Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT

FLORICULTURE
Flowers symbolize beauty, tranquility, honesty and divinity. Flower is inseparable from socio-
economic fabric of human life. Flowers are used in all occasions of human life, like birth, marriage
or death. ‘Floriculture’ includes production and marketing of flowering, foliage, garden–bedding
plants, cut flowers etc. Bangalore, Pune, Hyderabad, Thuruvananthapuram, Haryana, Delhi are
the major centers of floriculture industry. It is increasing fast in non-traditional states such as
Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh, and Gujarat.
FLORICULTURE IN INDIA :

In past flowers have been grown as home grown plants for natural beauty, aesthetic value, and
religious offerings, social and official celebration. In India, floriculture as an industry for commercial
purposes has taken root only during the past decade. The floriculture industry offers many socio-
economic benefits in terms of employment generation, higher income and foreign exchange
earnings. Floriculture provides excellent employment opportunity for agricultural labour. Diversified
agro climatic conditions give an opportunity to our country to grow both traditional and modern
flowers.

TRADITIONAL FLOWERS :
Traditional flowers are those that are cultivated in the country for hundreds of years for the purpose
of worship, festival, social occasions, public functions and adornment by women. Consumption
of flowers in southern states is much higher than in northern states. Some of the traditional
flowers commonly grown are Jasmine, Tuberose, Crossandra, Marigold, Lotus, Chrysanthemum
and Rose. Most of the traditional flowers are used for the garland purposes. Among traditional
flowers, roses, jasmine and tuberose are also used for extraction of essential oils and perfumes.
Flower like, marigold is used for extractions of Pigment/colour. All the traditional flowers are
produced in the open field in the country and the traditional flower growers are mainly small &
marginal farmers.
MODERN FLOWERS :

Modern flowers include those cut flowers that are used with long stem for bouquets, vases and for
other decorative purpose. Flowers include in this category are rose, gladiolus, carnation, lilies,
orchids, anthurium, gerbera etc. Most of these flowers are grown under protected conditions.
INCENTIVES BY GOVERNMENT :

Floriculture is fast emerging as an industry with high potential for the domestic as well as export
market. Govt. of India, identified floriculture as “Thrust area”. A number of infrastructure projects
especially cold chain infrastructure were commissioned. The Central Govt. as well as various
State Govts. are providing a package of incentives and concessions to the floriculture industry.The
centrally sponsored scheme on commercial floriculture was launched for the first time during the
8th five Year Plan to improve supply of quality planting material and technology transfer with a
outlay of Rs.14.29 crores which was subsequently enhanced to Rs.19.90 crores during 9th Five
Year Plan. Apart from the above, following are the changes/amendments on account of the
liberalization/globalization Policy.

307
FLORICULTURE
1. The quarantine procedure have been simplified and made easy for the import of seeds and
planting material.

2. Reduction in import duty on various items connected with floriculture :

Existing Revised
Import duty import duty
Planting material 55% 10%
Green House material 136% 25%
Pre-cooling units/Refrigeration — 25%

3. Import permits for flower, seeds and tissue culture materials of plant origin have been waived.

4. Floriculture units can avail the benefits of duty free imports if they export 50% of their
production.
5. Setting up of cold-storage/perishable cargo at international airports.

FLORICULTURE EXPORTS :

YEAR VALUE OF EXPORT (CRORES)


2004-05 221
2005-06 299
2006-07 652
2007-08 338
India occupies 0.65% of the $11billion global flower trade. The exports of floriculture products
declined by 48% in the year 2007-08, but the domestic floriculture market is growing at 25%
annually due to the increasing use of flowers as gifts. Various forms of floriculture exports are:

BULBS & TUBERS :


These are the products that may be planted in pots. These items are in demand in Japan,
Netherlands, Germany and USA. These countries, together buy more than 78% of bulbs and
tubers exported from India.

POTTED PLANTS :
These are whole plants, which are suitable for planting for ornamental purpose in offices and
homes.

CUT FLOWERS :

Cut flowers with a long stem of varying length make them suitable for bouquets or for ornamental
purposes. Roses, carnations, chrysanthemum, orchids, gladioli etc. come under the category of
cut flowers which accounts for 26% in total floriculture products [1998-99]. These items are exported
to Japan, Netherlands, Singapore and USA.

308
AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT
CUT FOLIAGE :
It refers to plant parts viz. leaves, twings, grasses etc as decorative items for their colour and
shape. Cut foliage is used in combination with bouquets, flower decoration.

DRY FLOWERS :
A large variety of flowers, ferns, leaves, grasses and agricultural crops are dried, preserved and
processed, beautiful and with an everlasting value. Share of dried flower in export is 53% [1998-
99]. These flowers are eco-friendly and biodegradable and are easily available throughout the
year. USA, Germany, U.K., Netherlands is major importing countries of Indian dry flowers.

STAKE HOLDERS OF FLORICULTURE INDUSTRY :


Prominent stakeholder of floriculture in India is :

1. National Horticulture Board [NHB]


2. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research [IIHR]
3. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development [NABARD]
4. Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority [APEDA]
ROLE OF NHB :

The broad objectives of NHB are :


1. Encourage and promote development of horticulture industry in the country.
2. Assist and develop infrastructure for post-harvest technology
3. Provide technological, financial and other assistance to various organization for integrated
development of horticulture
4. Dissemination of improved method of horticulture technology National Horticultural Board
currently offers two sets of schemes viz
[i] Production and Post harvest management and
[ii] Capital investment subsidy for construction, modernization and expansion of cold
storage for horticultural produce.
Under the first scheme, NHB would provide back-ended capital subsidy up to 20% of the
total project cost, subject to a maximum limit of Rs.25 lacs.
The subsidy would be sanctioned and released through the participating banks and financial
institutions.
Horticultural projects eligible for the back-ended capital investment subsidy scheme include:
i] High-density plantation
ii] Micro-propagation
iii] Hi-tech cultivation under controlled climatic condition (Green house)

The individual components that could be financed under the eligible projects would include
grading, packing, waxing, sorting and drying centers, pre-cooling units and cold stores refrigerated
vans, radiation and vapor treatment units, aseptic packaging material.
309
FLORICULTURE
The second scheme also provides back-ended capital investment subsidy on cold storage
projects up to 5,000 tonnes capacity involving cost up to Rs.2 crores. The subsidy would be 25%
of the project cost, with promoter’s contribution being 25%. The components that could avail
themselves of the cold storage scheme subsidy include, controlled atmosphere and modified
atmosphere stores, pre-cooling units and other storage for onion etc.

Besides the above, Govt. of India is also implementing an FAO assisted Green House
Floriculture Project for small Farmers through NHB.

ROLE OF IIHR :

Indian Institute of Horticulture Research (IIHR) focused its research in following :


1. Varietal improvement of important flower crops like rose, chrysanthemum, carnation,
Gerbera, marigold, anthurium, orchids and tuberose.

2. Development of suitable agro – technology programming of flowers & enhancing yield.

ROLE OF NABARD
National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development (NABARD) promotes floriculture industry
through

1. Providing refinance to financing institution.


2. Formulation of area specific flower & crop specific bankable schemes

ROLE OF APEDA :

The Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) has been
encouraging export oriented cut flower industry. They assist individual exports by conducting
market study, infrastructure development quality control, transport subsidy, production, promotion
& publicity. APEDA has undertaken following steps to promote the export of floriculture. The
important activity of APEDA is developing infrastructure at all major airport of country from
where flowers are exported. Besides this APEDA undertakes the following function:-

1. Setting of common market center in Europe as most exporters have small holdings of 2-4
hectares and do not have the financial strength to take up such activities.

2. Ensuing reduction in number of middle-men in supply chain to fetch better price for the
exporter

3. Providing upto date market information to the exporter.


MARKETING :

Flowers grown under open cultivation are sold in the domestic market and a portion of rejected as
well as surplus of export quality flowers grown under green house also enter the domestic market.
Turn over of domestic market for floriculture is Rs. 1000 Crores annually & growing at a rate of
25% per annum. Country wide demand for flowers is growing because of increased affluence
among the middle class, thus the opportunity for floriculture is tremendous. However, trade in
floriculture requires good quality, timely dispatch, and quick communication.

310
AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT
In the earlier days traditional flowers like jasmine, marigold, chrysanthemum, and crossandra
were widely used. Now society is modernised and adopting bouquet culture for which there is a
demand for modern cut flowers like rose, gerbera, anthurium, and carnation.

The season for cut flower sales starts in September and attains its peak during December-February.
During October and February approx. 80% of cut flowers transaction takes place because of
celebration of Christmas, New Year, Valentine day etc. The period between June to August is
treated as lean period.

TECHNO ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FLORICULTURE :

The globalization of agriculture has brought in its wake a technological revolution in terms of
superior hybrid seeds / high quality planting material, protected cultivation etc., all these have
made commercial floriculture a capital, technology and labor intensive industry.

TECHNOLOGY :

The choice of appropriate technology is of prime concern in a project appraisal. The choice
between open cultivation and protected cultivation and a proper mix of both in terms of suitable
crops is an important aspect in floriculture sector. In case of protected cultivation, there is a choice
gradient in terms of low, medium or high cost polyhouse along with a number of subsidiary
investments; drip, sprinkler, foggers, shade screens, growth media etc., factors which need to be
looked into while sourcing technology are, cost effectiveness, credibility of the supplier, its
appropriateness to Indian conditions. There are a number of cases where over capitalization of
polyhouse structure and excessive automation affected the viability of the project.
LOCATION :

The selection of location is important for setting up commercial floriculture unit which will affect;

1. Cost of production
2. Cost of transportation

3. Cost of quality and product

Suitability of land should take into account the minimum viable size including extra space for
utilities and expansion. The approach road, orientation of plot, the level of plot are other important
factors. Water being a critical input a scientific assessment of ground water availability, its adequacy
and quality are equally important. The availability of electricity should also be taken into account.

VARIETY :
Selection of crop varieties is important. Either variety that is popular in marketing abroad should
be imported and cultivated for export or a variety that exists within the country should be popularised
abroad by aggressive marketing. The selection of varieties is the most critical input. It determines
the viability as well as the profitability of floriculture projects.

The adaptability and performance of a variety in terms of productivity, vigor and tolerance to
diseases and pest are important issues for profitability. A variety’s profitability must be measured
in terms of realisation per unit area.

311
FLORICULTURE
WATER QUALITY AND IRRIGATION :
Flower crops are highly sensitive to the quality of irrigation water. The composite irrigation systems
having drip, fogger outlets are popular in most floriculture units. The type of irrigation system
chosen should be carefully assessed in terms of its appropriateness and the cost involved.

ESTIMATION OF COST :
Commercial floriculture units are capital intensive. It is possible to lower the capital cost by sourcing
the technology locally, as much as possible and by selecting the location judiciously. The estimated
cost should match the design of various production structures and installations, requirements of
inputs, plant and machinery and should be supported by genuine quotations from accredited
sources. The options and alternatives in case of each cost component require to be carefully
evaluated to achieve optimization of cost.

YIELD AND RETURNS :

The estimate should be realistic and based on information on the actual performance from the
field users and not solely based on data published in the supplier’s catalogue.
FINANCIAL VIABILITY :

Imported polyhouse structures are not only costly (Rs. 1200 – 1800/sq. mt) but are unsuitable at
times for local conditions. Experience has shown that locally designed polyhouse costs Rs. 600 –
700 /sq.mt including the cost of polythine thus average cost works out to Rs. 0.60 to 0.70 Crs. / ha
for rose cut flowers production.

The yield of medium stem varieties approx. 130 – 135 stems / sq.mt. And price realisation on a
realistic basis works out to Rs. 9 –10 / stem, but for local sale, price realization is Rs. 3 / stem. The
cost of plant material has come down to about Rs. 40 / plant.
CULTIVATION OF TUBEROSE
Tuberose [Polyanthus tuberose] is an important ornamental crop grown commercially for its loose
flowers & cut flowers. In India, it is commercially cultivated in the states of West Bengal, Karnataka,
Tamilnadu and Maharashtra.
USES :

The flowers are used both for garlands and bouquets and for vase decoration. The flowers of
tuberose are highly fragrant and contain 0.08 to 0.14% concentrate which fetches a very good
price in the international market and there is good demand for the same.
ADVANTAGES OF GROWING TUBEROSE :

1. Popular cut flowers / loose flowers

2. Source of Perfumes
3. It can be grown in various agro-climatic zones

4. Hardy and suitable for open cultivation

312
AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT
DURATION :
Tuberose comes to flowing after 3 to 4 months of planting and continues upto 6-8 months. Later,
bulbs become dormant and bulbs are harvested after withdrawing irrigation. Though ratoon crop
increases the number of spikes per unit but the quality of spikes is affected hence can only be used
for loose flower.
YIELD :

In single types, yield is recorded in Kgs per unit and yield varies from 14 to 16.5 tonnes/ha/year.

In double types, yield is expressed in number of spikes per unit area and yield varies from 1-2 lakh
spikes/ha/year.
ECONOMICS OF TUBEROSE CULTIVATION

Cost of inputs and recurring Singles [Rs.] Doubles [Rs.]

A. Expenditure
Land Preparation 7,500 7,500
**Plant material and planting 1,74,176 3,41,176
Manures and Fertilizers 16,794 16,794
Plant Protection 13,190 13,190
Weeding, Irrigation and Inter culture 24,000 24,000
Harvesting 10,000 10,000
Miscellaneous 2,000 2,000
Sub- Total (A) 2,47,660 4,14,660

B. Returns
Gross returns
Spikes 1,60,000/ha/yr @Rs.3/spike 4,80,000
Flowers 15 t/ha/yr @Rs.20/kg 3,00,000
Total inputs 2,47,660 4,14,660
*Net returns 52,340 65,340
* Additional income can be generated from sale of bulbs. For each bulb planted a minimum
of five marketable bulbs can be obtained.

* * The plant material cost has been calculated as per the prevailing rates at Bangalore [@Re.1.00/
bulb for single types and Rs.2.00 for double types]
CULTIVATION OF GLADIOLUS

Gladiolus is one of the popular commercial ornamental crop grown for its long lasting spikes with
attractive colours. In our Country, it is grown in States like Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim,
Delhi, Punjab, Karnataka, West Bengal, Jammu & Kashimir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Assam,
Nagaland and Rajasthan.

313
FLORICULTURE
USES :
Gladiolus flowers are used as a cut flower for bouquet and vase decoration.
SOIL & CLIMATE :
Gladiolus can be grown in a wide range of soils from light sandy to clay loam. The heavy clay soil
having poor drainage, is not suitable for cultivation.
PLANTING TIME :
The best time for planting in plains is between August to October. In hills planting is done during
the month of March-April.
DURATION :
Flowering starts 2 ½ -3 months after planting.
YIELD :
Generally each plant produces a marketable spike, a planting size corn and about 30-50 cormels.
COST OF CULTIVATION PER ACRE [in Rs] :
1. Land preparation and application of manures 30 mandays @Rs.60 / man day 1800
2. Corms [50000 corms @Rs.3/- corm] 150000
3. FYM 4000
4. Nursery charges 1000
5. Fertilizers 2000
6. Cost of plant protection 2000
7. Inter-cultivation [30 mandays] 1800
8. Irrigation [30 mandays] 1800
9. Harvesting [40 mandays] 2400
10. Transportation 10000
11. Miscellaneous 10000
TOTAL 186800
In the first season the cost of cultivation is Rs.1.9 lakhs and in the subsequent crops recurring cost
will be only Rs.0.50 lakh for cultivation as plant material [corms and cormels] are available for
planting.
RETURNS :
Season I II III
No. of flowers spikes 45000 45000 45000
Sale of produce [Rs. in lakh] 0.90 0.90 0.90
@ Rs.24/- dozen
Yield of corms 40000/acre/season 1.00 1.00 1.00
worth [Rs. in lakh]@Rs.2.50/ corm
Yield of cormels 120 kg / acre worth 0.60 0.60 0.60
[Rs. in lakh] @ Rs.500/kg Gross Returns
[Rs. in lakh] 2.5 2.5 2.5
Net returns [Rs. in lakh] 0.61 2.0 2.0
314
AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT
MARIGOLD CULTIVATION
Marigold is one of the most popular flower in India. It is highly remunerative among the traditional
flowers of India on account of their various commercial uses.

COMMERCIAL USES :
1. Fresh Flowers :

Freshly harvested flowers of African and French Marigolds are used for religious offerings and
social functions. These are grown in States like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab,
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Andhra
Pradesh.
COLOURING AGENT [DYE] :

Marigolds are grown commercially for the extraction of carotene pigments which are added to the
feed for the intensification of yellow colour of the egg yolk and broiler skin. “Lutein”best source of
carotene used for colouring food stuffs. Marigold, for extraction of carotenoid, is commercially
grown in Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

ESSENTIAL-OIL EXTRACTION :

Leaves of Marigold plants [Tagetes] is valued for its characteristic essential oil of superior quality.
The Oil is used for preparation of high grade perfumes. The oil yield is 50-60 kg / ha. The Oil
recovery various from 0.20 to 0.35 percent. The price of one kilogram of oil ranges between
Rs.5000 to Rs.6000. The States of H.P. U.P and J&K are the areas where it occurs in natural
habitats.

CULTIVATION :
Marigold can be successfully cultivated in a wide variety of soils. The optimum growing temperature
has been found to be 10-200C. Marigold can be raised three seasons in a year namely rainy,
winter and summer.

COST OF CULTIVATION PER HECTARE [in Rs.] (marigold) :


Land preparation :

* Two ploughings with disc harrow and one with cultivator @Rs.600 per ploughing 1,800
* One irrigation @ Rs.200 200
* Ploughing with disc harrow @ Rs.600 600
* Making of bunds and channels [8 man days @Rs.90 / man-day] 720
Seedling raising and transplantation
* Seed 800gm @ Rs.2000 / kg 1,600
* Nursery expenditure 400
* Spreading of manure in beds [6 man days @Rs.90 / man-day] 540
* Transplantation [12 mandays @ Rs.90 / manday] 1,080

315
FLORICULTURE
Irrigation :
* Irrigation 8 times [Rs.200 / irrigation] 1,600
* mandays 8 for irrigation [Rs.90 / manday] 720
Pinching [4 mandays @Rs.90 / manday] 360
Hoeing and Weeding -five hoeing and weeding [40 mandays @Rs.90 / manday] 3,600

Manures and fertilizers :


* Ten truck loads of FYM @Rs.1200 per truck load 12,000
* 400 kg Urea, 500 kg. Single super phosphate and 150 kg Muriate of potash 3,300

Insect and disease control :


* Rogor one litre and one litre Metasystox 560
* Captan one kg and Bavistin one kg 650

Plucking of flowers :
* Flower harvesting [40 mandays @Rs.90 / manday] 3,600

Transportation and sale in mandi :


* Cost of gunny bags 500
* Transportation charges 3,000
* Middleman commission @Rs.20/q for 200 quintal flowers 4,000
Total Expenditure Rs.40,830

Gross Income from sale of flowers :


Through sale of 200 q Flowers @ Rs. 5/kg Rs.1,00,000
Net Income :
Gross Income – Total Expenditure Rs.1,00,000 – 40,830 = Rs. 59,170
Expenditure and income for the production of seed from one hectare area

* Harvesting of dried flowers [40mandays @Rs.90/manday] 3,600


* Seed clearing [40mandays @Rs.90/manday] 3,600
* Fine Cleaning [10 mandays @Rs.90/manday] 900
* Packing [5 mandays @Rs.90/manday] 450
* Expenditure from seed sowing to control of insects and diseases 30,310
Total Expenditure Rs. 38,860
Gross income through the sale of 150 kg seeds @Rs.1000/kg 1,50,000
Net Income : Rs.1,50,000 – 38,860 = Rs.1,11,140

REFERENCE :

1. ECONOMICS OF FLORICULTURE - DR. R.G.DESAI


2. FLORCULTURE TODAY - VARIOUS ISSUE
3. IIHR BULLETINS

316