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Paper presentation

On

Bio - Cybernics

BY

B.V.ASHOK
III CSE
MIC COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
Email: ashok4everyone@yahoo.com
Contact no:9866861620

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Abstract

Man always wanted to scale new


Hence by the bio-mimetic approach we can
heights of technology in order to make his life
improve the quality of living. For example an
better than the best. His thirst for
ant can lift a mass i.e. 51 times more than its
sophisticated life has never come to an end.
body weight. Bionics is an interdisciplinary
He always demanded more power, more
field dealing with “BIO-logy and Tech-
comfort. In this quest we present you the
NICS” and is an official science since the
world of bionics which examines the ways in
sixties approximately. The central idea of
which technology is inexorably driving us to
bionics can be summarized as “learning from
a new and different level of humanity, Tran
nature”. Bionics also called Trans humanism
humanism. As scientists draw on
in human perspective. This paper also deals
nanotechnology, molecular biology, artificial
about curing blindness by Linking
intelligence, and innovative bio-materials
Computerscience, Electronics and
science, they are routinely using sophisticated
Biotechnology, the scientists has made the
surgical techniques to implant computer chips
commitment to the development of
and drug-dispensing devices into our bodies,
technology that will provide or restore vision
designing fully functional man-made body
for the visually impaired around the world.
parts, and linking human brains with
This paper describes the development of
computers to make people healthier, smarter,
Artificial vision system, which cures
and stronger. In short, we are going beyond
blindness to some extent. This paper explains
what was once only science fiction to create
the process involved in it and explains the
bionic people with fully integrated artificial
concepts of artificial silicon retina, cortical
components and it will not be long before we
implants etc. The roadblocks that are created
reach the ultimate goal of constructing a
are also elucidated clearly. Finally the
completely synthetic human-like being. The
advancements made in this system and scope
central idea of bionics is learning from nature,
of this in the future is also presented clearly.

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Introduction management crew in emergency. Even
wastage of valuable human energy is
“There is no lovelier way to
minimized to great extent and also provides
thank God for your sight
efficiency. It offers a ray of hope to the
than by giving a helping hand
to those in dark.” physically challenged people with bionic eye,
Bionics is an interdisciplinary field bionic ear, bionic leg, bionic hand, kidney,
dealing with “BIO-logy and Tech-NICS” and and cardio-west.
is an official science since the sixties Nature offers a wealth of experience
approximately. The central idea of bionics which must be tapped for its potential to
can be summarized as “learning from nature”. inspire innovations useful for human society.
In an evolutionary process lasting millions of The history of bionics follows a path of
years, nature has developed refined solutions development leading to ever smaller
to problems which remain a great challenge dimensions. It ranges from the exploitation of
to scientists today – despite the current, the principles of macroscopic phenomena –
advanced state of scientific knowledge. like the flight of birds or the clinging
Examples include robust, natural composite mechanism of the boll of bedstraw (burdock)
bio-materials, refined mechanisms for – to the study of the hydrodynamic properties
mobility, functional techniques for housing of the skin of sharks, and to the investigation
and construction, perfected information and and emulation of the propulsion mechanisms
communication systems, and highly sensitive of nano-sized bio-molecules. Not least at this
sensors for perception. Many of these natural molecular level, a great many promising new
solutions to problems are true to the concept approaches for bionic innovations are
of sustainable development. Nature achieves expected in the near future as a result of
its objectives economically. It requires a recent advances in the field of biological
minimum amount of energy for the research and technology. Bionics also called
development and implementation of its Tran humanism in human perspective.
solutions and recycles all waste produced in
the process. Using this original bio-principle,
scientists have created a Bionic suit which
offers more strength to nurses to lift heavier
patients also and also used by disaster

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What is Bionic / Bio-cybernics?

The field of bionics concerns the


systematic technical implementation of
solutions nature has found for particular
problems. Today, there are many new,
fascinating approaches for developing bionic
innovations due to recent dynamic advances
in biological research and technology –
especially at the molecular level. While
biotechnology addresses the scientific-
technical realm lying between biology and
chemistry, bionics closes the gaps separating
the fields of biology, physics and engineering.
Bionics pursues an interdisciplinary approach
to solving application oriented problems. The
Methods and Examples
results of bionic research and development
are, however, never reducible to a one to one Bio-suit:
copy of the models in nature which provided This is an interesting approach in the
the original inspiration. field of engineering is the application of
mechanisms derived from the micro-
mechanical systems of insects which
minimize friction and wear. It is assumed that
the reduced friction in such systems is a result
of the different degrees of hardness of the
contact elements, the hydrophobisation of the
surfaces, or the formation of surface
structures which minimize the contact
between the various components of the insect
joints. Research aimed at understanding the
functional surfaces of biological micro-joints

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provides a foundation for the technical
development of actuators (moving parts of
micro-electro mechanical systems, MEMS).
Also useful for Disaster management crew
etc. A robotic exoskeleton has been created
by researchers to allow nurses to lift patients
effortlessly without damaging their backs.
Sensor pads taped to the major muscle groups
calculate how much force you need to pick up
a patient. As you lift, the sensors send data to
a microcomputer that triggers the business
end of the system: a bunch of concertina-like
limb and body actuators powered by
compressed air. These move slowly and
create low mechanical stress - giving
someone as much or as little help as they
need. The suit has five actuators: one for each
elbow, one for the waist and one for each
knee.

The elbow actuators push on the frame that


lets your forearms lift the patient, while the
waist actuator helps straighten your back and
the knee actuators help you straighten your

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Bionic Ear

Steps in Bionic Ear Working:

Another interesting approach in the


field of engineering is the bionic ear. The
legs. The computer simply works out when human ear is made up of thousands of hair
the nurse's limbs and joints have enough cells, which when working properly are
artificial support that allows them to stimulated by sound, and then begin to
continuously work effortlessly. The main role vibrate, passing electrical impulses on to the
of the Power Assist Suit will be helping auditory nerve fibers. In people having
nurses and physiotherapists lift patients on sensor-neural deafness, the hair cells are
and off beds. In tests, a nurse weighing 64 unable to function, therefore severing the path
kilograms was able to pick up and carry a of sound to the brain. To restore this
patient weighing 70 kilograms. Also the important connection, a lead of electrodes is
mechanics of the suit are hidden behind the implanted in the ear to replicate the function
wearer; the nurse can be in direct contact with of hair cells and stimulate the cochlea. The
the patient. This suit weighs 18 kilograms and implanted lead contains anywhere from 1 to
in future may decrease. 22 electrodes, each being stimulated by
different frequencies and pitches. These
electrodes then stimulate the nerves and then
send it to the brain via the hearing nerve.
How Does a Cochlear implant work? Muscles

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can change electrical energy into mechanical
energy, as seen when the ear changes the
mechanical energy of sound into electrical
impulses. Electrodes can give off such
electrical impulses, stimulating surrounding
nerves. This allows for signals to by-pass
damaged parts, such as hair cells or the ear,
yet still stimulates the nerve. Cochlear
implants are also dependent on the
electromagnetic spectrum and quantum
mechanics for getting the external sound to
the electrodes. Once picked up by the external
microphone and transmitted to the speech
The idea for sending an electrical current to
processor, the translated frequencies must be
the nerve ganglia behind the retina started in
sent to the receiver implanted in the head.
1988 when a blind person demonstrated that
This is generally done by transmitting radio
he could see points of light by the ARCC
waves through the ear; however metal
(artificial retina component chip). This tested
induction or other types of signal transfer
method proved that the nerves behind the
could be used. The radio waves must also be
retina could still possibly function even
of certain frequency and wavelength. The
though the retina degenerated. Scientists
principles of spectroscopy, in terms of the
believe that if they could replace the retina
electromagnetic spectrum, help to explain this
with a device that could translate images to
transfer of sound in the form of radio waves.
electrical impulses then vision could be
Bionic Eye
restored. But the salty conditions of the eye
Bionics has already opened the door for
could encourage corrosion in the delicate
replacing lenses and corneas and is focusing
electronics required for this technology.
on understanding how to engineer a new eye
Researchers, however, have designed a chip
for those who have a retinal disease, which
that could possibly work because it would use
would enable 10 million people to regain a
an external laser to power the chip. This
sense of sight.
should eliminate the problem of the how to
keep a battery working in the wet, salty
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environment of the eye. The power source pupil and the iris; the lens is responsible only
would have to be able to pass through the for fine-tuning. Light travels through the
cornea without damaging the corneal tissue, cornea and lens to focus on the retina at the
though. back of the eyeball. The closer an object is,
the farther back in the eye it will be focused.
The lens compensates by adjusting its
strength to bring the focus back onto the
retina. If the cornea or lens do not focus
strongly enough or the eyeball is too short,
the light will focus behind the retina, blurring
images of close-up objects. This is long-
sightedness. Conversely, if the eyeball is too
long, the light will focus in front of the retina,
yielding the blurry images of far-off Objects
characteristic of short-sightedness. Tightening
the smart eye band causes the eyeball to
A light tap on the side of your head could one elongate, just as squeezing the middle of a
day restore your eyesight, believe scientists. peeled hard-boiled egg causes the egg to
The tap would tighten a band of artificial lengthen. In long-sighted people this pushes
muscle wrapped round your eyeballs, the retina backwards, bringing close-up
changing their shape and bringing blurry objects back into focus. Expanding the eye
images into focus. While the idea has a high band causes the eyeball to shorten. In short-
'yuk' factor, the people behind it are confident sighted people this will bring the retina
it will be a safe and effective way to improve forward to intersect with the focused light,
vision. By using artificial muscle a "smart eye making far-off images sharp and clear again.
band". It will be stitched to the sclera, the Stitching a band of artificial muscle to your
tough white outer part of the eyeball, and eyeball sounds drastic, but the necessary
activated by an electromagnet in a hearing- surgical techniques are already commonly
aid-sized unit fitted behind one ear. Most of used for treating detached retinas. This smart
the eye's focusing is done by the cornea, the eye band is far more flexible than laser
hard transparent surface that covers both the

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surgery, in which a laser flattens the cornea • Biocompatible with the surrounding
by eroding part of it. eye tissue

One of the advancements in the field of WORKING OF ARTIFICIAL


Bionics which is making waves in this VISION SYSTEM:
modern era is Artificial vision.
The main parts of this system are miniature
HOW TO CREATE ARTIFICIAL
video camera, a signal processor, and the
VISION?
brain implants. The tiny pinhole camera,
The current path that scientists are taking to
mounted on a pair of eyeglasses, captures the
create artificial vision received a jolt in 1988,
scene in front of the wearer and sends it to a
when Dr. Mark Humayun demonstrated that a
small computer on the patient's belt. The
blind person could be made to see light by
processor translates the image into a series of
stimulating the nerve ganglia behind the
signals that the brain can understand, and then
retina with an electrical current. This test
sends the information to the brain implant
proved that the nerves behind the retina still
that is placed in patient’s visual cortex. And,
functioned even when the retina had
if everything goes according to plan, the brain
degenerated. Based on this information,
will "see" the image.
scientists set out to create a device that could
translate images and electrical pulses that
could restore vision. Today, such a device is
very close to be available to the millions of
people who have lost their vision to retinal
disease. In fact, there are at least two silicon
microchip devices that are being developed.
The concept for both devices is similar, with
each being:

• Small enough to be implanted in the


eye
• Supplied with a continuous source of
power
Figure illustrating the AV SYSTEM.

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Light enters the camera, which then sends the send appropriate signals to an array of small
image to a wireless wallet-sized computer for electrodes on the surface of patient’s brain,
processing. The computer transmits this through wires entering his skull. The
information to an infrared LED screen on the electrodes stimulate certain brain cells,
goggles. The goggles reflect an infrared making the person perceive the specks of
image into the eye and on to the retinal chip, light. The shifting patterns as scans across a
stimulating photodiodes on the chip. The scene tells him where light areas meet dark
photodiodes mimic the retinal cells by ones, letting him find the black cap on the
converting light into electrical signals, which white wall, for example. The device provides
are then transmitted by cells in the inner a sort of tunnel vision, reading an area about
retina via nerve pulses to the brain. The the size of a card 2 inches wide and 8 inches
goggles are transparent so if the user still has tall, held at arm's length.
some vision, they can match that with the
new information - the device would cover
Bionic Limbs
about 10° of the wearer’s field of vision.
Victhom Inc. motorized prosthesis is the first
in the world to provide the necessary power
to restore amputated lower limb function
during defined portions of locomotion. The
behavior of the prosthesis is determined by
combination of artificial proprioceptors
resulting in the keyed sound side sensory
control. This performance is top rated -as it
has 170 Nm torque generated at the knee to
provide assistance during stair ascent and
The patient should wear sunglasses with a descent, level walking dynamics are restored
tiny pinhole camera mounted on one lens and through an adjustable power management,
an ultrasonic range finder on the other. Both dynamic adjustment of the prosthesis
devices communicate with a small computer behavior achieved with a broad range of
carried on his hip, which highlights the edges cadences (0-126 steps/min) ensuring
between light and dark areas in the camera effortless walking. Further work on the
image. It then tells an adjacent computer to

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motorized lower limb prosthesis is aimed to
restore lower limb functionality by improving
bio-mechanical performance of both the knee
and the ankle on high pace. Prosthesis control
is through sound side sensory control will be
pushed a step further by interpreting the Goal
neurological signal to achieve voluntary
The goal of bionics is to elaborate methods
control into its artificial intelligence.
for the repairment and substitution of
Bionic Hand impaired functions of the human system and
to make life better. This paper contains
contributions from internationally recognized
scientists exploring the structure of this novel
interdisciplinary research field. This structure
consists of theoretical sciences (philosophy,
mathematics,neuroinformatics, computational
neuroscience), basic biological sciences
(molecular biology, cell biology, biological
network neuroscience, neurophysiology),
technical engineering (microelectronics,
micromechanics, robotics, Microsystems),
and clinical neurosciences (neurodiagnostics,
neurology,neurosurgery, neurorehabilitation).

Global threats
Bio ethics can be broken. Human rights can
Bionic Leg
be violated. Cybercrimes may increase. Proof
less crime

Conclusion
In a more specific meaning, it is a creativity
technique that tries to use biological

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prototypes to get ideas for engineering many neurological disorders like cerebral
solutions. This approach is motivated by the palsy, spinal chord injury etc. It provides a
fact that biological organisms and their cleaner and better world with better
organs have been well optimized by prospects, more power, and more efficiency
evolution. A less common and maybe more with out fatigue. It can be used in extra-
recent meaning of the term "bionics" refer to terrestrial (space) research in extreme
merging organism and machine. This conditions.
approach results in a hybrid system In short it makes life better.
combining biological and engineering parts,
which can also be referred as cybernetic
References:
organism (cyborg). Bionics gives a ray of
hope to the physically challenged people i.e.,
bionic eye, bionic ear, bionic hand, bionic • IEEE format

leg, artificial heart, artificial blood, bionic • www.stanford.edu

suit. It can be used for heart monitoring, • www.kidcyber.com


kidney dialysis, reversing blindness and for

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