈnænɪməsli einstimmig
papers and attracts a lot of support. In 1962, their activities. The group continues its cam- 33
 to maintain sth tə meɪnˈteɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
Peter and those who had helped in writing paign to get torture abolished and its fight for unterhalten, aufrechterhalten
and publishing the Appeal for Amnesty de- the rights of prisoners of conscience. In 1986 34
 suspicion səˈspɪʃn V
 erdacht
cide to establish20 a permanent21 organisation and 1988 another series of events are held to 35
 to infiltrate sth tu ˈɪnfɪltreɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
called Amnesty – their first meeting is held raise awareness of and funding for the group infiltrieren
in London. – these include the Conspiracy of Hope tour46 36
 intelligence ɪnˈtelɪdʒəns G
 eheimdienst-,
From the very first22 meeting and through- in the USA and the Human Rights Now! Spionage-
out23 the early years, Peter ensures24 all three world tour, both of which include47 some of 37
 to take over as sb tə teɪk ˈəʊvə(r) əz ˈsʌmbədi
major political parties are represented in the the most famous musicians and bands48 of als jd. übernehmen
meetings. The group fight (non-violently) the day49. At the end of the decade, Amnesty 38
 scope skəʊp B
 ereich, Reichweite
to protect anyone that is being persecuted turns its attention to50 the increasing number 39
 to aim to do sth tu eɪm tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ
as a prisoner of conscience. A major part beabsichtigen, etw. zu tun
of the group’s activities is researching and 1
 appeal əˈpiːl E
 inspruch, Berufung 40
 to raise awareness of sth tə reɪz əˈweənəs əv
campaigning, with a catalogue of prison- 2
 prisoner ˈprɪznə(r) G
 efangener ˈsʌmθɪŋ die Aufmerksamkeit für etw. erhöhen
ers and a network of helpers being estab- 3
 human rights ˈhjuːmən raɪts M
 enschenrechte 41
 preceding prɪˈsiːdɪŋ v
 orangegangen, vorig
lished. During the mid-2560s, following the 4
 respected rɪˈspektɪd r espektiert, angesehen 42
 to raise funds for sth tə reɪz fʌndz fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ
international spread of the organisation, an 5
 the world over ðə wɜːld ˈəʊvə(r) w
 eltweit für etw. Geld/Mittel sammeln
International Secretariat and International 6
 to jail sb for doing sth tə dʒeɪl ˈsʌmbədi fə(r) 43
 to stand at X tə stænd ət X
 betragen, bei X
Executive Committee are set up. Questions ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. wegen etw. einsperren stehen
regarding26 the definition of a prisoner of con- 7
 to raise a toast to sth tə reɪz ə təʊst tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ 44
 resources rɪˈzɔːsɪz M
 ittel, Ressourcen
science are raised, following27 the imprison- einen Toast auf etw. ausbringen 45
 to draw criticism tə drɔː ˈkrɪtɪsɪzm K
 ritik auf
ment28 of Nelson Mandela – he did not qualify 8
 to appeal for sth tu əˈpiːl fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 n etw. sich ziehen
for29 the status as he had previously advocat- appellieren, um etw. ersuchen 46
 tour tʊə(r) T
 our
ed30 violence. The group holds a poll31 on the 9
 to persecute sb for sth tə ˈpɜːsɪkjuːt ˈsʌmbədi 47
 to include sb tu ɪnˈkluːd ˈsʌmbədi jdn.
issue and unanimously32 decide to maintain33 fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. wegen etw. verfolgen einschließen
that only non-violent people may be classi- 10
 non-violent ˌnɒn ˈvaɪələnt g
 ewaltfrei 48
 band bænd Band, Musikgruppe
fied as prisoners of conscience. 11
 expression of sth ɪkˈspreʃn əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ 49
 X of the day əv ðə deɪ X
 der Zeit
In 1966, Benenson resigns as president of Ausdruck/Äußerung von etw. 50
 to turn one’s attention to sth tə tɜːn wʌnz
the organisation, following suspicions34 that 12
 faith feɪθ G
 lauben əˈtenʃn tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ s eine Aufmerksamkeit auf
the group had been infiltrated35 by agents of 13
 conscientiously ˌkɒnʃɪˈenʃəsli g
 ewissenhaft etw. richten

6 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


MOMENTS IN HISTORY

of refugees51 around the world. While many International and its staff86. 2017 sees the di- noch nie dagewesen
such people are displaced52 by war and fam- rector of the Turkish branch87 of Amnesty 72
 detention camp dɪˈtenʃn kæmp
ine53, the organisation concentrates on those International arrested during a workshop on Internierungslager, Gefangenenlager
forced to flee54 because of the human rights digital security – he is accused of88 aiding 73
 to spark sth tə spɑːk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. auslösen,
violations. The group argues that countries armed89 terror organisations. A year later an entfachen
and governments should focus on eliminat- Amnesty International researcher90 is abduct- 74
 outcry ˈaʊtkraɪ A
 ufschrei, Protestwelle
ing such violations, rather than imposing new ed91 and beaten while watching a demonstra- 75
 despite dɪˈspaɪt trotz
restrictions on55 such asylum seekers56. tion in Russia. Then the Bengaluru office in 76
 to condemn sth tə kənˈdem ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
In the 1990s, the organisation is heavily India is raided92 by police for 10 hours on the verurteilen
involved in57 appealing for equal rights58 and suspicion93 the group had violated foreign di- 77
 Gaza Strip ˈɡɑːzə strɪp G
 azastreifen
fighting abuse59 in South Africa. The group rect investment94 guidelines95. 78
 evidence ˈevɪdəns B
 eweis
continues to grow (membership60 exceeds61 In 2020 the organisation closes its India 79
 human shield ˈhjuːmən ʃiːld menschlicher
seven million people, in over 150 countries) operations following the freezing of its bank Schutzschild
and continues to campaign for an end to the accounts96 by the government (claiming97 al- 80
 to request tə rɪˈkwest e
 rbitten
capital punishment62. The group successfully leged98 financial irregularities99). The group 81
 former ˈfɔːmə(r) f rüherer
argues in favour of63 creating a United Nations launches100 an app titled ‘Amnesty Academy’ 82
 anniversary ˌænɪˈvɜːsəri J ahrestag, Jubiläum
High Commissioner for Human Rights and aimed at101 teaching human rights. Today, the 83
 humanity hjuːˈmænɪti Menschlichkeit,
an International Criminal Court. In 1995, group continues to grow and continues to Menschheit
Amnesty meets resistance64 from media out- campaign for “a world in which every person 84
 fake feɪk f alsch, gefälscht, unecht
lets65 over the publication of details showing enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in102 85
 to spy on sb tə ˈspaɪ ɒn ˈsʌmbədi jdn.
how the Shell Oil Company was involved in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 103
ausspionieren
the execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, an environ- and other international human rights instru- 86
 staff stɑːf P
 ersonal, Mitarbeiter
mental and human-rights activist in Nigeria. ments.” n 87
 branch brɑːntʃ Filiale, Geschäftsstelle
Media companies refuse to66 run Amnesty’s 88
 to accuse sb of doing sth tu əˈkjuːz ˈsʌmbədi əv
adverts67 on the matter68 because Shell is one 51
 refugee ˌrefjʊˈdʒiː F
 lüchtling ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. beschuldigen, etw. getan
of their customers, too. 52
 to displace sb tə dɪsˈpleɪs ˈsʌmbədi jdn. zu haben
During the 2000s, Amnesty International verschleppen, ausbooten, vertreiben 89
 armed ɑːmd bewaffnet
widens its scope of interest and work yet 53
 famine ˈfæmɪn Hunger 90
 researcher rɪˈsɜːtʃə(r) F
 orscher
again69 to include combating70 issues of eco- 54
 to flee tə fliː fl
 iehen, flüchten 91
 to abduct sb tu æbˈdʌkt ˈsʌmbədi jdn.
nomic, social and cultural rights caused by 55
 to impose sth on sb tu ɪmˈpəʊz ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɒn entführen, verschleppen
globalisation. The group faces unprecedent- ˈsʌmbədi jdm. etw. auferlegen 92
 to raid sth tə reɪd ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 ine Razzia gegen
ed71 challenges following the September 11 56
 asylum seeker əˈsaɪləm ˈsiːkə(r) A
 sylsuchender etw. durchführen
attack on the World Trade Center in New 57
 involved in sth ɪnˈvɒlvd ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ in etw. 93
 on the suspicion (that)... ɒn ðə səˈspɪʃn ðæt
York – the opening of The Guantanamo Bay involviert, an etw. beteiligt mit dem Verdacht, dass...
detention camp72 a year later sparks73 outcry74 58
 equal rights ˈiːkwəl raɪts g
 leiche Rechte 94
 foreign direct investment (FDI) ˈfɒrən
from the group, leading to criticism from pol- 59
 abuse əˈbjuːs M
 issbrauch dɪˈrekt ɪnˈvestmənt ˌef diː ˈaɪ a
 usländische
iticians and newspapers in the US. Despite75 60
 membership ˈmembəʃɪp Mitgliedschaft Direktinvestition
all the new areas of interest, the group contin- 61
 to exceed X tu ɪkˈsiːd X
 übersteigen 95
 guidelines ˈɡaɪdlaɪnz Richtlinien
ues to fight for the rights of prisoners of con- 62
 capital punishment ˈkæpɪtəl ˈpʌnɪʃmənt 96
 to freeze accounts tə friːz əˈkaʊnts K
 onten
science. By 2005, the number of members Todesstrafe einfrieren
reaches two million. In 2009 the group pub- 63
 to argue in favour of sth tu ˈɑːɡjuː ɪn ˈfeɪvə(r) 97
 to claim sth tə kleɪm ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. behaupten
lishes a report condemning76 the acts of Israeli əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ f ür etw. plädieren 98
 alleged əˈledʒd a
 ngeblich, mutmaßlich
forces in the Gaza Strip77. The report includes 64
 to meet resistance tə miːt rɪˈzɪstəns a
 uf 99
 irregularity ɪˌreɡjəˈlærəti U
 nregelmäßigkeit,
evidence78 of Israeli fighters using Palestinian Widerstand stoßen Regelverstoß
civilians as human shields79. 65
 media outlet ˈmiːdiə ˈaʊtlet P
 ressekanal 100
 to launch sth tə lɔːntʃ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. starten
In 2011, Amnesty request80 that the Swiss 66
 to refuse to do sth tə rɪˈfjuːz tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich 101
 aimed at doing sth eɪmd ət ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ
authorities start a criminal investigation of weigern, etw. zu tun darauf abzielend, etw. zu tun
former81 US President George W. Bush. The 67
 advert (advertisement) ˈædvɜːt ədˈvɜːtɪsmənt 102
 enshrined in sth ɪnˈʃraɪnd ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ in etw.
same year the group celebrate their 50 year Reklame, Werbung verankert
anniversary82 and release a short film to mark 68
 on the matter ɒn ðə ˈmætə(r) in der Sache 103
 the Universal Declaration of Human
the occasion. The film shows that the fight 69
 yet again jet əˈɡen e
 inmal mehr Rights ðə ˌjuːnɪˈvɜːsl ˌdekləˈreɪʃn əv ˈhjuːmən
for humanity83 is not over. In 2016, a fake84 70
 to combat sth tə ˈkɒmbæt ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. raɪts d
 ie Allgemeine Erklärung der
non-profit organisation named Voiceless bekämpfen Menschenrechte
Victims is found to be spying on85 Amnesty 71
 unprecedented ʌnˈpresɪdentɪd b
 eispiellos,

7
ENVIRONMENT

Wind Farms - 1 6
 sth is a no-brainer ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪs ǝ nǝʊ
breɪnǝ(r) e
 tw. ist ein Kinderspiel, versteht
sich von selbst
7
 coal power kəʊl ˈpaʊə(r) K
 ohlestrom

An Ill Wind?
8
 nuclear plant ˈnjuːklɪə(r) plɑːnt
Atomkraftwerk
9
 to replace sth with sth tə rɪˈpleɪs ˈsʌmθɪŋ
wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. mit etw. ersetzen
10
 endless ˈendləs e
 ndlos, unendlich
11
 to harness sth tə ˈhɑːnəs ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich
We tend to think of wind farms as a totally positive, etw. zunutze machen

green energy solution, but they are not without2 their  infinite ˈɪnfɪnət e
 ndlos,
12

unendlich
critics. Some communities are up in arms about3
proposed projects in their area. Janet Sandford
goes downwind4 to find out why.

O
13
 natural resource ˈnætʃrəl rɪˈzɔːs
n the face of it , it’s a no-brain- 5
Rohstoff
er6. Let’s replace7 dirty old coal 14
 awareness əˈweənəs B
 ewusstsein,
power and potentially risky Wahrnehmung
nuclear plants8 with9 clean, re-  wind farm wɪnd fɑːm Windpark
1 15
 concern kənˈsɜːn S
 orge
newable energy that can provide endless10  sth is not without X ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪz nɒt wɪðˈaʊt e
2
 tw. 16
 to intensify tu ɪnˈtensɪfaɪ s ich
power by harnessing11 an infinite12 natural re- ist nicht ohne X verstärken
source13. As awareness14 and concern15 over  to be up in arms about sth tə bi ʌp ɪn aːmz
3 17
 hilltop ˈhɪltɒp Bergspitze
climate change intensifies16, hilltops17 and əˈbaʊt ˈsʌmθɪŋ g
 egen etw. Sturm laufen 18
 coastline ˈkəʊstlaɪn K
 üstenlinie
coastlines18 are becoming populated with19  downwind ˌdaʊnˈwɪnd m
4
 it dem Wind, in 19
 populated with sth ˈpɒpjʊleɪtɪd wɪð
towering20, white-columned wind turbines21 Windrichtung ˈsʌmθɪŋ mit etw. besiedelt
with their huge rotating22 blades.  on the face of sth ɒn ðə feɪs əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ
5 20
 towering ˈtaʊərɪŋ e
 mporragend
oberflächlich betrachtet 21
 wind turbine wɪnd ˈtɜːbaɪn
Windturbine, Windrad
22
 rotating rəʊˈteɪtɪŋ
rotierend, sich
drehend
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ENVIRONMENT

Evolution Rather Than Danes55, who harnessed their breezy56 coast- 39


 to scatter sth tə ˈskætə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich
Revolution lines with rows57 of offshore58 turbines such irgenwo verteilen
as those featured59 near Copenhagen60. They 40
 landscape ˈlændskeɪp L
 andschaft
While these are a relative23 newcomer24 are also leaders in the production of tur- 41
 sawmill ˈsɔːmɪl S
 ägemühle
on the horizon25, wind power has been uti- bines, generating not just hundreds of ter- 42
 remote rɪˈməʊt e
 ntlegen
lised26 by civilisations for millennia27. Boats awatt61 hours (TWh) of electricity, but bil- 43
 geopolitics ˌdʒɪəʊˈpɒlətɪks G
 eopolitik
that plied28 the Nile29 in ancient30 Egypt used lions in revenue62 for the country. Denmark 44
 steep stiːp s teil
sailboats31, a technology that evolved in can boast63 nearly 40 percent of its domes- 45
 oil ɔɪl Erdöl
other early civilisations in China, the South tic64 electricity and over 20 percent over- 46
 embargo ɪmˈbɑːɡəʊ Embargo
China Sea, Persia and the Middle East32. all65, coming from wind energy. Germany is 47
 Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting
By 200 BC33, wind-powered34 water pumps35 also a beacon66 in wind production, as is the Countries (OAPEC) ˌɔːɡənaɪˈzeɪʃn əv ˈærəb
were being used. Much later, in Europe, in UK, which cashes in on67 its 11,000 miles of pɪˈtrəʊlɪəm ɪkˈspɔːtɪŋ ˈkʌntrɪz əʊˈeɪpek O
 rganisa-
the 11th century, windmills36 such as the sort coastline to claim top position by a distance tion arabischer erdölexportierender Länder
we associate with37 the Netherlands38 started in the number of connected offshore wind 48
 essential ɪˈsenʃl w
 esentlich, notwendig
to scatter39 the landscape40. As America be- turbines (2,294 - source: Statistica). 49
 turn of X tɜːn əv W
 ende von X
came colonised by Europeans, wind power In May 2021, the UK government pre- 50
 pace peɪs Tempo, Geschwindigkeit
was harnessed for industries such as saw- sented its ambitious68 plan to increase off- 51
 uptake ˈʌpteɪk Aufnahme, Zufuhr
mills41 and on remote42 farms to power wa- shore wind power capacity69 from 30GW 52
 to accelerate tu əkˈseləreɪt ( sich)
ter pumps. to 40GW, which would power all homes beschleunigen
More recently, interest in the wider use in the country by 2030. In May 2020, the 53
 considerably kənˈsɪdərəbli b
 eträchtlich, erheblich
of wind power in the United States was mo- Public Attitudes Tracker, published by 54
 early on ˈɜːli ɒn schon früh, frühzeitig
tivated in the 1970s, not by environmental the Department for Business, Energy and 55
 Dane  deɪn D
 äne, Dänin
issues, but by geopolitics43, steep44 oil45 price 56
 breezy ˈbriːzi w
 indig
rises, an oil embargo46, and the power of the 23
 relative ˈrelətɪv r elativ 57
 row rəʊ R
 eihe
Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting 24
 newcomer ˈnjuːkʌmə(r) Neuling 58
 offshore ˌɒfˈʃɔː(r) k
 üstennah, vor der Küste
Countries (OAPEC)47. However, since the 25
 horizon həˈraɪzn H
 orizont 59
 to feature tə ˈfiːtʃə(r) v
 orkommen, vorstellen,
1980s, not only the USA, but China and, 26
 to utilise sth tə ˈjuːtəlaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. (be)nutzen darbieten
in particular, Europe, have seen wind pow- 27
 millennium mɪˈlenɪəm M
 illennium, Jahrtausend 60
 Copenhagen ˌkəʊpənˈheɪɡən K
 openhagen
er as an essential48 element in the move to 28
 to ply sth tə plaɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. befahren 61
 terawatt ˈterəwɒt T
 erawatt
clean, renewable energy. Since the turn of49 29
 the Nile ðə nʌɪl Nil 62
 revenue ˈrevənjuː Einnahmen, Einkommen
the millennium, the pace50 of uptake51 has 30
 ancient ˈeɪnʃənt a
 ntik, altertümlich 63
 to boast sth tə bəʊst ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. aufweisen
accelerated52 considerably53 with half the 31
 sailboat ˈseɪlbəʊt S
 egelboot 64
 domestic dəˈmestɪk inländisch, einheimisch,
countries of the world utilis- 32
 the Middle East ðə ˈmɪdl iːst d
 er Nahe Osten Binnen-
ing the resource. Early 33
 BC (Before Christ) ˌbiːˈsiː bɪˈfɔː(r) ˈkraɪst v
 . Chr. 65
 overall ˌəʊvəˈrɔːl insgesamt
on54 in the switch to 34
 wind-powered wɪnd ˈpaʊəd windgetrieben 66
 beacon ˈbiːkən L
 euchtfeuer, Leuchte
wind were the 35
 water pump ˈwɔːtə(r) pʌmp W
 asserpumpe 67
 to cash in on sth tə kæʃ ɪn ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ von etw.
36
 windmill ˈwɪndmɪl W
 indmühle profitieren
37
 to associate sth with sth tu əˈsəʊsieɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ 68
 ambitious æmˈbɪʃəs ehrgeizig, ambitioniert
wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. mit etw. assoziieren 69
 power capacity ˈpaʊə(r) kəˈpæsɪti
38
 the Netherlands ðə ˈneðələndz d
 ie Niederlande Stromkapazität, Nennleistung

"
WIND POWER HAS
BEEN UTILISED
BY CIVILISATIONS
FOR MILLENNIA.

"
»

9
ENVIRONMENT

Industrial Strategy (BEIS), showed 82 per- already in situ109, clearly visible from the 92
 powerless ˈpaʊəlɪs m
 achtlos
cent of people surveyed70 support71 the use pier110 of the popular seaside town. 93
 to halt sth tə hɔːlt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. anhalten, aufhalten
of renewable energy, while only 2 percent From the campaigners’111 perspective, 94
 relentless rɪˈlentləs u
 nermüdlich
opposed72 it. Offshore wind’s popularity it is just the thin end of the wedge112 as the 95
 erection ɪˈrekʃn E
 rrichtung
was sky-high73 at 81 percent, while onshore74 project is rolled out113 to more and more of 96
 in one’s backyard ɪn wʌnz ˌbækˈjɑːd in jds.
wind garnered75 an 80 percent backing76 of the beautiful Welsh coastline. In August Hinterhof
the public77. Not surprisingly, concern about 2020, The Crown Estate114 granted115 sea- 97
 authorities ɔːˈθɒrətiz B
 ehörden
climate change was the driving factor78 in bed116 rights for an area covering over 40 98
 to ride roughshod over sb tə raɪd ˈrʌfʃɒd
people’s support of wind energy. With gov- square miles (100 km2) for a proposed ex- ˈəʊvə(r) ˈsʌmbədi jdn. mit Füßen treten
ernments keen to79 push on with80 the policy tension117 (called Awel y Môr) to the 576 99
 local ˈləʊkl E
 inheimischer, Ortsansässiger
and public opinion widely in favour81, the MW Gwynt y Môr wind farm. The ex- 100
 go-ahead ˈɡəʊ əhed g
 rünes Licht
case for82 wind turbines seems unopposa- tension is being managed and financed 101
 regardless of sth rɪˈɡɑːdləs əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ
ble83, but some people beg to differ84. by RWE Renewables UK with a 60 per- unabhängig von etw.
cent interest118 along with two German part- 102
 objection əbˈdʒekʃn E
 inwand, Widerspruch
ners: Stadtwerke München with 30 per- 103
 to affect sb tu əˈfekt ˈsʌmbədi jdn. betreffen
An Unstoppable Force 85
cent and the remaining 10 percent coming 104
 development dɪˈveləpmənt B
 auprojekt,
from Siemens AG. Elsewhere119 along the Entwicklung
As King Lear found it impossible to Welsh coast, Blue Gem Wind Ltd, a joint 105
 bribery ˈbraɪbəri B
 estechung, Bestechlichkeit
push back86 the incoming87 tide88, those not venture120 between French oil and gas gi- 106
 impact on sth ˈɪmpækt ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ Einfluss/
convinced89 by the unconditional90 desirabil- ant Total SA and marine121 energy develop- Auswirkung auf etw.
ity91 of wind farms feel that they are pow- er Simply Blue Energy, were also granted 107
 scenery ˈsiːnəri L
 andschaft, Szenerie
erless92 to halt93 the relentless94 erection95 seabed rights for a 96 MW floating122 wind 108
 to deny sth tə dɪˈnaɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. leugnen
of turbines in their backyard96. Some com- demonstration project. 109
 in situ ˌɪn ˈsɪtjuː v
 or Ort, an Ort und Stelle
munities feel the government and local 110
 pier pɪə(r) P
 ier
planning authorities97 are riding roughshod 111
 campaigner kæmˈpeɪnə(r) Aktivist, Wahlkämpfer
over98 locals99 and their wishes and that ap- Meet the New Boss, Same 112
 the thin end of the wedge ðə θɪn end əv ðə
plications for wind farms are given the go- as the Old Boss wedʒ d
 er Anfang vom Ende
ahead100 regardless of101 their objections102. 113
 to roll sth out tə rəʊl ˈsʌmθɪŋ aʊt h
 ier: sich
Promises that the communities affected103 It is no coincidence123 that a compa- ausdehnen
will gain economic and other benefits have ny linked inextricably124 to fossil fuels125 is 114
 The Crown Estate ðə kraʊn ɪˈsteɪt k
 öniglicher
not convinced many, such as John Lawson- showing a keen interest in126 renewables. Besitz
Reay, leader of the campaign group against Emissions targets and other environmen- 115
 to grant sth tə ɡrɑːnt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. bewilligen
the GBP 2 bln Gwynt y Môr wind farm de- tal goals are putting the oil industry un- 116
 seabed ˈsiːbed Meeresboden
velopment104 off Llandudno on the Welsh der pressure127. Moving into renewables 117
 extension ɪkˈstenʃn E
 rweiterung, Ausbreitung
coast. He said, “it sounds like bribery105.” not only enhances128 their green creden- 118
 interest ˈɪntrəst A
 nteil
The impact on106 the scenery107 certainly tials129 but will ensure that the revenue 119
 elsewhere ˌelsˈweə(r) w
 oanders
cannot be denied108 with turbines in the sea streams130 keep on pumping even after the 120
 joint venture dʒɔɪnt ˈventʃə(r)
Gemeinschaftsunternehmen, Joint Venture
70
 to survey sb tə səˈveɪ ˈsʌmbədi jdn. befragen 81
 in favour ɪn ˈfeɪvə(r) f ür/zu Gunsten etw. 121
 marine məˈriːn M
 eeres-
71
 to support sth tə səˈpɔːt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 82
 the case for X ðə keɪs fə(r) A
 rgument für X 122
 floating ˈfləʊtɪŋ s chwimmend, schwebend
unterstützen 83
 unopposable ˌʌnəˈpəʊzəbl u
 nanfechtbar, 123
 coincidence kəʊˈɪnsɪdəns Z
 ufall
72
 to oppose sth tu əˈpəʊz ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. unwiderlegbar 124
 inextricably ˌɪnɪkˈstrɪkəbli u
 ntrennbar
ablehnen, gegen etw. sein 84
 to beg to differ tə beɡ tə ˈdɪfə(r) a
 nderer 125
 fossil fuel ˈfɒsl ˈfjuːəl f ossiler Energieträger/
73
 sky-high skaɪ ˈhaɪ himmelhoch, sehr hoch Meinung sein Kraftstoff
74
 onshore ˈɒnʃɔː(r) an Land 85
 unstoppable force ʌnˈstɒpəbl fɔːs 126
 keen interest in sth kiːn ˈɪntrəst ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ
75
 to garner sth tə ˈɡɑːnə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. unaufhaltsame Macht, Kraft starkes Interesse an etw.
sammeln, gewinnen 86
 to push sth back tə pʊʃ ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈbæk e
 tw. 127
 to put sb under pressure tə pʊt ˈsʌmbədi
76
 backing ˈbækɪŋ Unterstützung zurückdrängen ˈʌndə(r) ˈpreʃə(r) jdn. unter Druck setzen
77
 the public ðə ˈpʌblɪk d
 as Volk, die Öffentlichkeit 87
 incoming ˈɪnkʌmɪŋ ankommend 128
 to enhance sth tu ɪnˈhɑːns ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.
78
 driving factor ˈdraɪvɪŋ ˈfæktə(r) treibender Faktor 88
 tide taɪd F
 lut verbessern
79
 keen to do sth kiːn tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 89
 convinced kənˈvɪnst ü
 berzeugt 129
 green credentials ˈɡriːn krɪˈdenʃlz g
 rüner
unbedingt tun wollen 90
 unconditional ˌʌnkənˈdɪʃnəl bedingungslos Leistungsnachweis, grüne Zertifikate
80
 to push on with sth tə pʊʃ ɒn wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 91
 desirability dɪˌzaɪərəˈbɪləti e
 rstrebenswerte 130
 revenue stream ˈrevənjuː striːm
vorantreiben Eigenschaft Einnahmequelle

10 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


ENVIRONMENT

oil wells131 have been capped132. To prove approved, an environmental impact study173 157
 ambient ˈæmbiənt Umgebungs-
the point133, in May 2021, Total announced is carried out174 and advocates175 argue that176 158
 to put sth bluntly tə pʊt ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈblʌntli d
 irekt
that it would be rebranding134 itself as the impact is negligible177 compared to178 coal gesagt
TotalEnergies. Other fossil fuel extrac- mining179 or the building of power plants180. 159
 to slice and dice tə slaɪs ənd daɪs f einwürfelig
tion heavyweights135 such as Royal Dutch As the world rushes181 to go green, the schneiden
Shell and ExxonMobil are also looking march182 of the wind turbines looks to be 160
 depending on sth dɪˈpendɪŋ ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ
to clean up their act136 and get a slice of the gaining pace and only heading in one di- abhängig von etw.
ever-rising137 renewables pie138. For small rection183. While apparently ticking all the 161
 angle of approach ˈæŋɡl əv əˈprəʊtʃ A
 nflugwinkel
communities opposed to wind farms, that environmental boxes184, perhaps in years to 162
 to blur tə blɜː(r) v
 erschwimmen,
means taking on139 multinationals140 as well come185, it will be superseded186 by a more verschwommen werden
as planning authorities, but appearanc- discreet187 technology, and we will embark 163
 fatal ˈfeɪtl t ödlich
es141 aside, are any of their concerns real- on188 the arduous189 process of dismantling190 164
 all-clear ˈɔːlklɪə(r) f reie Bahn, alles frei
ly justified142? and repurposing191 them. Or maybe, every 165
 sporadic spəˈrædɪk s poradisch
block of flats192 will have a turbine on the 166
 seasonal ˈsiːzənl s aisonbedingt
rooftop and every sea view will be studded 167
 direct impact dɪˈrekt ˈɪmpækt d
 irekte
Unjustified Concerns? with193 rotating blades. n Auswirkung
168
 wildlife ˈwaɪldlaɪf T
 ierwelt
For turbines located on land, some res- 131
 oil well ɔɪl wel Ö
 lquelle 169
 electric cabling ɪˈlektrɪk ˈkeɪblɪŋ elektrische
idents143 could be close enough not just to 132
 to cap sth tə kæp ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. deckeln Verkabelung
see, but to hear the massive blades rotat- 133
 to prove the point,... tə pruːv ðə pɔɪnt u
m 170
 to affect sth tu əˈfekt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. beeinflussen
ing. Does that make a row144 and give them etw. zu beweisen,... 171
 habitat ˈhæbɪtæt Lebensraum
a splitting headache145? Not according to fig- 134
 to rebrand oneself tə ˌriːˈbrænd wʌnˈself s ich 172
 prior to sth ˈpraɪə(r) tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ v
 or etw.
ures146 released by General Electric, who, it ein neues Image verpassen 173
 environmental impact study ɪnˌvaɪərənˈmentl
has to be said, as one of the world’s lead- 135
 heavyweight ˈhevɪweɪt S
 chwergewicht ˈɪmpækt ˈstʌdi Umweltverträglichkeitsstudie
ing manufacturers147 of wind turbines with 136
 to clean up one’s act tə kliːn ʌp wʌnz ækt s ich 174
 to carry sth out tə ˈkæri ˈsʌmθɪŋ aʊt e
 tw.
nearly 50,000 onshore wind turbines in- bessern durchführen, ausführen
stalled, may have a vested interest in148 the 137
 ever-rising ˈevə(r) ˈraɪzɪŋ s tändig steigend 175
 advocate ˈædvəkət B
 efürworter
answer. Their research149 states that while 138
 a slice of X pie ə slaɪs əv paɪ e
 in Stück vom 176
 to argue that... tu ˈɑːɡjuː ðæt argumentieren/
a wind turbine would produce up to 100 X Kuchen behaupten, dass...
decibels (dBs) of noise if you stood di- 139
 to take sb on tə teɪk ˈsʌmbədi ɒn g
 egen jdn. 177
 negligible ˈneɡlɪdʒəbl v
 ernachlässigbar
rectly beneath it, the closest they can be antreten 178
 compared to sth kəmˈpeəd tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ
situated next to housing150 is 300 metres, 140
 multinational ˌmʌltiˈnæʃnəl Multi, verglichen mit etw.
at which point, they emit151 less than 50 multinationaler Konzern 179
 coal mining kəʊl ˈmaɪnɪŋ K
 ohleabbau
dB. To put that into context152, a lawnmow- 141
 appearances əˈpɪərənsɪz ä
 ußerer Schein 180
 power plant ˈpaʊə(r) plɑːnt Kraftwerk
er153 produces 105 dB, a vacuum clean- 142
 justified ˈdʒʌstɪfaɪd gerechtfertigt 181
 to rush tə rʌʃ s ich beeilen
er154 80 dB and a fridge-freezer155 around 143
 resident ˈrezɪdənt B
 ewohner, Einwohner 182
 march mɑːtʃ Marsch
40 dB. Additionally, on a windy day, the 144
 to make a row tə ˈmeɪk ə raʊ K
 rach schlagen 183
 to head in X direction tə hed ɪn dɪˈrekʃn in X
noise would be masked156 by the wind it- 145
 splitting headache ˈsplɪtɪŋ ˈhedeɪk r asender Richtung steuern/gehen
self and other ambient157 sounds, such as Kopfschmerz 184
 to tick all the boxes tə tɪk ɔːl ðə bɒksɪz a
 lle
birds. Speaking of which, isn’t there a risk 146
 figures ˈfɪɡəz Z
 ahlen Kriterien erfüllen
that birds could fly into the blades and to 147
 manufacturer ˌmænjʊˈfæktʃərə(r) H
 ersteller, 185
 years to come ˈjiəz tə kʌm a
 uf Jahre hinaus
put it bluntly158, get sliced and diced159? The Produzent 186
 to supersede sth tə ˌsuːpəˈsiːd ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
short answer is yes. Depending on160 the 148
 vested interest in sth ˈvestɪd ˈɪntrəst ɪn ablösen, überflüssig machen
angle of approach161 and the speed of the ˈsʌmθɪŋ eigennütziges Interesse an etw. 187
 discreet dɪˈskriːt d
 iskret
blades’ movement, as the bird gets closer, 149
 research rɪˈsɜːtʃ F
 orschung, Recherche 188
 to embark on sth tu ɪmˈbɑːk ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.
the image of the blades blurs162, giving a fa- 150
 housing ˈhaʊzɪŋ W
 ohnung, Behausung beginnen
tal163 all-clear164 to continue. However, the 151
 to emit tu ɪˈmɪt e
 mittieren 189
 arduous ˈɑːdjuəs a
 nstrengend, mühsam
European Wind Energy Association claims 152
 to put sth into context tə pʊt ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈɪntə 190
 to dismantle sth tə dɪsˈmæntl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
that this is sporadic165 and seasonal166. Direct ˈkɒntekst e
 tw. in einen Kontext stellen rückbauen, abbauen
impact167 is one possible effect on wildlife168 153
 lawnmower ˈlɔːnməʊə(r) R
 asenmäher 191
 to repurpose sth tə ˌriːˈpɜːpəs ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
but the impact of construction, and possi- 154
 vacuum cleaner ˈvækjʊəm ˈkliːnə(r) S
 taubsauger umfunktionieren
ble creation of roads and electric cabling169 155
 fridge-freezer ˌfrɪdʒ ˈfriːzə(r) K
 ühlgefriergerät 192
 block of flats ˈblɒk əv flæts W
 ohnblock
can affect170 the habitats171 of flora and fau- 156
 to mask sth tə mɑːsk ˈsʌmθɪŋ h
 ier: etw. 193
 studded with sth ˈstʌdɪd wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ gespickt
na. However, prior to172 any project being überlagern mit etw. »

11
INTERNATIONAL

Financial
15
 initially ɪˈnɪʃəli a
 nfänglich, anfangs
16
 to play sth down tə ˈpleɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ daʊn e
 tw.
herunterspielen
17
 criminal activity ˈkrɪmɪnl ækˈtɪvəti k
 riminelle

Mismanagement
Aktivität
18
 to reveal sth tə rɪˈviːl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. lüften,
offen zeigen
19
 severe sɪˈvɪə(r) e
 rnst, heftig
 universally ˌjuːnɪˈvɜːsəli a
 llgemein, überall

at the Vatican
20

21
 widespread ˈwaɪdspred weitverbreitet
22
 indigenous ɪnˈdɪdʒɪnəs indigen, einheimisch
23
 responsible for sth rɪˈspɒnsəbl fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ
verantwortlich für etw.
24
 residential school ˌrezɪˈdenʃl skuːl Internat

As if sexual abuse1 scandals were not enough,  unmarked grave ʌnˈmɑːkt ɡreɪv anonymes Grab
25

 to contain tə kənˈteɪn e


 nthalten
now the Catholic church is grappling with2 a major
26

27
 remains rɪˈmeɪnz Ü
 berreste

financial scandal: one of its most senior clerics3 is 28


 to discover sth tə dɪˈskʌvə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
entdecken
facing trial4 for misuse of funds5. BEM’s Michael 29
 to rock sth tə rɒk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. erschüttern
Gaylord tucks in his shirt6 as he heads7 to Rome 30
 fraud frɔːd Betrug

to investigate8.  embezzlement ɪmˈbezlmənt V
 eruntreuung,
31

Unterschlagung
32
 defendant dɪˈfendənt Angeklagter

I
33
 cardinal ˈkɑːdɪnl K
 ardinal
t’s been a tough year for the Catholic
9
The Crime 42 34
 to accuse sb of sth tu əˈkjuːz ˈsʌmbədi əv
church. Make that10 a tough centu- ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. wegen einer S. beschuldigen/
ry. Early in the 2000s, both public and The charges43 centre around44 the poor anklagen
church-appointed11 investigations uncov- handling of45 real estate46 investments with 35
 to mismanage sth tə ˌmɪsˈmænɪdʒ ˈsʌmθɪŋ
ered12 thousands of cases in which Catholic money taken from the Holy See’s47 assets48. schlecht wirtschaften
clergy13 (mostly male priests and bishops14) Cardinal Angelo Becciu is at the centre of 36
 to accommodate sth tu əˈkɒmədeɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ
had sexually, physically and emotionally the controversy. Looming large49 in the in- etw. Platz bieten
abused children – for decades. Although in- dictment50 is the London deal approved51 37
 museum hall mjuːˈzɪəm hɔːl Museumshalle
itially15 senior clerics in the Church tried to 38
 to convert sth into sth tǝ kənˈvɜːt ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈɪntǝ
either play down16 the abuse or even hide it, 1
 sexual abuse ˈsekʃʊəl əˈbjuːs s exueller Missbrauch ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. in etw. umwandeln
the criminal activity17 was revealed18 to be so 2
 to grapple with sth tə ˈɡræpl wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ m
 it 39
 courtroom ˈkɔːtruːm G
 erichtssaal
severe19 and universally20 widespread21 that etw. kämpfen 40
 to transpire tə trænsˈpaɪə(r) s ich ereignen/
it could not be ignored. To add to the trag- 3
 cleric ˈklerɪk G
 eistlicher, Priester, Kleriker herausstellen
edy, last year it was revealed that as many 4
 trial ˈtraɪəl P
 rozess, Gerichtsverhandlung 41
 to get to X point tə ˈɡet tə pɔɪnt z u X Punkt/
as 10,000 Indigenous22 children in Canada 5
 misuse of funds ˌmɪsˈjuːz əv fʌndz Missbrauch Situation kommen
had been abused by priests and nuns who von Geldern 42
 crime kraɪm V
 erbrechen
were responsible for23 educating them in res- 6
 to tuck in one’s shirt tə tʌk ɪn wʌnz ʃɜːt s ein 43
 charge tʃɑːdʒ A
 nklage
idential schools24 during the 20th century, af- Hemd in die Hose stecken 44
 to centre around sth tə ˈsentə(r) əˈraʊnd
ter unmarked graves25 which contained26 the 7
 to head somewhere tə hæd ˈsʌmweə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ sich um etw. drehen
children’s remains27 were discovered28 across irgendwohin aufbrechen 45
 handling of sth ˈhændlɪŋ əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ Umgang
western Canada. This autumn, the Church 8
 to investigate tu ɪnˈvestɪɡeɪt u
 ntersuchen, mit etw.
is being rocked29 by a fraud30 and embezzle- recherchieren 46
 real estate rɪəl ɪˈsteɪt G
 rundstück, Anwesen
ment31 trial in which the defendants32, includ- 9
 tough tʌf h
 art, schwierig 47
 Holy See ˈhəʊli ˈsiː Heiliger/Apostolischer Stuhl
ing a cardinal33, are accused of34 mismanag- 10
 make that X ˈmeɪk ðət e
 igentlich ein X 48
 assets ˈæsets V
 ermögen
ing35 millions of euros. To accommodate36 the 11
 X-appointed əˈpɔɪntɪd X-ernannt, X-eingesetzt 49
 to loom large somewhere tə luːm lɑːdʒ
largest criminal trial in the Church’s history 12
 to uncover sth tu ʌnˈkʌvə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. ˈsʌmweə(r) v
 on großer Bedeutung sein
a large museum hall37 inside the Vatican has aufdecken 50
 indictment ɪnˈdaɪtmənt A
 nklage(schrift)
been converted into38 a courtroom39. What has 13
 clergy ˈklɜːdʒi K
 leriker, Geistlicher 51
 to approve sth tu əˈpruːv ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
transpired40 to get to this point41? 14
 bishop ˈbɪʃəp B
 ischof willigen, gutheißen

12 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

by Becciu, the former52 Vatican bigwig53. 63


 eventually ɪˈventʃʊəli s chließlich, letztendlich,
He is accused of54 spending EUR 350 mln, irgendwann
money that included donations55 from wor- 64
 to scramble to do sth tə ˈskræmbl tə du
shippers56, on a deal to buy property57 in ˈsʌmθɪŋ sich darum reißen, etw. zu tun
London. The property – which included a 65
 a way out ə weɪ aʊt A
 usweg
former Harrods warehouse58 in Chelsea – 66
 in charge of sth ɪn tʃɑːdʒ əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ
was set to be converted into luxury59 apart- zuständig für etw.
ments. An initial60 EUR 200 mln was sunk 67
 secretariat division ˌsekrəˈteərɪət
into61 a fund operated by an Italian busi- dɪˈvɪʒn S
 ekretariatsabteilung
nessman in 2014. Half the money went 68
 to acquire sth tu əˈkwaɪə(r)
into the real estate venture62, one which ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. kaufen, erwerben
eventually63 cost EUR 350 mln. By 2018, 69
 to charge sb with sth tə tʃɑːdʒ
the original investment was losing mon- ˈsʌmbədi wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn.
ey, and the Vatican was scrambling to64 wegen einer S. anklagen
find a way out65. In charge of66 donations 70
 to channel sth
at the secretariat division67 of the Church, somewhere tə ˈtʃænl
Cardinal Becciu easily acquired68 funds. ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈsʌmweə(r) e
 tw.
After a two-year investigation, he was irgendwohin pumpen/
charged with69 embezzlement, which in- leiten/kanalisieren
volved channelling70 money first to busi-
nesses in Sardinia that were managing the

52
 former ˈfɔːmə(r) früherer
53
 bigwig ˈbɪɡwɪɡ hohes Tier, einflussreiche
Persönlichkeit
54
 to accuse sb of doing sth tu əˈkjuːz ˈsʌmbədi əv
ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. beschuldigen, etw. getan
zu haben
55
 donation dəʊˈneɪʃn S
 pende
56
 worshipper ˈwɜːʃɪpə(r) A
 nhänger, Kirchgänger
57
 property ˈprɒpəti G
 rundstück, Anwesen
58
 warehouse ˈweəhaʊs L
 agerhaus
59
 luxury ˈlʌkʃəri L
 uxus-
60
 initial ɪˈnɪʃl anfänglich
61
 to sink X into sth tə sɪŋk ˈɪntə
ˈsʌmθɪŋ X in etw. versenken/
stecken
62
 venture ˈventʃə(r)
Projekt,
Unternehmen

13
INTERNATIONAL

development71 back in London. He has also work. Prosecutors claim that she bought 91
 to prevent sb from doing sth tə prɪˈvent
been charged with abuse of office72: he al- luxury goods with the funds. Brecciu’s ˈsʌmbədi frəm ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. daran
legedly73 pressed a monsignor74 to75 recant76 ex-deputy109, Tomasso di Ruzza, Enrico hindern, etw. zu tun
information he gave to prosecutors77 about Crasso, a former Vatican investment man- 92
 X, to be precise... tə bi prɪˈsaɪs X
 , um genau
the handling of the deal. A handful78 of oth- ager, and Rene Brulhard, a lawyer from zu sein...
er defendants are also accused of crimes Switzerland who, in the past, worked for 93
 to judge sb tə dʒʌdʒ ˈsʌmbədi ü
 ber jdn.
including money laundering79, embezzle- the Vatican’s financial regulation body110, are richten
ment and abuse of office. also charged with embezzlement. 94
 lay criminal tribunal leɪ ˈkrɪmɪnl traɪˈbjuːnl
Laienstrafgericht
95
 to sign off on sth tə saɪn ɒf ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
Francis-era Changes Becciu’s and Pope Francis’ absegnen
Brought This About80 Responses111 96
 as a result əz ə rɪˈzʌlt a
 ufgrund dessen, in der
Folge
Experts point out81 that significant82 For his part112, the cardinal claims that 97
 in the dock ɪn ðə ˈdɒk auf der Anklagebank
changes made by Pope83 Francis, which he is not guilty113. He appeared in the court 98
 long-serving lɒŋ ˈsɜːvɪŋ langgedient,
attempt to84 more closely monitor, and po- wearing a black clergyman’s114 suit, instead altgedient
tentially prosecute85, Catholic clergy sus- of the traditional colourful red cardinal’s 99
 to elevate sb to X tu ˈelɪveɪt ˈsʌmbədi tə jdn. in
pected of86 committing crimes87, are respon- robes115. “He wanted me to be on trial, and den Rang eines X erheben
sible for bringing the latest perpetrators88 I’m coming to the trial. I’m serene116. I 100
 investigation ɪnˌvestɪˈɡeɪʃn U
 ntersuchung,
to face justice89. The Vatican has always feel tranquil117 in my conscience118,” Becciu Ermittlung
had its own justice system, but last year said to reporters after attending119 the first 101
 to sack sb tə sæk ˈsʌmbədi jdn. feuern,
Francis had a Vatican law altered90. This session. Marogna, too, denies120 wrongdo- rauswerfen
law had prevented Vatican-based cardi- ing121. She contends that122 the charges she 102
 to dismiss sb from X tə dɪzˈmɪs ˈsʌmbədi frəm
nals, bishops and priests from91 being pros- ran up123 were simply reimbursement124 of jdn. aus etw. entlassen
ecuted by anyone other than members of 103
 saint-making seɪnt ˈmeɪkɪŋ H
 eiligsprechung
their own clergy – Catholic cardinals, to 71
 development dɪˈveləpmənt E
 rschließung, 104
 business associate ˈbɪznəs əˈsəʊsiət
be precise92. Now, they can be charged and Bauprojekt Geschäftspartner
judged93 by the Holy See’s lay criminal tri- 72
 abuse of office əˈbjuːs əv ˈɒfɪs Amtsmissbrauch 105
 to authorise sth to do sth tu ˈɔːθəraɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ
bunal94 as long as the pope signs off on95 it. 73
 allegedly əˈledʒɪdli a
 ngeblich tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. ermächtigen, etw. zu tun
As a result96, Becciu is the first member of 74
 monsignor mɒnˈsiːnjə(r) M
 onsignore 106
 ransom ˈrænsəm L
 ösegeld
clergy to have to sit in the dock97 and face 75
 to press sb to do sth tə pres ˈsʌmbədi tə du 107
 hostage ˈhɒstɪdʒ G
 eisel
charges in front of prosecutors who are ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. drängen, etw. zu tun 108
 intelligence ɪnˈtelɪdʒəns S
 pionage,
not Catholic cardinals. At age 73, he is a 76
 to recant sth tə rɪˈkænt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. Geheimdienst
long-serving98 Vatican City diplomat who abschwören, widerrufen 109
 deputy ˈdepjuti S
 tellvertreter
was elevated to99 cardinal by Francis in 77
 prosecutor ˈprɒsɪkjuːtə(r) S
 taatsanwalt, Ankläger 110
 financial regulation body faɪˈnænʃl ˌreɡjʊˈleɪʃn
2018. After the criminal investigation100 re- 78
 handful ˈhændfʊl Handvoll ˈbɒdi Finanzaufsichtsbehörde
vealed his actions in September of 2020, 79
 money laundering ˈmʌni ˈlɔːndərɪŋ Geldwäsche 111
 response rɪˈspɒns A
 ntwort, Reaktion
he was sacked101 by the pope, and was also 80
 to bring sth about tə brɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ əˈbaʊt e
 tw. 112
 for sb’s part fə(r) ˈsʌmbədiz pɑːt für jds. Teil
dismissed from102 his later post in charge of verursachen 113
 guilty ˈɡɪlti schuldig
the church’s saint-making103 office. 81
 to point out tə pɔɪnt aʊt b
 etonen, darauf 114
 clergyman ˈklɜːdʒɪmən G
 eistlicher, Kleriker
hinweisen 115
 robes rəʊbz R
 oben
82
 significant sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt b
 edeutend 116
 serene sɪˈriːn g
 elassen, ruhig, heiter
Who Else Is Involved? 83
 Pope pəʊp P
 apst 117
 tranquil ˈtræŋkwɪl r uhig, friedlich
84
 to attempt to do sth tu əˈtempt tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ 118
 conscience ˈkɒnʃəns G
 ewissen
Many of the defendants are actually versuchen etw. zu tun 119
 to attend sth tu əˈtend ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
not clergy, but business associates104 who 85
 to prosecute sb tə ˈprɒsɪkjuːt ˈsʌmbədi jdn. besuchen, an etw. teilnehmen
worked either with the cardinal directly, anklagen, bestrafen 120
 to deny sth tə dɪˈnaɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. leugnen
with the secretariat or as business inves- 86
 suspected of doing sth səˈspektɪd əv ˈduːɪŋ 121
 wrongdoing ˈrɒŋduːɪŋ Fehlverhalten
tors. Cecilia Marogna, who was a security ˈsʌmθɪŋ verdächtigt, etw. getan zu haben 122
 to contend that... tə kənˈtend ðæt
consultant for Becciu, is accused of em- 87
 to commit a crime tə kəˈmɪt ə kraɪm e
 in argumentieren/behaupten, dass...
bezzling EUR 575,000 in Vatican money Verbrechen begehen 123
 to run up X charges tə rʌn ʌp ˈtʃɑːdʒɪz X

that Becciu had originally authorised to105 88
 perpetrator ˈpɜːpɪtreɪtə T
 äter Gebühren erheben
use as ransom106 to free Catholic hostages107 89
 justice ˈdʒʌstɪs G
 erechtigkeit 124
 reimbursement ˌriːɪmˈbɜːsmənt
abroad and for other Vatican intelligence108 90
 to alter sth tu ˈɔːltə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. ändern Rückerstattung, Entschädigung

14 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

her intelligence-related expenses125. She Future Possibilities Giovanni Angelo


claims that the money which she is alleged Becciu
to have126 spent on buying her own luxury Although the trial began in late July, it
items was her compensation for127 her work. could drag on142 for several months. This
Some of the other accused, including is due to143 both the huge amount of evi-
London-based broker Gianluigi Torzi, call dence144 that has been collected and must
the allegations128 “a misunderstanding129.” be examined145, and also because of pro-
Perhaps ironically, the very130 man who cedural146 matters of the court – two hear-
relieved Becciu of his duties131 after the in- ings147 were adjourned148 until later in the
vestigation’s revelations has said that he autumn. If accused, the defendants could
hopes Becciu is found not guilty. “I hope face jail terms149, might have to pay fines150
with all my heart that he is innocent132. or both. Should we expect to see Mr.
Besides133, he was a collaborator134 of mine Becciu imprisoned151 in the Vatican jail?
and helped me a lot,” Pope Francis, who Well, many who are critical of the Church
removed Becciu from135 his rights as a car- lament152 the lack of thorough153 prosecu-
dinal, told Spanish radio station COPE in tion of priests accused of abusing minors154
an interview in late August of this year. in the past – an Associated Press study155
“I am not afraid of transparency136 or the in the US reported that over 1,700 for-
truth. Sometimes it hurts, and a lot, but mer priests (who the Catholic church itself
the truth is what sets us free137,” the Pope found to be credibly156 accused of abuse)
said when asked about corruption138 at the were not successfully prosecuted. They
Vatican. However, he did not exactly down- allegedly committed the crimes while they
play139 the possibility that some serious mis- were part of the church, which protected
deeds140 had taken place. “In this case, ob- them from criminal prosecution; today,
viously, at least at first sight141, it seems that, years later, the statute of limitations157 in
yes, there is corruption,” he told journalist the US prevents many of them from fac-
Carlos Herrera. ing trial. The Becciu trial has no such lim-
itations. Besides, Guiseppe Pignatone, the
125
 expenses ɪkˈspensɪz A
 usgaben judge presiding over158 the trial, is a former
126
 to be alleged to have done sth tə bi əˈledʒd tə Rome chief159 prosecutor who has investi-
həv dʌn ˈsʌmθɪŋ angeblich etw. getan haben gated the Mafia in Sicily160 for criminal eco-
127
 compensation for sth ˌkɒmpenˈseɪʃn fə(r) nomic activity, resulting in161 numerous162
ˈsʌmθɪŋ Entschädigung für etw. convictions163. Doubters164 should, perhaps,
128
 allegation ˌæləˈɡeɪʃn Anschuldigung hold out hope165 that if found guilty, these
129
 misunderstanding ˌmɪsʌndəˈstændɪŋ alleged embezzlers will indeed have to pay
Missverständnis the piper166. n
130
 the very X ðə ˈveri e
 ben der/die/das X
131
 to relieve sb of duty tə rɪˈliːv ˈsʌmbədi əv ˈdjuːti 143
 due to sth djuː tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ w
 egen/aufgrund 155
 study ˈstʌdi S
 tudie, Untersuchung
jdn. von seiner Pflicht entbinden von etw. 156
 credibly ˈkredəbli g
 laubwürdig
132
 innocent ˈɪnəsnt u
 nschuldig 144
 evidence ˈevɪdəns B
 eweis 157
 the statute of limitations ðə ˈstætʃuːt əv
133
 besides,... bɪˈsaɪdz außerdem/ferner,... 145
 to examine sth tu ɪɡˈzæmɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. ˌlɪmɪˈteɪʃnz V
 erjährungsgesetz
134
 collaborator kəˈlæbəreɪtə(r) K
 ollaborateur untersuchen 158
 to preside over sth tə prɪˈzaɪd ˈəʊvə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ
135
 to remove sb from sth tə rɪˈmuːv ˈsʌmbədi 146
 procedural prəˈsiːdʒərəl p
 rozessual etw. vorsitzen
frəm ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. von etw. abberufen 147
 hearing ˈhɪərɪŋ V
 erhandlung, Anhörung 159
 chief tʃiːf C
 hef-
136
 transparency trænsˈpærənsi T
 ransparenz 148
 to adjourn sth tu əˈdʒɜːn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 160
 Sicily ˈsɪsɪli S
 izilien
137
 to set sb free tə set ˈsʌmbədi friː jdn. befreien, verschieben, vertagen 161
 to result in sth tə rɪˈzʌlt ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ z u etw.
freilassen 149
 jail term dʒeɪl tɜːm G
 efängnisstrafe führen
138
 corruption kəˈrʌpʃn Korruption 150
 to pay a fine tə peɪ ə faɪn e
 ine Geldstrafe 162
 numerous ˈnjuːmərəs z ahlreich
139
 to downplay sth tə ˌdaʊnˈpleɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. zahlen 163
 conviction kənˈvɪkʃn V
 erurteilung
herunterspielen 151
 to imprison sb tu ɪmˈprɪzn ˈsʌmbədi jdn. ins 164
 doubter daʊtə(r) S
 keptiker
140
 misdeed ˌmɪsˈdiːd Verbrechen, Vergehen Gefängnis stecken 165
 to hold out hope tə həʊld ˈaʊt həʊp s ich
141
 at first sight ət ˈfɜːst saɪt a
 uf den ersten  152
 to lament sth tə ləˈment ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. beklagen Hoffnung machen
Blick 153
 thorough ˈθʌrə g
 ründlich, umfassend 166
 to pay the piper tə peɪ ðə ˈpaɪpə(r) d
 ie Zeche
142
 to drag on tə dræɡ ɒn s ich dahinschleppen 154
 minor ˈmaɪnə(r) M
 inderjähriger bezahlen

15
INTERNATIONAL

Brexodus
While for ‘leave’ voters1, Brexit may have had the
desired2 effect, some business sectors are feeling the
pinch3 in the form of post-Brexit labour shortages4.
Janet Sandford crosses the English Channel5 to see
how British industry6 is faring7.

1
 voter ˈvəʊtə(r) Wähler
2
 desired dɪˈzaɪəd erwünscht
3
 to feel the pinch tə fiːl ðə pɪntʃ den Druck spüren
4
 labour shortage ˈleɪbə(r) ˈʃɔːtɪdʒ Arbeitskräftemangel
5
 the English Channel ði ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ ˈtʃænl Ärmelkanal
6
 industry ˈɪndəstri Industrie
7
 to fare X tə feə(r) X abschneiden

2019 Migration Snapshot

• An estimated 3.6 million EU-


born migrants lived in the UK in
2019, making up 5.5 percent of
the UK population.
• Around 8 percent of all workers
in the UK were born in an EU
country.
• 48 percent of EU nationals in
the UK said they migrated to the
country for work-related reasons.
• EU immigration fell substantially
after the 2016 Brexit referendum.
• In 2019, 456,000 National
BUSINESS-ENGLISH-MAGAZIN.DE

Insurance numbers were allocated


to EU citizens, 28 percent down
from 2015. ZUGANGSCODE
DOWNLOAD QR CODE SCANNER:
COLORFULMEDIA.DE/SCANNER

• Long-term arrivals of EU citi- 6dk


zens planning to spend at least 12
months in the UK fell by 34 per- ODER HÖR ES
DIR AN AUF:
cent between 2015 and 2019.

16 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

T
he primary8 drivers9 for those 17
 to argue that... tu ˈɑːɡjuː ðæt argumentieren/
who voted to leave the behaupten, dass...
European Union in the referen- 18
 a year on ə ˈjiə(r) ɒn e
 in Jahr danach
dum10 were dissatisfaction with11 19
 hypothesis haɪˈpɒθəsɪs Hypothese
the influence12 of Brussels13 and concerns 20
 to put sth to the test tǝ pʊt ˈsʌmθɪŋ tǝ ðǝ test
about14 immigration. Some more xenopho- etw. auf die Probe stellen
bic15 members of the public16 argued that17 21
 objective əbˈdʒektɪv Z
 iel
“foreigners come over here stealing our 22
 migrant worker ˈmaɪɡrənt ˈwɜːkə(r)
jobs.” Nearly a year on18, that hypothesis19 Arbeitsmigrant
is being put to the test20. 23
 to encourage sb to do sth tu ɪnˈkʌrɪdʒ ˈsʌmbədi
tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. ermutigen, etw. zu tun
24
 significantly sɪɡˈnɪfɪkəntli b
 edeutend,
What the Numbers Tell Us erheblich
25
 to anticipate tu ænˈtɪsɪpeɪt a
 hnen,
The leave vote certainly achieved the voraussehen
objective21 of encouraging migrant work- 26
 to accelerate sth tu əkˈseləreɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
ers22 to23 return to their home countries, beschleunigen
but perhaps in significantly24 larger num- 27
 untimely ʌnˈtaɪmli u
 npassend, ungelegen
bers than anybody anticipated25. This was 28
 arrival əˈraɪvl A
 nkunft
both masked and accelerated26 by the un- 29
 to make sb redundant tə meɪk ˈsʌmbədi
timely27 arrival28 of the COVID-19 pan- rɪˈdʌndənt jdn. entlassen
demic in which many workers were either 30
 long-term lɒŋ tɜːm langfristig
made redundant29 or put on long-term30 fur- 31
 to put sb on furlough tə pʊt ˈsʌmbədi ɒn ˈfɜːləʊ
lough31. The extent32 of the exodus33 only jdn. zwangsbeurlauben
became fully apparent34 once businesses 32
 extent ɪkˈstent G
 rad
started to reopen35 and discovered36 that the 33
 exodus ˈeksədəs A
 uswanderung, 
labour supply37 cupboard was bare38. It is Auszug
estimated39 that a whopping40 1.3 million 34
 to become fully apparent tə bɪˈkʌm ˈfʊli
non-UK workers left Britain during the əˈpærənt s ich abzeichnen, voll sichtbar
pandemic, and there is a strong chance werden
that41 many of those will never return. Data 35
 to reopen tə riːˈəʊpən w
 iedereröffnen
compiled42 by the Migration Observatory 36
 to discover sth tə dɪˈskʌvə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.
at the University of Oxford gives an idea entdecken
of the scale of migrant worker presence in 37
 labour supply ˈleɪbə(r) səˈplaɪ
the UK job market prior to43 Brexit and the Arbeitskräfteangebot
pandemic. 38
 bare beə(r) b
 lank, leer
In theory, native44 Brits45 would be able 39
 to estimate tu ˈestɪmeɪt s chätzen
to take up the slack46 of any post-pandem- 40
 whopping ˈwɒpɪŋ riesig
ic vacancies47, but this has not been the 41
 there is a chance that... ðeə(r) ɪz ə tʃɑːns ðæt
case48. This is partly49 due to50 underlying51 es ist ziemlich wahrscheinlich, dass...
42
 to compile sth tə kəmˈpaɪl ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.
8
 primary ˈpraɪməri h
 auptsächlich erheben, zusammentragen
9
 driver ˈdraɪvə(r) A
 uslöser, Beweggrund 43
 prior to sth ˈpraɪə(r) tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ v
 or etw.
10
 referendum ˌrefəˈrendəm Referendum 44
 native ˈneɪtɪv e
 inheimisch, Einheimischer
11
 dissatisfaction with sth ˌdɪsˌsætɪsˈfækʃn wɪð 45
 Brit brɪt B
 rite
ˈsʌmθɪŋ Unzufriedenheit mit etw. 46
 to take up the slack tə teɪk ʌp ðə slæk d
 ie
12
 influence ˈɪnflʊəns E
 influss (entstandene) Lücke ausfüllen
13
 Brussels ˌbrʌslz B
 rüssel 47
 vacancy ˈveɪkənsi S
 tellenangebot
14
 concern about sth kənˈsɜːn əˈbaʊt ˈsʌmθɪŋ 48
 X is not the case ɪz nɒt ðə keɪs X
 ist nicht der
Bedenken wegen etw. Fall
15
 xenophobic ˌzenəˈfəʊbɪk x
 enophob, 49
 partly ˈpɑːtli teils, teilweise
ausländerfeindlich 50
 due to sth djuː tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ wegen/aufgrund
16
 member of the public ˈmembə(r) əv ðə ˈpʌblɪk von etw.
Bürger 51
 underlying ʌndəˈlaɪɪŋ z ugrundeliegend »

17
INTERNATIONAL

Top 10 EU countries of birth/nationality of migrant workers


in the UK 2019
COUNTRY OF BIRTH/ ESTIMATED NUMBER OF PERCENTAGE OF EU
NATIONALITY PEOPLE POPULATION IN THE UK
Poland 818,000 23
Romania 427,000 12
Republic of Ireland 360,000 10
Germany 289,000 8
Italy 233,000 6
France 185,000 5
Lithuania 168,000 5
Portugal 165,000 5
Spain 159,000 4
Bulgaria 128,000 4
Source: Migration Observatory - Oxford University

5,700 employers76, published in July 2021, 64


 to conduct sth tə kənˈdʌkt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
showed that 70 percent of them had expe- durchführen
rienced recruitment difficulties. The most 65
 workforce ˈwɜːkfɔːs A
 rbeitskräfte, Belegschaft
unemployment52 trends. Since 2013, UK badly affected77 sectors were construction, 66
 made up of X ˈmeɪd ʌp əv z usammengesetzt
unemployment has been lower than the hotels, catering and manufacturing78. The aus X
EU zone53, including those of popular la- problem is not limited to unskilled work79. 67
 visitor economy ˈvɪzɪtər ɪˈkɒnəmi
bour supply countries such as Poland and Recruiters have also reported difficulty fill- Gästewirtschaft
Romania, thus being an attractive destina- ing vacancies at the professional level in fi- 68
 hospitality ˌhɒspɪˈtæləti Gastgewerbe
tion54 for European jobseekers55. As of56 June nance, IT and engineering80. Claire Warnes, 69
 retail ˈriːteɪl E
 inzelhandel
2021, UK unemployment stood at57 just Head of Education, Skills and Productivity 70
 aviation ˌeɪviˈeɪʃn L
 uftfahrt
4.7 percent (1.6 million people) (Source: at KPMG UK, fears that it could result in 71
 citizen ˈsɪtɪzən B
 ürger
Trading Economics), suggesting that there a skills gap81, putting the brakes on82 any 72
 to account for X tu əˈkaʊnt fə(r) X
 betragen,
is not a large native labour pool available post-pandemic economic recovery83. entfallen auf X
to replace58 them. 73
 respectively rɪˈspektɪvli e
 ntsprechend, jeweils
Historically, migrant workers have been 74
 to fill a position tə fɪl ə pəˈzɪʃn e
 ine Stelle
employed59 in many of the lower-paid jobs The Door Is Still Open - Just besetzen
such as kitchen porters, cleaners or hospital 75
 to prove to be X tə pruːv tə bi s ich als X
ancillary workers60, as well as warehouse61, In the desire to84 kick-start85 the econo- erweisen
catering and hotel staff62. In some indus- my, maybe the government will backslide86 76
 employer ɪmˈplɔɪə(r) A
 rbeitgeber
tries, the dependence on migrant work- 77
 to affect sth tu əˈfekt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
ers has been particularly acute. A labour 52
 unemployment ˌʌnɪmˈploɪmənt Arbeitslosigkeit beeinflussen
market survey63 in 2017 conducted64 by 53
 zone zəʊn Z
 one 78
 manufacturing ˌmænjʊˈfæktʃərɪŋ H
 erstellung
the Chartered Institute of Personnel and 54
 destination ˌdestɪˈneɪʃn R
 eiseziel 79
 unskilled work ˌʌnˈskɪld ˈwɜːk u
 ngelernte Arbeit
Development (CIPD) and The Adecco 55
 jobseeker ˈdʒɒbsiːkə(r) A
 rbeitssuchender 80
 engineering ˌendʒɪˈnɪərɪŋ I ngenieurwesen
Group, found that the percentage of the 56
 as of X əz əv S
 tand X 81
 skill gap skɪl ɡæp Qualifizierungslücke
workforce65 made up of66 migrants in the fol- 57
 to stand at X tə stænd ət b
 ei X stehen, X 82
 to put the brakes on sth tǝ pʊt ðǝ breɪks ɒn
lowing sectors was: visitor economy67 - 20 betragen ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. bremsen
percent, hospitality68 - 24 percent, retail69 - 58
 to replace sb tə rɪˈpleɪs ˈsʌmbədi jdn. ersetzen 83
 economic recovery ˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk rɪˈkʌvəri
16 percent, aviation70 - 21 percent. Of those, 59
 to employ sb tu ɪmˈploɪ ˈsʌmbədi jdn. wirtschaftlicher Aufschwung
EU citizens71 accounted for72 39, 48, 38 and einstellen, beschäftigen 84
 in the desire to do sth ɪn ðə dɪˈzaɪə(r) tə du
44 percent respectively73. 60
 ancillary worker ænˈsɪləri ˈwɜːkə(r) H
 ilfskraft ˈsʌmθɪŋ in dem Wunsch, etw. zu tun
Filling these positions74 has proved to 61
 warehouse ˈweəhaʊs L
 ager 85
 to kick-start sth tə kɪk stɑːt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
be difficult over the past few months. A
75 62
 staff stɑːf P
 ersonal, Belegschaft ankurbeln
British Chambers of Commerce survey of 63
 survey ˈsɜːveɪ U
 mfrage, Studie 86
 to backslide tə ˈbækslaɪd z urückrudern

18 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

and open the door once again to EU na- institution that will lend128 you money if 109
 language proficiency ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒ prəˈfɪʃnsi
tionals87 to work in the UK. Employers are you can prove you don’t need it.” Some Sprachbeherrschung
certainly still open to employing overseas88 applicants might think that a similar prin- 110
 to tell half the story tə tel hɑːf ðə ˈstɔːri n
 ur
workers, but candidates from abroad89 will ciple129 applies to seeking work in the UK. die eine Seite zeigen
not find it a piece of cake90. Through the 111
 eligible ˈelɪdʒəbl b
 erechtigt, qualifiziert
new UK points-based91 immigration pro- 112
 regardless of sth rɪˈɡɑːdləs əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ
cess, foreign nationals can apply for92 a Hard to Call 130
unabhängig von etw.
work visa93 but need to meet a demand- 113
 managerial ˌmænəˈdʒɪəriəl F
 ührungs-,
ing94 set of criteria95. The winning number96 The year 2020 proved that there are no geschäftsführend
is 70 points to secure a visa, but it is un- certainties131, particularly when it comes 114
 trade treɪd Handel, Gewerbe
likely97 to be a realistic option in many of to132 predicting133 which black swans134 might 115
 the small matter of X ðə smɔːl ˈmætə(r) əv d
 ie
the unskilled areas such as catering and appear on the horizon135 and how the econ- Kleinigkeit von X
warehousing. So how can would-be98 work- omy will react. Employers are currently 116
 X need not apply niːd nɒt əˈplaɪ X
 brauchen
ers achieve the magic number? The UK bemoaning136 the shortages in the labour sich nicht zu bewerben
Government’s information on the subject market, and motorists, the lack of lorry 117
 sufficient səˈfɪʃnt a
 usreichend, genügend
is nothing if not99 comprehensive100, so much drivers to deliver fuel to petrol stations. 118
 to support oneself tə səˈpɔːt wʌnˈself s einen
so that101 it would certainly put off102 the Maybe within137 the next year, things will Lebensunterhalt bestreiten
casual103 applicant104. Here is an overview start to settle down138 and the UK economy 119
 starting fund ˈstɑːtɪŋ fʌnd S
 tartkapital
of some of the ways applicants could ful- will learn to look after itself139. If it doesn’t, 120
 challenge ˈtʃæləndʒ H
 erausforderung,
fil105 the entry106 requirements: there may have to be a rethink140 of the strict Problem
Job offer...................................20 points entry requirements and how EU citizens 121
 spare change speə(r) tʃeɪndʒ ü
 berzähliges
Appropriate skill level..............20 points may once again form a substantial141 part of Kleingeld
Relevant107 Ph.D........................20 points the human resourcing of UK businesses. n 122
 application fee ˌæplɪˈkeɪʃn fiː 
Salary of at least GBP 25,600.......20 points Anmeldegebühr
Speak English*........................10 points 87
 national ˈnæʃnəl B
 ürger 123
 to range from X to Y tə reɪndʒ frəm tə v
 on X
* “The applicant must prove that they 88
 overseas ˌəʊvəˈsiːz a
 usländisch bis Y reichen
can read, write, speak and understand 89
 abroad əˈbrɔːd (aus dem) Ausland 124
 surcharge ˈsɜːtʃɑːdʒ Z
 uschlag, Aufpreis
English to at least level B1 on the Common 90
 a piece of cake ə piːs əv keɪk K
 inderspiel 125
 old-time ˈəʊld taɪm a
 us alter Zeit
European Framework of Reference for 91
 X-based beɪst m
 it Sitz in X 126
 comedian kəˈmiːdɪən K
 omiker, Comedian
Languages (CEFR) scale” (www.gov.uk). 92
 to apply for sth tu əˈplaɪ fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich um 127
 to remark tə rɪˈmɑːk a
 nmerken, 
For some more senior positions108, the lan- etw. bewerben bemerken
guage proficiency109 requirement may be 93
 work visa ˈwɜːk ˈviːzə A
 rbeitsvisum 128
 to lend sb sth tə lend ˈsʌmbədi ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdm.
set higher. 94
 demanding dɪˈmɑːndɪŋ anspruchsvoll etw. leihen
That only tells half the story 110. 95
 to meet a criterion tə miːt ə kraɪˈtɪərɪən e
 in 129
 principle ˈprɪnsəpl P
 rinzip, Regel
Applicants also need to check if their pro- Kriterium erfüllen 130
 (sth is) hard to call ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪz hɑːd tə kɔːl
posed job or area of work is on the list of 96
 winning number ˈwɪnɪŋ ˈnʌmbə(r) G
 ewinnzahl schwer zu sagen
eligible111 jobs. The list is wide-ranging, 97
 unlikely ʌnˈlaɪkli u
 nwahrscheinlich 131
 certainty ˈsɜːtnti S
 icherheit
but regardless of112 the profession, focus- 98
 would-be wʊd bi v
 ermeintlich, angehend, 132
 when it comes to doing sth wen ɪt kʌmz tə
es on the managerial113 and skilled work Möchtegern- ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ wenn es darum geht, etw. zu
and trades114. Then there is the (not so) 99
 X is nothing if not Y ɪz ˈnʌθɪŋ ɪf nɒt X ist tun
small matter of115 costs. Work visa appli- absolut Y 133
 to predict tə prɪˈdɪkt v
 orhersagen
cants with empty pockets need not apply116. 100
 comprehensive ˌkɒmprɪˈhensɪv umfassend, 134
 black swan blæk swɒn u
 nvorhersehbares,
Migrants to the UK need to demonstrate umfangreich seltenes Ereignis
that they have sufficient117 funds to sup- 101
 so much so that... ˈsəʊ ˈmʌtʃ ˈsəʊ ðæt s o sehr, 135
 horizon həˈraɪzn H
 orizont
port118 themselves and their families while dass... 136
 to bemoan sth tə bɪˈməʊn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
in the country. They also need to have a 102
 to put sb off tə pʊt ˈsʌmbədi ɒf jdn. bejammern
minimum starting fund119 of not less than vergraulen, abhalten 137
 within X wɪðˈɪn innerhalb X
GBP 1,270 available. That could be a chal- 103
 casual ˈkæʒʊəl z ufällig, Gelegenheits- 138
 to start to settle down tə stɑːt tə ˈsetl daʊn
lenge120 for some who will not have much 104
 applicant ˈæplɪkənt B
 ewerber sich beruhigen
spare change121 left, having paid for the ap- 105
 to fulfil sth tə fʊlˈfɪl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. erfüllen 139
 to look after itself tə lʊk ˈɑːftə(r) ɪtˈself s ich
plication fee122, which ranges from GBP 610 106
 entry ˈentri E
 inreise, Zugang um sich selbst kümmern
to123 GBP 1,408 and a health surcharge124 107
 relevant ˈreləvənt r elevant, wichtig 140
 rethink ˌriːˈθɪŋk U
 mdenken
of GBP 624. As the old-time125 comedian126 108
 senior position ˈsiːnɪə(r) pəˈzɪʃn 141
 substantial səbˈstænʃl b
 edeutend, 
Bob Hope once remarked127, “a bank is an Führungsposition wesentlich

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The Booker Prize


The Booker Prize has become arguably1 the most coveted2 award in the
literary3 world. Janet Sandford pores over4 its origins5, history and occasional6
cantankerous7 moments.

O
n June 2nd, 2021, At Night 1
 arguably ˈɑːɡjuəbli w
 ohl 14
 to descend into sth tə dɪˈsend ˈɪntə ˈsʌmθɪŋ 
All Blood is Black, written by 2
 coveted ˈkʌvɪtɪd begehrt in etw. versinken
David Diop, professor of eight- 3
 literary ˈlɪtərəri literarisch 15
 violent ˈvaɪələnt g
 ewaltsam
eenth-century8 literature at the 4
 to pore over sth tə pɔː(r) ˈəʊvə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ ü
 ber 16
 fervour ˈfɜːvə(r) L
 eidenschaft, Eifer
University of Pau, and translated from etw. nachdenken 17
 to blur the lines between X and Y tə blɜː(r) ðə
French by Anna Moschovakis, was award- 5
 origins ˈɒrɪdʒɪnz Ursprünge laɪnz bɪˈtwiːn ənd d
 ie Grenzen zwischen X 
ed this year’s Booker Prize. Born in Paris 6
 occasional əˈkeɪʒənl g
 elegentlich, zufällig und Y verschwimmen lassen
but raised9 in Senegal, David Diop tells the 7
 cantankerous kænˈtæŋkərəs s treitsüchtig, 18
 heroism ˈherəʊɪzm H
 eldentum, 
story of a Senegalese10 soldier fighting for mürrisch Heroismus
France on the Western Front in World War 8
 century ˈsentʃəri J ahrhundert 19
 murderous ˈmɜːdərəs m
 örderisch
I, who, brutalised11 by the horrific12 scenes 9
 to raise sb tǝ reɪz ˈsʌmbədi jdn. erziehen, 20
 fair feə(r) s chön, angemessen
and losing his best friend in battle13, de- aufziehen 21
 challenging ˈtʃæləndʒɪŋ a
 nspruchsvoll,
scends into14 a violent15 fervour16 that blurs 10
 Senegalese ˌsenɪɡəˈliːz s enegalesisch schwierig
the lines between17 patriotic heroism18 and 11
 to brutalise sb tə ˈbruːtəlaɪz ˈsʌmbədi jdn. 22
 subject matter ˈsʌbdʒɪkt ˈmætə(r)
murderous19 madness. That is a fair20 exam- brutal behandeln, brutalisieren Angelegenheit, Thematik
ple of the challenging21 subject matter22 that 12
 horrific həˈrɪfɪk e
 ntsetzlich, schrecklich 23
 to attract sb’s attention tu əˈtrækt ˈsʌmbədɪz
often attracts the judges’ attention23. 13
 battle bætl K
 ampf əˈtenʃn jds. Aufmerksamkeit fesseln

20 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

38
 load of rubbish ləʊd əv ˈrʌbɪʃ H
 aufen Unsinn/
David Diop Anna Moschovakis
Müll
39
 controversial ˌkɒntrəˈvɜːʃl k
 ontrovers
40
 prize praɪz Preis
41
 to come about tə kʌm əˈbaʊt zustande kommen
42
 empirical ɪmˈpɪrɪkl e
 mpirisch
43
 to be forgiven for thinking that... tə bi fəˈɡɪvn
fə(r) ˈθɪŋkɪŋ ðæt e
 s jdm. nicht übel nehmen zu
denken, dass...
44
 somehow ˈsʌmhaʊ irgendwie
45
 to relate to sth tə rɪˈleɪt tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich auf
etw. beziehen
46
 play on words ˈpleɪ ɒn ˈwɜːdz W
 ortspiel
47
 coincidental kəʊˌɪnsɪˈdentl z ufällig
48
 inception ɪnˈsepʃn B
 eginn, Gründung
49
 to name sth after sb tə ˈneɪm ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈɑːftə(r)
ˈsʌmbədi e
 tw. nach jdm. benennen
50
 backstory ˈbækstɔːri H
 intergrundgeschichte
51
 shipping ˈʃɪpɪŋ V
 ersand, Transport
52
 most notably məʊst ˈnəʊtəbli v
 or allem, ganz
besonders
53
 sugar cane ˈʃʊɡə(r) keɪn R
 ohrzucker
Bagging24 the GBP 50,000 purse25 is sure Campbell (whose family had built much of 54
 slavery ˈsleɪv(ə)ri S
 klaverei
to come in handy26 for the victors27, but the its wealth61 off the back of62 slavery) arrived 55
 to abolish sth tu əˈbɒlɪʃ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. abschaffen
award is also likely to guarantee future there in the 1930s, he set about63 improv- 56
 arrival əˈraɪvl A
 nkunft
publishing28 deals and enduring29 fame30 and ing the lot64 of the workers. All of Booker’s 57
 coolie ˈkuːli T
 agelöhner
literary credibility31. That said32, on occa- sugar plantations were nationalised65 when 58
 equally ˈiːkwəli g
 leichermaßen, genauso
sions33, both the nominations and the se- the country gained independence66 in 1966. 59
 sordid ˈsɔːdɪd schäbig, heruntergekommen
lection of winners have caused astonish- A keen67 literary enthusiast68, it was Jock 60
 reformist rɪˈfɔːmɪst r eformerisch,
ment34 and even outrage, leading some to Campbell who founded the Booker Prize, reformistisch
ask, “what on earth35 did judges (a panel36 of the seeds of which were sown69 on a golf 61
 wealth welθ R
 eichtum
literary and intellectual luminaries37) see in course70. While out golfing71 with James 62
 off the back of sth ɒf ðə bæk əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ auf
that load of rubbish38?” How did this some- Bond creator Ian Fleming, the author, dem Rücken von etw.
times controversial39 prize40 come about41? whose health was poor due to72 excessive73 63
 to set about doing sth tə set əˈbaʊt ˈduːɪŋ
Empirical42 Origins drinking and smoking, and heart problems, ˈsʌmθɪŋ sich anschicken, etw. zu tun
You could be forgiven for thinking that43 bemoaned74 concerns75 about the prospect76 64
 to improve sb’s lot tu ɪmˈpruːv ˈsʌmbədɪz lɒt
the word Booker somehow44 relates to45 jds. Schicksal verbessern
books but the play on words46 is totally co- 24
 to bag sth tə bæɡ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. erbeuten, 65
 to nationalise sth tə ˈnæʃnəlaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
incidental47. At its inception48, the Booker eintüten verstaatlichen
Prize for Fiction, as it was called at the 25
 purse pɜːs P
 reisgeld, Geldbörse 66
 to gain independence tə ɡeɪn ˌɪndɪˈpendəns
time, was named after49 its sponsor, Booker 26
 to come in handy tə kʌm ɪn ˈhændi s ich als Unabhängigkeit erlangen
McConnell Ltd. There is, however, a fas- nützlich erweisen 67
 keen kiːn b
 egeistert
cinating backstory50. The company was 27
 victor ˈvɪktə(r) S
 ieger 68
 enthusiast ɪnˈθjuːziæst L
 iebhaber
originally founded in 1835 by brothers 28
 publishing ˈpʌblɪʃɪŋ Veröffentlichung 69
 to sow the seeds of X tə saʊ ðə siːdz əv d
 ie
George and Richard Booker. It special- 29
 enduring ɪnˈdjʊərɪŋ d
 auerhaft Saat von X säen
ised in the shipping51 of goods from the 30
 fame feɪm R
 uhm 70
 golf course ɡɒlf kɔːs Golfplatz
British Empire and most notably52, in the 31
 credibility ˌkredɪˈbɪlɪti G
 laubwürdigkeit 71
 to be out golfing tə bi aʊt ˈɡɒlfɪŋ G
 olf spielen,
production and export of sugar cane53 from 32
 that said,... ðət ˈsed g
 leichwohl,... golfen
the South American country of British 33
 on occasions ɒn əˈkeɪʒnz g
 elegentlich 72
 due to djuː tə w
 egen/aufgrund von
Guiana. Although slavery54 had been abol- 34
 astonishment əˈstɒnɪʃmənt E
 rstaunen 73
 excessive ɪkˈsesɪv ü
 bermäßig
ished55 by the time of their arrivals56, the 35
 what on earth...? ˈwɒt ɒn ɜːθ w
 as in aller  74
 to bemoan sth tə bɪˈməʊn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
‘coolies’57 brought in from the East Indies Welt...? bejammern, beklagen
lived in equally58 sordid59 conditions. When 36
 panel ˈpænl Ausschuss, Gremium 75
 concern kənˈsɜːn S
 orge, Besorgnis
the reformist60 family member, Baron Jock 37
 luminary ˈluːmɪnəri K
 oryphäe, Berühmtheit 76
 prospect ˈprɒspekt A
 ussicht »

21
INTERNATIONAL

administration99 of the award was trans- 88


 to disown sth tə dɪsˈəʊn ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich von etw.
ferred to a registered charity100, the Booker distanzieren
Prize Foundation, funded by a new spon- 89
 ancestral ænˈsestrəl A
 hnen-, angestammt
sor, Man Group plc. Now an active fund 90
 slave trade sleɪv treɪd S
 klavenhandel
management firm101, the company was 91
 distinctly dɪˈstɪŋktli d
 eutlich, eindeutig
founded back in 1783 in the cooperage102 92
 the Commonwealth ðə ˈkɒmənwelθ
business, making the barrels103 for the trans- Commonwealth (Britischer Staatenbund)
portation of commodities104 such as cocoa105, 93
 former ˈfɔːmə(r) f rüherer
coffee and sugar. They also held the con- 94
 not surprisingly,... nɒt səˈpraɪzɪŋli w
 enig/nicht
tract with providing the British Royal Navy106 überraschend, ...
with107 sailors’108 daily rum ration109 (eighth of 95
 to recount sth tə rɪˈkaʊnt ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.(nach)
an imperial110 pint), known as a ‘tot.’ That erzählen
was abolished in 1970, and in 2014, the 96
 postcolonialism ˌpəʊstkəˈləʊnɪəlɪzm
Booker Prize also brought in a change to Postkolonialismus
make the prize open to111 all nationalities, 97
 one may wonder... wʌn meɪ ˈwʌndə(r) m
 an
while keeping the requirement for it to be mag sich fragen, ...
published in English in the UK or Ireland. 98
 therefore ˈðeəfɔː(r) d
 aher, deshalb
That caused a bit of a stir112 among tradi- 99
 administration ədˌmɪnɪˈstreɪʃn L
 eitung,
tionalists, but as mentioned, the prize is no Verwaltung
stranger to113 controversy. 100
 registered charity ˈredʒɪstəd ˈtʃærɪti
eingetragene Wohltätigkeitsorganisation
101
 fund management firm fʌnd ˈmænɪdʒmənt
of the taxman77 grabbing78 his post-mortem79 A Long List of fɜːm Fondsverwaltungsunternehmen
estate80. Campbell came up with81 the idea Controversies 102
 cooperage ˈkuːpərədʒ B
 öttcherei,
of setting up a company to transfer the roy- Fassmacherei
alties82 that he would manage. This formed Firstly, a quick overview114 of the some- 103
 barrel ˈbærəl F
 ass
the beginnings83 of the Booker Author what115 convoluted116 selection process. Each 104
 commodity kəˈmɒdɪti Rohstoff, 
Division, which, in time84, acquired85 the year, a different panel of five judges is Handelsgut
copyrights of other well-known86 British chosen by The Booker Prize Foundation 105
 cocoa ˈkəʊkəʊ K
 akao
writers, including Agatha Christie. The Advisory Committee. They look at possi- 106
 British Royal Navy ˈbrɪtɪʃ ˈrɔɪəl ˈneɪvi B
 ritische
suggested sponsorship87 of a literary prize bly hundreds of submissions117 from which Königliche Marine
(of GBP 5,000 at the time) by publisher they select the so-called118 ‘longlist’119 of 12 107
 to provide sb with sth tə prəˈvaɪd ˈsʌmbədi wɪð
Tom Maschler a few years later, seemed to 13 books for deeper reading and consid- ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. mit etw. versorgen
a natural evolution of the company’s lit- eration120. This is then, reduced to a short- 108
 sailor ˈseɪlə(r) M
 atrose, Seemann
erary interests. list121 of six books. This is not cast in iron122 109
 ration ˈræʃn Ration
Although Baron Campbell was a – in 1975, the year that Heat and Dust won, 110
 imperial ɪmˈpɪərɪəl k
 aiserlich, Reichs-
member of the socialist reform group, the there were only two books shortlisted. 111
 open to sb ˈəʊpən tə ˈsʌmbədi o
 ffen für jdn.
Fabian Society, and disowned88 his ances- Getting on either list, let alone123 winning 112
 to cause a stir tə kɔːz ə stɜː(r) f ür Aufregung
tral89 family’s role in the slave trade90, the sorgen
prize, in its first form had a distinctly91 co- 77
 taxman ˈtæksmæn Finanzamt,  113
 to be no stranger to sth tə bi nəʊ
lonial character. It was awarded for a work Steuerfahnder ˈstreɪndʒə(r) tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. ist jdm. nicht 
of fiction in the English language, writ- 78
 to grab sth tə græb ˈsʌmθɪŋ ( sich) etw. unbekannt
ten by a citizen of Great Britain, Ireland, schnappen 114
 overview ˈəʊvəvjuː Ü
 bersicht
South Africa or the Commonwealth92 (an 79
 post-mortem ˌpəʊst ˈmɔːtəm n
 ach dem Tod 115
 somewhat ˈsʌmwɒt irgendwie, etwas
association of 54 nations, mostly those of 80
 estate ɪˈsteɪt V
 ermögen 116
 convoluted ˈkɒnvəluːtɪd k
 ompliziert
the former93 British Empire). Not surpris- 81
 to come up with sth tə kʌm ʌp wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf 117
 submission səbˈmɪʃn E
 inreichung
ingly94, some of the early prize-winning etw. kommen, sich etw. ausdenken 118
 so-called səʊ kɔːld s ogenannt
books recount95 tales of colonialism and 82
 royalty ˈrɔɪəlti T
 antieme 119
 longlist ˈlɒŋlɪst L
 onglist (weitere Wahl)
postcolonialism96, such as In a Free State 83
 beginnings bɪˈɡɪnɪŋz Beginne, Anfänge 120
 consideration kənˌsɪdəˈreɪʃn B
 etrachtung,
by V.S. Naipaul (1971), The Siege of 84
 in time ɪn ˈtaɪm m
 it der Zeit Berücksichtigung
Krishnapur - J.G. Farrell (1973), and Heat 85
 to acquire tu əˈkwaɪə(r) k
 aufen, erwerben 121
 shortlist ˈʃɔːtlɪst S
 hortlist (engere Wahl)
and Dust - Ruth Prawer Jhabvala (1975). 86
 well-known wel nəʊn w
 ohlbekannt 122
 sth is cast in iron ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪz kɑːst ɪn ˈaɪən e
 tw.
You may wonder97, therefore98, how in 2021, 87
 sponsorship ˈspɒnsəʃɪp Sponsoring, ist in Stein gemeißelt, unumstößlich
we have a French winner. In 2002, the Schirmherrschaft 123
 let alone X let əˈləʊn g
 anz zu schweigen von X

22 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

can be sufficient124 to raise an author’s pro- vulgarity168. They got their way169 and the 147
 petulant ˈpetjʊlənt launisch, bockig
file and often, raise critics’ hackles125. book was kicked off170 the shortlist. If any- 148
 to donate sth to sb tə dəʊˈneɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ tə
Like runners and riders in a horse race, thing171, the author was pleased172 about the ˈsʌmbədi jdm. etw. schenken, spenden
the final nominations attract the inter- outcome, describing the award as “highly 149
 accessible əkˈsesəbl z ugänglich, erhältlich
est126 of the bookmakers127, who offer odds imperialist-orientated.” He was not alone 150
 damned if you do, damned if you
on128 the likely129 chances of each title win- in 173 this view. V.S. Naipaul wrote a don’t dæmd ɪf ju duː dæmd ɪf ju dəʊnt wie man
ning the prize. The one thing a bookmak- lengthy174 critical essay about Booker’s en- es auch macht, es ist verkehrt
er doesn’t want is the announcement of during presence175 in Guiana. John Berger, 151
 highbrow ˈhaɪbraʊ anspruchsvoll,
the winner before the race. In 2001, Life prize winner for the year 1972, went as far hochintellektuell
of Pi by Yann Martel was announced on as to176 donate half of his prize money to 152
 to offset sth tu ˈɒfset ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
the Booker Prize website a week before the British Black Panthers in what he de- kompensieren, auffangen
the event. Not surprisingly, many punt- scribed as reparation for177 the slave trade 153
 complaint kəmˈpleɪnt B
 eschwerde
ers130 wagered heavily on131 the outcome,132 whose profits had created modern Europe. 154
 to pander to sb tə ˈpændə(r) tə ˈsʌmbədi s ich
which to the bookies’ dismay133, turned out The final criticism laid at the Booker (bei) jdm. anbiedern
to be134 correct. Prize’s door178 is that it is all fixed179 anyway. 155
 laureate ˈlɒriət P
 reisträger, Laureat
That would have suited 135 author Scottish writer A.L. Kennedy who was on 156
 bookish ˈbʊkɪʃ b
 elesen, gelehrt
Anthony Burgess, who, in 1980, had been the jury180 in 1996 didn’t mince his words181 157
 to allay sth tu əˈleɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. beruhigen
nominated for Earthly Powers. However, 158
 to chicken out tə ˈtʃɪkɪn aʊt d
 en Schwanz
throwing something of a136 prima donna’s137 124
 sufficient səˈfɪʃnt ausreichend, genügend einziehen, vor etw. kneifen
tantrum138, he said that he would only at- 125
 to raise sb’s hackles tə reɪz ˈsʌmbədɪz ˈhæklz 159
 snobby ˈsnɑːbi snobistisch, versnobt
tend139 the ceremony if it was confirmed140 jds. Nackenhaare aufstellen 160
 cinematic ˌsɪnəˈmætɪk K
 ino-
to him in advance141 that he was the win- 126
 to attract sb’s interest tu əˈtrækt ˈsʌmbədɪz 161
 cult status kʌlt ˈsteɪtəs K
 ultstatus
ner. He got no such assurance142, remained ˈɪntrəst jds. Interesse wecken/fesseln 162
 to revere sth tə rɪˈvɪə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
absent143, and the prize was awarded to 127
 bookmaker (bookie) ˈbʊkmeɪkə(r) ˈbʊki huldigen, verehren
competitor144 William Golding for Rites Buchmacher 163
 to threaten to do sth tə ˈθretn tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ
of Passage. 128
 odds on sth ɒdz ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ Quoten auf etw. (damit) drohen, etw. zu tun
John Banville, who won the prize for 129
 likely ˈlaɪkli wahrscheinlich 164
 to walk out tə wɔːk aʊt w
 eggehen, verlassen
The Sea in 2005, had had a tantrum of his 130
 punter ˈpʌntə(r) K
 unde, Wetter 165
 on account of sth ɒn əˈkaʊnt əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ
own a year after Burgess, accusing145 the 131
 to wager on sth tə ˈweɪdʒə(r) ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf aufgrund von etw.
judges of elitism146 when he failed to be etw. wetten 166
 to view sth as sth tə vjuː ˈsʌmθɪŋ əz ˈsʌmθɪŋ
shortlisted. He wrote a petulant147 letter to 132
 outcome ˈaʊtkʌm Ergebnis, Resultat etw. als etw. betrachten
The Guardian offering to buy the short- 133
 to sb’s dismay tə ˈsʌmbədɪz dɪsˈmeɪ z u jds. 167
 sexism ˈseksɪzm S
 exismus
listed books and donate them to148 librar- Entsetzen 168
 vulgarity vʌlˈɡærɪti Obszönität
ies so that somebody would read them. 134
 to turn out to be X tə tɜːn aʊt tə bi s ich als X 169
 to get one’s way tə ɡet wʌnz weɪ s einen Kopf
One of the more accessible149 winners was herausstellen durchsetzen
Anita Brookner’s Hotel du Lac in 1984, 135
 to suit sb tə suːt ˈsʌmbədi jdm. passen, 170
 to kick sth off sth tə ˈkɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɒf ˈsʌmθɪŋ
but sometimes, you are damned if you do genehm sein etw. von etw. runterschmeißen
and damned if you don’t150, and accusations 136
 something of an X ˈsʌmθɪŋ əv ən s o etw. wie X 171
 if anything,... ɪf ˈeniθɪŋ w
 enn überhaupt,...
of being too highbrow151 are offset152 by com- 137
 prima donna ˈpriːmə ˈdɑːnə P
 rimadonna 172
 pleased pliːzd zufrieden
plaints153 of pandering to154 popular tastes. 138
 to throw a tantrum tə ˈθrəʊ ə ˈtæntrəm e
 inen 173
 not to be alone in sth nɒt tə bi əˈləʊn ɪn
In 2011, former poet laureate155 Andrew Wutanfall haben ˈsʌmθɪŋ mit etw. nicht alleine dastehen
Motion criticised the shortlist as being“too 139
 to attend sth tu əˈtend ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 n etw. 174
 lengthy ˈleŋθi lang(atmig)
readable.” Jackie Kay, another poet, said, teilnehmen 175
 enduring presence ɪnˈdjʊərɪŋ ˈprezns
“It is a sad day when even the Booker is 140
 to confirm sth tə kənˈfɜːm ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. anhaltende Präsenz
afraid to be bookish156.” Their fears were bestätigen 176
 to go as far as to do sth tə ɡəʊ əz ˈfɑː(r) əz tə
allayed157 when the committee chickened 141
 in advance ɪn ədˈvɑːns v
 orab, im Vorhinein du ˈsʌmθɪŋ so weit gehen und etw. tun
out158 and selected the snobbier159 choice, 142
 assurance əˈʃʊərəns V
 ersicherung, 177
 reparation for sth ˌrepəˈreɪʃn fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ
The Sense of an Ending by Julian Barnes. Versprechen Entschädigung für etw.
Trainspotting has gained cinematic160 143
 absent ˈæbsənt a
 bwesend 178
 to lay sth at X’s door tə leɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ ət dɔː(r) X

cult status161 but its 1993 literary manifes- 144
 competitor kəmˈpetɪtə(r) K
 onkurrent, Rivale etw. in die Schuhe schieben
tation by Irvine Welsh was less revered162. 145
 to accuse sb of sth tu əˈkjuːz ˈsʌmbədi əv 179
 fixed fɪkst fi
 x, feststehend
In fact, two judges threatened to163 walk ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdm. etw. vorwerfen, einer S. 180
 jury ˈdʒʊəri J ury
out 164 if it was selected on account of beschuldigen 181
 not to mince words nɒt tə mɪns ˈwɜːdz k
 ein
165
what they viewed as166 its sexism167 and 146
 elitism ɪˈliːtɪzm E
 litedenken Blatt vor den Mund nehmen »

23
INTERNATIONAL

Astronaut Buzz Aldrin walks


on the surface of the moon
near the leg of the lunar
module Eagle during the
Apollo 11 mission. Mission
commander Neil Armstrong
took this photograph with a
70mm lunar surface camera.
While astronauts Armstrong
and Aldrin explored the Sea
of Tranquility region of the
moon, astronaut Michael
Collins remained with
the command and service
modules in lunar orbit.

182
 a pile of X ə paɪl
əv ein Haufen X
183
 crooked krʊkt
korrupt,
betrügerisch
184
 to determine sth tə
dɪˈtɜːmɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.
festlegen
185
 turn tɜːn R
 eihe
186
 to have a point tə
həv ə pɔɪnt n
 icht ganz
Unrecht haben
187
 for fǝ(r) d
 a, weil
188
 by sheer coincidence baɪ
ʃɪə(r) kəʊˈɪnsɪdəns d
 urch
puren Zufall
189
 none other than X nʌn
ˈʌðə(r) ðən n
 iemand anderes
when he called it “a pile of182 crooked183 non- als X
sense.” Adding that the winner was de- 190
 to roll on tə rəʊl ɒn w
 eitergehen,
termined184 by “who knows who, who’s weitermachen
sleeping with who, who’s selling drugs 191
 pretentious prɪˈtenʃəs a
 ngeberisch,
to who, who’s married to who, whose protzig
turn185 it is.” Maybe he had a point186, for187 192
 commercialism kəˈmɜːʃlɪzm
in 1974, by sheer coincidence188, British Kommerz(ialisierung)
author Kingsley Amis was shortlisted by 193
 fossil ˈfɒsl F
 ossil, Relikt
a panel that included none other than189 his 194
 X is neither here nor there ɪz
wife, Elizabeth Jane Howard. ˈnaɪðə(r) hɪə(r) nɔː(r) ðeə(r) v
 öllig
nebensächlich sein
195
 for better or worse fə(r) ˈbetə(r) ɔː(r)
Roll on190 Next Year wɜːs w
 ohl oder übel
196
 highlight ˈhaɪlaɪt Höhepunkt
Whether you think it is fixed or not, 197
 challenging ˈtʃæləndʒɪŋ
elitist, pretentious191 nonsense, popular herausfordernd, anspruchsvoll
commercialism192 or an imperialistic fos- 198
 to bring sth into the spotlight tə
sil193, is neither here nor there194. For better brɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈɪntu ðə ˈspɒtlaɪt e
 tw. ins
or worse195, it is one of the highlights196 of Rampenlicht rücken/stellen
the literary calendar and sure to bring the 199
 after all ˈɑːftə(r) ɔːl s chließlich, am
best and most challenging197 literature into Ende
the spotlight198 - which, after all199, is what 200
 to intend to do sth tu ɪnˈtend tə du
the Brooker Prize was intended to do200. n ˈsʌmθɪŋ beabsichtigen, etw. zu tun

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DOWNLOAD QR CODE SCANNER:


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ODER HÖR ES
DIR AN AUF:

New Race
to the Moon 1

3
 to advance tu ədˈvɑːns v
 oranschreiten
 apace əˈpeɪs rasch, schnell
 on a practical scale ɒn ə ˈpræktɪkl skeɪl in
praktischer Hinsicht
As technology advances1 apace2, travel to the Moon, 4
 increasingly ɪnˈkriːsɪŋli z unehmend, immer

on a practical scale3, is becoming increasingly4 5


mehr
 wealthy ˈwelθi w
 ohlhabend, reich
realistic. Governments, as well as wealthy5 6
 individual ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒʊəl Einzelperson

individuals6, are queueing up to7 buy a ticket. Janet 7


 to queue up to do sth tə kjuː ʌp tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ
sich anstellen, um etw. zu tun
Sandford cadges a ride8. 8
 to cadge a ride tə kædʒ ə raɪd eine Fahrt
schnorren
»

25
INTERNATIONAL

The First Race into Space Race 2.0 is China. The Chinese
Lunar Exploration Program, commonly50
The quest9, as captain James T. Kirk of referred to51 as Chang’e, started in 2004
the starship10 USS Enterprise said in his with its inaugural52 flight53 in 2007. The
captain’s log11, “to boldly12 go where no number phases54 since then have seen,
man has gone before,” was pursued13 with among other achievements55, Chang’e 4’s
vigour14 and significant investment in the first soft lunar landing of any craft on, as
1960s, not only in the cult15 TV series Star Pink Floyd would call it, “The Dark Side
Trek, but also by the superpowers16 in the of the Moon,” in 2019. Even more ambi-
so-called17 Space Race. tious future Chinese plans include explo-
Following18 the abortive19 Bay of Pigs ration of the lunar south pole56 and estab-
Invasion by the USA of communist20 Cuba lishing57 a fully manned58 exploratory59 space
in 1961, the Cold War21 between the United station on the satellite.
States, the Soviet Union and their allies22,
was particularly acute 23. The conflict 9
 quest kwest S
 uche
played out24 in everything from sport to 10
 starship ˈstɑːʃɪp Raumschiff
claiming25 superiority26 in ideology and tech- 11
 log lɒɡ T
 agebuch, Protokoll
nology by being the first country to land 12
 boldly ˈbəʊldli m
 utig, tapfer, kühn
a man on the Moon. That objective27 was 13
 to pursue sth tə pəˈsjuː ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. verfolgen
achieved28 by the USA when Commander 14
 vigour ˈvɪɡə(r) E
 lan, Kraft
Neil Armstrong set foot29 on the Moon on 15
 cult kʌlt K
 ult-
July 20th, 1969. 16
 superpower ˈsuːpəpaʊə(r) S
 upermacht
Subsequent30 landings31 took place in 17
 so-called səʊ kɔːld s o genannt 39
 to exchange sth tu ɪksˈtʃeɪndʒ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
the following years, but the 1970s saw a 18
 following sth ˈfɒləʊɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ n
 ach etw. austauschen
warming32 of relationships leading to the 19
 abortive əˈbɔːtɪv erfolglos, fehlgeschlagen 40
 craft krɑːft G
 efährt
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I) 20
 communist ˈkɒmjʊnɪst k
 ommunistisch, 41
 appetite for sth ˈæpɪtaɪt fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ A
 ppetit
- a weapons’ non-proliferation agreement33 Kommunist auf etw.
signed by President Nixon and General 21
 the Cold War ðə kəʊld wɔː(r) d
 er Kalte Krieg 42
 extraterrestrial ˌekstrətəˈrestriəl 
Secretary34 Brezhnev in 1972. This set the 22
 ally ˈælaɪ Alliierter außerirdisch
new context35 for the joint36 Apollo-Soyuz 23
 acute əˈkjuːt a
 kut, scharf, heftig 43
 how come? haʊ kʌm Warum? Wie kommt es
Test Project, which, in July 1975, culmi- 24
 to play out tə pleɪ aʊt s ich abspielen, dazu?
nated in37 American and Soviet astronauts ausleben 44
 lunar ˈluːnə(r) M
 ond-
rendezvousing38 in space, exchanging39 flags 25
 to claim sth tə kleɪm ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. behaupten, 45
 agenda əˈdʒendə A
 genda, Programm
and sharing meals in each other’s craft40. beanspruchen 46
 to rekindle sth tə ˌriːˈkɪndl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
The Space Race was over and so was 26
 superiority suːˌpɪəriˈɒrəti Ü
 berlegenheit wiederaufleben lassen
the public’s appetite for41 massive invest- 27
 objective əbˈdʒektɪv Z
 iel 47
 to remain tə rɪˈmeɪn b
 leiben
ment (as much as 4 percent of the Federal 28
 to achieve tu əˈtʃiːv e
 rreichen, erzielen 48
 resolutely ˈrezəluːtli e
 ntschlossen, resolut
budget) in the National Aeronautics and 29
 to set foot somewhere tə set fʊt ˈsʌmweə(r) 49
 entrant ˈentrənt T
 eilnehmer
Space Administration’s (NASA) extra- irgendwo seinen Fuß hinsetzen 50
 commonly ˈkɒmənli a
 llgemein, 
terrestrial42 ambitions. How come43, then, 30
 subsequent ˈsʌbsɪkwənt n
 achfolgend, üblicherweise
that over 50 years since the first lunar44 anschließend 51
 to refer to sth as X tə rɪˈfɜː(r) tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ əz
landing, the subject is now back high up 31
 landing ˈlændɪŋ Landung etw. als X bezeichnen
on the agenda45 - has a new Cold War era 32
 warming ˈwɔːmɪŋ E
 rwärmen, Warmwerden 52
 inaugural ɪˈnɔːɡjʊrəl E
 röffnungs-, Antritts-
returned? 33
 weapons’ non-proliferation 53
 flight flaɪt F
 lug
agreement ˈwepənz ˈnɒnprəʊˌlɪfəˈreɪʃən 54
 phase feɪz P
 hase
əˈɡriːmənt Nichtverbreitungsabkommen für 55
 achievement əˈtʃiːvmənt E
 rfolg,
The New Game Waffen, Waffensperrvertrag Errungenschaft
34
 General Secretary ˈdʒenrəl ˈsekrətəri 56
 lunar south pole ˈluːnə(r) saʊθ pəʊl s üdlicher
The short answer could be yes, al- Generalsekretär Mondpol
though of a more economic nature than 35
 context ˈkɒntekst K
 ontext, Hintergrund 57
 to establish sth tu ɪˈstæblɪʃ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
before. The United States, via its Deep 36
 joint dʒɔɪnt g
 emeinsam errichten, aufbauen
Space Gateway, has rekindled46 its inter- 37
 to culminate in sth tə ˈkʌlmɪneɪt ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ in 58
 manned mænd bemannt
est while Russia remains47 resolutely48 in etw. gipfeln 59
 exploratory ɪkˈsplɒrətri F
 orschungs-,
the game, but a significant new entrant49 38
 to rendezvous tə ˈrɒndɪvuː s ich treffen Erkundungs-

26 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

They may not, however, have the


place to themselves60. Other players with
lunar missions planned or executed61 in-
clude Europe, India, Japan, South Korea Amazing Adjectives
and therefore62 by default63, their hostile64
neighbours, North Korea. Will this then Match the adjectives from the text with the correct definitions.
transfer regional conflict to a lunar land
grab65? In theory not. The rather lengthily66 1 abortive A not needing a crew1 or staff2
titled Treaty on Principles Governing the
Activities of States in the Exploration and
2 acute B marking the beginning of something
Use of Outer Space, including the Moon
and Other Celestial Bodies, which came
3 extraterrestrial C unorthodox3
into force67 in 1967, is signed by 89 states,
including those mentioned. Article II de-
clares that: 4 inaugural D failing to produce the intended4 result
“Outer space68, including the Moon and
other celestial bodies69, is not subject to na- 5 lunar E very good
tional appropriation70 by claim of sovereign-
ty71, by means of72 use or occupation, or by 6 unmanned F refers to the moon
any other means.”
So, when Neil Armstrong planted73 7 affordable G reasonably5 priced
the US flag on the Moon in 1969, it may
have given the impression74 that the Moon
8 maverick H severe6
had de facto75 become the 51st star in the
American flag, but it was purely symbolic76
9 stellar I having a lot of money
propaganda - saying, “we (and capitalism)
won!” However, an extract77 from Article I
of the treaty78, which states that: 10 wealthy J from outside the earth or its atmosphere
“Outer space, including the Moon and
other celestial bodies, shall be free for
exploration…”
gives a clue as to why there is such in- 1
 crew kruː Besatzung, Crew 4
 intended ɪnˈtendɪd b
 eabsichtigt
terest in spending so much to travel so far. 2
 staff stɑːf M
 itarbeiter, Personal, 5
 reasonably ˈriːznəbli vernünftig(erweise)
If it is not about power and geopoli- Belegschaft 6
 severe sɪˈvɪə(r) e
 rnst, heftig, akut
tics79, it is about money and resources80, 3
 unorthodox ˌʌnˈɔːθədɒks unorthodox,
the latter81 of which the Moon may have unkonventionell
in abundance82. One such resource is heli-
um83-3, an isotope84 which is rare on Earth

60
 to have sth to oneself tə həv ˈsʌmθɪŋ tə Answers:
wʌnˈself etw. ganz für sich alleine  7. G, 8. C, 9. E, 10. I
haben 1. D, 2. H, 3. J, 4. B, 5. F, 6. A,
61
 to execute sth tu ˈeksɪkjuːt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
ausführen
62
 therefore ˈðeəfɔː(r) daher, deshalb 70
 national appropriation ˈnæʃnəl əˌprəʊpriˈeɪʃn 76
 symbolic sɪmˈbɒlɪk symbolisch
63
 by default baɪ dɪˈfɔːlt automatisch, nationale Aneignung 77
 extract ˈekstrækt E
 xtrakt, Auszug
standardmäßig 71
 sovereignty ˈsɒvrənti S
 ouveränität 78
 treaty ˈtriːti A
 bkommen
64
 hostile ˈhɒstaɪl feindlich 72
 by means of sth baɪ miːnz əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ anhand/ 79
 geopolitics ˌdʒɪəʊˈpɒlətɪks G
 eopolitik
65
 land grab lænd ɡræb Landnahme, Landraub durch etw. 80
 resources rɪˈzɔːsɪz R
 essourcen
66
 lengthily ˈleŋθɪli ausführlich, langatmig 73
 to plant sth tə plɑːnt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. errichten, 81
 the latter ðə ˈlætə(r) letzterer
67
 to come into force tə kʌm ˈɪntə fɔːs in Kraft hinstellen 82
 in abundance ɪn əˈbʌndəns im Überfluss/
treten 74
 to give the impression tə ɡɪv ði ɪmˈpreʃn d
 en Übermaß
68
 outer space ˈaʊtə(r) speɪs W
 eltraum Eindruck erwecken 83
 helium ˈhiːlɪəm H
 elium
69
 celestial body sɪˈlestɪəl ˈbɒdi H
 immelskörper 75
 de facto ˌdeɪ ˈfæktəʊ f aktisch, tatsächlich 84
 isotope ˈaɪsətəʊp I sotop »

27
INTERNATIONAL

but plentiful85 on the Moon and which can from the Apollo 11 landing. The NASA 113
 entrepreneur ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜː(r) U
 nternehmer
be used in nuclear fission86. The Moon is Artemis program plans to land the first 114
 to get a piece of the action tə ɡet ə piːs əv ði
also rich in aluminium87, titanium88, calci- woman and first person of colour on ˈækʃn ein Stück vom Kuchen abkriegen
um89, magnesium90, silicon91 and rare earth the Moon, possibly as early as 2024. To 115
 private enterprise ˈpraɪvɪt ˈentəpraɪz
elements92. Such resources are extremely93 do that, they will need a landing craft131 Privatunternehmen
useful in the development94 of green en- (Human Landing System), and in April 116
 human touch ˈhjuːmən tʌtʃ m
 enschliche Note
ergy solutions such as electric vehicles95 2021, NASA awarded the USD 2.9 bln 117
 big hitter bɪɡ ˈhɪtə(r) M
 acher
and solar panels, which is why many un- contract to develop it to132 Elon Musk’s 118
 maverick ˈmævərɪk E
 igenbrötler,
manned96 lunar vehicles have been busily97 SpaceX aerospace133 manufacturing134 com- Querdenker
collecting rock and dust samples98. There is pany (founded in 2002). 119
 arguably ˈɑːɡjuəbli wohl,
also a chance they will find undiscovered99 However, while President Biden has vertretbarerweise
substances100 that could be put to use101 and voiced enthusiasm135 for the initiative, to 120
 once-in-a-lifetime wʌns ɪn ə ˈlaɪftaɪm
monetised102. The capability103 to harvest104 date136, Congress has only put up137 USD einmalig (im Leben)
the Moon’s bounty105 has been accelerat- 121
 weightlessness ˈweɪtləsnəs
ed106 by advances in107 computing108 and ro- 85
 plentiful ˈplentɪfl r eichlich Schwerelosigkeit
botics109, making lunar exploration safer, 86
 nuclear fission ˈnjuːklɪə(r) ˈfɪʃn K
 ernspaltung 122
 advance booking ədˈvɑːns ˈbʊkɪŋ
more affordable110 and more sophisticated111. 87
 aluminium ˌæljəˈmɪniəm A
 luminium Vorverkauf
It is no surprise then that112 it is not just gov- 88
 titanium tɪˈteɪniəm T
 itanium 123
 small beer smɔːl bɪə e
 in Klacks
ernments but entrepreneurs113 who are look- 89
 calcium ˈkælsɪəm K
 alzium, Calcium 124
 in terms of X ɪn tɜːmz əv in Bezug
ing to get a piece of the action114. 90
 magnesium mæɡˈniːzɪəm Magnesium auf X
91
 silicon ˈsɪlɪkən S
 ilikon 125
 ultimately ˈʌltɪmətli letztlich, letzten
92
 rare earth element reə(r) ɜːθ ˈelɪmənt E
 lement Endes
Private Enterprise 115
der Seltenen Erden 126
 means of sth miːnz ǝv ˈsʌmθɪŋ Mittel
and the Human Touch116 93
 extremely ɪkˈstriːmli e
 xtrem, riesig für etw.
94
 development dɪˈveləpmənt E
 ntwicklung 127
 emotional pull ɪˈməʊʃnəl pʊl
Three of the biggest hitters117 in the com- 95
 electric vehicle ɪˈlektrɪk ˈviːɪkl E
 lektrofahrzeug emotionale Anziehungskraft,
mercial world have joined the latest space 96
 unmanned ˌʌnˈmænd unbemannt emotionaler Sog
race. British maverick118 Richard Branson is 97
 busily ˈbɪzɪli e
 msig, eifrig 128
 to reconfigure sth tə ˌriːkənˈfɪɡə(r)
arguably119 winning the short race to oper- 98
 sample ˈsɑːmpl Probe ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. neu gestalten
ate commercial flights offering once-in-a- 99
 undiscovered ˌʌndɪˈskʌvəd unentdeckt 129
 remarkably rɪˈmɑːkəbli
lifetime120 flights to experience weightless- 100
 substance ˈsʌbstəns S
 ubstanz bemerkenswert(erweise)
ness121 and view of the Earth from space. 101
 to put sth to use tə pʊt ˈsʌmθɪŋ tə juːs v
 on 130
 Midwest mɪdˈwest M
 ittlerer Westen
Proposed flights with Virgin Galactic, es- etw. Gebrauch machen 131
 landing craft ˈlændɪŋ krɑːft
timated to cost up to USD 400,000 a tick- 102
 to monetise sth tǝ ˈmʌnɪtaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. zu Landefahrzeug
et, have already secured USD 80 mln from Geld machen 132
 to award sth to sb tu əˈwɔːd ˈsʌmθɪŋ
over 600 advance bookings122. This, howev- 103
 capability ˌkeɪpəˈbɪlɪti F
 ähigkeit, Vermögen tə ˈsʌmbədi e
 tw. an jdn. vergeben
er, is still small beer123, financially, and in 104
 to harvest sth tǝ ˈhɑːvɪst ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. (ab) 133
 aerospace ˈeərəʊspeɪs L
 uft- und
terms of124 the scale of the ambition. ernten Raumfahrt
The big target remains the Moon and 105
 bounty ˈbaʊnti Belohnung, Prämie 134
 manufacturing ˌmænjʊˈfæktʃərɪŋ
ultimately125, Mars, and while robots pro- 106
 to accelerate sth tu əkˈseləreɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. Produktion, Herstellung
vide a practical means of126 lunar explora- beschleunigen 135
 enthusiasm ɪnˈθjuːzɪæzm
tion, there is still a strong emotional pull127 107
 advances in sth ədˈvɑːnsɪz ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ Enthusiasmus
of landing a man on the Moon. But let Fortschritte in etw. 136
 to date tə deɪt b
 is dato
us reconfigure128 that statement, which is 108
 computing kəmˈpjuːtɪŋ D
 atenverarbeitung 137
 to put up X tə pʊt ʌp X

what NASA intends to do. Remarkably129, 109
 robotics rəʊˈbɒtɪks R
 obotik aufbringen
only 12 people have ever stepped foot 110
 affordable əˈfɔːdəbl erschwinglich, bezahlbar 138
 to jeopardise sth tə
on the Moon. All were white men from 111
 sophisticated səˈfɪstɪkeɪtɪd r affiniert, ˈdʒepədaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.
America’s Midwest130, born in the 1920s ausgeklügelt aufs Spiel setzen
and the 1930s. Of those, only four are still 112
 it is no surprise that... ɪt ɪz nəʊ səˈpraɪz ðæt
living, the oldest being Buzz Aldrin (91) es überrascht nicht, dass...

28 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

850 mln for the landing craft, jeop- After half a century on the back burn-
ardising 138 the mission. Enter a er165, lunar landings and space explora-
white knight 139 in the form of tion are once again focusing the minds,
Amazon founder140 Jeff Bezos. resources and budgets of governments,
His own aerospace company scientists166 and business people167. There
Blue Origin, which had part- is every likelihood that168 within169 the next
nered with141 Lockheed Martin, decade, driven by the stellar ambitions of
Northrop Grumman and Draper, Messrs170 Musk and Bezos, we will see the
was pipped for142 the contract by first permanent structure on the Moon, but
SpaceX. Mr Bezos is offering to for now, it won’t spoil171 your night-time172
fund the shortfall143 of USD 2 bln view. n
by waiving144 that amount, and at
the same time, asserts145 that his 139
 white knight waɪt naɪt R
 etter in der Not
bid’s146 hydrogen147-fuelled148 design 140
 founder ˈfaʊndə(r) G
 ründer
is consistent with149 NASA’s aims 141
 to partner with sb tə ˈpɑːtnə(r) wɪð ˈsʌmbədi
to use lunar hydrogen-rich ice, sich mit jdm. zusammentun
rather than Elon Musk’s more rad- 142
 to pip sb for sth tə pɪp ˈsʌmbədi fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ
ical150 methane151-fuelled engines152. jdn. bei etw. besiegen
Whichever argument prevails153, 143
 shortfall ʃɔːtfɔːl D
 efizit
it looks that achieving the out-of- 144
 to waive sth tə weɪv ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf etw.
this-world154 aims of landing peo- verzichten, etw. erlassen
ple on the Moon, developing a per- 145
 to assert sth tu əˈsɜːt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
manent155 space station there as a durchsetzen
springboard to156 heading ultimate- 146
 bid bɪd G
 ebot, Angebot
ly to157 Mars, will only be possible 147
 hydrogen ˈhaɪdrədʒən W
 asserstoff
with the help of private money. 148
 X-fuelled ˈfjuːəld X-betrieben, X-angetrieben
If there were ever any doubt158, 149
 consistent with sth kənˈsɪstənt wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ in
contrast NASA’s annual159 state Übereinstimmung mit etw
funding 160 for 2021 of USD 150
 radical ˈrædɪkl radikal
23.271 bln with161 Amazon’s 151
 methane ˈmiːθeɪn M
 ethan
2020 Q4162 financial report. 152
 engine ˈendʒɪn M
 otor
Driven by increased on- 153
 to prevail tə prɪˈveɪl o
 bsiegen, Erfolg haben
line shopping due to163 154
 out-of-this-world aʊt əv ðɪs wɜːd h
 immlisch,
coronavirus, sales hit a fantastisch
stellar164 USD 125.56 155
 permanent ˈpɜːmənənt s tändig, permanent,
bln for the quarter. dauerhaft
156
 springboard to sth ˈsprɪŋbɔːd tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ
Sprungbrett für etw.
157
 to head somewhere tə hæd ˈsʌmweə(r)
irgendwohin aufbrechen 165
 on the back burner ɒn ðə ˈbæk ˈbɜːnə(r) lange
158
 if there were ever any doubt... ɪf ðeə(r) wə(r) Bank, Abstellgleis
ˈevə(r) ˈeni daʊt f alls es jemals Zeifel gab,... 166
 scientist ˈsaɪəntɪst W
 issenschaftler
159
 annual ˈænjuəl jährlich 167
 business person ˈbɪznəs ˈpɜːsn
160
 state funding steɪt ˈfʌndɪŋ s taatliche Geschäftsperson
Finanzierung/Förderung 168
 there is every likelihood that... ðeə(r) ɪz ˈevri
161
 to contrast sth with sth tə ˈkɒntrɑːst ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈlaɪklɪhʊd ðæt es ist sehr wahrscheinlich,
wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. mit etw. kontrastieren dass...
162
 Q4 (fourth quarter) kjuː fɔː(r) ˈfɔːθ ˈkwɔːtə(r) 169
 within X wɪðˈɪn eks innerhalb X
viertes Quartal 170
 Messrs ˈmesəz H
 erren
163
 due to sth djuː tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ w
 egen/aufgrund 171
 to spoil sth tə spɔɪl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. ruinieren,
von etw. verderben
164
 stellar ˈstelə(r) h
 erausragend 172
 night-time ˈnaɪt aɪm n
 ächtlich

29
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Britney Spears

30 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

Parental1 Control - the Wedding Chapel in Las Vegas, Nevada.


When she phoned her retired25 lawyer

Bizarre2 Case of
mother Lynne the next day to share the
good news, she went berserk26. According
to27 reports, the mother flew over28 imme-

Britney
diately29 and submitted30 a petition to31 lo-
cal courts that she forced32 Britney to sign,

Spears
1
 parental pəˈrentl e
 lterlich
2
 bizarre bɪˈzɑː(r) b
 izarr, sonderbar
3
 to keep sb out of trouble tə kiːp ˈsʌmbədi aʊt əv
ˈtrʌbl jdn. aus Schwierigkeiten heraushalten
4
 to prevent sb from doing sth tə prɪˈvent
ˈsʌmbədi frəm ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. daran hindern,
etw. zu tun
5
 daft dɑːft b
 ekloppt, albern
6
 adulthood ˈædʌlthʊd Erwachsenensein,
We all want to keep our Erwachsenenalter

kids out of trouble3 and


7
 to investigate tu ɪnˈvestɪɡeɪt e
 rforschen,
ermitteln
prevent them from4 doing 8
 sugary sweet ˈʃʊɡəri swiːt z uckersüß

daft5 things, but is there  to explode tu ɪkˈspləʊd e


 xplodieren, platzen
9

10
 bubblegum pop ˈbʌblɡʌm pɒp Teeniepop
a point at which we have 11
 a string of sth ə strɪŋ əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 ine Reihe
to let them make their (von) etw.
 record ˈrekɔːd Album, Platte
own mistakes? Usually,
12

13
 fairy tale ˈfeəri teɪl M
 ärchen
that’s called adulthood6, 14
 twist twɪst W
 ende, Drehung
 to result in sth tə rɪˈzʌlt ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ z u etw.
but not for all. Janet
15

führen
Sandford investigates7. 16
 metaphorically ˌmetəˈfɒrɪkli metaphorisch

T
17
 disaster dɪˈzɑːstə(r) K
 atastrophe, 
he sugary sweet Britney Spears
8
Desaster
exploded9 on the pop scene at just 18
 to sow the X seeds tə saʊ ði siːdz d
 ie X Saat
17 in 1999 with the bubblegum säen
pop10 song, Baby One More Time. 19
 schoolmate ˈskuːlmeɪt Mitschüler,
Over the next eight years, a string of11 best Schulkamerad
and fastest-selling records12 followed, giv- 20
 sweetheart ˈswiːthɑːt Liebling, Schatz
ing her the title of the Princess of Pop. 21
 hometown ˈhəʊmtaʊn H
 eimatstadt
However, in 2006, the fairy tale13 took on a 22
 quickie ˈkwɪki s chnell
dark twist14, resulting in15 her, metaphorical- 23
 celebrity sɪˈlebrɪti P
 rominenter, Star
ly16 at least, being locked in the tower for 24
 wedding venue ˈwedɪŋ ˈvenjuː
the rest of her life. Veranstaltungsort der/einer Hochzeit
25
 retired rɪˈtaɪəd p
 ensioniert
26
 to go berserk tə ɡəʊ bəˈsɜːk d
 urchdrehen
Business Success, Personal 27
 according to sth əˈkɔːdɪŋ tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ laut etw.
Disaster17 28
 to fly over somewhere tə flaɪ ˈəʊvə(r)
ˈsʌmweə(r) irgendwohin rüberfliegen
The seeds of18 her current troubles were 29
 immediately ɪˈmiːdɪətli s ofort
sown in 2004. In January of that year, she 30
 petition pɪˈtɪʃn P
 etition
married schoolmate19 sweetheart20 Jason 31
 to submit sth to sb tə səbˈmɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ tə
Allen Alexander from her hometown21 ˈsʌmbədi jdm. etw. einhändigen
Kentwood, Louisiana, at the quickie22 ce- 32
 to force sb to do sth tə fɔːs ˈsʌmbədi tə du
lebrity23 wedding venue24, A Little White ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. zwingen, etw. zu tun »

31
INTERNATIONAL

stating33 that Britney “lacked34 understand- 36


 to annul sth tu əˈnʌl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. annullieren,
ing of her actions.” Just 55 hours after ty- aufheben
ing the knot35, the marriage was annulled36. 37
 brief briːf k
 urz
Later that year, following a brief37 rela- 38
 relationship rɪˈleɪʃnʃɪp B
 eziehung
tionship38, she became engaged to39 dancer- 39
 to be engaged to sb tə bi ɪnˈɡeɪdʒd tə ˈsʌmbədi
cum40-rapper and actor Kevin Federline, mit jdm. verlobt sein
whose former41 girlfriend was pregnant 40
 X-cum-Y kʌm X, gleichzeitig auch Y
with42 their second child. In September, 41
 former ˈfɔːmə(r) f rühere
the couple wed43, apparently without pa- 42
 pregnant with sb ˈpreɡnənt wɪð ˈsʌmbədi m
 it
rental intervention. The following year, jdm. schwanger sein
phenomenal44 commercial success followed 43
 to wed tə wed h
 eiraten
with the release45 of her first venture into46 44
 phenomenal fɪˈnɒmɪnl phänomenal
the fragrance47 market, the scent48 Curious, 45
 release rɪˈliːs V
 eröffentlichung
in partnership with 49 Elizabeth Arden, 46
 venture into sth ˈventʃə(r) ˈɪntə ˈsʌmθɪŋ
which sold USD 100 mln in its first year. Projekt, Unternehmen in etw.
It proved to be a smart move - it is estimat- 47
 fragrance ˈfreɪɡrəns D
 uft, Parfüm
ed50 her fragrance sales have grossed51 USD 48
 scent sent D
 uft
1 billion in their lifetime52. 49
 in partnership with sb ɪn ˈpɑːtnəʃɪp wɪð
Arguably53 not such a smart move was ˈsʌmbədi in Partnerschaft mit jdm.
consenting to54 the serialised55 television 50
 to estimate tu ˈestɪmeɪt s chätzen
fly-on-the-wall56 documentary57, the aptly 51
 to gross X tə ɡrəʊs X
 einspielen, umsetzen
named58, Britney and Kevin: Chaotic. It 52
 lifetime ˈlaɪftaɪm Leben, Lebzeiten
showed the celebrity as immature59, vac- 53
 arguably ˈɑːɡjuəbli w
 ohl
uous60, narcissistic61 and self-obsessed62. 54
 to consent to sth tə kənˈsent tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
Entertainment Weekly described it as “ca- zustimmen
reer suicide63 by videocam64.” (Some seven 55
 serialised ˈsɪəriəlaɪzd F
 ortsetzungs-
years later in an interview, she agreed it 56
 fly-on-the-wall flaɪ ɒn ðə wɔːl p
 assive, sich
was a terrible decision). In a further ex- nicht einmischende Dokumentationsart
posé65 in 2006, she appeared66 pregnant and 57
 documentary ˌdɒkjʊˈmentəri 
nude67 for the cover of Harper’s Bazaar Dokumentation
magazine a month before giving birth to68 58
 aptly named ˈæptli ˈneɪmd t reffend 
her second child. Soon after, she filed genannt
for divorce69 from Kevin Federline. More 59
 immature ˌɪməˈtjʊə(r) k
 indisch, unreif
questions were raised70 about her judge- 60
 vacuous ˈvækjuəs leer, geistlos
ment71 and ultimately72, sanity73, when she 61
 narcissistic ˈnɑːsɪsɪzm narzisstisch 74
 lap læp Schoß
was filmed by paparazzi driving with her 62
 self-obsessed ˌself əbˈsest ichbesessen 75
 to strap sb in tə stræp ˈsʌmbədi ɪn jdn.
young son on her lap74 and not strapped in75. 63
 career suicide kəˈrɪə(r) ˈsjuːɪsaɪd anschnallen
Following the death of her beloved76 Karriereselbstmord 76
 beloved bɪˈlʌvd g
 eliebt
aunt at the beginning of 2007, she checked 64
 videocam ˈvɪdɪəʊkam V
 ideokamera 77
 briefly ˈbriːfli k
 urz
in briefly77 to78 a drug rehabilitation clinic79 in 65
 exposé ekˈspəʊzeɪ E
 nthüllung 78
 to check into sth tə tʃek ˈɪntə ˈsʌmθɪŋ in etw.
Antigua, and a day later, shaved her head. 66
 to appear somewhere tu əˈpɪə(r) ˈsʌmweə(r) einchecken
During the following months, she under- irgendwo auftauchen, erscheinen 79
 drug rehabilitation clinic ˈdrʌɡ ˌriːəˌbɪlɪˈteɪʃn
went80 further rehab81. When the divorce 67
 nude njuːd n
 ackt ˈklɪnɪk D
 rogenentzugsklinik
was finalised in July 2007, she lost custo- 68
 to give birth to sb tə ɡɪv bɜːθ tə ˈsʌmbədi jdn. 80
 to undergo sth tu ˌʌndəˈɡəʊ ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich etw.
dy of82 her children. Despite this backdrop83 gebären unterziehen
of personal despair84, commercially, she 69
 to file for divorce tə faɪl fə(r) dɪˈvɔːs d
 ie 81
 rehab (rehabilitation) rihæb ˌriːəˌbɪlɪˈteɪʃn
continued to go from strength to strength85 Scheidung einreichen Entzug
with her fifth album, the dance electropop 70
 to raise questions tə reɪz ˈkwestʃənz F
 ragen 82
 custody of sb ˈkʌstədi əv ˈsʌmbədi S
 orgerecht
aufwerfen für jdn.
33
 to state tə steɪt a
 ussagen 71
 judgement ˈdʒʌdʒmənt U
 rteilsvermögen 83
 backdrop ˈbækdrɒp Hintergrund, Kulisse
34
 to lack sth tə læk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. entbehren, 72
 ultimately ˈʌltɪmətli letztendlich,  84
 despair dɪˈspeə(r) V
 erzweiflung
nicht haben letztlich 85
 to go from strength to strength tə ɡəʊ
35
 to tie the knot tə taɪ ðə nɒt d
 en Bund fürs 73
 sanity ˈsænəti V
 ernunft, frəm streŋθ tə streŋθ immer größere Erfolge
Leben schließen, heiraten Zurechnungsfähigkeit erzielen

32 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

Blackout, receiving critical acclaim86 and


winning in the best album category at the
2008 MTV Europe Music Awards. That
was the zenith87, but she was on the edge88
of an abyss89 into which she would fall.

Conservatorship90

In January of 2008, when she re-


fused to91 give up92 custody of the chil-
dren, the police were called in and not-
ed93 that she was under the influence of94
“unidentified95 substances.” She was hos-
pitalised96. A court withdrew97 her visiting
rights98 and gave sole99 custody of the chil-
dren to Mr Federline. Britney Spears was
then committed to100 the psychiatric ward101
of the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical
Center and put on 5150 involuntary102 psy-
chiatric hold103. This is a Californian law
in which an individual104 is involuntarily
held in a psychiatric facility105 for an in-
itial106 72 hours in the belief that107 they
are “deemed108 a danger to109 themselves
or others.” She was released110 after five
days, by which time, a court had granted
conservatorship to her father Jamie Spears
and the somewhat ironically111 named attor-
ney Andrew Wallet. This gave her father
total control of her assets112. Under US
law, conservatorship is the appointment113
of a guardian114 or ‘protector’115 to manage
the affairs116 of someone considered un-
86
 critical acclaim ˈkrɪtɪkl əˈkleɪm K
 ritikerlob 98
 visiting rights ˈvɪzɪtɪŋ raɪts B
 esuchsrechte able to do so. Typically, this applies to
87
 zenith ˈzenɪθ Zenit 99
 sole səʊl a
 lleinig minors117, the very elderly118, the mentally
88
 edge edʒ R
 and, Kante, Grenze 100
 to commit sb to sth tə kəˈmɪt ˈsʌmbədi tə disabled119, but also people with mental
89
 abyss əˈbɪs A
 bgrund ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. in etw. einliefern health issues.
90
 conservatorship kənˈsɜːvətərˌʃɪp 101
 psychiatric ward ˌsaɪkɪˈætrɪk wɔːd 
Vormundschaft, rechtliche  Psychiatrie, geschlossene  110
 to release sb tə rɪˈliːs ˈsʌmbədi 
Betreuung Abteilung jdn. entlassen
91
 to refuse to do sth tə rɪˈfjuːz tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich 102
 involuntary ɪnˈvɒləntri u
 nfreiwillig 111
 ironically aɪˈrɒnɪkli ironischerweise
weigern, etw. zu tun 103
 psychiatric hold ˌsaɪkɪˈætrɪk həʊld 112
 assets ˈæsets V
 ermögen
92
 to give sth up tə ɡɪv ˈsʌmθɪŋ ʌp  psychiatrische Überwachung 113
 appointment əˈpɔɪntmənt B
 erufung,
etw. aufgeben 104
 individual ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒʊəl E
 inzelperson, Festsetzung, Benennung
93
 to note tə nəʊt f eststellen, vermerken Individuum 114
 guardian ˈɡɑːdɪən Vormund
94
 to be under the influence of sth tə bi ˈʌndə(r) 105
 facility fəˈsɪləti E
 inrichtung 115
 protector prəˈtektə(r) B
 eschützer
ði ˈɪnflʊəns əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ unter dem Einfluss von 106
 initial ɪˈnɪʃl a
 nfänglich 116
 to manage sb’s affairs tə ˈmænɪdʒ
etw. stehen 107
 in the belief that... ɪn ðə bɪˈliːf ðæt in dem ˈsʌmbədɪz əˈfeəz jds. Geschäfte 
95
 unidentified ˌʌnaɪˈdentɪfaɪd unbekannt Glauben, dass... führen
96
 to hospitalise sb tə ˈhɒspɪtəlaɪz ˈsʌmbədi jdn. 108
 to deem sb sth tə diːm ˈsʌmbədi ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. 117
 minor ˈmaɪnə(r) M
 inderjährige
ins Krankenhaus einliefern/einweisen als etw. erachten 118
 the elderly ðə ˈeldəli d
 ie Älteren
97
 to withdraw sth tə wɪðˈdrɔː ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 109
 a danger to oneself ə ˈdeɪndʒə(r) tə wʌnˈself 119
 mentally disabled ˈmentəli dɪsˈeɪbld
streichen, entziehen eine Gefahr für sich selbst psychisch/geistig behindert »

33
INTERNATIONAL

Jamie Spears conservatorship, has not been serving 135


 to fight with one hand tied behind 
her best interests139 and discouraged her one’s back tə faɪt wɪð wʌn hænd taɪd
from140 contesting141 the arrangement142 and bɪˈhaɪnd wʌnz ˈbæk mit einer auf 
appealed to the court143 to change him. In den Rücken gefesselten Hand 
August 2021, judge Brenda Penny granted kämpfen
Ms Spears’ request144 to appoint her own le- 136
 to maintain that... tə meɪnˈteɪn ðæt
gal counsel145. The tepid146 Mr Ingham was behaupten, dass...
replaced with147 the high-profile148 Rottweiler 137
 court-appointed kɔːt əˈpɔɪntɪd v
 om Gericht
of a lawyer, Mathew S. Rosengart, who has bestellt
represented the likes of149 Steven Spielberg, 138
 to assign sb to sth tu əˈsaɪn ˈsʌmbədi tə
Sean Penn, Keanu Reeves, Winona Ryder ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdm. etw. zuordnen/zuteilen
and Johnny Depp. In his first appearance in 139
 to serve sb’s best interests tə sɜːv
court to remove Mr Spears as150 conserva- ˈsʌmbədɪz best ˈɪntrəsts jds. besten 
tor, he didn’t mince his words151, describing Interessen dienen
the affair152 as a “Kafkaesque153 nightmare.” 140
 to discourage sb from doing sth 
He was also keen to154 draw the court’s tə dɪsˈkʌrɪdʒ ˈsʌmbədi frəm ˈduːɪŋ
attention to155 possible financial motiva- ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. entmutigen/davon 
tion in Mr Spears’s unwillingness156 to re- abhalten, etw. zu tun
linquish 157 control of the star’s assets. 141
 to contest sth tə kənˈtest ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
According to Jason Rubin, the account- anfechten
ant158 for the Britney Spears’ estate159 un- 142
 arrangement əˈreɪndʒmənt A
 bmachung,
der conservatorship, the estate has cash Vereinbarung
assets of USD 2.7 million and non-cash 143
 to appeal to the court tu əˈpiːl tə ðə kɔːt
assets160 of more than USD 57 million. In Berufung einlegen
the role of conservator, from the estate 144
 request rɪˈkwest W
 unsch, Bitte
145
 legal counsel ˈliːɡl ˈkaʊnsl 
Britney Spears was released after five 120
 in time ɪn ˈtaɪm m
 it der Zeit Rechtsbeistand
days, and in time120 regained121 access to 121
 to regain sth tə rɪˈɡeɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 146
 tepid ˈtepɪd lauwarm
her children. During the following ten zurückgewinnen 147
 to replace sb with sth tə rɪˈpleɪs
years, she produced another four bestsell- 122
 bestselling ˌbestˈselɪŋ B
 estseller- ˈsʌmbədi wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. mit 
ing122 albums, was a judge123 on America’s 123
 judge dʒʌdʒ J uror, Richter etw. ersetzen
X-Factor and gave 250 performances124 of 124
 to give performance tə ɡɪv pəˈfɔːməns 148
 high-profile haɪ ˈprəʊfaɪl prominent
her show, Britney: Piece of Me, over four auftreten, aufführen 149
 the likes of sb ðə ˈlaɪks əv ˈsʌmbədi 
and half years at the Planet Hollywood 125
 smoothly ˈsmuːðli r eibungslos, ruhig Leute wie jd.
Resort & Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, 126
 to hand sb sth back tə hænd 150
 to remove sb as X tə rɪˈmuːv
selling 900,000 tickets and grossing USD ˈsʌmbədi ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈbæk jdm. etw.  ˈsʌmbədi əz jdn. als X absetzen
138 mln. It seemed that business and per- zurückgeben 151
 not to mince one’s words nɑt tə mɪns
sonal life were running smoothly125, and 127
 reins reɪnz Z
 ügel wʌnz ˈwɜːdz kein Blatt vor den Mund 
that naturally, dad would hand back126 the 128
 an even keel ən ˈiːvn kiːl a
 usgeglichen,  nehmen
reins127 now she was back on an even keel128. ruhig und vernünftig 152
 affair əˈfeə(r) A
 ngelegenheit, Fall
No chance129. Mr Spears kept his hand on 129
 no chance! nəʊ tʃɑːns F
 ehlanzeige! 153
 Kafkaesque ˌkæfkəˈesk kafkaesk
the tiller130, and the purse strings131. 130
 to have one’s hand on the tiller tə həv 154
 keen to do sth kiːn tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
wʌnz hænd ɒn ðə ˈtɪlə(r) e
 tw. unter  unbedingt tun wollen
Kontrolle haben, das Ruder (fest)  155
 to draw sb’s attention to sth tə drɔː
Light at the End of the in der Hand halten ˈsʌmbədɪz əˈtenʃn tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ jds.
Tunnel132 131
 (to hold) the purse strings tə həʊld ðə pɜːs Aufmerksamkeit auf etw. richten/
strɪŋz d
 ie finanzielle Kontrolle haben lenken
Father and daughter have been engaged 132
 light at the end of the tunnel laɪt ət 156
 unwillingness ʌnˈwɪlɪŋnɪs W
 iderwille
in133 a legal dispute134 for 13 years. Britney ði end əv ðə ˈtʌnl L
 icht am Ende  157
 to relinquish sth tə rɪˈlɪŋkwɪʃ ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf 
Spears feels that for much of that time, des Tunnels etw. verzichten
she has been fighting with one hand tied 133
 engaged in sth ɪnˈɡeɪdʒd ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ  158
 accountant əˈkaʊntənt B
 uchhalter
behind her back135. She maintained that136 mit etw. beschäftigt 159
 estate ɪˈsteɪt V
 ermögen
the court-appointed137 lawyer Samuel D. 134
 dispute dɪˈspjuːt Streit,  160
 non-cash assets nɒn ˈkæʃ ˈæsets 
Ingham III, assigned to138 her upon the Auseinandersetzung Sachwerte

34 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

funds, Mr Spears pays himself a month- Timberlake and Christina Aguilera. Beyond it always pays to191 read the small print192.
ly salary of USD 16,000 plus USD 2,000 Tinseltown177, a number of US House of What Jamie Spears actually said in a court
for office costs. That is a minor161 consid- Representative178 members have given their filing193 was that he:
eration162 when taking into account163 a per- voice to179 the case, as well as the American “Does not believe that a public battle
centage cut164 from live performances165 and Civil Liberties Union. with his daughter over his continuing194
record sale royalties166. As Mr Rosengart ex- Bolstered180 by the support, Britney has service as her conservator would be in her
plained to the court: made her views clear to181 the court that not best interests195”, and that he, “intends
“Although it is common for managers, only does she want her father removed from182 to196 work with the court and his daugh-
agents and other industry professionals167 to the role of conservator, but she also wants ter’s new attorney197 to prepare for an or-
receive a percentage of an artists’ earnings, him to be investigated and held to account183: derly198 transition to199 a new conservator”
Mr Spears is none of those. He is a conser- “I’m here to get rid of184 my dad and and that he had “already been working on
vator, and, as a conservator, his role is to be charge him with185 conservatorship abuse186. such a transition with his daughter’s pre-
burdened by168, rather than benefit from169, This conservatorship has allowed my dad to vious lawyer.”
the conservatorship.” ruin187 my life.” Perhaps the most chilling200 part of the
It is not just the hotshot170 lawyer that statement201 is that he would step down
the aging171 princess172 (now 39) has on her “when the time is right,”
side173. A head of steam has been building174 Surprise Ending From the Britney camp’s202 perspec-
through the #FreeBritney campaign, which tive, that time passed203 many years ago.
started in 2019. Fans have pursued175 a so- Like a princess having her wishes grant- It looked like Mr Spears had no intention
cial media campaign and demonstrated176 ed, it seemed that dreams could come true188 of letting go204 anytime soon or without a
outside courts. Support has also come in when in August 2021, Mr Spears agreed fight205, but in a surprise move, he backed
from the music world from the likes of to step down as189 conservator. However, down, and a judge ended his conservator-
Cher, Miley Cyrus, Mariah Carey, Justin any lawyer worth their salt190 will know ship on 29th September. n

161
 minor ˈmaɪnə(r) geringfügig 177
 Tinseltown ˈtɪnsltaʊn T
 raumfabrik,  191
 it pays to do sth ɪt peɪz tə
162
 consideration kənˌsɪdəˈreɪʃn Hollywood du ˈsʌmθɪŋ es lohnt sich, 
h
 ier: Faktor 178
 US House of Representatives juˈnaɪtɪd etw. zu tun
163
 to take into account tə teɪk ˈɪntu steɪts ˈhaʊs əv ˌreprɪˈzentətɪvz U
 S- 192
 to read the small/fine print 
əˈkaʊnt e
 tw. in Betracht ziehen Repräsentantenhaus tə riːd ðə smɔːl faɪn prɪnt d
 as 
164
 cut kʌt A
 nteil 179
 to give one’s voice to sth tə ɡɪv wʌnz vɔɪs tə Kleingedruckte lesen
165
 live performance laɪv pəˈfɔːməns  ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. seine Stimme geben 193
 court filing kɔːt ˈfaɪlɪŋ 
Live-Auftritt 180
 to bolster sb tə ˈbəʊlstə(r) ˈsʌmbədi jdn. Gerichtsakte
166
 royalty ˈrɔɪəlti T
 antieme unterstützen, stärken 194
 continuing kənˈtɪnjuːɪŋ a
 nhaltend,
167
 professional prəˈfeʃənl P
 rofi 181
 to make sth clear to sb tə ˈmeɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ klɪə(r) fortdauernd
168
 to be burdened by sth tə bi ˈbɜːdnd baɪ tə ˈsʌmbədi jdm. etw. klarmachen 195
 to be in sb’s best interest tə bi
ˈsʌmθɪŋ von etw. belastet werden 182
 to remove sb from sth tə rɪˈmuːv ˈsʌmbədi ɪn ˈsʌmbədɪz best ˈɪntrəst in jds. bestem
169
 to benefit from sth tə ˈbenɪfɪt frəm ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. als etw. absetzen Interesse sein
frəm ˈsʌmθɪŋ von etw.  183
 to hold sb to account tə həʊld ˈsʌmbədi tu 196
 to intend to do sth tu ɪnˈtend
profitieren əˈkaʊnt jdn. verantwortlich machen tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ b
 eabsichtigen, 
170
 hotshot ˈhɒtʃɒt e
 rstklassig,  184
 to get rid of sb tə ɡet rɪd əv ˈsʌmbədi jdn. etw. zu tun
Spitzen- loswerden 197
 attorney əˈtɜːni A
 nwalt
171
 aging ˈeɪdʒɪŋ a
 lternd, älter  185
 to charge sb with sth tə tʃɑːdʒ ˈsʌmbədi wɪð 198
 orderly ˈɔːdəli g
 eordnet, 
werdend ˈsʌmθɪŋ Anklage gegen jdn. wegen etw. ordnungsgemäß
172
 princess ˌprɪnˈses P
 rinzessin erheben 199
 transition to sth trænˈzɪʃn tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ
173
 to have sb on one’s side tə həv 186
 abuse əˈbjuːs M
 issbrauch Übergang zu etw.
ˈsʌmbədi ɒn wʌnz saɪd jdn. auf seiner  187
 to ruin sth tə ˈruːɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.  200
 chilling ˈtʃɪlɪŋ a
 bschreckend
Seite haben ruinieren 201
 statement ˈsteɪtmənt A
 ussage
174
 to build a head of steam tə bɪld 188
 dreams come true driːmz kʌm truː  202
 X’s camp kæmp X’s Lager
ə hed əv stiːm z wingenden Druck  Träume werden wahr 203
 that time (had) passed... ðət ˈtaɪm
aufbauen 189
 to step down as sb tə step daʊn həd pɑːst die Zeit/der Zeitpunkt ist 
175
 to pursue sth tə pəˈsjuː ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. əz ˈsʌmbədi als jd. zurücktreten (lange) vorbei
verfolgen 190
 any X worth their salt ˈeni 204
 to let go tə let gəʊ loslassen
176
 to demonstrate tə ˈdemənstreɪt wɜːθ ðeə(r) sɔːlt jeder X, der sein  205
 without a fight wɪðˈaʊt ə faɪt 
demonstrieren Geld wert ist kampflos

35
INTERNATIONAL

Netflix
smartphones becoming increasingly23 pop- 12
 supplier səˈplaɪə(r) Z
 ulieferer
ular. But will this be a game changer24 for 13
 beneficiary ˌbenɪˈfɪʃəri Nutznießer
the video-streaming industry? 14
 to entertain sb tu ˌentəˈteɪn
ˈsʌmbədi jdn. unterhalten

and
15
 draw drɔː Z
 ug, Magnet
Reasons Behind the 16
 X and Y combined ənd
Growing Popularity kəmˈbaɪnd X und Y zusammen
17
 to announce sth tu əˈnaʊns

Thrill !
Given the company’s culture and appe- ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. ankündigen
tite for25 relentless26 growth, the launch into  expansion ɪkˈspænʃn
1
18

gaming might have been expected. Still, Expansion, Ausweitung


it’s taken some time to get the ball rolling27 19
 given sth..., ɡɪvn ˈsʌmθɪŋ
– Netflix CEO28 Reed Hastings mentioned in Anbetracht (von) etw.,
in 2018 that the video game Fortnite was angesichts etw.

It has been rumoured for his company’s biggest competition29 and  advances in sth ədˈvɑːnsɪz ɪn
20

said that “it was inevitable30 [Netflix] would ˈsʌmθɪŋ Fortschritte in etw.
a while now2 that3 Netflix enter gaming.” Now, three years later, sev- 21
 revenues ˈrevənjuːz Einnahmen

would enter the world eral things have transpired31 which have 22
 rapidly ˈræpɪdli schnell
led to it becoming a reality: the game in- 23
 increasingly ɪnˈkriːsɪŋli
of video games – now dustry itself has moved toward a subscrip- zunehmend, immer mehr
it’s finally happened. tion32 model, similar to Netflix, as such a 24
 game changer ɡeɪm ˈtʃeɪndʒə(r)

Last month, it premiered4 model provides more reliable33 earnings


pathways34 for smaller, quality game mak- 25
Spielwende
 appetite for sth ˈæpɪtaɪt fə(r)
its Gaming Division ers – this allows for a wider variety35 of ˈsʌmθɪŋ Appetit auf etw.

with two adventure games to enter the market; as well, the 26


 relentless rɪˈlentləs u
 nermüdlich
popular free-to-play36 games model cleverly  to get the ball rolling tə ɡet ðə bɔːl
games5, promising more
27

attracts new customers because they don’t ˈrəʊlɪŋ d


 en Ball/Stein ins Rollen bringen
to come6. Here BEM’s have to make upfront37 purchases38 (they 28
 CEO (Chief Executive Officer) ˌsiː
can later spend money on upgrades39 and iːˈəʊ tʃiːf ɪɡˈzekjʊtɪv ˈɒfɪsə(r)
Michael Gaylord tells you expansion packs40); demographic chang- Firmenboss, CEO, Geschäftsführer
how it works and what es in recent years have meant that gam- 29
 competition ˌkɒmpəˈtɪʃn K
 onkurrenz

it might mean for the ers are now composed of41 nearly 50 per- 30
 inevitable ɪnˈevɪtəbl u
 nvermeidlich
cent women, and are often well educated 31
 to transpire tə trænsˈpaɪə(r) s ich ereignen
future. (and hence42 earn a higher income), al- 32
 subscription səbˈskrɪpʃn A
 bonnement

I
lowing Netflix to reach a huge and rela- 33
 reliable rɪˈlaɪəbl v
 erlässlich
t’s no secret that the coronavirus pan- tively43 wealthy44 clientele45; finally, people 34
 pathway ˈpɑːθweɪ Pfad, Weg
demic7 has led to a big uptick in8 the have increasingly opted out of46 passive 35
 variety vəˈraɪəti V
 ielfalt
growth of video gaming, with many 36
 free-to-play friː tə ˈpleɪ k
 ostenlos
people planted9 in their homes and ,1
 thrill  θrɪl N
 ervenkitzel spielbar
movement outside limited. Video gam- 2
 for a while now fə(r) ə waɪl naʊ e
 ine Weile 37
 upfront ˌʌpˈfrʌnt vorab
ing giants10 Nintendo and Electronic Arts, 3
 to be rumoured that... tə bi ˈruːməd ðæt m
 an 38
 purchase ˈpɜːtʃəs K
 auf,
not to mention11 many other software and munkelt, dass... Erwerb
hardware suppliers12, have been major ben- 4
 to premiere sth tə ˈpremieə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. 39
 upgrade ˌʌpˈɡreɪd U
 pgrade,
eficiaries13. For those needing to be enter- erstaufführen Aktualisierung
tained14, gaming and e-sports are now ac- 5
 adventure game ədˈventʃə(r) ɡeɪm Abenteuerspiel 40
 expansion pack ɪkˈspænʃn
tually a bigger draw15 than both the movie 6
 more to come mɔː(r) tə ˈkʌm w
 eiteres wird pæk Erweiterungspaket
and music industries combined16. Corporate folgen, mehr wird kommen 41
 composed of X kəmˈpəʊzd əv
activity in these areas is increasing as well, 7
 pandemic pænˈdemɪk Pandemie aus X bestehend
with Netflix being the latest technology gi- 8
 uptick in sth ˈʌptɪk ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ Aufwärtsknick in etw. 42
 hence hens d
 aher, deshalb
ant announcing17 an expansion18 into video 9
 to plant sb somewhere tə plɑːnt ˈsʌmbədi 43
 relatively ˈrelətɪvli r elativ
games. It is easy to understand why. Given19 ˈsʌmweə(r) jdn. irgendwo festsetzen 44
 wealthy ˈwelθi w
 ohlhabend
the advances in20 technology, video game 10
 giant ˈdʒaɪənt G
 igant 45
 clientele ˌkliːənˈtel K
 undschaft, Klientel
revenues21 from a variety of sources con- 11
 not to mention... nɒt tə ˈmenʃn g
 anz abgesehen 46
 to opt out of sth tu ɒpt aʊt əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 us
tinue to increase rapidly22, with gaming on von... etw. aussteigen

36 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


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38 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

entertainment and into active fun – mixing sophisticated68 games to be played, fac-
social media and gaming enables users to47 tors69 which point to70 a more long-term71
bring their friends into the interactive on- structural growth strategy. Furthermore72,
line world. the company has reportedly73 announced
it is “building out74 its gaming team and
is exploring what gaming looks like on
Could This Be Part Netflix,” words that would allow them to
of a Trend? one day announce more impressive75 fu-
ture gaming products – such as, say, back-
Granted48, Netflix’s effort49 may seem pack-mounted76 VR77 devices or interactive
rather underwhelming50 so far, but this lim- movie-game combinations.
ited launch allows the company to fulfil51 its
basic goals regarding52 the gaming service:
offering free games to subscribers without Potential Problems
advertising while – thanks to minimising53
the amount of back-end54 tech55 required – So, it appears that Netflix doesn’t want
allowing new games to be quickly devel- to mimic78 its video-streaming app to de-
oped56 and added in the coming months. liver video games on a super-large scale79.
So, for now at least, Netflix Gaming is an Could that relatively small start indicate80
only-Android, and only-smartphone of- the company’s brass81 foresees82 some po-
fering. However, could the company have tential bumps83 in the road ahead? Well,
bigger plans, such as other delivery meth- according to Matthew Ball, an industry
ods in its sights57? expert, Netflix would have to spend a lot
It’s difficult to say. Due to58 the fact that more money in order to build out its tech-
the smartphone-gaming market is very nology and portfolio in order to have suc-
large, and Netflix appears poised to59 pump cess. “The most popular and lucrative84
out60 only easily accessible61 games over games in the world are online and mul-
the next several months, it would seem tiplayer85. This requires Netflix to create 71
 long-term lɒŋ tɜːm langfristig
that it does not have the intention62 to com- and operate86 extensive87 and highly social 72
 furthermore ˌfɜːðəˈmɔː(r) a
 ußerdem, 
pete directly with63 the video game giants, player account systems,” he wrote in an in- weiterhin
such as Nintendo or Sony. What’s more, dustry essay88 on the potential impact89 of 73
 reportedly rɪˈpɔːtɪdli a
 ngeblich
it hasn’t hinted at64 console development Netflix Gaming. If they want to expand by 74
 to build sth out tə bɪld ˈsʌmθɪŋ aʊt e
 tw.
and has hired Mike Verdu – a former65 mo- ausbauen
bile games specialist for EA – to lead the 58
 due to sth djuː tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ w
 egen/aufgrund 75
 impressive ɪmˈpresɪv b
 eeindruckend
gaming division66. On the other hand, ad- von etw. 76
 backpack-mounted ˈbækpæk ˈmaʊntɪd im
vances in current 5G networks could ac- 59
 poised to do sth pɔɪzd tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ im Begriff Rucksack (montiert, untergebracht)
celerate67 game growth and allow more sein, etw. zu tun 77
 VR (virtual reality) ˌviː ˈɑː(r) ˈvɜːtʃʊəl rɪˈælɪti V
 R,
60
 to pump sth out tə pʌmp ˈsʌmθɪŋ aʊt e
 tw. virtuelle Realität
47
 to enable sb to do sth tu ɪˈneɪbl ˈsʌmbədi tə du herauspumpen 78
 to mimic sth tə ˈmɪmɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. imitieren,
ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdm. ermöglichen, etw. zu tun 61
 easily accessible ˈiːzəli əkˈsesəbl g
 ut/leicht nachmachen
48
 granted,... ˈɡrɑːntɪd zugegeben zugänglich 79
 on a large scale ɒn ə lɑːdʒ skeɪl im großen Stil
49
 effort ˈefət A
 nstrengung 62
 intention ɪnˈtenʃn A
 bsicht 80
 to indicate sth tu ˈɪndɪkeɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf etw.
50
 underwhelming ˌʌndəˈwelmɪŋ enttäuschend 63
 to compete with sb tə kəmˈpiːt wɪð ˈsʌmbədi hindeuten
51
 to fulfil sth tə fʊlˈfɪl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. erfüllen sich mit jdm. messen 81
 brass brɑːs die hohen Tiere
52
 regarding sth rɪˈɡɑːdɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. betreffend 64
 to hint at sth tə hɪnt ət ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf etw. 82
 to foresee sth tə fɔːˈsiː ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
53
 to minimise sth tə ˈmɪnɪmaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. hinweisen voraussehen
minimalisieren 65
 former ˈfɔːmə(r) f rüherer 83
 bump bʌmp Unebenheit, Hubbel
54
 back-end ˈbækˈend nachgeschaltet,  66
 division dɪˈvɪʒn A
 bteilung 84
 lucrative ˈluːkrətɪv lukrativ
Back-End 67
 to accelerate tu əkˈseləreɪt b
 eschleunigen 85
 multiplayer ˈmʌltipleɪə(r) f ür mehrere Spieler
55
 tech tek T
 echnologie 68
 sophisticated səˈfɪstɪkeɪtɪd a
 nspruchsvoll, 86
 to operate sth tu ˈɒpəreɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
56
 to develop sth tə dɪˈveləp ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. komplex unterhalten, betreuen
entwickeln 69
 factor ˈfæktə(r) Faktor 87
 extensive ɪkˈstensɪv u
 mfangreich, ausführlich
57
 to have sth in one’s sights tə həv ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪn 70
 to point to sth tə pɔɪnt tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf etw. 88
 essay eˈseɪ E
 ssay, Aufsatz
wʌnz saɪts e
 tw. im Visier haben hinweisen 89
 impact ˈɪmpækt Einfluss »

39
INTERNATIONAL

launching only mobile games but moving 90


 consistent with sth kənˈsɪstənt
outside of Android to Apple – consistent wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ im Einklang 
with90 their current trajectory91 – this could mit etw. Fact File
be problematic because companies like 91
 trajectory trəˈdʒektəri F
 lugbahn,
Apple would take a substantial92 revenue Verlaufskurve, Zeitschiene Although the Baltic region is the
cut93. Netflix could outsource94 some of 92
 substantial səbˈstænʃl b
 eträchtlich, main source of the world’s am-
its operations to Amazon or Microsoft or wesentlich ber, the stone is also present fur-
say, Epic Games, but that could signify95 93
 cut kʌt A
 nteil ther afield1, in countries like the
a cultural shift96 and, again, would result 94
 to outsource sth tu ˈaʊtsɔːs ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. Dominican Republic, Burma 2,
in97 Netflix giving up98 part of its revenues. auslagern, outsourcen China, Canada and Mexico.
95
 to signify sth tə ˈsɪɡnɪfaɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
andeuten, bedeuten  further afield ˈfɜːðə(r) əˈfiːld w
1
 eiter weg
Putting It All Together 99 96
 cultural shift ˈkʌltʃərəl ʃɪft k
 ulturelle  Burma ˈbɜːmə B
2
 irma, Myanmar
Veränderung, Verschiebung 
Netflix may not have the intention of der Kultur
becoming “the Netflix of video games” in 97
 to result in sth tə rɪˈzʌlt ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ z u etw.
the foreseeable future100. However, provid- führen
ing video games gives Netflix the ability 98
 to give sth up tə ɡɪv ˈsʌmθɪŋ ʌp e
 tw. 
to offer something none of its direct com- aufgeben
petitors101 currently provide. It current- 99
 to put sth together tə pʊt ˈsʌmθɪŋ təˈɡeðə(r)
ly offers free-to-play games where gam- etw. zusammenfügen
ers do not have to buy anything upfront. 100
 in the foreseeable future ɪn ðə fɔːˈsiːəbl
However, if it wants to expand102 its new ˈfjuːtʃə(r) in absehbarer Zukunft/Zeit
Gaming section, it does have a few poten- 101
 direct competitor dɪˈrekt kəmˈpetɪtə(r)
tial options: it could accelerate its build- direkter Konkurrent
ing, testing and creating of games; it could 102
 to expand sth tu ɪkˈspænd ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
launch its own cloud-streaming service expandieren, ausweiten
for its games; or, the ultimate103 solution 103
 ultimate ˈʌltɪmət e
 ndgültig, ultimativ
could be acquiring104 a company with gam- 104
 to acquire sth tu əˈkwaɪə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
ing experience, such as Ubisoft (the mak- kaufen, erwerben
er of the popular Assassin’s Creed series 105
 hefty ˈhefti h
 eftig, happig
of games). That would likely come with a 106
 price tag praɪs tæɡ P
 reis(schild)
hefty105 price tag106. 107
 at the very least ət ðə ˈveri liːst 
In any case, from a business-growth wenigstens
perspective, Netflix Gaming, at the very 108
 to lure sb tə lʊə(r) ˈsʌmbədi jdn. 
least107, will allow the company to lure108 (an)locken
new customers. With a wider selection 109
 to market sth tə ˈmɑːkɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
of new games set to be released in the vermarkten
coming months, it will also offer the net- 110
 show ʃəʊ F
 ernsehshow
work the ability to market109 its existing 111
 to give sb an excuse to do sth tə ɡɪv
shows110 and, perhaps, give it an excuse ˈsʌmbədi ən ɪkˈskjuːz tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdm. 
to111 raise subscription prices (although at einen Vorwand geben, 
this point112, there is no direct indication etw. zu tun
that will happen). But will the creation of 112
 at this point ət ðɪs pɔɪnt z u diesem 
Netflix Gaming be a pivotal113 moment in Zeitpunkt
the evolution of a new, revolutionary gam- 113
 pivotal ˈpɪvətl z entral, 
ing-video streaming fusion114? Could Apple ausschlaggebend
follow Netflix into the video-gaming mar- 114
 fusion ˈfjuːʒn Fusion, 
ket? Perhaps. But for now, if what you’re Verschmelzung
seeking is a wide and dynamic choice 115
 all-you-can-eat ɔːl ju kən iːt 
of interactive games, served in all-you- Flatrate-Essen
can-eat115 fashion for a flat fee116, it seems 116
 flat fee flæt fiː P
 auschalgebühr
that alternatives, such as Xbox Game 117
 sb’s best bet ˈsʌmbədɪz best bet jds. beste
Streaming, still remain your best bet117. n Wahl

40 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

Amber – The 1

BUSINESS-ENGLISH-MAGAZIN.DE Baltic’s Gold


ZUGANGSCODE
DOWNLOAD QR CODE SCANNER:
COLORFULMEDIA.DE/SCANNER

w49

ODER HÖR ES

With its attractive appearance2 and rich golden


DIR AN AUF:

colour, amber has long been used to produce


jewellery and decorations. The Baltic Region –
including Russia and Poland – is hotbed3 for the
amber industry, which Jonathan Moore describes
in more detail.

What Is Amber? The Properties of10 Amber

Amber is basically4 the fossilised5 resin6 Amber tends to be11 golden brown,
of the pine tree, most of which was formed though some varieties12 of it may be red,
about 50 million years ago. Indeed7, pine white or black. This precious stone13 is
forests are believed to have created over warm to the touch14. When warmed in the
100,000 tonnes of amber, which has been hand, it emits15 a pleasant fragrance16; when
used since prehistoric times8 to make jew- burnt, it produces a light flame that gives
ellery, amulets9, religious objects and oth- off17 a smell akin to18 that of incense19. It
er decorations. is easy to work20 mechanically, though it
cracks21 when heated rapidly22. Its softening23
temperature is approx.24 150°C, whilst25 its

1
 amber ˈæmbə(r) B
 ernstein 14
 warm to the touch wɔːm tə ðə tʌtʃ 
2
 appearance əˈpɪərəns A
 ussehen handwarm
3
 hotbed ˈhɒtbed K
 eimzelle, Nährboden 15
 to emit sth tu iˈmɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ 
4
 basically ˈbeɪsɪkli g
 rundsätzlich, hauptsächlich etw. verströmen, ausstrahlen
5
 fossilised ˈfɒsəlaɪzd versteinert 16
 fragrance ˈfreɪɡrəns G
 eruch
6
 resin ˈrezɪn H
 arz 17
 to give sth off tə ɡɪv ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɒf e
 tw.
7
 indeed ɪnˈdiːd tatsächlich, wirklich ausstrahlen
8
 prehistoric times ˌpriːhɪˈstɒrɪk ˈtaɪmz 18
 akin to sth əˈkɪn tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 iner S. ähnlich
prähistorische Zeiten 19
 incense ˈɪnsens W
 eihrauch
9
 amulet ˈæmjʊlət A
 mulett 20
 to work sth tə ˈwɜːk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. bearbeiten
10
 property of sth ˈprɒpəti əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ E
 igenschaft 21
 to crack tə kræk b
 ersten, brechen
von etw. 22
 rapidly ˈræpɪdli schnell
11
 to tend to be X tə tend tə bi d
 azu tendieren, 23
 softening ˈsɒfnɪŋ Erweichen
etw. zu sein 24
 approx. (approximately) əˈprɒks əˈprɒksɪmətli
12
 variety vəˈraɪəti V
 ielfalt ungefähr
13
 precious stone ˈpreʃəs stəʊn E
 delstein 25
 whilst waɪlst w
 ährend

41
INTERNATIONAL

melting point26 is 350°C. It may be subjected


to27 thermal28 refining29, colouring, shaping30

Articulate Your Articles and ironing31 processes and can be dyed32


using organic or synthetic substances.

Complete the excerpt from the text with the correct articles.
Use a, an, the, and x (no article). Baltic Gold

Since sizeable1 amber2 reserves are found under and around 1)_____ Baltic Sea, Since sizeable33 amber reserves34 are
it is only logical that3 amber is known as Baltic Gold. After severe4 storms, Baltic found under and around the Baltic Sea,
amber, or succinite5, is frequently6 washed ashore7. 2)_____ world’s largest amber it is only logical that amber is known as
deposit8 lies to 3)_____ west of Kaliningrad in 4)_____ Russia, in 5)_____ layer9 Baltic Gold. After severe35 storms, Baltic
of amberiferous10 clay11 lying 30 metres beneath 6)_____ surface12. Indeed13, JSC amber, or succinite36, is frequently37 washed
Kaliningrad is 7)_____ only company in Russia, as well as 8)_____ largest enter- ashore38. The world’s largest amber de-
prise14 in 9)_____ world, to engage in15 10)_____ industrial extraction16 and pro- posit39 lies to the west of Kaliningrad in
cessing17 of amber. 11)_____ Kaliningrad District’s deposits contain18 12)_____ Russia, in a layer40 of amberiferous41 clay42
estimated19 90% of 13)_____ world’s amber reserves20, making 14)_____ amber lying 30 metres beneath43 the surface44.
industry 15)_____ vital21 source of income22 for 16)_____ local economy. Indeed, JSC Kaliningrad is the only com-
pany in Russia, as well as the largest en-
terprise45 in the world, to engage in46 the
industrial extraction47 and processing48 of
1
 sizeable ˈsaɪzəbl b
 eträchtlich, erheblich 13
 indeed ɪnˈdiːd tatsächlich, wahrhaftig amber. The Kaliningrad District’s49 depos-
2
 amber ˈæmbə(r) Bernstein 14
 enterprise ˈentəpraɪz U
 nternehmen its contain50 an estimated 90 percent of the
3
 it is only logical that... ɪt ɪz ˈəʊnli ˈlɒdʒɪkl 15
 to engage in sth tu ɪnˈɡeɪdʒ ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. world’s amber reserves, making the amber
ðæt e
 s ist nur folgerichtig, dass... betreiben industry a vital51 source of income52 for the
4
 severe sɪˈvɪə(r) h
 eftig, stark 16
 extraction ɪkˈstrækʃn G
 ewinnung local economy.
5
 succinite ˈsʌksɪnaɪt S
 uccinit 17
 to process sth tə ˈprəʊses ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. Outside north-west Russia, succinite
6
 frequently ˈfriːkwəntli h
 äufig bearbeiten, weiterverarbeiten is found chiefly53 along the southern and
7
 to be washed ashore tə bi wɒʃt əˈʃɔː(r) a
n 18
 to contain tə kənˈteɪn e
 nthalten eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea, in Poland,
den Strand gespült werden 19
 estimated ˈestɪmeɪtɪd g
 eschätzt Lithuania, Germany, Denmark – but also
8
 deposit dɪˈpɒzɪt V
 orkommen 20
 reserves rɪˈzɜːvz V
 orrat, Reserven in Latvia, Sweden and Ukraine.
9
 layer ˈleɪə(r) S
 chicht 21
 vital ˈvaɪtl lebensnotwendig, wichtig
10
 amberiferous ˌambəˈrɪfrəs b
 ernsteinhaltig 22
 source of income sɔːs əv ˈɪŋkʌm
11
 clay kleɪ T
 on Einkommensquelle Polish Amber
12
 surface ˈsɜːfɪs O
 berfläche

Answers:
With its close proximity to54 the Baltic
14. the, 15. a, 16. the Sea, Poland is also among the world’s
top amber producing countries. In the
11. the, 12. an, 13. the,
6. the, 7. x, 8. the, 9. the, 10. the,
1. the, 2. the, 3. the, 4. x, 5. a, Kashubian Lake District, amber was
mined55 as long ago as the tenth century56.

26
 melting point ˈmeltɪŋ pɔɪnt S
 chmelzpunkt 37
 frequently ˈfriːkwəntli h
 äufig 48
 to process sth tə ˈprəʊses ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
27
 to subject sth to sth tə səbˈdʒekt ˈsʌmθɪŋ tə 38
 to be washed ashore tə bi wɒʃt əˈʃɔː(r) a
 n den bearbeiten, weiterverarbeiten
ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. etw. aussetzen Strand gespült werden 49
 district ˈdɪstrɪkt B
 ezirk, Kreis
28
 thermal ˈθɜːml thermisch, Wärme- 39
 deposit dɪˈpɒzɪt Vorkommen 50
 to contain sth tə kənˈteɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
29
 refining rɪˈfaɪnɪŋ Veredelung,  40
 layer ˈleɪə(r) S
 chicht enthalten
Verfeinerung 41
 amberiferous ˌambəˈrɪfərəs b
 ernsteinhaltig 51
 vital ˈvaɪtl lebensnotwendig, wichtig
30
 to shape sth tə ʃeɪp ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. formen 42
 clay kleɪ T
 on 52
 income ˈɪŋkʌm E
 inkommen
31
 ironing ˈaɪənɪŋ Bügeln 43
 beneath sth bɪˈniːθ ˈsʌmθɪŋ unter etw. 53
 chiefly ˈtʃiːfli h
 auptsächlich
32
 to dye sth tə daɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. (ein)färben 44
 surface ˈsɜːfɪs O
 berfläche 54
 proximity to sth prɒkˈsɪmɪti tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ N
 ähe
33
 sizeable ˈsaɪzəbl b
 eträchtlich, erheblich 45
 enterprise ˈentəpraɪz U
 nternehmen zu etw.
34
 reserves rɪˈzɜːvz Vorrat, Reserven 46
 to engage in sth tu ɪnˈɡeɪdʒ ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 55
 to mine sth tə maɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. abbauen
35
 severe sɪˈvɪə(r) h
 eftig, stark betreiben 56
 century ˈsentʃəri J ahrhundert
36
 succinite ˈsʌksɪnaɪt S
 uccinit 47
 extraction ɪkˈstrækʃn G
 ewinnung 57
 quantity ˈkwɒntɪti M
 enge

42 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


INTERNATIONAL
IN BRIEF

Between 1835 and 1865, large quantities57 considerably – from approx. USD 150 71
 to consider sth to be sth tə kənˈsɪdə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ
of the stone were discovered58 and extract- to USD 4,500 per84 kilo, depending on85 tə bi ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. als etw. betrachten
ed in the basin59 of the Wda and Brda rivers size, colour and shape. One of the most 72
 attractive to the eye əˈtræktɪv tə ði aɪ
in northern Poland. Some of this amber lay valuable86 types of amber is pure87 amber, ansprechend für das Auge
just below the surface, though others were aka88 solar stone89. However, amber pieces 73
 movement ˈmuːvmənt Bewegung
up to six metres deep. The local amber 74
 crust krʌst K
 ruste
mines employed up to 200 people. 58
 to discover sth tə dɪˈskʌvə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 75
 directly dɪˈrektli d
 irekt
Nowadays60, the country’s main am- entdecken 76
 by contrast baɪ ˈkɒntrɑːst d
 agegen
ber-bearing61 deposits are found near 59
 basin ˈbeɪsn B
 ecken, Kessel 77
 pit pɪt G
 rube, Bergwerk
Gda ń sk, Karwia and the village of 60
 nowadays ˈnaʊədeɪz h
 eutzutage 78
 to obscure sth tu əbˈskjʊə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
Ch ł apowo near W ł adys ł awowo. The 61
 to bear sth tə beə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. tragen verdecken, verbergen
Chłapowo deposits are believed to be 62
 comparable with sth ˈkɒmpərəbl wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ 79
 interior ɪnˈtɪərɪə(r) I nneres
comparable in size with62 those of the vergleichbar mit etw. 80
 commonly ˈkɒmənli a
 llgemein, üblicherweise
Kaliningrad region. Three drillings63 in the 63
 drilling ˈdrɪlɪŋ B
 ohrung, Bohren 81
 to vary tə ˈveəri v
 ariieren, sich unterscheiden
area have revealed64 that some of these 64
 to reveal sth tə rɪˈviːl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. aufdecken, 82
 considerably kənˈsɪdərəbli b
 eträchtlich,
deposits are as little as 67 metres deep, offenlegen erheblich
which makes it possible to mine them. 65
 conversely kənˈvɜːsli u
 mgekehrt 83
 undoubtedly ʌnˈdaʊtɪdli zweifellos
Conversely65, the Gdańsk and Karwia de- 66
 to preclude sth tə prɪˈkluːd ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 84
 per X pɜː(r) p
 ro X
posits are approx. 90 – 120 m below the ausschließen 85
 depending on sth dɪˈpendɪŋ ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ
surface, which precludes66 their extraction 67
 for the time being fə(r) ðə ˈtaɪm ˈbiːɪŋ e
 rst abhängig von etw.
for the time being67. einmal 86
 valuable ˈvæljʊəbl wertvoll
Elsewhere68 in Poland, amberiferous sed- 68
 elsewhere ˌelsˈweə(r) a
 nderswo, woanders 87
 pure pjʊə(r) r ein
iments69 have also been discovered in the 69
 sediment ˈsedɪmənt S
 ediment 88
 aka (also known as) ˌeɪ keɪ ˈeɪ ˈɔːlsəʊ
Ustka area as well as further inland70, near 70
 inland ˈɪnlænd (im) Inland-, nǝʊn ǝz a
 lias, auch bekannt als
the towns of Bytów and Grudziądz. im Landesinneren 89
 solar stone ˈsəʊlə(r) stəʊn
Brennstein

On Land or Sea

Amber can be found on both land or


sea, but sea amber is considered to
be71 more attractive to the eye72 than
mined amber. This is because the
water movement73 polishes the
stones so they tend to be clear
and shiny, with no crust74 on
them. Sea amber is often col-
lected directly75 from the wa-
ter using nets. By contrast76,
pit77 amber, which is mined
on land, is frequently cov-
ered with a crust that ob-
scures78 its interior79. It is
also commonly80 found
on the Baltic Coast of
Russia.

Prices Vary81
Considerably82

While amber is un-


doubtedly83 a precious
stone, amber prices vary »

43
INTERNATIONAL

encasing90 fossilised creatures91 are particu- severe damage to129 the environment by 116
 unprecedented ʌnˈpresɪdentɪd b
 eispiellos
larly expensive; they have been known to92 stripping vast130 areas of131 woodland132, dec- 117
 crime kraɪm V
 erbrechen
fetch93 six-figure94 sums. Pieces contain- imating133 the soil, leaving the land as bar- 118
 to perpetrate sth tə ˈpɜːpɪtreɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
ing inclusions95 of insects or plants are also ren134 as moonscape135. Worst of all136, sus- begehen, verüben
among the most highly valued. taining137 plant life138 in the affected139 area 119
 water pump ˈwɔːtə(r) pʌmp W
 asserpumpe
is practically out of the question140. 120
 vehicle ˈviːəkl G
 efährt
121
 makeshift ˈmeɪkʃɪft b
 ehelfsmäßig, notdürftig
Amber Shops, Galleries 122
 to take advantage of sth tə teɪk
and Museums Conclusion141 ədˈvɑːntɪdʒ əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich etw. zunutze
machen
Those who visit any seaside96 resort97 Despite142 the above-mentioned143 shady144 123
 density ˈdensɪti D
 ichte
on Poland or Lithuania’s Baltic coast will dealings145, the amber industry will un- 124
 soil sɔɪl E
 rde
have noticed98 a fair99 number of shops – doubtedly146 continue to flourish147 well 125
 hoping against hope ˈhəʊpɪŋ əˈɡenst həʊp
large and small – selling amber jewel- into the future148. Baltic Gold may be per- gegen jede Hoffnung hoffend
lery, including necklaces100, bracelets101 ceived149 as mixing business with pleasure150: 126
 to float tə fləʊt s chweben, schwemmen
and brooches102. The Amber Queen jew- it provides vital income for151 the economies 127
 to wade in tə weɪd ɪn in etw. waten
ellery chain103 has outlets104 in Vilnius105 and of Russia, Poland and the Baltic countries 128
 debris ˈdebriː Trümmer, Schutt, Geröll
Klaipeda106 in Lithuania as well as Riga in while, at the same time, bringing pleasure 129
 damage to sth ˈdæmɪdʒ tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ S
 chaden
Latvia. Amber exhibitions107 and galleries to the recipients152 of beautiful, shimmer- für etw.
are also a popular tourist magnet108 in the ing153 decorative gifts. n 130
 vast vɑːst gewaltig, riesig
Baltic region. One example is the Amber 131
 to strip sth of sth tə strɪp ˈsʌmθɪŋ əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ
Gallery in Gda ń sk. However, one of 90
 to encase sth tu ɪnˈkeɪs ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. etw. etw. entziehen
Europe’s largest amber shops is the House einschließen 132
 woodland ˈwʊdlənd Waldgebiet
of Amber in Copenhagen109, while of the 91
 creature ˈkriːtʃə(r) K
 reatur 133
 to decimate sth tə ˈdesɪmeɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
world’s most recognised110 amber museums 92
 sb has been known to do sth ˈsʌmbədi həz biːn dezimieren
is the Copenhagen Amber Museum. nəʊn tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ jd. ist dafür bekannt, etw. 134
 barren ˈbærən k
 arg, öde
zu tun 135
 moonscape ˈmuːnskeɪp M
 ondlandschaft
93
 to fetch X tə fetʃ X
 einbringen,  136
 worst of all wɜːst əv ɔːl d
 as Allerschlimmste
The Dark Side of the einholen 137
 to sustain sth tə səˈsteɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
Moon111 94
 six-figure sɪks ˈfɪɡə(r) s echsstellig erhalten
95
 inclusion ɪnˈkluːʒn E
 inschluss 138
 plant life plɑːnt laɪf Pflanzenwelt
Unfortunately112, even though most am- 96
 seaside ˈsiːsaɪd am Meer 139
 affected əˈfektɪd b
 etroffen, beeinträchtigt
ber is mined legally113, illegal114 amber min- 97
 resort rɪˈzɔːt K
 urort, Ferienort 140
 out of the question ˈaʊt əv ðə ˈkwestʃən a
 ußer
ing is rife115, particularly in Russia and 98
 to notice sth tə ˈnəʊtɪs ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. Frage, ausgeschlossen
Ukraine. In fact, in recent times it has wahrnehmen 141
 conclusion kənˈkluːʒn F
 azit
reached an unprecedented116 level. Over 99
 fair feə(r) o
 rdentlich, hübsch 142
 despite dɪˈspaɪt trotz
the last three years, more than 2,000 ha of 100
 necklace ˈnekləs H
 alskette 143
 above-mentioned əˌbʌvˈmenʃnd
Ukrainian land is believed to have been ru- 101
 bracelet ˈbreɪslɪt A
 rmreif obengenannter
ined by illegal mining. 102
 brooch brəʊtʃ B
 rosche 144
 shady ˈʃeɪdi z wielichtig, dubios
This crime 117 is perpetrated 118 by 103
 chain tʃeɪn K
 ette 145
 dealings ˈdiːlɪŋz Geschäfte
Russian or Ukrainian gangs, who use wa- 104
 outlet ˈaʊtlet V
 erkaufsstelle 146
 undoubtedly ʌnˈdaʊtɪdli zweifellos
ter pumps119, mostly made from old vehi- 105
 Vilnius ˈvɪlniəs W
 ilna 147
 to flourish tə ˈflʌrɪʃ fl
 orieren, Erfolg haben
cle120 parts constructed specifically for am- 106
 Klaipeda ˈklʌɪpədə Klaipeda 148
 well into the future wel ˈɪntə ðə ˈfjuːtʃə(r) b
 is
ber mining. These makeshift121 tools take 107
 exhibition ˌeksɪˈbɪʃn A
 usstellung weit in die Zukunft
advantage of122 the low density123 of am- 108
 tourist magnet ˈtʊərɪst ˈmæɡnɪt 149
 to perceive sth tə pəˈsiːv ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
ber, which makes it easier to extract. In Touristenmagnet wahrnehmen
some regions, hundreds of gangs may 109
 Copenhagen ˌkəʊpənˈheɪɡən K
 openhagen 150
 to mix business with pleasure tə mɪks
mine in the same area, with thousands of 110
 recognised ˈrekəɡnaɪzd anerkannt ˈbɪznəs wɪð ˈpleʒə(r) d
 as Angenehme mit dem
men pumping the soil124 full of water, hop- 111
 the dark side of the Moon ðə dɑːk saɪd əv ðə Nützlichen verbinden
ing against hope125 that amber reserves will muːn die dunkle Seite des Mondes 151
 to provide sth for sb tə prəˈvaɪd ˈsʌmθɪŋ
float126 to the top. 112
 unfortunately ʌnˈfɔːtʃənətli leider fə(r) ˈsʌmbədi f ür jdn. etw. darstellen,
After this, gang members wade in127 with 113
 legally ˈliːɡəli legal bedeuten
nets to take out the precious stones from 114
 illegal ɪˈliːɡl illegal 152
 recipient rɪˈsɪpiənt E
 mpfänger
among the floating debris128. This causes 115
 to be rife tə bi raɪf g
 rassieren 153
 shimmering ˈʃɪmərɪŋ s chimmernd

44 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


BUSINESS IN
WOMAN
BRIEF

Jacinda Ardern

BUSINESS-ENGLISH-MAGAZIN.DE
ZUGANGSCODE

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Jacinda
Ardern
New Zealand’s young
prime minister1 has
already achieved
1
 prime minister praɪm ˈmɪnɪstə(r) many firsts2 and is fast
Premierminister/in
 first ˈfɜːst hier: etw. als Erster tun
becoming recognised
as3 a global leader
2

3
 to recognise sb as X tə ˈrekəɡnaɪz ˈsʌmbədi əz
jdn. als X anerkennen
and champion4 of
4
 champion ˈtʃæmpiən Held/in, Verfechter/in
5
 to follow sb’s trail tə ˈfɒləʊ ˈsʌmbədɪz treɪl jds. women. Janet Sandford
Spur folgen follows the trail5 of the
 conquering ˈkɒŋkərɪŋ e
 robernd
conquering6 Kiwi7. »
6

7
 Kiwi ˈkiːwiː Kiwi, Neuseeländer/in

45
BUSINESS WOMAN

J
acinda Kate Laurell Ardern was television. This is one of the characteris- 32
 proportional representation electoral
born in 1980 and brought up in tics36 that has defined37 her, which is her system prəˈpɔːʃnəl ˌreprɪzenˈteɪʃn ɪˈlektərəl
the fairly8 remote9 farming areas of media savvy38. [See Kia Ora box]. ˈsɪstəm W
 ahlsystem mit Verhältniswahlrecht
Morrinsville and Murapura around Over the following years, she continued 33
 opposition ˌɒpəˈzɪʃn Opposition
200 km south-east of Auckland on the to consolidate39 her position in the party, 34
 spokesperson ˈspəʊkspɜːsn S
 precher/in
North Island. Her father was a policeman taking on40 roles such as spokesperson for 35
 youth affairs juːθ əˈfeəz Jugendangelegenheiten
and her mother worked at the local school, justice41, children, small business and arts 36
 characteristic ˌkærəktəˈrɪstɪk E
 igenschaft,
but there was also a keen family interest and culture. She also competed42, unsuc- Merkmal
in politics, with her aunt being a Labour cessfully, for a number of electoral seats43 37
 to define sb tə dɪˈfaɪn ˈsʌmbədi jdn. definieren,
Party10 member. but retained44 her parliamentary position bestimmen
as a list MP. However, this was just a prel- 38
 savvy ˈsævi I ntelligenz, Können
ude45 to greater things to come46. 39
 to consolidate sth tə kənˈsɒlɪdeɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
Fast Track to Office
11
The year 2017 was a tumultuous47 year in ausbauen, konsolidieren
which, rising star48 as she was, she was still 40
 to take sth on tə teɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɒn e
 tw.
She joined the Party at just 17 and a long way off the pace49 for New Zealand’s annehmen, akzeptieren
participated12 as a campaigner13. Not sur- top job. In a year full of unlikely50 events, in 41
 justice ˈdʒʌstɪs G
 erechtigkeit
prisingly, she went on to14 gain the title the United States, Donald Trump was in- 42
 to compete for tə kəmˈpiːt fɔː(r) u
 m etw.
of Bachelor of Communication Studies augurated as51 president on January 20th. kämpfen
(BCS) in politics and public relations at the A day later, Jacinda Ardern participated in 43
 electoral seat ɪˈlektərəl siːt W
 ahlsitz
University of Waikato. Within15 a few years, one of the Women Marches taking place 44
 to retain sth tə rɪˈteɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. bewahren,
she had already become an influential16 fig- around the world in protest52 at what were halten
ure in New Zealand’s Young Labour (an considered Mr Trump’s sexist and homo- 45
 prelude ˈpreljuːd Vorspiel, Auftakt
amalgam17 of students and young Labour phobic53 remarks54. A month later, she ran 46
 things to come ˈθɪŋz tə kʌm k
 ommende/
Party members) but then moved to the UK for55, and won by a landslide56 77 percent zukünftige Dinge
to broaden18 her experience. She worked as share of the vote, the Mount Albert by-elec- 47
 tumultuous tjuːˈmʌltʃuəs s türmisch, turbulent
an adviser19 in the Cabinet Office20 of Tony tion57. This outstanding58 success catapulted 48
 rising star ˈraɪzɪŋ staːr a
 ufsteigender Stern
Blair’s administration21, working ironically her into59 the deputy60 leader position of the 49
 a long way off the pace ə loŋ weɪ ɒf ðə peɪs
– or appropriately22, given her father’s job – party. Then, just seven weeks before the h
 ier: weit entfernt vom Format
on a review23 of policing24. In 2008, she be- country’s general election61, the party’s lead- 50
 unlikely ʌnˈlaɪkli u
 nwahrscheinlich
came President of the International Union er Andrew Little stood down62 on account 51
 to inaugurate sb as X tu ɪˈnɔːɡjʊreɪt ˈsʌmbədi
of Socialist Youth, giving her first inter- of63 dismal64 popularity ratings65. Ms Arden əz jdn. in sein Amt als X einführen
national exposure25 while she travelled to, then assumed66 leadership67 of the party. In 52
 in protest ɪn ˈprəʊtest a
 us Protest
among other places, Palestine and China. 53
 homophobic ˌhəʊməʊˈfəʊbɪk h
 omophob
Back in NZ26, she was rising quickly up 16
 influential ˌɪnflʊˈenʃl e
 influssreich 54
 remark rɪˈmɑːk K
 ommentar
the pecking order27 for parliamentary28 can- 17
 amalgam əˈmælɡəm Mischung 55
 to run for sth tə rʌn fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ u
 m etw.
didature29 and in the same year, became the 18
 to broaden sth tə ˈbrɔːdn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. kandidieren
country’s youngest sitting30 MP31 as a ‘list erweitern, weiten 56
 to win by a landslide tə wɪn baɪ ə ˈlændslaɪd
MP’ in New Zealand’s proportional rep- 19
 adviser ədˈvaɪzə(r) B
 erater/in mit einem Erdrutschsieg gewinnen
resentation electoral system32. She became 20
 the Cabinet Office ðə ˈkæbɪnət ˈɒfɪs C
 abinet 57
 by-election ˈbaɪ ɪˌlekʃn N
 achwahl
the opposition33 Labour spokesperson34 for Office (zentrale Behörde der engl. 58
 outstanding aʊtˈstændɪŋ h
 erausragend
youth affairs35 and appeared regularly on Regierung) 59
 to catapult sb into sth tə ˈkætəpʌlt ˈsʌmbədi
21
 administration ədˌmɪnɪˈstreɪʃn R
 egierung ˈɪntə ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. in etw. hineinkatapultieren
8
 fairly ˈfeəli z iemlich, recht 22
 appropriately əˈprəʊpriətli p
 assend(erweise) 60
 deputy ˈdepjuti Stellvertreter/in
9
 remote rɪˈməʊt e
 ntlegen, abgelegen 23
 review rɪˈvjuː Bericht, Überprüfung 61
 general election ˈdʒenrəl ɪˈlekʃn
10
 Labour Party ˈleɪbə(r) ˈpɑːti L
 abour Party 24
 policing pəˈliːsɪŋ P
 olizeiarbeit P
 arlamentswahl
(Arbeiterpartei) 25
 exposure ɪkˈspəʊʒə(r) P
 räsentation, Publicity 62
 to stand down tə stænd daʊn z urücktreten
11
 fast track fɑːst træk Ü
 berholspur, schnellster 26
 NZ (New Zealand) ˌen ˈziː njuː ˈziːlənd 63
 on account of sth ɒn əˈkaʊnt əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ w
 egen
Weg Neuseeland etw.
12
 to participate tə pɑːˈtɪsɪpeɪt t eilnehmen, 27
 pecking order ˈpekɪŋ ˈɔːdə(r) H
 ackordnung 64
 dismal ˈdɪzməl s chlecht, düster, trist
mitmachen 28
 parliamentary ˌpɑːləˈmentri p
 arlamentarisch 65
 popularity ratings ˌpɒpjʊˈlærɪti ˈreɪtɪŋz
13
 campaigner kæmˈpeɪnə(r) Wahlkämpfer/in 29
 candidature ˈkændɪdətʃə(r) K
 andidatur Umfragewerte
14
 to go on to do sth tə ɡəʊ ɒn tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ 30
 sitting ˈsɪtɪŋ a
 mtierend 66
 to assume sth tu əˈsjuːm ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
danach etw. machen 31
 MP (member of parliament) ˌem ˈpiː ˈmembə(r) annehmen
15
 within X wɪðˈɪn innerhalb X ǝv ˈpɑːləmənt Abgeordnete/r 67
 leadership ˈliːdəʃɪp Führung, Leitung

46 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


BUSINESS IN
WOMAN
BRIEF

the election that followed68, the ruling69 cen-


tre-right70 National Party won the most votes
but failed to71 gain an outright72 majority73.
The smaller NZ First and Green Party put Notable Nouns
their support behind Labour to form a coa-
lition and Jacinda Ardern was crowned as74 Match the nouns from the text with the correct definitions.
New Zealand’s youngest-ever prime minis-
ter and only the second woman. 1 champion A a hierarchy1 of status among group members
campaigner the enforcement2 of law and order by an organised
2 B
body
Challenges75 Aplenty76
amalgam an important and capable3 person
3 C
It seems that to some extent77, up to this
point78, the career politician79 had led some- 4 policing D a mixture4
thing of a charmed life80 with each door
5 pecking order E extreme5 anger
opening fortuitously81 to increasingly82 im-
portant roles. How would she fare83 in mov- 6 opposition F a person who forcefully6 supports7 a cause
ing from aspiring84 hotshot85 to the person in
the hot seat86 calling the shots87? Her time as
prelude an action that is an introduction to something more
7 G
important
a national leader has not been without its
challenges and controversies. deputy a person who fulfils8 a superior’s9 duties10 when they
8 H
Raised as a Mormon and member of The are absent11
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints88 hotshot a person who works in an organised way towards a
9 I
in New Zealand, she left the fold89 in 2005, goal
citing90 her inability91 to reconcile her views wrath the main political party that is against the one in
with92 those of the church. This particular- 10 J
office12
ly93 concerns94 her stance on95 abortion96,
resulting in97 the New Zealand Abortion  hierarchy ˈhaɪərɑːki H
1
 ierarchie 7
 to support sth tə səˈpɔːt ˈsʌmθɪŋ 
Legislation Act 2020, which decriminalised98  enforcement ɪnˈfɔːsmənt Durchsetzung,
2
etw. unterstützen
abortion and made it available without re- Vollstreckung 8
 to fulfil sth tə fʊlˈfɪl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. erfüllen
strictions99 to any woman not more than 20  capable ˈkeɪpəbl f ähig
3 9
 superior suːˈpɪərɪə(r) V
 orgesetzter
 mixture ˈmɪkstʃə(r) Mischung
4 10
 duty ˈdjuːti Pflicht, Aufgabe
68
 in X that followed... ɪn ðət ˈfɒləʊd in der  extreme ɪkˈstriːm extrem
5 11
 absent ˈæbsənt a
 bwesend
nachfolgenden X  forcefully ˈfɔːsfəli kräftig, 
6 12
 in office ɪn ˈɒfɪs im Amt
69
 ruling ˈruːlɪŋ regierend, herrschend entschlossen
Answers:
70
 centre-right ˌsentə(r) ˈraɪt M
 itte-rechts 7. G, 8. H, 9. C, 10. E
1. F, 2. I, 3. D, 4. B, 5. A, 6. J,
71
 to fail to do sth tə feɪl tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. nicht
schaffen
72
 outright ˈaʊtraɪt a
 bsolut
73
 majority məˈdʒɒrɪti M
 ehrheit 82
 increasingly ɪnˈkriːsɪŋli z unehmend, immer 91
 inability ˌɪnəˈbɪlɪti U
 nfähigkeit
74
 to crown sb as X tə kraʊn ˈsʌmbədi əz jdn. zu mehr 92
 to reconcile sth with sth tə ˈrekənsaɪl ˈsʌmθɪŋ
X krönen 83
 to fare X tə feə(r) X
 abschneiden wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. mit etw. vereinbaren
75
 challenge ˈtʃæləndʒ Herausforderung, 84
 aspiring əˈspaɪərɪŋ e
 hrgeizig, aufstrebend 93
 particularly pəˈtɪkjələli b
 esonders,
Problem 85
 hotshot ˈhɒtʃɒt A
 ss, Teufelskerl, Spitzen- insbesondere
76
 aplenty əˈplenti in Hülle und Fülle 86
 to be in the hot seat tə bi ɪn ðə hɒt siːt im 94
 to concern sth tǝ kənˈsɜːn ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. betreffen
77
 to some extent tə səm ɪkˈstent z u einem Rampenlicht stehen 95
 stance on sth stæns ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ E
 instellung
gewissen Grad 87
 to call the shots tə kɔːl ðə ʃɒts d
 as Sagen haben zu etw.
78
 up to this point ʌp tə ðɪs pɔɪnt b
 is zu diesem 88
 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 96
 abortion əˈbɔːʃn Abtreibung
Punkt/Moment Saints ðə tʃɜːtʃ əv ˌdʒiːzəs ˈkraɪst əv ˈlætə(r) deɪ 97
 to result in sth tə rɪˈzʌlt ɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ z u etw.
79
 career politician kəˈrɪə(r) ˌpɒləˈtɪʃn seɪnts K
 irche Jesu Christi der Heiligen der führen
Berufspolitiker/in Letzten Tage (Mormonen) 98
 to decriminalise sth tə diːˈkrɪmɪnəlaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ
80
 charmed life tʃɑːmd laɪf vom Glück 89
 to leave the fold tə liːv ðə fəʊld d
 ie etw. entkriminalisieren
gesegnetes Leben Gemeinschaft/Herde verlassen 99
 restriction rɪˈstrɪkʃn E
 inschränkung,
81
 fortuitously fɔːˈtjuːɪtəsli z ufällig 90
 to cite sth tə saɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. anführen Beschränkung »

47
BUSINESS WOMAN

Morrinsville, aka Cow Town,


New Zealand
Kia ora

Kia ora is a Māori-language greet-


ing1 meaning “good health” or “hi.”
Dressed in a sloppy joe2 and jeans, it
is how Jacinda greets her audience of
1.4 million Instagram followers and
1.3 million followers on Facebook,
around a third of which watch her
live streams. Keeping it natural, in
one stream she says:
“Kia ora, everyone. I’m stand-
ing against a blank3 wall in my
house – because it’s the only view
in my house that is not messy4.”
Taking nonchalance5 to new lev-
els , in another live-streamed TV
6

interview, she says to her interloc-


utor7 back in the studio: weeks pregnant. She also supports same-sex 105
 to openly admit sth tu ˈəʊpənli ədˈmɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ
“We’re just having a bit of an marriage100 and in 2018, was the first New etw. offen zugeben
earthquake8 here, Ryan, quite a de- Zealand prime minister to march in a Pride 106
 keen kiːn leidenschaftlich, begeistert
cent9 shake.” Parade. In 2020, she held a referendum101 to 107
 environmentalist ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmentəlɪst
That ‘decent shake’ turned out legalise102 cannabis103 for recreational use104 Umweltschützer/in
to be a 5.6 magnitude10 earthquake. and openly admitted105 that she had used the 108
 to incur sb’s wrath tu ɪnˈkɜː(r) ˈsʌmbədiz rɒθ
As well as apparent calmness11 un- drug. A keen106 environmentalist107, she in- jds. Zorn auf sich ziehen
der pressure, like her nemesis12 curred the wrath108 of farmers back in her 109
 native ˈneɪtɪv H
 eimat-, heimisch
Donald Trump, she has leveraged13 native109 Morrinsville for proposed legisla- 110
 to tax sth tə tæks ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. besteuern
social media to speak intimately14 tion taxing110 water extraction111 and use, and 111
 extraction ɪkˈstrækʃn G
 ewinnung, Förderung
and directly to voters. pollution112 caused by fertilisers113. Her gov- 112
 pollution pəˈluːʃn Verschmutzung
ernment supports higher taxation to allevi- 113
 fertiliser ˈfɜːtəlaɪzə(r) D
 ünger
1
 greeting ˈɡriːtɪŋ Begrüßung ate114 poverty115 and homelessness116. As well 114
 to alleviate sth tu əˈliːvieɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
2
 sloppy joe ˈslɒpi dʒəʊ as the day-to-day117 running118 of the country, abschwächen, lindern
Schlabberpullover during her time in office119 she has also en- 115
 poverty ˈpɒvəti A
 rmut
3
 blank blæŋk leer dured120, and responded to121, a number of 116
 homelessness ˈhəʊmləsnəs O
 bdachlosigkeit
4
 messy ˈmesi d
 urcheinander, unordentlich significant122 crises. 117
 day-to-day deɪ tə deɪ t äglich, laufend
5
 nonchalance ˈnɒnʃələns Lässigkeit, In 2019, New Zealand was ranked 2nd 118
 running ˈrʌnɪŋ R
 egieren
Nonchalance in the Global Peace Index, but that was be- 119
 in office ɪn ˈɒfɪs im Amt
6
 to take sth to new levels tə teɪk fore events that unfolded123 in Christchurch 120
 to endure sth tu ɪnˈdjʊə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
ˈsʌmθɪŋ tə njuː ˈlevlz etw. auf ein neues on March 15th. A lone124 white suprema- aushalten
Niveau bringen cist125 gunman126 targeted127 Friday prayers128 121
 to respond to sth tə rɪˈspɒnd tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf
7
 interlocutor ɪntəˈlɒkjʊtə at a mosque129 and Islamic centre killing a etw. antworten, reagieren
Gesprächspartner total of 51 people and injuring 40 while 122
 significant sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt b
 edeutend
8
 earthquake ˈɜːθkweɪk E
 rdbeben 123
 to unfold tu ʌnˈfəʊld sich entfalten, 
9
 decent ˈdiːsnt ordentlich, anständig 100
 same-sex marriage seɪm seks ˈmærɪdʒ abspielen
10
 magnitude ˈmæɡnɪtjuːd Größe, Ausmaß gleichgeschlechtliche Ehe 124
 lone ləʊn a
 llein, einzeln
11
 calmness ˈkɑːmnəs Ruhe 101
 to hold a referendum tə həʊld ə ˌrefəˈrendəm 125
 white supremacist waɪt suːˈpreməsɪst w
 eißer
12
 nemesis ˈneməsɪs E
 rzfeind, (ewiger) ein Referendum abhalten Rassist
Widersacher 102
 to legalise sth tə ˈliːɡəlaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 126
 gunman ˈɡʌnmən Schütze
13
 to leverage sth tə ˈliːvərɪdʒ ˈsʌmθɪŋ legalisieren 127
 to target sb tə ˈtɑːɡɪt ˈsʌmbədi jdn. ins Visier
etw. wirksam einsetzen 103
 cannabis ˈkænəbɪs Cannabis nehmen
14
 intimately ˈɪntɪmətli v
 ertraut 104
 recreational use ˌrekrɪˈeɪʃnəl ˈjuːs 128
 prayer preə(r) G
 ebet
Freizeitnutzung 129
 mosque mɒsk M
 oschee

48 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


BUSINESS IN
WOMAN
BRIEF

live-streaming130 the events on Facebook. He


was captured131 and sentenced to132 life im-
prisonment133, but it was a seismic shock134 to
the normally peaceful135 country. Swift136 ac-
tion followed, not only in tighter gun regu- Jacinda Ardern and
lation137 but also in building bridges between Clarke Gayford
the Muslim and wider communities.
The following year presented the
unique138 challenge of the Covid-19 pandem-
ic and as the dust settles139, many leaders
are being judged on140 their response to the
crisis. New Zealand was one of the quick-
est to react with the toughest border restric-
tions141 in the world, closing off142 the coun-
try just three weeks after the first case was
reported143. This approach144 was deemed145
by many to be overkill146 at the time147. They
also introduced a four-level alert system,
which was subsequently148 adopted149 by 130
 to live-stream sth tə ˈlaɪv striːm ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 152
 to undertake sth tu ˌʌndəˈteɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
many other countries. In tandem with150 live übertragen unternehmen
practical measures151, Ms Ardern under- 131
 to capture sb tə ˈkæptʃə(r) ˈsʌmbədi jdn. 153
 former ˈfɔːmə(r) f rüherer, ehemaliger
took152 a major public information program gefangen nehmen 154
 masterclass ˈmɑːstəklɑːs M
 eisterklasse,
through multiple media channels described 132
 to sentence sb to sth tə ˈsentəns ˈsʌmbədi tə Lehrstunde
by the Washington Post and former153 Tony ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. zu etw. verurteilen 155
 to raise sb’s profile tə reɪz ˈsʌmbədɪz ˈprəʊfaɪl
Blair adviser Alistair Campbell as “a mas- 133
 life imprisonment laɪf ɪmˈprɪznmənt jds. Bekanntheitsgrad erhöhen
terclass154 in crisis communication,” while lebenslange Haftstrafe 156
 considerably kənˈsɪdərəbli e
 rheblich
Fortune nominated her top world leader. 134
 seismic shock ˈsaɪzmɪk ʃɒk Erdstoß, 157
 to give voice to sth tə ɡɪv vɔɪs tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
This raised her international profile155 con- Erschütterung Gehör verschaffen
siderably156, giving voice to157 her concerns 135
 peaceful ˈpiːsfl friedlich 158
 human rights ˈhjuːmən raɪts M
 enschenrechte
about China’s human rights158 abuses159 of 136
 swift swɪft s chnell 159
 abuse əˈbjuːs M
 issbrauch
the Uighur people and the euphemistically160 137
 gun regulation ɡʌn ˌreɡjʊˈleɪʃn Waffenrecht 160
 euphemistically ˌjuːfəˈmɪstɪkli e
 uphemistisch
described ‘Xinjiang re-education camps.’ 138
 unique juˈniːk e
 inzigartig 161
 on a lighter note ɒn ə ˈlaɪtə(r) nəʊt e
 tw.
But it was on a lighter note161 a few years 139
 as the dust settles... əz ðə dʌst ˈsetlz w
 enn Erfreulicheres
earlier that the Kiwi premier made interna- sich der Staub legt... 162
 to make headlines tə meɪk ˈhedlaɪnz
tional headlines162. 140
 to judge sb on sth tə dʒʌdʒ ˈsʌmbədi ɒn Schlagzeilen machen
ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. anhand einer S. beurteilen 163
 on-board ɒn bɔːd an Bord, unterwegs
141
 border restriction ˈbɔːdə(r) rɪˈstrɪkʃn 164
 slow-burning sləʊ ˈbɜːnɪŋ s ich langsam
Baby On-board 163
Grenzbeschränkung entwickelnd
142
 to close sth off tə kləʊz ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɒf e
 tw. schließen 165
 relationship rɪˈleɪʃnʃɪp B
 eziehung
The prime minister’s partner is radio and 143
 to report sth tə rɪˈpɔːt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. melden, 166
 to tie the knot tə taɪ ðə nɒt d
 en Bund fürs
TV presenter Clarke Gayford. A slow-burn- berichten Leben schließen, heiraten
ing164 relationship165, they met back in 2012 144
 approach əˈprəʊtʃ H
 erangehensweise 167
 to give birth to X tə ɡɪv bɜːθ tu X
 gebären
before finally tying the knot166 in 2019. A 145
 to deem sth sth tə diːm ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. 168
 to make history tə meɪk ˈhɪstri G
 eschichte
year earlier, Jacinda gave birth to167 their für etw. halten schreiben
child, a daughter named Neve Te Aroha, 146
 overkill ˈəʊvəkɪl Ü
 bertreibung 169
 to turn up with sb tə tɜːn ʌp wɪð ˈsʌmbədi m
 it
making Ms Ardern the first NZ prime min- 147
 at the time ət ðə taɪm d
 amals, zu dem jdm. auftauchen
ister to be pregnant while in office. Just Zeitpunkt 170
 to attend sth tu əˈtend ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
three months later, she made history168 by 148
 subsequently ˈsʌbsɪkwəntli d
 anach, später besuchen, an etw. teilnehmen
being the first leader to turn up with169 a baby 149
 to adopt sth tu əˈdɒpt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 171
 peace summit piːs ˈsʌmɪt F
 riedensgipfel
when she attended170 the Nelson Mandela annehmen, übernehmen 172
 motherhood ˈmʌðəhʊd Mutterschaft, Muttersein
peace summit171. Motherhood172 has brought 150
 in tandem with sth ɪn ˈtændəm wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ 173
 schedule ˈʃedjuːl T
 erminplan, Programm
more work to her already busy schedule173 zusammen mit etw. 174
 reflection rɪˈflekʃn S
 piegelung, Spiegelbild
but if the past is any reflection174 of the fu- 151
 practical measure ˈpræktɪkl ˈmeʒə(r) 175
 to take sth in one’s stride tə teɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪn
ture, she will take it in her stride175. n praktische Maßnahme wʌnz straɪd e
 tw. spielend leicht schaffen

49
COACHING

The Carrot
and the Stick1

Managers have often grappled with2 one


basic decision regarding3 motivation: is it
better to focus on punishments4 or rewards?
Enter the office with BEM’s Jonathan Sidor to
see which tactic is the most effective.

M
otivation is a prickly5 A Bit of Science10
topic. Every employee
wants different things, The most famous management
yet managers would theory that discusses how to mo-
love to employ some kind of strate- tivate employees in terms of11 pun-
gy to make their workers more pro- ishments vs benefits12 is Douglas
ductive. When it comes to6 the carrot McGregor’s notion13 of Theory X and
and the stick, both approaches come Theory Y. McGregor was a manage-
with their own pros and cons7 that ment professor at the Massachusetts
must be taken into account8. Which Institute of Technology who au-
one is better for your organisation? thored14 the influential The Human
That’s up to you to9 decide. Side of Enterprise in 1960. In this

1
 the carrot and the stick ðə ˈkærət ənd 8
 to take sth into account tə teɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ
ðə stɪk Z
 uckerbrot und Peitsche ˈɪntu əˈkaʊnt e
 tw. in Betracht ziehen
2
 to grapple with sth tə ˈɡræpl wɪð 9
 up to sb to do sth ʌp tə ˈsʌmbədi tə du
ˈsʌmθɪŋ mit etw. kämpfen ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdm. obliegen, etw. zu tun
3
 regarding sth rɪˈɡɑːdɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. 10
 science ˈsaɪəns W
 issenschaft
betreffend 11
 in terms of X ɪn tɜːmz əv in Bezug auf
4
 punishment ˈpʌnɪʃmənt Strafe, X
Bestrafung 12
 benefit ˈbenɪfɪt V
 orteil, 
5
 prickly ˈprɪkli e
 mpfindlich, heikel Vergünstigung
6
 when it comes to sth wen ɪt kʌmz tə 13
 notion ˈnəʊʃn I dee, Gedanke,
ˈsʌmθɪŋ wenn es um etw. geht Vorstellung
7
 pros and cons prəʊz ənd kɒnz V
 or- und 14
 to author sth tu ˈɔːθə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
Nachteile schreiben

50 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


COACHING
IN BRIEF

X & Y: A Breakdown1
THEORY X - ASSUMES THAT EMPLOYEES: THEORY Y- ASSUMES THAT EMPLOYEES:
Dislike2 work and responsibility Like work and want responsibility
Are lazy Are creative
Will avoid work whenever possible Can direct3 themselves and be
independent
Are motivated by money Are motivated by the desire4 to reach
their potential
Must be coerced to5 work Can motivate themselves to work

1
 breakdown ˈbreɪkdaʊn Aufschlüsselung
2
 to dislike sth tə dɪsˈlaɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. nicht mögen
3
 to direct oneself tə dɪˈrekt wʌnˈself sich selbst führen, steuern, leiten
4
 desire dɪˈzaɪə(r) V
 erlangen, Wunsch
5
 to coerce sb to do sth tə kəʊˈɜːs ˈsʌmbədi tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. zwingen, etw. zu tun

book, McGregor posited15 that a boss’s whenever they can, and they act24 selfishly25.
basic assumptions16 about human nature17 Managers may also believe that their em-
ultimately18 impacted19 how they opted ployees are less intelligent and lazier than
to20 manage their employees. they are. In the eyes of these bosses, peo-
If a manager subscribes to21 Theory ple only work to collect some form of sus-
X, they assume that the typical employ- tainable income26. According to McGregor,
ee doesn’t like to work. Workers aren’t managers who buy into27 this approach
ambitious22, they avoid responsibility23 intuitively28 rely on29 close supervision30

15
 to posit tə ˈpɒzɪt p
 ostulieren
16
 assumption əˈsʌmpʃn A
 nnahme
17
 human nature ˈhjuːmən ˈneɪtʃə(r) N
 atur des
Menschen
18
 ultimately ˈʌltɪmətli letztlich, letzten
Endes
19
 to impact sth tu ɪmˈpækt ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.
beeinflussen
20
 to opt to do sth tu ɒpt tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ s ich
(dafür) entscheiden, etw. zu tun
21
 to subscribe to sth tə səbˈskraɪb tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ
etw. beipflichten, zustimmen, unterschreiben
22
 ambitious æmˈbɪʃəs ehrgeizig, ambitioniert
23
 responsibility rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪlɪti V
 erantwortung
24
 to act tu ækt s ich verhalten, handeln
BUSINESS-ENGLISH-MAGAZIN.DE

25
 selfishly ˈselfɪʃli e
 goistisch
26
 sustainable income səˈsteɪnəbl ˈɪŋkʌm
dauerhaftes Einkommen
ZUGANGSCODE
DOWNLOAD QR CODE SCANNER:
COLORFULMEDIA.DE/SCANNER

v2m
27
 to buy into sth tə baɪ ˈɪntə ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 n etw.
glauben
ODER HÖR ES 28
 intuitively ɪnˈtjuːɪtɪvli intuitiv
DIR AN AUF:
29
 to rely on sth tə rɪˈlaɪ ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 uf etw. setzen
30
 supervision ˌsuːpəˈvɪʒn Ü
 berwachung »

51
COACHING

Y. Nevertheless49, Theory Y isn’t automati-


cally better than Theory X in 100 percent of
Prep School cases. Theory X certainly has its redeeming50
qualities, whereas Theory Y could produce
some painful situations in the office.
Fill in the excerpt from the text with the correct prepositions. How can Theory X help an organisation
while keeping workers motivated? While
To (x 5) In Of (x 2) Into On Within Through With employers who subscribe to Theory X may
need to rely on threats51 and punishments
If a manager subscribes1 1)_____ Theory X, they assume2 that the typical employ- from time to time, the trick is52 doing this
ee doesn’t like 2)_____ work. Workers aren’t ambitious3, they avoid responsibility4 without creating a hostile53 work environ-
whenever they can, and they act selfishly5. Managers may also believe that their ment that breeds54 resentment55. This can
employees are less intelligent and lazier than they are. 3)_____ the eyes 4)_____ be achieved by setting up a simple system
these bosses, people only work 5)_____ collect some form 6)_____ sustaina- of rules that aren’t meant to burden56 the
ble income6. According 7)_____ McGregor, managers who buy 8)_____ this ap-
proach7 intuitively8 rely 9)_____ close supervision9 and strict10 rules 10)_____ the 31
 strict strɪkt s treng, hart
workplace. Frequently, workers are pressured 11)_____ do something 12)_____ 32
 workplace ˈwɜːkpleɪs A
 rbeitsplatz
techniques11 that resemble12 intimidation13, and they are often threatened14 13)_____ 33
 to pressure sb to do sth tə ˈpreʃə(r) ˈsʌmbədi tə
immediate15 punishments16. du ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. bedrängen, etw. zu tun
34
 to resemble sth tə rɪˈzembl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
ähneln
1
 to subscribe tə səbˈskraɪb u
 nterschreiben, 9
 close supervision kləʊz ˌsuːpəˈvɪʒn e
 nge/ 35
 intimidation ɪnˌtɪmɪˈdeɪʃn E
 inschüchterung,
zustimmen genaue Überwachung Bedrohung
2
 to assume tu əˈsjuːm a
 nnehmen 10
 strict strɪkt s treng, hart 36
 to threaten sb with sth tə ˈθretn ˈsʌmbədi wɪð
3
 ambitious æmˈbɪʃəs ahrgeizig,  11
 technique tekˈniːk T
 echnik, Methode ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdm. mit etw. drohen
ambitioniert 12
 to resemble sth tə rɪˈzembl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 37
 immediate ɪˈmiːdɪət u
 nmittelbar, direkt
4
 responsibility rɪˌspɒnsəˈbɪlɪti  ähneln 38
 therefore ˈðeəfɔː(r) d
 aher, deshalb
Verantwortung 13
 intimidation ɪnˌtɪmɪˈdeɪʃn E
 inschüchterung, 39
 intrinsically ɪnˈtrɪnsɪkli e
 igentlich, wirklich
5
 selfishly ˈselfɪʃli e
 goistisch Bedrohung 40
 pay cheque peɪ tʃek G
 ehaltsscheck, Gehalt
6
 sustainable income səˈsteɪnəbl ˈɪŋkʌm 14
 to threaten sb tə ˈθretn ˈsʌmbədi jdn. 41
 to drive sb tə draɪv ˈsʌmbədi jdn. antreiben
dauerhaftes Einkommen bedrohen 42
 self-development ˌself dɪˈveləpmənt
7
 approach əˈprəʊtʃ D
 enkansatz, 15
 immediate ɪˈmiːdɪət u
 nmittelbar, direkt Selbstentfaltung
Herangehensweise 16
 punishment ˈpʌnɪʃmənt Strafe,  43
 to look forward to doing sth tə lʊk ˈfɔːwəd tə
8
 intuitively ɪnˈtjuːɪtɪvli intuitiv Bestrafung ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ sich darauf freuen, etw. zu tun
44
 to exercise sth tu ˈeksəsaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.

Answers: trainieren
12. Through, 13. With 45
 adherent of sth ədˈhɪərənt əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ
10. Within, 11. To,
Of, 7. To, 8. Into, 9. On, Anhänger von etw.
1. To, 2. To, 3. In, 4. Of, 5. To, 6. 46
 to emphasize sth tu ˈemfəsaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.
betonen, hervorheben
47
 relationship rɪˈleɪʃnʃɪp B
 eziehung
and strict31 rules within the workplace32. usually look forward to43 exercising44 their 48
 at first glance ət fɜːst ɡlɑːns a
 uf den ersten
Frequently, workers are pressured to33 do creativity and artistic talents. Adherents of45 Blick
something through techniques thatresemble34 Theory Y tend to emphasize46 personal re- 49
 nevertheless ˌnevəðəˈles n
 ichtsdestotrotz
intimidation35, and they are often threatened lationships47 in the office. Employees and 50
 redeeming rɪˈdiːmɪŋ rettend, erlösend,
with36 immediate37 punishments. managers frequently have closer, healthier ausgleichend
What about Theory Y? This class of man- relationships, promoting a more positive at- 51
 threat θret D
 rohung, Bedrohung
ager assumes that people want to work.They mosphere throughout the workplace. 52
 the trick is... ðə trɪk ɪz d
 er Trick/die Kunst
see work as a natural part of life. Therefore38, ist ...
employees are intrinsically39 motivated. They 53
 hostile ˈhɒstaɪl feindlich
don’t just work for a pay cheque40 – very of- Pros and Cons 54
 to breed sth tə briːd ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. erzeugen,
ten, immediate rewards don’t drive41 them. verursachen
Self-development42 is important to them. Very At first glance48, most employees will prob- 55
 resentment rɪˈzentmənt F
 eindseligkeit, Ärger
little supervision is needed, and workers ably prefer a manager who buys into Theory 56
 to burden sb tə ˈbɜːdn ˈsʌmbədi jdn. belasten

52 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


COACHING
IN BRIEF

workforce57. If managers see workers will-


ingly58 following59 rules that they have estab-
lished60, then the idea is that workplace mo-
rale61 will see a boost62 and employees will
become more cooperative. In addition, the
fact that supervisors63 control much of the
work typically means that productivity can
remain quite high. Workers are often able
to specialise in a particular sphere64, which
can further boost productivity as well as job
fulfilment65.
And what about Theory Y? What prob-
lems could a company see from a manag-
er who wants their employees to be self-
motivated66? Since workers in this type of
scenario67 are usually given a great deal of68
autonomy69, it’s easy to see why organi-
sations may face all kinds of inconsisten- Similarly, there are a number of work- 80
 to plummet tə ˈplʌmɪt a
 bstürzen
cies70. If every employee puts an individu- places that seem to be ideal for followers101 81
 real-world rɪəl wɜːld e
 chte Welt, Wirklichkeit
alistic71 spin on72 their work, differences are 82
 to regard sth as sth tə rɪˈɡɑːd ˈsʌmθɪŋ əz
bound to73 pop up74. Discrepancies75 in how 57
 workforce ˈwɜːkfɔːs B
 elegschaft, ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. als etw. betrachten/ansehen
rules, procedures and a variety of76 practices Arbeiterschaft 83
 to abound somewhere tu əˈbaʊnd ˈsʌmweə(r)
are understood can lead to headaches77. A 58
 willingly ˈwɪlɪŋli f reiwillig irgendwo zahlreich vorhanden sein
certain level of uniformity78 is needed, and 59
 to follow sth tə ˈfɒləʊ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. (be)folgen 84
 manual labour ˈmænjʊəl ˈleɪbə(r) H
 andarbeit,
basic guidelines often must be in place. 60
 to establish sth tu ɪˈstæblɪʃ ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. körperliche Arbeit
Without them, efficiency can swiftly79 drop festlegen, durchsetzen 85
 to make use of sth tə meɪk juːs əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
and quality standards can plummet80. 61
 morale məˈrɑːl M
 oral, Stimmung verwenden
62
 boost buːst Verstärkung, Schub 86
 assembly line əˈsembli laɪn F
 ertigungsstraße,
63
 supervisor ˈsuːpəvaɪzə(r) A
 ufseher, Fließband
Real-world Examples
81
Vorgesetzter 87
 to embrace sth tu ɪmˈbreɪs ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
64
 sphere sfɪə B
 ereich, Gebiet akzeptieren, begrüßen
All this talk of theories is fine, but how 65
 fulfilment fʊlˈfɪlmənt E
 rfüllung 88
 explicitly ɪkˈsplɪsɪtli e
 xplizit, ausdrücklich
do Theory X and Theory Y actually look 66
 self-motivated ˌself ˈməʊtɪveɪtɪd 89
 to face consequences tə feɪs ˈkɒnsɪkwənsɪz
in the real world? Theory X is regarded selbstmotiviert Konsequenzen tragen
as82 the more conservative of the two ap- 67
 scenario sɪˈnɑːrɪəʊ S
 zenario, Gedankenspiel 90
 to sound scary tə ˈsaʊnd ˈskeəri u
 nheimlich
proaches, so managers with this point of 68
 a great deal of sth ə ˈɡreɪt diːl əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 ine klingen
view abound83 in traditional organisations. große Menge von etw. 91
 condition kənˈdɪʃn B
 edingung
For instance, companies that require man- 69
 autonomy ɔːˈtɒnəmi A
 utonomie 92
 to enable sb to do sth tu ɪˈneɪbl ˈsʌmbədi tə du
ual labour84 and workplaces that make use 70
 inconsistency ˌɪnkənˈsɪstənsi ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdm. ermöglichen, etw. zu tun
of85 an assembly line86 often embrace87 a Widersprüchlichkeit, Ungereimtheit 93
 to perform one’s duties tə pəˈfɔːm wʌnz ˈdjuːtɪz
Theory X type of motivation. Workers 71
 individualistic ˌɪndɪˌvɪdʒʊəˈlɪstɪk seine Pflichten erfüllen
are explicitly88 told what to do and must individualistisch 94
 bump bʌmp Delle, Beule, hier: 
face consequences89 if they don’t deliver. 72
 to put an X spin on sth tə ˈpʊt ən spɪn ɒn Aufwärtsknick
Remember, this isn’t supposed to sound ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. einen X Dreh geben 95
 to realise sth tə ˈrɪəlaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
scary90. In these conditions91, strict rules en- 73
 to be bound to happen tə bi baʊnd tə ˈhæpən realisieren
able employees to92 perform their duties93 bestimmt passieren werden 96
 prevalent ˈprevələnt v
 orherrschend
more efficiently over time. Companies 74
 to pop up tǝ pɒp ʌp auftauchen 97
 notorious for sth nəʊˈtɔːrɪəs fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ
can also benefit since productivity sees a 75
 discrepancy dɪsˈkrepənsi U
 nstimmigkeit, berühmt/berüchtigt für etw.
bump94 and consistently high quality can Abweichung 98
 job satisfaction dʒɒb ˌsætɪsˈfækʃn
be realised95. In addition, this style of man- 76
 a variety of sth ə vəˈraɪəti əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 ine Arbeitszufriedenheit
agement is prevalent96 in fields that are no- Vielfalt von etw. 99
 retail ˈriːteɪl E
 inzelhandel
torious for97 generating low levels of job 77
 headache ˈhedeɪk K
 opfschmerz(en) 100
 customer service ˈkʌstəmə(r) ˈsɜːvɪs
satisfaction98 like retail99, customer service100 78
 uniformity ˌjuːnɪˈfɔːmɪti Uniformität Kundenservice
and fast food. 79
 swiftly ˈswɪftli r asch, schnell 101
 follower ˈfɒləʊə(r) F
 ollower, Fan »

53
COACHING

of Theory Y. For many, Theory Y rep- both approaches will likely play a role Valletta, Malta
resents a more advanced102, humanitari- in employee motivation for decades to
an103 approach to management. Many come. n
observers believe that Theory Y better
represents work in the modern world, so it 102
 advanced ədˈvɑːnst fortgeschritten
should come as no surprise that104 many of 103
 humanitarian hju:ˌmænɪˈteərɪən h
 umanitär
today’s most innovative105 companies are 104
 it should come as no surprise that... ɪt
often identified as106 incorporating107 Theory ʃəd kʌm ǝz nǝʊ səˈpraɪz ðǝt e
 s sollte nicht
Y management. Google and Apple, for überraschen, dass...
example, are well known for108 their ef- 105
 innovative ˈɪnəveɪtɪv innovativ, 
forts to create the plushest109 atmosphere erfinderisch
possible to maximise employee satisfac- 106
 to identify sb as doing sth tu aɪˈdentɪfaɪ
tion. They’ve made headlines110 for offer- ˈsʌmbədi əz ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. ausweisen, etw.
ing out-of-this-world111 perks112 like decom- zu tun
pression113 capsules and regular on-site114 107
 to incorporate sth tu ɪnˈkɔːpəreɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
concerts. einbinden, berücksichtigen
Looking back, all of the lavish115 offer- 108
 well known for sth wel nəʊn fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ
ings116 of Theory Y companies like Google wohlbekannt für etw.
or Apple don’t automatically make them 109
 plush plʌʃ e
 xklusiv, luxuriös
better workplaces than those that have a 110
 to make headlines tə meɪk ˈhedlaɪnz
Theory X character. Managers who be- Schlagzeilen machen
lieve Theory X and managers who be-  out-of-this-world aʊt əv ðɪs wɜːd h
111
 immlisch,
lieve Theory Y can find success. On top fantastisch
of that117, people working for either type of 112
 perk pɜːk V
 orteil, Vergünstigung
manager can find motivation and enjoy- 113
 decompression ˌdiːkəmˈpreʃn
ment at work. One part of Theory X often Druckentlastung, Anti-Stress
gets overlooked118 – McGregor also said 114
 on-site ɒn saɪt v
 or Ort, hauseigen
that managers think their workers want a 115
 lavish ˈlævɪʃ verschwenderisch, 
higher level of control. Yet many employ- großzügig
ees don’t want to be burdened with the 116
 offerings ˈɒfərɪŋz A
 ngebot(e)
responsibility that independence brings. 117
 on top of that... ɒn tɒp əv ðæt d
 arüber
And when you think of a workplace like hinaus, außerdem
an assembly line or a fast food restaurant, 118
 to overlook sth tu ˌəʊvəˈlʊk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
that makes a lot of sense119. That’s why übersehen, nicht berücksichtigen
you can spot120 a lot of successful compa- 119
 to make sense tə meɪk sens S
 inn ergeben/
nies and satisfied employees with manag- machen
ers who adhere to121 Theory X, too. 120
 to spot sb tə spɒt ˈsʌmbədi jdn. sehen,
ausfindig machen
121
 to adhere to sth tu ədˈhɪə(r) tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
n
Looking Forward etw. festhalten
122
 a hard nut to crack ə hɑːd nʌt tə kræk e
 ine
Human motivation has always been harte Nuss (zum Knacken)
a hard nut to crack122 for managers. We’ll 123
 what makes sb tick ˈwɒt ˈmeɪks ˈsʌmbədi tɪk
probably never know what makes every wissen, wie jd. tickt
single employee tick123, but the tried and 124
 tried and tested traɪd ənd ˈtestɪd
tested124 notion of rewarding good behav- praxisbewährt
iour125 or punishing unsatisfactory126 actions 125
 behaviour bɪˈheɪvjə(r) V
 erhalten
seems to be an intuitive first step. For 126
 unsatisfactory ˌʌnsætɪsˈfæktəri
most white-collar127 organisations today, unbefriedigend
management based on Theory Y appears 127
 white-collar waɪt ˈkɒlə(r) A
 ngestellten-, 
to make more sense. This doesn’t mean Büro-
Theory X is outdated128 and doesn’t have 128
 outdated ˌaʊtˈdeɪtɪd v
 eraltet
a place in any modern companies. Since 129
 diverse daɪˈvɜːs verschieden, 
people’s motivations can be so diverse129, vielfältig

54 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


TRAVEL

Malta
5
 destination ˌdestɪˈneɪʃn R
 eiseziel
6
 invader ɪnˈveɪdə(r) E
 indringling, Angreifer,
Invasor
7
 X and Y alike ənd əˈlaɪk X
 und Y
gleichermaßen

Pound for pound , this diminutive Mediterranean


1 2 3 8
 archipelago ˌɑːkɪˈpeləɡəʊ A
 rchipel
 to comprise sth tə kəmˈpraɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ a
 us etw.
island packs a punch4 and has been an attractive
9

bestehen
destination5 for invaders6 and tourists alike7. Janet 10
 inhabited island ɪnˈhæbɪtɪd ˈaɪlənd bewohnte
Insel
Sandford packs her bags to explore this historic  equidistant from sth ˌiːkwɪˈdɪstənt frəm ˈsʌmθɪŋ
archipelago8.
11

abstandsgleich von etw.

W
12
 aforementioned əˌfɔːˈmenʃənd obengenannt
hile we tend to think of it is no surprise that15 for millennia it has 13
 Sicily ˈsɪsɪli S
 izilien
Malta as a single island, been of strategic importance16. This led to 14
 Tunisia tjuːˈnɪzɪə T
 unesien
the Republic of Malta com- invasion and occupation by among others, 15
 it is no surprise that... ɪt ɪz nəʊ səˈpraɪz ðæt e
s
prises9 an archipelago of Phoenicians17 and Carthaginians, Romans, überrascht nicht, dass...
three inhabited islands10: Malta, Gozo and Greeks, Arabs, Knights of St. John18 (aka19 16
 to be of importance tə bi əv ɪmˈpɔːtns v
 on
Comino (which sits equidistant from11 the Bedeutung/Wichtigkeit sein
aforementioned12), and a further 18 tiny un- 1
 pound for pound paʊnd fə(r) paʊnd pfundweise 17
 Phoenician fəˈniːʃən P
 hönizier
inhabited islands, some of which are little 2
 diminutive dɪˈmɪnjətɪv w
 inzig, klein 18
 Knights of St. John naɪts əv seɪnt dʒɒn
more than rocks. Located in the heart of 3
 Mediterranean ˌmedɪtəˈreɪniən M
 ittelmeer- Johanniterritter
the Southern Mediterranean, just 80 km 4
 to pack a punch tə pæk ə pʌn(t)ʃ e
 s in sich 19
 aka (also known as) ˌeɪ keɪ ˈeɪ ˈɔːlsəʊ nǝʊn ǝz
south of Sicily13 and 284 km east of Tunisia14, haben alias (auch bekannt als)

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55
TRAVEL

Knights Hospitaller20), French, and from


1813, the British, who eventually21 granted22
Incredible Idioms Malta independence in 1964. The result is
a rich, multifaceted23 culture that influenc-
es everything from architecture to cuisine24
Match the idioms from the text with the correct definitions. and language. Maltese25 is a Latinised26 de-
velopment of Classical Arabic, but most lo-
cals27 also speak some of the other two of-
1 pound for pound A to go for a quick swim ficial languages of Italian and English (the
2 to pack a punch B a place where something negative is common1 island is a mecca for28 English language
schools). The main island of Malta is home
3 a den of C a very easy task to29 the majority30 of the half a million-plus31
something population and measures32 just 27 by 14.5
kilometres, so it doesn’t take long to get
4 to have a sweet D used to emphasise2 a comparison3 around33. Let’s get exploring!
tooth

5 to take a dip E to take care of4 everything that is needed


Valetta
6 a doddle F a disorganised5 struggle6 to do something
7 G The natural starting point34 is the coun-
a scramble to have a powerful effect
try’s stunning35 capital of Valetta on the
8 to have some- H to enjoy eating desserts7 and things with sugar east coast, which was designated36 a World
thing covered Heritage Site37 by UNESCO in 1980. The
fortified38 city is built on a peninsula39 ac-
1
 common ˈkɒmən häufig, geläufig, üblich commodating40 the commercial Grand
2
 to emphasise sth tu ˈemfəsaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. Harbour and the Marsamxett Harbour for
unterstreichen, betonen leisure41 craft42. There are many dgħajsa
3
 comparison kəmˈpærɪsn Vergleich (Maltese gondola-style boats) offering
4
 to take care of sth tə teɪk keə(r) əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ trips around the harbours43 and to nearby
sich um etw. kümmern Vittoriosa, Cospicua, and Senglea, where
5
 disorganised ˌdɪsˈɔːɡənaɪzd desorganisiert, you can get the best view of Valetta’s im-
planlos posing44 defensive45 walls. Within the city,
6
 struggle ˈstrʌɡl K
 ampf, Ringen the splendid46 baroque47 architecture is a
7
 dessert dɪˈzɜːt N
 achtisch, Dessert legacy48 of the Knights of the Military
Order of St. John’s era, (from 1530 until
Napoleon’s seizure49 of the island in 1798)
Answers: while there are many narrow backstreets50
7. F, 8. E
1. D, 2. G, 3. B, 4. H, 5. A, 6. C, 38
 fortified ˈfɔːtɪfaɪd befestigt
39
 peninsula pəˈnɪnsjʊlə H
 albinsel
40
 to accommodate sth tu əˈkɒmədeɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ
etw. unterbringen/Platz bieten
20
 Knights Hospitaller naɪts ˈhɒspɪtlə(r) 29
 to be home to sth tə bi həʊm tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ 41
 leisure ˈleʒə(r) F
 reizeit
Malteserritter Heimat für etw. sein 42
 craft krɑːft S
 chiff, Boot
21
 eventually ɪˈventʃʊəli s chließlich, irgendwann 30
 majority məˈdʒɒrɪti M
 ehrheit 43
 harbour ˈhɑːbə(r) H
 afen
22
 to grant sb sth tə ɡrɑːnt ˈsʌmbədi ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdm. 31
 X-plus plʌs (etw.) mehr als X 44
 imposing ɪmˈpəʊzɪŋ b
 eeindruckend
etw. zugestehen, gewähren 32
 to measure X tə ˈmeʒə(r) X
 messen 45
 defensive dɪˈfensɪv A
 bwehr-, 
23
 multifaceted ˌmʌltiˈfæsɪtɪd facettenreich 33
 to get around tə get əˈraʊnd h
 erumkommen Verteidigungs-
24
 cuisine kwɪˈziːn Küche 34
 starting point ˈstɑːtɪŋ pɔɪnt S
 tartpunkt 46
 splendid ˈsplendɪd prächtig, 
25
 Maltese mɔːlˈtiːz maltesisch 35
 stunning ˈstʌnɪŋ a
 temberaubend großartig
26
 Latinised ˈlatɪnʌɪzd latinisiert 36
 to designate sth sth tə ˈdezɪɡneɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ 47
 baroque bəˈrɒk B
 arock, barock
27
 local ˈləʊkl E
 inheimischer ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. als etw. ausweisen 48
 legacy ˈleɡəsi E
 rbe
28
 mecca for sb ˈmekə fə(r) ˈsʌmbədi M
 ekka für 37
 World Heritage Site wɜːld ˈherɪtɪdʒ saɪt 49
 seizure ˈsiːʒə(r) I nbesitznahme
jdn. Weltkulturerbe 50
 backstreet ˈbækstriːt k
 leine Seitenstraße

56 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


TRAVEL

Birgu, Malta

to explore. Under British rule51, these were


a den of iniquity52 for visiting British sail-
ors in search of bars, brothels53 and brawls54.
These days55, they are generally safe and
occupied by Maltese families, with an
atmosphere similar to the old streets of
Porto or the Alfama district of Lisbon in
Portugal.
A must-see56 attraction in the capi-
tal is the Saint John’s Co-Cathedral with
its opulent57 gilded58 interior59. It features60
ceiling paintings61 by the Italian painter
Mattia Preti, who worked in Malta, and
significant62 pictures, most notably63, The
Beheading of Saint John the Baptist by
Caravaggio. The Grandmaster’s Palace in
Palace Square serves as64 the presidential
palace65 but also has parts open to the pub-
lic, who can view the gilded staterooms66,
murals67, ceiling paintings, works of art68
and the historic armoury69. More opulence70
and gilded interiors can be found in the
oval auditorium71 and private boxes of the
Teatru Manoel, Europe’s oldest fully func-
tional theatre, completed in 1731. If you
should tire of72 historical art and buildings,
it is worth checking out73 the contemporary74
Parliament House, built by leading Italian
The Rotunda of Xewkija on Gozo
architect, Renzo Piano. Large, angular75,
concrete76 blocks mirror77 the town’s an-
cient78 defences.
Above the city, Upper Barrakka
Gardens with its arches79, fountains80 and

51
 under X rule ˈʌndər ruːl u
 nter X Herrschaft
52
 den of iniquity den əv ɪˈnɪkwɪti L
 asterhöhle
53
 brothel ˈbrɒθl Bordell
54
 brawl brɔːl Schlägerei
55
 these days,... ðiːz deɪz heutzutage,...
56
 must-see mʌst siː e
 in Muss (muss man
gesehen haben)
57
 opulent ˈɒpjələnt ü
 ppig, reichlich, opulent
58
 gilded ˈɡɪldɪd v
 ergoldet
59
 interior ɪnˈtɪərɪə(r) I nterieur,
Innenausstattung 67
 mural ˈmjʊərəl W
 andgemälde 74
 contemporary kənˈtemprəri 
60
 to feature sth tə ˈfiːtʃə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 68
 work of art ˈwɜːk əv ɑːt K
 unstwerk zeitgenössisch
darbieten, zeigen 69
 armoury ˈɑːməri A
 rsenal,  75
 angular ˈæŋɡjələ(r) e
 ckig, kantig
61
 ceiling painting ˈsiːlɪŋ ˈpeɪntɪŋ Deckengemälde Waffenkammer 76
 concrete ˈkɒŋkriːt B
 eton
62
 significant sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt bedeutend 70
 opulence ˈɒpjələns R
 eichtum, Üppigkeit 77
 to mirror sth tə ˈmɪrə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
63
 most notably məʊst ˈnəʊtəbli g
 anz besonders 71
 auditorium ɔːdɪˈtɔːriəm Zuschauerraum widerspiegeln
64
 to serve as X tə sɜːv əz a
 ls X dienen 72
 to tire of sth tə ˈtaɪə(r) əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 iner S. 78
 ancient ˈeɪnʃənt a
 ntik, altertümlich
65
 presidential palace ˌprezɪˈdenʃl ˈpælɪs müde werden 79
 arch ɑːtʃ B
 ogen
Präsidentenpalast 73
 to check sth out tə tʃek ˈsʌmθɪŋ aʊt e
 tw. 80
 fountain ˈfaʊntɪn S
 pringbrunnen,
66
 stateroom ˈsteɪtruːm h
 errschaftliches Zimmer ausprobieren, testen Wasserfontäne »

57
TRAVEL

Il-Mellieha - panorama of the


famous Popeye Village in
Anchor Bay

St John's Co-Cathedral, Valletta

flower beds81 offers a peaceful respite from82 mosaics114 dating back to115 the first centu- 98
 pastry ˈpeɪstri G
 ebäck
the hubbub83 below, and panoramic views ry116 AD117. If you think that is old, wait until 99
 date deɪt D
 attel
of the city and bay84. In the cool85 of the you see Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum, an under- 100
 impressive ɪmˈpresɪv b
 eeindruckend
evening breeze86, you can take a prome- ground Neolithic118 complex of catacombs119 101
 X as sth is,... əz ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪz s o X etw. auch ist,...
nade87 walk around the illuminated88 grand89 used as a burial and religious site120 dating 102
 adventurous ədˈventʃərəs a
 benteuerlich, mutig
stone warehouse90 buildings lining91 the har- back to 4000 BC121. Coming a little more up 103
 an X sort ən sɔːt e
 in X Typ, Mensch
bour, now home to trendy bars and restau- to date122, for children of all ages, includ- 104
 to hop on tə hɒp ɒn a
 uf etw. aufspringen
rants. There you can sample92 traditional ing adults who never grew up, a fun ex- 105
 to stumble upon sth tə ˈstʌmbl əˈpɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ
Maltese treats93 such as Ħobż biż-Żejt - an cursion123 can be a visit to Popeye Village. über etw. stolpern, auf etw. stoßen
open sandwich with olive oil and tomato It is the location of the set124 of the 1980 106
 gem dʒem J uwel
paste, the ubiquitous94 street food, pastizzi film Popeye featuring Robin Williams in 107
 medieval ˌmedɪˈiːvl m
 ittelalterlich
- a cheese pie, and stuffat tal-qarnit - octo- the leading role125. Day trippers126 can walk 108
 hilltop ˈhɪltɒp Bergspitze, Bergkuppe
pus95 stew96. The Maltese also have a sweet 109
 walled wɔːld v
 on Mauern umgeben
tooth97, so pastry98 honey rings and date99 81
 flower bed ˈflaʊə(r) bed B
 lumenbeet 110
 entrance gate ˈentrəns ɡeɪt E
 ingangstor
cake are also popular. It’s the perfect way 82
 respite from sth ˈrespaɪt frəm ˈsʌmθɪŋ 111
 tranquil ˈtræŋkwɪl r uhig
to end the day. Erholung von etw. 112
 Roman ˈrəʊmən r ömisch
83
 hubbub ˈhʌbʌb Trubel 113
 site saɪt S
 tätte, Ausgrabungsstätte
84
 bay beɪ B
 ucht 114
 mosaics məʊˈzeɪɪks M
 osaik
Exploring the Island 85
 cool kuːl Kühle 115
 to date back to X tə deɪt bæk tu
86
 breeze briːz B
 rise zurückreichen bis X
Impressive100 as the capital is101, there are 87
 promenade ˌprɒməˈnɑːd Promenade 116
 century ˈsentʃəri J ahrhundert
plenty of interesting places on the island 88
 illuminated ɪˈluːmɪneɪtɪd b
 eleuchtet 117
 AD (Anno Domini) ˌeɪ ˈdiː ˌanəʊ ˈdɒmɪnʌɪ n
.
of Malta to visit. If you are the adventur- 89
 grand ɡrænd groß, großartig Chr. (im Jahre des Herrn)
ous102 sort103, you could just hop on104 any 90
 warehouse ˈweəhaʊs L
 agerhalle 118
 Neolithic ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk jungsteinzeitlich, neolithisch
bus to another town and stumble upon105 91
 to line sth tə laɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. säumen 119
 catacombs ˈkætəkuːmz Katakomben
a little gem106. This could include anoth- 92
 to sample sth tə ˈsɑːmpl ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. probieren 120
 burial site ˈberɪəl saɪt G
 rabstätte
er UNESCO Site, the medieval 107 hill- 93
 treat triːt L
 eckerbissen, Süßigkeit 121
 BC (before Christ) ˌbiː ˈsiː bɪˈfɔː(r) kraɪst v
 . Chr.
top108 town of Mdina. Go back in time and 94
 ubiquitous juːˈbɪkwɪtəs a
 llgegenwärtig 122
 up to date ʌp tə deɪt z eitgemäß, aktuell
walk through the peaceful, car-free old 95
 octopus ˈɒktəpəs T
 intenfisch, Krake 123
 excursion ɪkˈskɜːʃn A
 usflug
streets inside the walled109 town’s entrance 96
 stew stjuː E
 intopf 124
 set set F
 ilmset
gate110. Close by is the equally tranquil111 97
 to have a sweet tooth tə hǝv ǝ swiːt tuːθ e
 ine 125
 leading role ˈliːdɪŋ rəʊl H
 auptrolle
Rabat with a Roman112 villa site113 featuring Naschkatze sein 126
 day tripper deɪ ˈtrɪpə(r) T
 agesausflügler

58 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


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around the 20 wooden buildings, shop at Blue Flag-rated143 beaches. These include:
the souvenir shop and relax on the beach. St George’s Bay in Paceville, Paradise
Speaking of which127, surely it is time for Bay, a sandy beach with clear blue water
a dip128. on the northern peninsula of Malta look-
For people who enjoy sunbathing129, ing across to Gozo and Comino, the aptly
swimming, snorkelling130 or just lazy days named144 Golden Bay, and Mellieha Bay
by the beach, Malta has the ideal climate. (also known as Għadira Bay), Malta’s
Its southerly131 location means it has many longest sandy beach, which slopes145 gen-
dry summer days but being an island, ex- tly and is ideal for young children.
cessive132 temperatures are usually cooled133 Getting around the island is a doddle146
by the surrounding134 sea. Maximum tem- with a number of affordable147 options. The
peratures top out135 between 29°C and bus service148 in Malta and neighbouring149
32°C from June to September with May Gozo is frequent150 and reliable151. Scooters
and October offering a pleasant 24/25°C, and motorbikes are easily hired, as are
while winter temperatures rarely dip136 be- cars, for as little as 16 EUR a day. Just re-
low 16°C. There are occasional risks of jel- member that since the country was under
lyfish137 and dangerous currents138, but all of British rule until 1964, road signs152 are in
the popular beaches are manned139 by life- English, and driving is on the left. If you
guards140 in the summer with a flag warning don’t fancy153 that, white taxis, which do
system141 in operation142. Not only are they airport runs and will get you from A to
safe, but clean, with Malta claiming 10 B, abound154. We mustn’t forget Malta’s
little brother Gozo, to which regular fer-
St John's Co-Cathedral, Valletta
ries155 ply156 the 20-minute crossing157. This
reminds158 us that we can’t possibly finish
our Maltese adventure without visiting the
sibling159 island.

139
 to man sth tə mæn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. bemannen,
besetzen
140
 lifeguard ˈlaɪfɡɑːd Rettungsschwimmer
141
 warning system ˈwɔːnɪŋ ˈsɪstəm W
 arnsystem
142
 in operation ɪn ˌɒpəˈreɪʃn in Betrieb
143
 X-rated ˈreɪtɪd ( mit) X bewertet
144
 aptly named ˈæptli neɪmd treffend genannt
145
 to slope tə sləʊp a
 bfallen
146
 doddle ˈdɒdl Kinderspiel
147
 affordable əˈfɔːdəbl bezahlbar, 
erschwinglich
148
 bus service bʌs ˈsɜːvɪs B
 usverbindung
149
 neighbouring ˈneɪbərɪŋ b
 enachbart
150
 frequent ˈfriːkwənt h
 äufig
151
 reliable rɪˈlaɪəbl v
 erlässlich
152
 road sign rəʊd saɪn S
 traßenschild
153
 to fancy sth tə ˈfænsi ˈsʌmθɪŋ Lust auf etw.
haben
154
 to abound tu əˈbaʊnd in Hülle und Fülle
vorhanden sein
127
 speaking of which... ˈspiːkɪŋ əv wɪtʃ  133
 to cool sth tə kuːl ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.  155
 ferry ˈferi F
 ähre
apropos,... (ab)kühlen 156
 to ply sth tə plaɪ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. befahren,
128
 dip dɪp Bad 134
 surrounding səˈraʊndɪŋ u
 mgebend betreiben
129
 to sunbathe tə ˈsʌnbeɪð s onnenbaden 135
 to top out tə tɒp aʊt m
 aximal erreichen 157
 crossing ˈkrɒsɪŋ Ü
 berquerung, Überfahrt
130
 to snorkel tə ˈsnɔːkl s chnorcheln 136
 to dip tə dɪp f allen 158
 to remind sb tə rɪˈmaɪnd ˈsʌmbədi jdn.
131
 southerly ˈsʌðəli s üdlich 137
 jellyfish ˈdʒelɪfɪʃ Q
 ualle erinnern
132
 excessive ɪkˈsesɪv ü
 bermäßig 138
 current ˈkʌrənt S
 trömung 159
 sibling ˈsɪblɪŋ G
 eschwister »

59
TRAVEL

Valletta's Old Port Whatever your fancy192, be it admiring193


the historical architecture, experiencing
the culture or194 relaxing by the sea, Malta
seems to have it all covered195 - and what
better place to brush up on196 your English?

160
 chilled-out tʃɪld aʊt e
 ntspannt
161
 interior ɪnˈtɪərɪə(r) innere
162
 landscape ˈlændskeɪp L
 andschaft
163
 verdant ˈvɜːdnt grün
164
 coastline ˈkəʊstlaɪn K
 üstenlinie
165
 dotted with sth ˈdɒtɪd wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ übersät
mit etw.
166
 quaint kweɪnt idyllisch, reizend
167
 village ˈvɪlɪdʒ D
 orf
168
 uncrowded ʌnˈkraʊdɪd nicht überlaufen
169
 sheltered ˈʃeltəd g
 eschützt
170
 crystal-clear ˈkrɪstl klɪə(r) k
 ristallklar
171
 popular with sb ˈpɒpjʊlə(r) wɪð ˈsʌmbədi s ehr
beliebt bei jdm.
172
 scuba diver ˈskuːbə ˈdaɪvə(r) Sporttaucher
173
 titchy ˈtɪtʃi w
 inzig
174
 approximately əˈprɒksɪmətli u
 ngefähr
175
 sightseeing ˈsaɪtsiːɪŋ B
 esichtigung von
Sehenswürdigkeiten
176
 replete with sth rɪˈpliːt wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ v
 oll von
etw.
177
 inmate ˈɪnmeɪt I nsasse
178
 shrine ʃraɪn Schrein, Heiligtum
179
 pilgrimage ˈpɪlɡrɪmɪdʒ Pilgerfahrt, 
Wallfahrt
180
 dome dǝʊm Kuppel
181
 temple ˈtempl Tempel
182
 the Copper Age ðə ˈkɒpə(r) eɪdʒ K
 upferzeit
183
 to predate sth tə priˈdeɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ ä
 lter sein
als etw.
Gozo at Nadur is impressive, as is the Basilica 184
 pyramid ˈpɪrəmɪd Pyramide
of Ta’ Pinu which is a national shrine178 185
 aquatic əˈkwætɪk W
 asser-
Travelling just eight kilometres across and place of pilgrimage179. The largest 186
 abundance of sth əˈbʌndəns əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 ine
the water from Cirkewwa on Malta to church on the island (visible from much Fülle von etw.
Mgarr on Gozo, you are transported to a of it), is the Xewkija Rotunda, which is 187
 seaside ˈsiːsaɪd am Meer, Strand
very much more chilled-out160 environment. the third-largest dome180 in the world. The 188
 resort rɪˈzɔːt F
 erienort, Kurort
The interior161 landscape162 is verdant163 with Ġgantija temples181 date back to the Copper 189
 secluded sɪˈkluːdɪd abgelegen
the coastline164 dotted with165 quaint166 fish- Age182 around 3600 BC, predating183 both 190
 cove kəʊv B
 ucht
ing villages167 and uncrowded168, sheltered169 the pyramids184 and Stonehenge. 191
 scramble ˈskræmbl K
 letterei
beaches washed by crystal-clear170 waters For aquatic185 relaxation and recreation, 192
 sb’s fancy ˈsʌmbədɪz ˈfænsi jds. Lust,
popular with171 scuba divers172 and snor- there is an abundance of186 choices from the Phantasie
kellers. Although it is even titchier173 than tranquil bays of Ramla, San Blas, Dahlet 193
 to admire sth tu ədˈmaɪə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
Malta at approximately174 14 km by 7 km, Qorrot and Dwerja Bay. Popular beaches bewundern
there is still plenty to see and do. Popular are Ir-Ramla il-Hamra and the seaside187 194
 be it X or Y... bi ɪt ɔː(r) s ei es X oder Y...
sightseeing175 destinations are the medieval resort188 of Marsalforn. More secluded189 195
 to have sth covered tə həv ˈsʌmθɪŋ ˈkʌvəd
hilltop town of Victoria where you can vis- coves190 can be found but may involve a etw. abdecken, für etw. gesorgt haben
it the old prison replete with176 16th-centu- bit of a scramble191 down the rocks to get 196
 to brush up on sth tə brʌʃ ʌp ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw.
ry inmates’177 graffiti. The baroque church access. auffrischen

60 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


TRAVEL

Maybe these are mitigated25 by an attractive tax re-


Malta - Business Profile gime26? Unfortunately not. Personal taxation27 ranges from
0 percent up to earnings28 of EUR 9,100, rising to 15 per-
Conveniently1 situated2 at the heart of the Mediterranean3 cent above that and incrementally29 thereafter30, reaching
and close to North Africa and Southern Europe, historically, 29 percent for earnings between EUR 19,501 – 60,000
Malta has not only been of strategic importance but an inter- and 35 percent for earnings over that threshold31. For
national trading hub4. However, these days5, that is far less the non-residents32, the tax free earnings allowance33 is just
case6. Its smallness and commensurate7 labour force8 make it EUR 700, rising swiftly34 to 20 percent, then 35 percent
less attractive to modern commerce9. The major industry is for earnings over EUR 7,801. Thirty-five seems to be the
tourism, hospitality10 and leisure11. Traditional businesses such government’s favourite number as that is also the level at
as shipbuilding12, footwear13 and clothing still prevail14, and these which corporate tax35 is set. These rates36 apply to37 glob-
have been joined by 20th-century activities such as financial al earnings, but Malta does have double taxation arrange-
services and IT. ments38 with many countries, so at least taxpayers39 in
However, it may be said that the Maltese government is Malta should not have to pay twice on the same income40.
not bending over backwards to15 attract foreign investors. In Employers and employees also pay a weekly social secu-
the World Bank’s annual16 Ease of Doing Business Report of rity41 payment of around 10 percent of salary42.
2020, Malta ranked a lowly17 88 of 190 countries worldwide, For entrepreneurs43 that have a Malta-specific busi-
making it the worst place in the EU to set up business, and ness idea or could benefit from44 the location in trading
the second worst18 in Europe as a whole19. In registering a prop- with neighbours such as Italy or Tunisia, there could be
erty20, Malta came in 152nd, poorer than much of Africa and a business case for45 setting up on the island. For those
the Middle East21. On the whole22, administrative processes are whose location is more arbitrary46, there will be easier and
bureaucratic23, lengthy24 and costly. cheaper options. n

1
 conveniently kənˈviːnɪəntli bequem 25
 to mitigate sth tə ˈmɪtɪɡeɪt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. schwächen, 
2
 situated ˈsɪtʃʊeɪtɪd g
 elegen lindern
3
 the Mediterranean ðə ˌmedɪtəˈreɪnɪən M
 ittelmeer 26
 tax regime tæks reɪˈʒiːm Steuersystem
4
 hub hʌb Zentrum 27
 personal taxation ˈpɜːsənl tækˈseɪʃn P
 ersonensteuer
5
 these days,... ðiːz deɪz heutzutage,... 28
 earnings ˈɜːnɪŋz E
 inkommen, Verdienst
6
 sth is far less the case ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪz ˈfɑː(r) les ðə keɪs e
 tw. ist weit 29
 incrementally ˌɪŋkrəˈmentəli s chrittweise
weniger der Fall 30
 thereafter ˌðeərˈɑːftə(r) d
 anach
7
 commensurate kəˈmenʃərət e
 ntsprechend,  31
 threshold ˈθreʃhəʊld S
 chwelle
angemessen 32
 non-resident ˈnɒnˈrezɪdənt A
 usländer 
8
 labour force ˈleɪbə(r) fɔːs A
 rbeiterschaft (jd. der dort nicht wohnhaft ist)
9
 commerce ˈkɒmɜːs H
 andel 33
 allowance əˈlaʊəns h
 ier: Freibetrag
10
 hospitality ˌhɒspɪˈtæləti Bewirtung 34
 swiftly ˈswɪftli s chnell
11
 leisure ˈleʒə(r) F
 reizeit 35
 corporate tax ˈkɔːpərət tæks K
 örperschaftssteuer
12
 shipbuilding ˈʃɪpbɪldɪŋ Schiffsbau 36
 rate reɪt R
 ate, Quote, Zinssatz
13
 footwear ˈfʊtweə(r) S
 chuhwerk 37
 to apply to sb tu əˈplaɪ tə ˈsʌmbədi s ich auf 
14
 to prevail tə prɪˈveɪl v
 orherrschen jdn. beziehen
15
 to bend over backwards to do sth tə bend ˈəʊvə(r) ˈbækwədz tə du 38
 double taxation arrangement ˈdʌbl tækˈseɪʃn əˈreɪndʒmənt
ˈsʌmθɪŋ sich ein Bein ausreißen, um etw. zu tun Doppelbesteuerungsabkommen
16
 annual ˈænjuəl jährlich 39
 taxpayer ˈtækspeɪə(r) S
 teuerzahler
17
 lowly ˈləʊli b
 escheiden, niedrig 40
 income ˈɪŋkʌm E
 inkommen
18
 second worst ˈsekənd wɜːst v
 orletzter,  41
 social security ˈsəʊʃl sɪˈkjʊərəti S
 ozialversicherung
zweitschlimmster 42
 salary ˈsæləri G
 ehalt
19
 as a whole əz ə həʊl a
 ls Ganzes 43
 entrepreneur ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜː(r) U
 nternehmer
20
 property ˈprɒpəti E
 igentum, Besitz 44
 to benefit from sth tə ˈbenɪfɪt frəm ˈsʌmθɪŋ v
 on etw. 
21
 the Middle East ðə ˈmɪdl iːst d
 er Nahe Osten profitieren
22
 on the whole ɒn ðə həʊl a
 lles in allem 45
 a case for sth ə keɪs fə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 in Argument/
23
 bureaucratic ˌbjʊərəˈkrætɪk b
 ürokratisch Plädoyer für etw.
24
 lengthy ˈleŋθi langwierig 46
 arbitrary ˈɑːbɪtrəri b
 eliebig, willkürlich

61
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Europe’s Best Business


Locations
In this edition, BEM’s Steve Sibbald takes a bit of a trek1 around Europe to find
the best nations in which to start up a new business.
1
 trek trek Wanderung, Marsch, Treck

62 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


TRAVEL

"
Cliffs of Moher, Ireland brought in, the hospitality8 industry being hit
hard and a number of places reducing work
hours, many have been left wondering just
what the future holds9 regarding10 their long- THERE’S
term11 employment. Even pre-Covid, the
world’s media were warning of another po- A CERTAIN
tential upcoming12 crisis and some economic RESILIENCE
experts were fearing the worst.
However, while many shops, restau- WHEN IT COMES
rants and businesses have been hit by
the pandemic, some entrepreneurs13 have
TO IRELAND’S
grabbed the bull by the horns14 and used the BUSINESS
opportunity to start up their own ventures15.
Speaking exclusively to BEM, UK- ATTITUDE AND
based economist David Shaw explains IT’S PROVED
how current circumstances may have pro-
vided folk16 with17 the motivation to finally OVER RECENT
realise their dream. “It’s so easy to find a
job you dislike18 and stick with19 it for the
YEARS THAT IT’S
sake of20 security and a regular income. HERE TO STAY.
After all, people have families to provide
for21, mortgages22 to maintain23 and bills to
pay,” he says. “But in this day and age24, es-
pecially given the current state of things, "
the notion25 of a ‘job for life’ is fast dis-
appearing. And this may very well have
given people that impetus26 to try some- 14
 to grab the bull by the horns tə ɡræb ðə bʊl
thing new.” baɪ ðə hɔːnz den Stier bei den Hörnern packen
15
 venture ˈventʃə(r) U
 nternehmen, Projekt,
Wagnis
Looking Abroad 16
 folk fəʊk Leute
17
 to provide sb with sth tə prəˈvaɪd ˈsʌmbədi wɪð
For those wishing to start up their own ˈsʌmθɪŋ jdn. mit etw. versorgen
business, the idea may seem quite diffi- 18
 to dislike sth tə dɪsˈlaɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. nicht
cult or intimidating27. But it’s important to mögen
remember that many nations offer sim- 19
 to stick with sth tə stɪk wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ b
 ei etw.
ple guidelines28 and government support bleiben, an etw. festhalten
schemes to help aid those looking to do so. 20
 for the sake of X fə(r) ðə seɪk ɒv u
m

I
It’s also reassuring 29 to know that X willen
t’s fair to say that the recent pandem- some of Europe’s countries rank up there 21
 to provide for sb tə prəˈvaɪd fə(r) ˈsʌmbədi jdn.
ic has cast a shadow2 of confusion3 amongst30 the best in the world in which versorgen, für jdn. sorgen
and uncertainty4 over many people’s to register a business and get it up and 22
 mortgage ˈmɔːɡɪdʒ Hypothek
livelihoods5. With furlough6 schemes7 running31. 23
 to maintain sth tə meɪnˈteɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
unterhalten, aufrechterhalten
2
 to cast a shadow tə kɑːst ə ˈʃædəʊ S
 chatten 8
 hospitality ˌhɒspɪˈtæləti Bewirtungs- 24
 in this day and age ɪn ðɪs deɪ ǝnd eɪdʒ
werfen 9
 what the future holds wɒt ðə ˈfjuːtʃə(r) həʊldz heutzutage
3
 confusion kənˈfjuːʒn Verwirrung was die Zukunft bringt 25
 notion ˈnəʊʃn V
 orstellung, Gedanke
4
 uncertainty ʌnˈsɜːtnti U
 ngewissheit, 10
 regarding sth rɪˈɡɑːdɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. 26
 impetus ˈɪmpɪtəs A
 ntrieb, Impuls
Unsicherheit betreffend 27
 intimidating ɪnˈtɪmɪdeɪtɪŋ e
 inschüchternd
5
 livelihood ˈlaɪvlihʊd Lebensunterhalt, 11
 long-term lɒŋ tɜːm langfristig 28
 guidelines ˈɡaɪdlaɪnz Richtlinien
Lebensgrundlage 12
 upcoming ˈʌpkʌmɪŋ bevorstehend,  29
 reassuring ˌriːəˈʃʊərɪŋ b
 eruhigend
6
 furlough ˈfɜːləʊ U
 rlaub,  anstehend 30
 amongst əˈmʌŋst u
 nter
Zwangsurlaub 13
 entrepreneur ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜː(r)  31
 to get sth up and running tə ɡet ˈsʌmθɪŋ ʌp
7
 scheme skiːm P
 lan, Schema Unternehmer ənd ˈrʌnɪŋ e
 tw. in Gang bringen »

63
TRAVEL

" extremely tempting51 to both first-timers52


and those with experience. And starting
it all up is simply done at the click of a
43
oben auf der Tagesordnung
 to dip one’s toes in the water tə dɪp wʌnz təʊz
ɪn ðə ˈwɔːtə(r) s ich an etw. Neues wagen, etw.
NORWAY IS button. Neues probieren
The neighbouring53 nation of Sweden is  ...excuse the pun! ɪkˈskjuːz ðə pʌn . ..
PARTICULARLY
44

also synonymous with54 success for those Entschuldigung für den Witz/für das
POPULAR WITH looking to try their luck55. Due to56 its loca- Wortspiel!
tion, natural resources such as wood and  willing ˈwɪlɪŋ g
 ewillt, bereitwillig
THOSE IN THE
45

iron ore57 have always been at the country’s 46


 ample ˈæmpl reichlich, üppig

TECHNOLOGY fingertips58 and it has been able to capitalise


on59 this, selling it abroad to other nations
47
 popular with sb ˈpɒpjʊlə(r) wɪð ˈsʌmbədi beliebt
bei jdm.
SECTOR, during periods of industrialisation60. 48
 maritime ˈmærɪtaɪm m
 aritim
According to US News, it current-  painfully ˈpeɪnfəli s chmerzhaft, schmerzlich,
ESPECIALLY SO
49

ly ranks fifth among countries in which schrecklich


WHEN IT COMES to conduct61 business (two places higher 50
 relatively ˈrelətɪvli r elativ
than Norway) and it doesn’t seem to be  tempting ˈtemptɪŋ v
 erlockend
TO LOOKING AT
51

dropping down the leader board62 anytime 52


 first-timer fɜːst ˈtaɪmə(r) jd., der etw. zum

EFFICIENCY AND soon. It’s also worth keeping in mind63 that


Sweden is more than capable of64 holding its 53
ersten Mal macht
 neighbouring ˈneɪbərɪŋ b
 enachbart
PRODUCTIVITY. own65 in the technology sector, with inter- 54
 synonymous with sth sɪˈnɒnɪməs wɪð ˈsʌmθɪŋ
national giants such as Skype and Spotify gleichbedeutend mit etw.
both starting out here.  to try one’s luck tə traɪ wʌnz lʌk s ein Glück

"
55

versuchen
56
 due to sth djuː tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ wegen/aufgrund
Looking Green von etw.
The Netherlands has always had a repu- 57
 ore ɔː(r) E
 rz
tation for32 being both welcoming33 and lib- A trip over to the Emerald Isle66 and at 58
 at sb’s fingertips ət ˈsʌmbədiz ˈfɪŋɡətɪps in jds.
eral when it comes to34 foreigners and tour- first glance67 one might see what appears Reichweite, zu jds. Verfügung
ists. It is also quite renowned35 amongst to be a small island punching well above 59
 to capitalise on sth tə ˈkæpɪtəlaɪz ɒn ˈsʌmθɪŋ
the business-savvy36 with an eye on37 start- its weight68. But don’t be fooled69 - Ireland aus etw. Kapital schlagen
ing up new ventures. As anyone who has is well worthy of holding its own in the 60
 industrialisation ɪnˌdʌstrɪəlaɪˈzeɪʃn
been to the Netherlands will confirm38, its business stakes. Industrialisierung
canal-based city centres are thriving39 and The country’s economic boom at the 61
 to conduct sth tə kənˈdʌkt ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw.
both nightlife40 and retail41 is high on the na- end of the late 1990s helped coin70 the durchführen, führen
tion’s agenda42. The government also of- phrase ‘The Celtic Tiger’ and indeed, the 62
 leader board ˈliːdə(r) bɔːd R
 angliste
fers great support for those looking to dip term71 and attitude72 still ring true73 today. 63
 to keep sth in mind tə kiːp ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪn maɪnd
their toe in the water43, excuse the pun44. Yes, like most places it was hit in 2008, but etw. im Hinterkopf behalten
64
 more than capable of doing sth mɔː(r) ðən
32
 to have a reputation for doing sth tə həv ə ˈkeɪpəbl əv ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ mehr als fähig sein,
Nordic Wonders ˌrepjuˈteɪʃn fə(r) ˈduːɪŋ ˈsʌmθɪŋ den Ruf haben, etw. zu tun
etw. zu tun 65
 to hold one’s own tə hǝʊld wʌnz ǝʊn s ich
Anyone willing45 to cast their net fur- 33
 welcoming ˈwelkəmɪŋ e
 inladend, behaupten
ther north towards the Nordic countries of gastfreundlich 66
 the Emerald Isle ði ˈemərəld aɪl d
 ie Grüne
Sweden and Norway may also find ample46 34
 when it comes to sth wen ɪt kʌmz tə ˈsʌmθɪŋ Insel (Irland)
opportunities and long-term rewards. wenn es um etw. geht 67
 at first glance ət fɜːst ɡlɑːns a
 uf den ersten
“Norway is particularly popular with47 35
 renowned rɪˈnaʊnd b
 ekannt, berühmt Blick
those in the technology sector, especially 36
 X-savvy ˈsævi X
 -erfahren 68
 to punch above one’s weight tə pʌntʃ əˈbʌv
so when it comes to looking at efficiency 37
 with an eye on X wɪð ən aɪ ɒn X
 im Blick wʌnz weɪt ü
 ber sich selbst hinauswachsen
and productivity,” says David Shaw. “As habend 69
 don’t be fooled! dəʊnt bi fuːld lass dich nicht
well as one of the strongest economies on 38
 to confirm tə kənˈfɜːm b
 estätigen täuschen!
the globe, it’s also one of the leaders in 39
 thriving ˈθraɪvɪŋ blühend, erfolgreich 70
 to coin sth tə kɔɪn ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. prägen
both the energy and maritime48 sectors.” 40
 nightlife ˈnaɪtlaɪf Nachtleben 71
 term tɜːm B
 egriff
It’s true that taxes can be painfully49 high, 41
 retail ˈriːteɪl E
 inzelhandel 72
 attitude ˈætɪtjuːd Einstellung
but relatively50 low investment risks can be 42
 high on the agenda haɪ ɒn ði əˈdʒendə g
 anz 73
 to ring true tə rɪŋ truː g
 laubhaft klingen

64 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


TRAVEL

the tiger has once again found its feet74 and


firms and businesses are clambering over
each other to75 get registered on its green
shores. Don’t believe us? Just ask the likes
of76 Google, LinkedIn or Facebook.
“There’s a certain resilience77 when it
comes to Ireland’s business attitude and
it’s proved over recent years that it’s here
to stay78,” David Shaw comments. “We’re
not talking a flash in the pan79 econom-
ic growth here, but something which has
good, solid foundations and has been rec-
ognised80 by some of the biggest names in
world business.”

Further East

Since joining the European Union back


in 2007, Bulgaria has become something
of a popular tourist destination81 amongst
western travellers. However, how many
would actually consider82 setting up their
own firm there? Not many, one would
imagine.
But it seems there are plenty who might
just be missing a trick83 as Bulgaria is fast which should be enough to help entice90 “Perhaps the key factor is to ensure94
becoming one of the leading EU nations young up-and-coming91 entrepreneurs. that you spend ample time researching
in which to get started up. “Consider not what it is you want from your business
only its location, but strong political and and how each nation can offer you that
economic stability84,” David Shaw says. Do Your Digging support,” adds David Shaw. “What sits
“These are three things not to overlook85 right95 for one person isn’t always going
when choosing somewhere.” Indeed, it This article only begins to scratch at to work well for the next and a lot of time
has not only good access to the EU itself the surface92 of some of the great possibil- and money can be wasted if you don’t get
but also to locations such as North Africa, ities regarding the countries in which to it right.”
Turkey and the Middle East86. start up a business or register a company. “In this day and age, there’s no ex-
At present87, Bulgaria’s corporate income There are scores of93 choices, with many cuse for not doing a bit of digging96 first.
tax rate88 is also relatively low (10 percent) European countries offering different and Remember, it will pay dividends97 in the
as are costs for rent and utilities89, all things unique opportunities. future.” n

74
 to find one’s feet tə faɪnd wʌnz fiːt Fuß fassen 81
 tourist destination ˈtʊərɪst ˌdestɪˈneɪʃn 90
 to entice sb tu ɪnˈtaɪs ˈsʌmbədi jdn. locken,
75
 to clamber over sb to do sth tə ˈklæmbə(r) Urlaubsziel anlocken
ˈəʊvə(r) ˈsʌmbədi tə du ˈsʌmθɪŋ ü
 ber jdn. 82
 to consider doing sth tə kənˈsɪdə(r) ˈduːɪŋ 91
 up-and-coming ʌp ənd ˈkʌmɪŋ aufstrebend
drübersteigen, um etw. zu tun, sich ˈsʌmθɪŋ erwägen, etw. zu tun 92
 to scratch (at) the surface tə skrætʃ ət ðə
drängeln, um etw. zu tun 83
 to miss a trick tə mɪs ə trɪk e
 ine Chance/ ˈsɜːfɪs a
 n der Oberfläche kratzen
76
 the likes of X ðə ˈlaɪks əv L
 eute/Sachen wie X Gelegenheit verpassen 93
 scores of sth skɔːz əv ˈsʌmθɪŋ v
 iele, eine
77
 resilience rɪˈzɪlɪəns B
 elastbarkeit, 84
 stability stəˈbɪlɪti S
 tabilität Menge an etw.
Widerstandsfähigkeit 85
 to overlook sth tu ˌəʊvəˈlʊk ˈsʌmθɪŋ e
 tw. 94
 to ensure sth tu ɪnˈʃʊə(r) ˈsʌmθɪŋ f ür etw.
78
 sth is here to stay ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɪz hɪə(r) tə steɪ e
 tw. übersehen sorgen, etw. sicherstellen
ist von Dauer 86
 the Middle East ðə ˈmɪdl iːst d
 er Nahe Osten 95
 to sit right tə sɪt raɪt p
 assen, richtig sitzen
79
 a flash in the pan ə flæʃ ɪn ðə pæn 87
 at present ət ˈpreznt a
 ugenblicklich 96
 to do some digging tə du səm ˈdɪɡɪŋ e
 tw.
Eintagsfliege, Strohfeuer 88
 corporate income tax rate ˈkɔːpərət ˈɪŋkʌm recherchieren
80
 to recognise sth tə ˈrekəɡnaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ etw. tæks reɪt K
 örperschaftssteuersatz 97
 to pay dividends tə peɪ ˈdɪvɪdendz s ich bezahlt
erkennen 89
 utilities juːˈtɪlɪtɪz N
 ebenkosten machen

65
MANAGING PEOPLE

Gary Vaynerchuk
BUSINESS-ENGLISH-MAGAZIN.DE

ZUGANGSCODE
DOWNLOAD QR CODE SCANNER:
COLORFULMEDIA.DE/SCANNER

fua

ODER HÖR ES
DIR AN AUF:

Gary
Vaynerchuk -
A Pure-bred1 Entrepreneur2 1
 pure-bred ˈpjʊə(r) ˈbred r eingezogen,
reinrassig
2
 entrepreneur ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜː(r) Unternehmer
 humble beginnings ˈhʌmbl bɪˈɡɪnɪŋz
From humble beginnings3 to becoming
3

bescheidene Anfänge
a multimillionaire4, Gary Vaynerchuk has shown 4
 multimillionaire ˌmʌltiˌmɪljəˈneə(r)

all the hallmarks of5 a true entrepreneur. Janet


Multimillionär
5
 hallmark of sb ˈhɔːlmɑːk əv ˈsʌmbədi
Sandford tracks his achievements6 and his path Kennzeichen/Gütezeichen von jdm.

to wealth7.  achievement əˈtʃiːvmənt L
 eistung, Erfolg
6

7
 wealth welθ R
 eichtum, Vermögen

66 BUSINESS ENGLISH MAGAZIN ISSUE 1/2022


MANAGINGIN
PEOPLE
BRIEF

B "
orn in 1978 Babruysk, which was when many people still wondered44 if this
in the Soviet Union8 at the time9 would be a passing fad45. Through his on-
and is now in Belarus, he emi- line presence46 (which now totals47 over
grated at the age of three with his 12 million combined48 followers49 across GARY RECKONS
family to the United States. They set up Instagram, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter,
home10 in New York’s Queens borough11 LinkedIn, Snapchat and Spotify) and per- HE WAS A BORN
before moving to12 Edison, New Jersey.
Gary reckons13 he was a born14 entrepreneur,
sonal charisma, he attracted television ap-
pearances50 bringing him to a still-wider
ENTREPRENEUR,
having run various side hustles15 through- audience51. In 2008, he was invited to be HAVING RUN
out his school days, including pulling up16 the keynote speaker52 at New York’s Web
flowers from a neighbouring garden to sell 2.0 conference, which led to him securing
VARIOUS
them, running a lemonade stand17, buying SIDE HUSTLES
and selling baseball cards and toys and  the Soviet Union ðə ˈsəʊvɪət ˈjuːnɪən
THROUGHOUT HIS
8

making thousands of dollars while still in Sowjetunion


his teens18. He started working in the fam-
ily business at just 14 years old bagging19
9

10
 at the time ət ðə taɪm z u jener Zeit
 to set up home somewhere tə set
SCHOOL DAYS.
ice. That business was a tradi