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Media Broadcasting Executive Summary The global Broadcasting Industry has gone through major technological advances in
Media Broadcasting Executive Summary The global Broadcasting Industry has gone through major technological advances in
Media Broadcasting Executive Summary The global Broadcasting Industry has gone through major technological advances in

Media Broadcasting

Executive Summary

The global Broadcasting Industry has gone through major technological advances in the recent past, with features such as IPTV, VOD (Video on demand), Mobile TV and DVR’s (Digital Video Recorders etc), becoming increasingly common. At the same time, the future of advertisements, which constitute a large proportion of the broadcasting revenue, has become uncertain with the advent of technologies that allow ad skipping. The leading players in the market are forced to adapt technology, though they are unsure of the potential of these technologies in the medium-long term future. This paper attempts to explore the possible future for Broadcasting Industry in the next 5-10 years, when business models involving user generated content will be common. Digital cinema/(via satellites)/ , specific advertisement for niche audiences, multiple platforms for ads, prompt feedback for content and effective metrics for measuring ROI all seem to be a reality. No longer would people say “Advertisements work half of the time, but we don’t know which half”. While some players have developed in-house capabilities for embracing the same, most have outsourced it to leading solution providers such as IBM, Siemens etc. IT solution providers can look at these offerings, and develop a short term vision of back end work and medium long term projections of hi-tech technology solutions to grab the opportunity, such as the mandate “Digital TV switch by 2009”, in the USA.

Broadcasting Industry, which includes Radio Stations, Television (Cable, Satellite, Broadcast, and Interactive), Internet (online content), online music, film production and distribution, has seen a huge number of technological changes in the last few years Digital video recorders (DVR’s) are becoming increasingly common allowing advertisements to be skipped easily and hence forcing a rethink of the traditional advertising model for earning revenue. Due to availability of high speed internet, video streaming is becoming increasingly popular. Most big players in the US have started providing paid online subscriptions of popular series. Video on mobile has also gained momentum in the developed world. Also, blogs like MySpace have changed the business model by adding a new dimension of paid content (i.e. user generated content). Technology is only expected to grow faster in the future. Perhaps, we are in the era where the definition of the Broadcasting industry is being redefined due to such immense changes in path breaking innovations. Because of the huge gamut of technological innovations in the field, it is perhaps not even possible to understand each of them individually. No major player can afford not to restructure its business by aligning with latest technologies. At such a time, most IT solution providers (especially firms such as IBM,

Media Broadcasting Accenture, Infosys, Wipro and Satyam) have started looking at broadcasting as a key
Media Broadcasting Accenture, Infosys, Wipro and Satyam) have started looking at broadcasting as a key
Media Broadcasting Accenture, Infosys, Wipro and Satyam) have started looking at broadcasting as a key

Media Broadcasting

Accenture, Infosys, Wipro and Satyam) have started looking at broadcasting as a key revenue generating area. Along with conventional verticals such as Banking, Insurance, Finance, Healthcare and Telecommunications, most key Tier 1 and Tier 2 IT players in India have launched a specialized Broadcasting (or Media and Entertainment ) vertical in the last few years. However, firms are not still sure how they can possibly leverage these rapidly changing technological changes to their benefit by aligning the changes with their fundamental business model. This paper tries to address some of those issues and suggests few areas of critical importance for these firms.

Television broadcasters operate studios and facilities for the programming and transmission of programs to the public. These establishments also produce or transmit visual programming to affiliated broadcast television stations, which in turn broadcast the programs to the public on a predetermined schedule. Programming may originate in their own studios, from an affiliated network, or from external sources.

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. The audience may be the general public or a relatively large sub-audience, such as children or young adults.

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act of 1988 defines a broadcast as "A transmission by wireless telegraphy of visual images, sounds, or other information which is capable of lawful reception by the public or which is made for presentation to the public". Thus, it covers radio, television, and telephones.

Back ground

Media Broadcasting There are several broadcast television systems in use in the world today. An
Media Broadcasting There are several broadcast television systems in use in the world today. An
Media Broadcasting There are several broadcast television systems in use in the world today. An

Media Broadcasting

There are several broadcast television systems in use in the world today. An analogue television system includes several components: a set of technical parameters for the broadcast signal, a system for encoding color, and possibly a system for encoding multi-channel audio. In digital television, all of these elements are combined in a single digital transmission system.

Analogue television system

All but one analogue television system began life in monochrome. Each country, faced with local political, technical, and economic issues, adopted a color system which was effectively grafted onto an existing monochrome system, using gaps in the video spectrum (explained below) to allow the color information to fit in the channels allotted. In theory, any color system could be used with any monochrome video system, but in practice some of the original monochrome systems proved impractical to adapt to color and were abandoned when the switch to color broadcasting was made. All countries use one of three color systems: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM.

Frames

Ignoring color, all television systems work in essentially the same manner. The monochrome image seen by a camera (now, the luminance component of a color image) is divided into horizontal scan lines, some number of which make up a single image or frame. A monochrome image is theoretically continuous, and thus unlimited in horizontal resolution, but to make television practical, a limit had to be placed on the bandwidth of the television signal, which puts an ultimate limit on the horizontal resolution possible. When color was introduced, this limit of necessity became fixed. All current analogue television systems are interlaced; alternate rows of the frame are transmitted in sequence, followed by the remaining rows in their sequence. Each half of the frame is called a field, and the rate at which fields are transmitted is one of the fundamental parameters of a video system. It is related to the frequency at which the electric power grid operates, to avoid flicker resulting from the beat between the television screen deflection system and nearby mains generated magnetic fields. All digital, or "fixed pixel", displays have progressive scanning and must de interlace an interlaced source. Use of inexpensive de interlacing hardware is a typical difference between lower- vs. higher-priced flat panel displays (PDP, LCD, etc.).

All movies and other filmed material shot at 24 frames per second must be transferred to video frame rates in order to prevent severe motion jitter effects. Typically, for 25 frame/s formats (countries with 50 Hz mains supply), the content is sped up, while a techniques

Media Broadcasting known as " 3:2 pull down " is used for 30 frame/s formats
Media Broadcasting known as " 3:2 pull down " is used for 30 frame/s formats
Media Broadcasting known as " 3:2 pull down " is used for 30 frame/s formats

Media Broadcasting

known as "3:2 pull down" is used for 30 frame/s formats (countries with 60 Hz mains supply) to match the film frames to the video frames without speeding up the play back.

to the video frames without speeding up the play back. Viewing technology Analog television signal standards

Viewing technology

Analog television signal standards are designed to be displayed on a cathode ray tube (CRT), and so the physics of these devices necessarily controls the format of the video signal. The image on a CRT is painted by a moving beam of electrons which hits a phosphor coating on the front of the tube. This electron beam is steered by a magnetic field generated by powerful electromagnets close to the source of the electron beam.

In order to reorient this magnetic steering mechanism, a certain amount of time is required due to the inductance of the magnets; the greater the change, the greater the time it takes for the electron beam to settle in the new spot.

For this reason, it is necessary to shut off the electron beam (corresponding to a video signal of zero luminance) during the time it takes to reorient the beam from the end of one line to the beginning of the next (horizontal retrace) and from the bottom of the screen to the top (vertical retrace or vertical blanking interval). The horizontal retrace is accounted for in the time allotted to each scan line, but the vertical retrace is accounted for as phantom lines which are never displayed but which are included in the number of lines per frame defined for each video system. Since the electron beam must be turned off in any case, the result is gaps in the television signal, which can be used to transmit other information, such as test signals or color identification signals.

Media Broadcasting The temporal gaps translate into a comb-like frequency spectrum for the signal, where
Media Broadcasting The temporal gaps translate into a comb-like frequency spectrum for the signal, where
Media Broadcasting The temporal gaps translate into a comb-like frequency spectrum for the signal, where

Media Broadcasting

The temporal gaps translate into a comb-like frequency spectrum for the signal, where the teeth are spaced at line frequency and concentrate most of the energy; the space between the teeth can be used to insert a color subcarrier.

Hidden signaling

Broadcasters later developed mechanisms to transmit digital information on the phantom lines, used mostly for tale text and closed captioning:

PAL-Plus uses a hidden signaling scheme to indicate if it exists and if so what operational mode it is in.

NTSC has been modified by the Advanced Television Standards

Committee to support an anti-ghosting signal that is inserted on a non-visible scan line.

Tele text uses hidden signaling to transmit information pages.

to tale signaling.

Captioning signaling uses signaling that is nearly identical

Widescreen All 625 line systems incorporate pulses on line 23 that flag to the display that a 16:9 widescreen image is being broadcast, though this option is not currently used on analogue transmissions.

Over scan

Television images are unique in that they must incorporate regions of the picture with reasonable-quality content that will never be seen by some viewers.

For more information, see over scan in television.

Interlacing

Main article: Interlace

In a purely analogue system, frame order is merely a matter of convention. For digitally recorded material it becomes necessary to rearrange the sub frame order when conversion takes place from one standard to another.

Image polarity

Another parameter of analogue television systems, minor by comparison, is the choice of whether vision modulation is positive or negative. In positive modulation, the maximum luminance value is represented by the maximum carrier power; in negative modulation, the

Media Broadcasting maximum luminance value is represented by a zero carrier power. Most current video
Media Broadcasting maximum luminance value is represented by a zero carrier power. Most current video
Media Broadcasting maximum luminance value is represented by a zero carrier power. Most current video

Media Broadcasting

maximum luminance value is represented by a zero carrier power. Most current video systems were defined to use negative modulation since this system has a far greater immunity to noise. The original 405 line system (System A) used positive modulation and suffered considerably from even modest amounts of interference as it was interpreted as synchronizing information. The French (older) system C and the current system L transmissions continue to be so plagued. Positive modulation was chosen for no reason other than the render French TV sets incapable of receiving 'unsuitable' broadcasts from neighboring countries

Another advantage of negative modulation is that since the synchronizing pulses represent maximum carrier power, it is relatively easy to arrange the receiver Automatic to only operate during sync pulses and thus get a constant amplitude video signal to drive the rest of the TV set. This was not possible for many years with positive modulation as the peak carrier power varied depending on picture content. Modern digital processing circuits have achieved a similar effect but using the front porch of the video signal.

Modulation

Given all of these parameters, the result is a mostly-continuous analogue signal which can be modulated onto a radio-frequency carrier and transmitted through an antenna. All analogue television systems use vestigial sideband modulation, a form of amplitude

modulation in which one sideband is partially removed. This reduces the bandwidth of the transmitted signal, enabling narrower channels to be used.

Audio

In analogue television, the sound portion of a broadcast is invariably modulated

separately from the video. Most commonly, the audio and video are combined at the transmitter before being presented to the antenna, but in some cases separate aural and visual antennas can be used. In almost all cases, standard wideband frequency is used for the standard monaural audio; the exception is systems used by France, which are AM. Stereo, or more generally multi-channel, audio is encoded using a number of schemes which (except in the French systems) are independent of the video system. The principal systems are NICAM, which uses a digital audio encoding; double-FM (known under a variety of names, notably Zweikanalton, A2 Stereo, West German Stereo, German Stereo or IGR Stereo), in which case each audio channel is separately modulated in FM and added to the broadcast signal; and BTSC (also known as MTS), which multiplexes additional audio channels on the

but

video

carrier.

All

three

systems

are

compatible

with

monaural

FM

audio,

Media Broadcasting only NICAM may be used with the French AM audio systems. its uses
Media Broadcasting only NICAM may be used with the French AM audio systems. its uses
Media Broadcasting only NICAM may be used with the French AM audio systems. its uses

Media Broadcasting

only NICAM may be used with the French AM audio systems. its uses FM instead of AM so as to reduce noise and mixing with other sounds

Evolution

For historical reasons, some countries use a different video system on UHF than they do on the VHF bands. In a few countries, most notably the United Kingdom, television broadcasting on VHF has been entirely shut down. Note that the British System A, unlike all the other systems, suppressed the upper sideband rather than the lower—befitting its status as the oldest operating television system to survive into the color era (although was never officially broadcast with color encoding). System A was tested with all three color systems, and production equipment was designed and ready to be built; System A might have survived, as NTSC-A, had the British government not decided to harmonize with the rest of Europe on a 625-line video standard, implemented in Britain as PAL-I on UHF only.

The French System E was a post-war effort to advance France's standing in television technology. Its 819 scan lines were almost high definition even by today's standards. Like the British system A, it was VHF only and remained black & white until its shutdown in 1984 in France and 1985 in Monaco. It was tested with SECAM in the early stages, but later the decision was made to adopt color in 625 lines. Thus France adopted system L on UHF only and abandoned system E.

In some urban areas of Germany, notably in and around Berlin and some other major cities, all analogue TV broadcasting has been shut down in 2003–2005 in favor of

reallocating the frequencies

switchovers. Analogue signals are still on air in the non-colored areas of the map. The rest of

the country is scheduled to follow suit by 2010. Many other countries are planning a shutdown of analogue broadcasting, and as of 2007 a few smaller countries have already done so. (See Digital television transition-article for further details.)

to

digital

a

broadcasting

of

in

the DVB-T standard.

and

near-future

map

coverage

areas

Current scenario

Broadcasting Scenario in India

On the television industry side, this annual growth rate is projected to be 22% and on the radio side it is projected to be at the rate of 28% over the next five years.

Media Broadcasting At present, there are 110 million TV households in India, out of which
Media Broadcasting At present, there are 110 million TV households in India, out of which
Media Broadcasting At present, there are 110 million TV households in India, out of which

Media Broadcasting

At present, there are 110 million TV households in India, out of which 70 million are cable and satellite homes and rest 40 million are served by the public broadcaster, i.e. Doordarshan. Similarly, there are 132 million radio sets in the country.

Similarly, there are 132 million radio sets in the country. The number of private satellite TV

The number of private satellite TV channels has grown astronomically over the years, from 1 TV channel in 2000 to 273 TV channels in 2007 (till 31.12.2007).

The number of non-news & current affairs TV channels has grown from 0 to 115 and that of news & current affairs TV channels has grown from 1 to 158.

DTH Service

Direct-To-Home (DTH) Service refers to distribution of multi-channel TV programmers in Ku Band by using a satellite system for providing TV signals direct to subscribers' premises.

DTH provides subscribers the advantage of geographical mobility meaning thereby that once a customer purchases DTH hardware, he/she can continue to use the same unit anywhere in India. DD DIRECT+ is India's first and only Free To Air (FTA) Direct-To-Home Service being provided by Prasar Bharati. Apart from Prasar Bharati - a public service broadcaster, M/s Dish TV India Ltd. M/s Tata Sky Ltd, and M/s Sun Direct TV Pvt. Ltd. M/s Reliance Big TV Pvt. Ltd., M/s Bharti Tele media Ltd. and M/s. Bharat Business Channel Ltd. have also been granted license for operating DTH service.

The eligibility conditions provide for total foreign equity holding, including FDI/ NRI/ OCB/ FII, in the applicant company not to exceed 49%, and within the foreign equity, the FDI component not to exceed 20%. It also provides that applicant company must have

Media Broadcasting Indian management control with the majority representatives on the Board as well as
Media Broadcasting Indian management control with the majority representatives on the Board as well as
Media Broadcasting Indian management control with the majority representatives on the Board as well as

Media Broadcasting

Indian management control with the majority representatives on the Board as well as Chief Executive of the Company being resident Indians.

Media and Entertainment industry is one of the most flourishing sectors in India. The Indian Media and Entertainment industry grew from Rs 35,300 corers to Rs 43,700 corers during the year 2005-06. The liberalization of the media sector has opened up the gates of opportunities and growth. India is witnessing a revolution in this sector with the emergence of new technologies. Many companies are taking initiatives to set up digital theatres, multi- plexus, etc. India is emerging as a global destination for the Media And Entertainment players because of the following reasons:

The number of channels is increasing each day.

India is emerging as one of the world's largest markets for digital and mobile music.

Entry of private sector companies and increasing FDI and FII.

The concept of crossover movies and crossover audience is also gaining momentum.

The Indian Media and Entertainment industry is also making its presence felt in the global market with its movies and music.

India's large pool of creative skills and growing domestic market for animation and special effects industry.

Piracy and violation of intellectual property rights have posed a major threat to the Media And Entertainment companies worldwide. Lack of quality content has also become a major area of concern for the Media And Entertainment companies in India.

Given the high rate of economic growth and technological developments, Indian Media And Entertainment industry is poised to register a tremendous growth in the coming years.

PricewaterhouseCoopers in its “Indian entertainment and media outlook 2009" report has estimated that the Indian Entertainment & Media industry will return to double digit growth in 2010 .

India’s E&M industry witnessed remarkable growth in recent years having consistently outpaced growth in domestic GDP. While annual average growth in nominal GDP was 14.48% over the period 2004-08, overall E&M growth in 2008 slowed, reflecting weaker overall economic conditions. This is expected to continue in 2009.

Media Broadcasting Timmy Kandhari, leader India Entertainment and Media practice, PricewaterhouseCoopers said, “The
Media Broadcasting Timmy Kandhari, leader India Entertainment and Media practice, PricewaterhouseCoopers said, “The
Media Broadcasting Timmy Kandhari, leader India Entertainment and Media practice, PricewaterhouseCoopers said, “The

Media Broadcasting

Timmy Kandhari, leader India Entertainment and Media practice, PricewaterhouseCoopers said, “The slowdown in growth requires the E&M industry to revisit their short term business plans and strategies. However, double digit growth is expected to return over the forecast period with India recording one of the highest growth in the E&M industry as well as in advertising spending in the world, along with China.”

After registering a growth of around 16.6% compounded annually over the period 2004- 08, growth in the E&M industry is set to decelerate to 8.0% in 2009. This has largely been influenced by a marked slowdown in advertising spending, which is expected to touch 9.2% in 2009 after having posting a CAGR of close to 17.3% during 2004-08.

Growth rates will increase in 2010 to 10.4% as economic conditions are expected to gradually improve. For the remaining years of the forecast period, the industry will continue to grow at increasing rates, resulting in the overall compound annual growth rate for the period 2009-13 of 10.5%.

Television industry is projected to continue to be the major contributor to the overall industry revenue pie and is estimated to grow at a stable rate of 11.4% cumulatively over the next five years, from an estimated Rs. 244.7 billion in 2008. The overall television industry is projected to reach Rs. 420.0 billion by 2013. In the Television pie, television distribution is projected to garner a share of 60% in 2013. On the other hand, television advertising industry is projected to command a share of 41.0% in 2013, having increased from a present share of 39.0% in the total ad industry pie. The relative share of the television content industry is expected to remain constant at 4%.

Film industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 11.6% over the next five years, reaching to Rs. 185 billion in 2013 from the present Rs. 107 billion in 2008. The relative shares of the film industry are expected to shift marginally from the traditional revenues to the new emerging revenues.

Print media industry is projected to grow by 5.6% over the period 2009-13, reaching to Rs.213 billion in 2013 from the present Rs. 162 billion in 2008. The relative shares of newspaper publishing and magazine publishing are not expected to change significantly and are expected to remain the same at around 87% in favour of newspaper publishing. Magazine publishing is expected to grow at a higher rate of 6.5% as compared with newspaper publishing which is expected to grow at 5.6% for the next 5 years.

Radio advertising industry is projected to grow at a CAGR of 18% over 2009-13, reaching Rs. 19 billion in 2013 from the present Rs. 8.3 billion in 2008; more than double its

Media Broadcasting present size.In terms of share of ad pie, it is projected that the
Media Broadcasting present size.In terms of share of ad pie, it is projected that the
Media Broadcasting present size.In terms of share of ad pie, it is projected that the

Media Broadcasting

present size.In terms of share of ad pie, it is projected that the radio advertising industry will be able to increase its share from 3.8% to 5.2% in the next five years.

Emerging segments ,the key growth driver for the music industry over the next five years will be digital music, and its share is expected to move from 16% in 2008 to 60% in 2013. Within digital music, mobile music will continue to increase its share and maintain its dominance.

Given the trends of increased internet usage, internet advertising is projected to grow by

32% over the next five years and reach an estimated Rs. 20 billion in 2013 from the present Rs. 5 billion in 2008. The share of the online advertising too is projected to grow from 2.3%

in 2008 to 5.5% in 2013 of the overall advertising pie.

The estimated size of Out of home (OOH) advertising spend is Rs 15 billion in 2008, which is projected to become almost twice its current size in 2013 (i.e., Rs 25 billion). Its share in the total ad pie is expected to go down marginally to 6.8% in 2013 from a current level of 6.9% in 2008.

Animation, gaming and VFX industry will continue to maintain its growth pace and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 22% to Rs. 42.5 billion in 2013 from its current size of Rs. 15.6 billion. In the animation space, domestic demand will create the fillip in its growth, as well as contribution from international co-productions, in the film and television space.

Owing to the economic slowdown, the growth in advertising spending has slowed after a period of robust growth. In 2008, overall advertising spending recorded a growth of 11.3%, over the previous year which is much lower than the growth rate of 20.7% in the earlier year. Overall spending expected to increase from the present size of Rs. 216 billion in 2008, to Rs. 366 billion in 2013 (a cumulative growth of 11.1% on an overall basis).

Timmy Kandahar added, “Against the backdrop of volatility in advertising spending, we are also experiencing increased fragmentation of media and its audiences. This will result in

a structural change in the advertising world with advertising becoming more targeted, interactive and accountable.”

While on-line is currently the smallest component of total advertising spend, it will experience the highest growth over the next five years, growing at a compound rate of 32%. As a consequence its share of total advertising spends will increase to 5.5% in 2013 from 2.3% in 2008. The next highest growth over the period 2009-13 is expected by the radio industry at 18% – estimated to reach Rs.19 billion in 2013, from Rs. 8.3 billion in 2008. The

Media Broadcasting share of the print advertising spend is expected to decline from 47.9% to
Media Broadcasting share of the print advertising spend is expected to decline from 47.9% to
Media Broadcasting share of the print advertising spend is expected to decline from 47.9% to

Media Broadcasting

share of the print advertising spend is expected to decline from 47.9% to 41.5%. Television, the other large contributor in the segment is expected to grow marginally from 39% to 41%.

Marcel Fenez, Global Entertainment and Media Leader PricewaterhouseCoopers, concluded, “Though operating in challenging and fast-moving times, there has never been such an exciting time for the industry The onset of increased digitization will expose the industry to new business models and dynamics. In order for each of the industry’s diverse segments to participate fully in this growth, they will first need to embrace the digital future. This is as true in India as in the other important entertainment and media markets globally.”

This 2009 edition of the PricewaterhouseCoopers report “Indian entertainment and media outlook 2009’ has in-depth forecasts and analysis of eight industry segments. These are – television, filmed entertainment, print media comprising newspaper and magazine publishing, radio, emerging segments like music, animation, gaming, internet advertising, out-of-home advertising and sports.

The report has been prepared on the basis of information obtained from key industry players, trade associations, government agencies, trade publications, and other industry sources. The performance trends in different segments of the industry were analyzed and an attempt was made to identify the underlying factors. Models were developed to quantify the impact of each of these factors, to create a forecast scenario. PwC’s professional expertise, institutional knowledge and global resources of knowledge and excellence were applied to review and adjust those values wherever required. The entire process was then examined for internal consistency and transparency vis-à-vis prevailing industry wisdom. Feedback from key industry players was subjected to a rigorous validation process to ensure that it was consistent and conformed to the industry feel.

A look at the way the industry functions shows that broadcasters are largely self-censored and generally follow a certain content code that has been set by the broadcaster itself or its international parent Network. For e.g. Star India follows the Star TV Hong Kong code and currently certain other broadcasters follow the programming codes of the country they uplink from - mainly Hong Kong and Singapore. Singapore has a Censorship Review Committee, while Hong Kong has a Family Viewing Policy which clearly specifies the hours meant for family viewing.

This includes all original fiction shows which are commissioned by broadcasters and assigned to various production houses. Generally, all production houses follow the programming codes and norms set by the respective broadcasters. In India, there is a Cable Television Network Regulation Act, wherein certain codes have been prescribed for

Media Broadcasting programmers and advertisements appearing on any Cable & Satellite TV Network. The offences
Media Broadcasting programmers and advertisements appearing on any Cable & Satellite TV Network. The offences
Media Broadcasting programmers and advertisements appearing on any Cable & Satellite TV Network. The offences

Media Broadcasting

programmers and advertisements appearing on any Cable & Satellite TV Network. The offences under Cable Television Network Regulation Act being non-cognizable, a specific complaint has to be made by an officer authorized by the state governments. For instance, the government of Tamil Nadu has authorized collectors and sub-collectors for this purpose. There is a Doordarshan code which is mandatory for all Doordarshan Kendras. The same is also supposed to be followed by all C&S TV channels. However, both the codes, the Cable Television Network Regulation Act and the DD Code are not stringently followed by all broadcasters. For regulatory purposes, the content on television can be broadly divided into five different categories: Commissioned Original Programming - Fiction; Commissioned Original Programming - Non Fiction; Independent Content - Films / Trailers / Music Videos; News Programming and Advertising.

The moral brigade has at times raised concerns about the growing amount of adultery, growing alcoholism, increased violence, religious misrepresentation. This includes all Non Fiction programming such as Format Shows, Talk Shows, Music Based Shows, Reality Shows, Talent Hunts, Fashion and Lifestyle shows etc. Fashion and lifestyle channels such as Trendz and FTV have always invoked strong protests from social awareness groups and political parties. Former I&B minister Sushma Swaraj had passed strictures against FTV. This was later solved and a solution arrived wherein FTV agreed to show objectionable content such as lingerie shows, swimwear and the like only after 11:30 pm. A lot of international shows airing on channels like AXN such as Hot N Wild, and STAR World such as Temptation Island have been found objectionable as well.

Currently, all TV Channels are required to air only those movies that have a valid Censor certificate. However, a lot of movie channels and regional language channels air late night B grade movies and movies with a lot of 'sex'. The channels which air such movies include South Indian channels such as Sun TV, Gemini and English movie channels such as Zee MGM. However, there is no censorship applicable on Music Videos - which today have the most objectionable and vulgar content. A lot of objections have been raised against the influx of raunchy music videos, specially the remixes such as Chadti Jawaani, Kaanta Laga etc.

However, these videos are aired regularly throughout the day on all music channels including Southern Spice, MTV, ETC, Zee Music, ITV, Channel [V]. Though, recently, some music channels have started a system of internal checks. Notably, Channel [V] has set up an internal audit system called S & P (Standards & Practices) which checks all the music videos before they air on the channel. English Movie channels such as HBO, Star Movies follow

Media Broadcasting international codes and clearly specify the Age Group for whom the movie is
Media Broadcasting international codes and clearly specify the Age Group for whom the movie is
Media Broadcasting international codes and clearly specify the Age Group for whom the movie is

Media Broadcasting

international codes and clearly specify the Age Group for whom the movie is suitable to view.

News Programming is a highly sensitive TV programming area as news content has the power to affect vital sensitive issues such as national security, communal harmony etc times, there have been cases of News Channels spreading rumours, or overplaying instances of violence or communal disharmony and misreporting on certain issues.

The TV News business requires a responsible content and programming code which should be followed by all News Channels compulsorily. There is a referral body for all advertising produced in India, The advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI) which is an independent body under the aegis of the (AAAI) Advertising Agencies Association of India. DD has a strict DD Advertising Code which clearly specifies the kind of Advertising which can be accepted across the DD network.

However, this body is basically, an addressable body only, wherein consumers can write in their grievances regarding any particular advertisement campaign. By law, all kinds of Tobacco and Liquor products are banned from any kind of Advertising on Television. However, these products heavily use surrogate forms of advertising and are still visible across TV. The Brands promote their affiliate products which still carry the mother Brand Name. For eg: Manikchand Oxyrich Mineral Water, Bacardi Blast CD's, Seagram’s Mega Movies, McDowell’s No 1, and WILLS Sport.

There needs to be a clear mandate and norms set for surrogate advertising of tobacco and liquor products. The smaller niche channels, like music, news channels specially carry a heavy amount of liquor and tobacco advertising. What the industry needs is an independent body which could be set up under or by the Indian Broadcasting Foundation (IBF).The body can be called the Television Standards Council of India and it will be run by a board comprising of eminent responsible professionals from the Television and Media business. The board could be reelected every two - three years. The TSCI should set up a uniform content and programming code which would cover the entire gamut of Television content - Fiction, Non Fiction, News, Advertisement, Carriage of Music Videos and some other outside content. The guidelines and rules set up by the TSCI would have to be followed by all broadcasters compulsorily.

Features Media Broadcasting Intensifying of competition on the broadcasting front has resulted in new, emerging
Features Media Broadcasting Intensifying of competition on the broadcasting front has resulted in new, emerging
Features Media Broadcasting Intensifying of competition on the broadcasting front has resulted in new, emerging

Features

Media Broadcasting

Features Media Broadcasting Intensifying of competition on the broadcasting front has resulted in new, emerging

Intensifying of competition on the broadcasting front has resulted in new, emerging opportunities for everybody—the broadcaster, equipment manufacturers, production houses and above all, the subscriber. This has also resulted in bad blood between broadcasters and cable operators, which is an ominous sign. The battle is on for the ground. The ongoing tussle between Star and Siti Cable is an expression of that. Siti is said to be blocking Star’s channels on their network. Hath way, in which Star has a stake, does not want to air TV Today’s AajTak channel as Star News competes with it. Cable operators are also peeved at arbitrary pay channel costs. It is these irritants which need to be overcome. One only hope that the independent regulator, which the new Communication Convergence Bill envisages, will take care of this issue.

Media Broadcasting Indian broadcasting is in for a major transformation in light of the global
Media Broadcasting Indian broadcasting is in for a major transformation in light of the global
Media Broadcasting Indian broadcasting is in for a major transformation in light of the global

Media Broadcasting

Indian broadcasting is in for a major transformation in light of the global phenomenon of convergence of telecommunication, computing and audio/video broadcasting. This convergence has been possible due to technological developments in the field of digital signal processing, compression techniques, switching, etc. We are passing through a phase of transition from the predominant analog to digital transmission both in audio and video space. The way information, communication and entertainment services will be delivered through the audio-visual media, in India, in the coming years, is going to make a departure from the present, which is predominantly one way, to the point of interactivity.

Key Drivers Media Broadcasting Demand drivers ∑ Economic growth of the country in general and
Key Drivers Media Broadcasting Demand drivers ∑ Economic growth of the country in general and
Key Drivers Media Broadcasting Demand drivers ∑ Economic growth of the country in general and

Key Drivers

Media Broadcasting

Demand drivers

Economic growth of the country in general and rising disposable income levels in particular.

Gradually liberalizing attitude of the government.

Greater interface with international companies.

Privatization and growth of the radio industry.

Advancement in Technology.

Favorable regulatory initiatives.

Liberalized foreign investment regime.

The Indian Entertainment and Media (IEM) sector (as the sector is generally referred to) is one of the fastest growing sectors in the economy. According to a PriceWaterhouse Cooper Report, India will be one of the key drivers in driving the global entertainment and media industry to US$ 2trillion by 2011.The industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of 18.5% till 2011 to touch Rs. 1 trillion from Rs. 436 million in 2006. Growing demand, along with advances in technology, policy initiatives of the Indian

government to encourage the inflow of investment and initiative by private media companies have been the key drivers of the industry. As per current estimates the television industry is projected to grow by 22% from Rs.

191

billion to Rs. 519 billion by 2011; filmed entertainment by 16% from Rs 85 billion to Rs

175

billion; print media by 13 from Rs 128 billion to Rs 232 billion; the Indian advertising

industry is set to grow 61 per cent by 2010 with advertising spend climbing to Rs 36,731 crore from Rs 22,721 crore this year.International media giants are all vying for a stake in the segment. In the last three years, US$ 88 million of foreign direct investment (FDI) has

flowed into the sector and in 2006, 13 FDI proposals were approved by the Government. Growing demand, along with advances in technology, policy initiatives of the Indian government to encourage the inflow of investment and initiative by private media companies have been the key drivers of the industry.Separately, the Media industry is no doubt exciting and fun, but it is extremely fast-paced and stressful as well. Additionally, being creative on a tight schedule can be emotionally draining, especially because most of the work includes long hours and meeting stringent deadlines.

Media Broadcasting Key success factors The Key Statistics chapter provides the key indicators for the
Media Broadcasting Key success factors The Key Statistics chapter provides the key indicators for the
Media Broadcasting Key success factors The Key Statistics chapter provides the key indicators for the

Media Broadcasting

Key success factors

The Key Statistics chapter provides the key indicators for the industry for at least the last three years. The statistics included are industry revenue, industry gross product, employment, establishments, exports, imports, domestic demand and total wages.

The Market Characteristics chapter covers the following: Market Size, Linkages, Demand Determinants, Domestic and International Markets, Basis of Competition and Life Cycle. The Market Size section gives the size of the domestic market as well as the size of the export market. The Linkages section lists the industry's major supplier and major customer industries. The Demand Determinants section lists the key factors which are likely to cause demand to rise or fall. The Domestic and International Markets section defines the market for the products and services of the industry. This section provides the size of the domestic market and the proportion accounted for by imports and exports and trends in the levels of imports and exports. The Basis of Competition section outlines the key types of competition between firms within the industry as well as highlighting competition from substitute products in alternative industries. The Life Cycle section provides an analysis of which stage of development the industry is at.

The Segmentation chapter covers the following: Products and Service Segmentation, Major Market Segments, Industry Concentration and Geographic Spread. The Products and Service Segmentation section details the key products and/or services provided by this industry, highlighting the most important where possible to demonstrate which have a more significant influence over industry results as a whole. The Major Market Segments section details the key client industries and/or groups as well as giving an indication as to which of these are the most important to the industry. The Industry Concentration section provides an indicator of how much industry revenue is accounted for by the top four players. The Geographic Spread section provides a guide to the regional share of industry revenue/gross product.

The Industry Conditions chapter covers the following: Barriers to Entry, Taxation, Industry Assistance, Regulation and Deregulation, Cost Structure, Capital and Labor Intensity, Technology and Systems, Industry Volatility and Globalization. The Barriers to Entry section outlines factors that can prevent a new company from entering this industry and also gives an indication of the extent to which this occurs. The Taxation section details all kinds of taxation that are specific or are particularly important to this industry, including taxation concessions. The Industry Assistance section refers to any government and/or other

Media Broadcasting measures designed to improve the performance of this industry. The Regulation and Deregulation
Media Broadcasting measures designed to improve the performance of this industry. The Regulation and Deregulation
Media Broadcasting measures designed to improve the performance of this industry. The Regulation and Deregulation

Media Broadcasting

measures designed to improve the performance of this industry. The Regulation and Deregulation section details any applicable regulation and/or deregulation to this industry. The Cost Structure section details the average costs for a company operating in this industry as a percentage of total revenue. The Capital and Labor Intensity section provides a guide to the amount of capital used in production/providing a service compared to the amount of labor in the total mix of inputs. The Technology and Systems section acknowledges the latest technology and/or systems available to this industry within the country. Technology refers to machinery and equipment and systems refers to methods of production that enable better and more efficient production. The Industry Volatility section refers to the year on year fluctuations which occur in industry output. The Globalization section gives an indication of the extent to which the industry is global based on factors such as the level of foreign ownership, the proportion of demand accounted for by foreign operators and the volume of production conducted in other countries.

The Performance chapter provides an analysis of both the industry's Current Performance and Historical Performance. The Current Performance section provides the key analysis for the industry over the past five years with key performance indicators discussed. The Historical Performance section details previously important events in the development of the industry.

The Key Competitors chapter lists the major players in the industry as well as an analysis of each major player's activities in the industry. Market share information is included where possible.

The Key Factors chapter covers the industry's Key Sensitivities and Key Success Factors. The Key Sensitivities section outlines the key factors that are outside the control of an operator in the industry, but are likely to have significant impact on a business. The Key Success Factors section details the factors within the control of an industry operator and which should be followed in order to be successful in the industry. Often this will include behavior that will help to minimize the effects of the Key Sensitivities.

The Outlook chapter is a key analysis section of the report and outlines expectations for the key industry indicators over the next five year period, including forecasts

Environmental issues

The industry continues to experience strong competition from the digital cable and satellite TV industries. The cable TV industry, in particular, represents a significant threat

Media Broadcasting to future industry growth. A number of factors point to low growth in
Media Broadcasting to future industry growth. A number of factors point to low growth in
Media Broadcasting to future industry growth. A number of factors point to low growth in

Media Broadcasting

to future industry growth. A number of factors point to low growth in advertising revenue, including forecast low economic growth, the declining overall share of the TV audience, and competition from new media. The bleak outlook for this industry has already prompted News Corp to expand its satellite TV interests. The onset of digital television may provide a much needed boost for demand.

In-depth industry market research presented in a logical and consistent format. Including 40 pages of insights covering industry conditions, key statistics, competitor analysis and market share, product and customer segmentation and a 5 year forecast

Domestic players

ETV Network

It is one of the largest networks of satellite television channels in India and is owned by the media baron Ramoji Rao. Based at Hyderabad, this network runs a group of 12 regional language news and entertainment channels.

Media Broadcasting When the satellite TV revolution broke out in India during the late 1990s,
Media Broadcasting When the satellite TV revolution broke out in India during the late 1990s,
Media Broadcasting When the satellite TV revolution broke out in India during the late 1990s,

Media Broadcasting

When the satellite TV revolution broke out in India during the late 1990s, the Telugu daily newspaper Eenadu started with its own channel called TV. Initially launching a Telugu channel the network has later diversified into other Indian languages such as Bengali, Urdu, Kannada, Gujarati,Oriya and Marathi. With 12 channels in regional languages of India, ETV has the largest news-reporting network in India, at the grass root level. Managed by News today Private Limited, the channels give news in between entertainment programs. 4 Hindi channels for Madhya Pradesh, Uttar

entertainment channels in Telugu, Kannada,

Bangla, Oriya, Marathi, Urdu, Gujarati - and a 24-hours news channel in Telugu constitute

Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan, and regional

the bunch of ETV Channels.

Sun TV Network

It is the No 1 media company in South Asia and Asia Pacific Region ) and the largest TV network of South India, based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Established in 1993, it offers a plethora of television channels in 4 languages covering the whole of southern India. It was the first fully privately owned Tamil channel in India when it emerged in 1993. Its serials and soaps have generated the maximum TRP for viewership all over India, making it the most popular network of channels in India.

All its channels occupy the top spots in their respective languages. Sun TV, in Tamil is the Network's flagship and most popular channel. Being the premier channel, Sun TV is often used to refer cable TV in general or to the Sun TV Network in general.

Kalanithi Maran is the Chairman and Managing Director of media giant Sun Network and has been given awards including the CNBC "Business Excellence Award" in 2005. Sun Network also offers FM Radio Stations (93.5 FM) It has 45 FM Radio Stations and has recently forayed into the print business. In addition, it has also recently launched a DTH satellite television service entitled Sun direct DTH.

Sun TV and its sister channels have a dominating share of viewership in Tamil Nadu. Its cable arm, SCV is cable distribution and Sun Direct is the dominating DTH (direct-to-home) player in the state. Its radio network Suryan has a lion’s share of listenership; its magazine Kungumum and newspaper Dinakaran are leaders. www.sun.in is the default page on computer screens across the state since it owns the leading ISP. More than 80 per cent of the state’s population decides on how to vote, where to shop, what to buy based on the news, information and entertainment coming from the Sun Group." - Business-Standard.

Zee Entertainment Enterprises Ltd.

Media Broadcasting It is the largest media and entertainment company in India and is a
Media Broadcasting It is the largest media and entertainment company in India and is a
Media Broadcasting It is the largest media and entertainment company in India and is a

Media Broadcasting

It is the largest media and entertainment company in India and is a subsidiary of Easel Group. The company's Chairman, Managing Director and Founder is Subhash Chandra and its Chief Executive Officer is Puneet Goenka. It was previously known as Zee Telefims until 2006 when it was renamed and the news and entertainment units were spun off into four smaller divisions. Zee currently operates over 15 different television channels, a cable company Siti Cable, a record label Zee Records, a production company and other businesses as well. It launched in October 1992 and has since grown into a dominant player in Indian television. It has expanded operations abroad, with several of its channels available in the UK and U.S. as well as Africa and Asia.

In 2002 Zee Entertainment Enterprises acquired a majority stake (51%) in ETC Networks. In 2006, they acquired Integrated Subscriber Management Services Limited and in November 2006, Zee acquired an interest (50%) in Asian sports network Sports. As Zee Telefilms, the company formed part of BSE Sensex from 2000-2005. The news and regional entertainment channel business was spun off into a separate company in 2006 under the corporate banner Zee News Ltd.

Maa TV

It is a Telugu language TV Channel based in Hyderabad, India. It is one of the leading Telugu language TV channels in Andhra Pradesh, India. In a very short time span, it has established amongst the Telugu viewer across strata and gender, the globe over, as a channel that is different - in terms of its attitude, freshness and novelty.

It launched Maa Music on 30 May 2008 which is equally trendy and reflects the roots of MAA network which shows something different to the Telugu audiences. The managing directors are Murali Krishna Raju,Akkineni Nagarjuna, N. Prasad, Allu Aravind, Ch Ramesh & C Ramakrishna. [1]

This site is owned and operated by AXN Asia Pte Ltd, a Sony Pictures Entertainment (?SPE?) Company. This Privacy Statement is applicable to all AXN and SPE Web sites and other sites on the Internet and World Wide Web owned and operated by SPE (the "SPE Sites"), and all services provided thereon, including all SPE Forums (collectively, unless noted otherwise, the "Services"). SPE respects the privacy concerns of all users of the Services. SPE also recognizes the valuable potential of technology to help people communicate with the companies whose Web sites they visit, particularly through customer

Media Broadcasting databases. Responsible use of the information you share with SPE is paramount. In
Media Broadcasting databases. Responsible use of the information you share with SPE is paramount. In
Media Broadcasting databases. Responsible use of the information you share with SPE is paramount. In

Media Broadcasting

databases. Responsible use of the information you share with SPE is paramount. In order to help you understand how the information you provide SPE will be used, the following guidelines have been created.web site: http://www.axn-india.com/

B4U one of the world's leading Bolly wood television network was incorporated in 1999 and launched B4U Music and B4U Movies simultaneously in UK. The channel received an overwhelming response and went on to expand its operations in the US & UAE before launching in India in May 2000. Within a short span of 2 years B4U managed to spread its broadcasting wings globally and at present is available on more than 8 different satellites, in more than 100 countries including the US, UK, Europe, Middle East, Africa, Mauritius Canada and India. The B4U channels boasts of fantastic programming and mind boggling packaging and presentation with a single focus of entertaining - the Bollywood way - catering to all ages and a cross section of filmi, music and entertainment lovers. B4U Music provides some of the best Bollywood, Indipop and International music with a greater leaning towards the Indian fare. Our digital formatting ensures crystal clear true to real viewing experience. However our content also provides entertainment through a host of vignettes, which has a strong dose of humour and Bollywood fare. All of this and more, has managed to carve a unique and distinct niche of the channel in the minds of our viewers. With rapid strides, the channel happens to be one of the leading music channels among the C&S households globally. Some achievement for a young channel! After having successfully launched B4U Movies globally, we launched B4U Movies in India on October 02, 2001, bringing Bollywood to your homes. B4U Movies is a window through which hardcore movie buffs can satisfy their complete bollywood experience. We guarantee a 360-degree view of bollywood through our various bollywood-based programming. We strongly believe that no one brings you Bollywood more comprehensively & passionately as we do. web site url : http://www.b4utv.com BBCWorldIndia BBC World is the BBC's commercially funded international 24-hour news and information channel broadcasting around the world from its base at BBC Television Centre in London. BBC World is an integral part of the BBC's commitment to global broadcasting and, along with BBC World Service Radio, provides a focal point for viewers and listeners around the world. Viewers who wish to keep ahead of global news events, but not just the headlines - turn to BBC World for the story behind the headlines - the why's and how's of the event as well. BBC World keeps its viewers not just informed, but well informed, with in-depth

Media Broadcasting analysis and cutting edge interviews - the story from all sides. web site
Media Broadcasting analysis and cutting edge interviews - the story from all sides. web site
Media Broadcasting analysis and cutting edge interviews - the story from all sides. web site

Media Broadcasting

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CNBC Asia goes beyond delivering regional news. Efforts have been made to remain relevant to the local audience concerns and issues of the day. In India in particular, CNBC Asia's local partnership with Television Eighteen India Ltd (TV18) has produced a top-notch business channel dedicated to the delivery of relevant news to CNBC Asia's viewers in India. Web site: http://www.cnbcasia.com/india_specific/india_specific.asp

CNBCAwaaz The Indian consumers today rule the economy, driving exponential growth across sectors. The consumer revolution is underway and so is Awaaz, India's first consumer- focusedHindi channel. Awaaz is brought to you by Television Eighteen and the people who gave you India's leading business network, CNBC-TV18. Awaaz is not only the voice of the Indian consumer, but also the single, authoritative source for making intelligent, informed decisions about investing, saving, spending and making career choices. Awaaz hosts an impressive array of shows spanning personal finance, markets, small businesses, consumer issues, health, education, shopping and more, led by the most impressive team in business journalism as well as media moguls. Awaaz has the potential to cut across socio-economic categories all over India. Its no wonder that Awaaz is already the fastest growing consumer channel in the country. Web site: http://awaaz.moneycontrol.com/

Media Broadcasting Doordarshan-IndianNationalTelevisionNetwork. Doordarshan is one of the largest broadcasting
Media Broadcasting Doordarshan-IndianNationalTelevisionNetwork. Doordarshan is one of the largest broadcasting
Media Broadcasting Doordarshan-IndianNationalTelevisionNetwork. Doordarshan is one of the largest broadcasting

Media Broadcasting

Doordarshan-IndianNationalTelevisionNetwork. Doordarshan is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world. Doordarshan operates 20 channels, has a network of 1081 transmitters, puts out over 1,393 hours of programmers every week. Doordarshan reaches 87.6 percent of the country's 950 million people.web site: http://www.ddindia.gov.in/

ESPN STAR Sports is a 50:50 joint venture between two of the world's leading cable and satellite broadcasters, ESPN Inc. and STAR. Combining the strengths and resources of its ultimate parent companies, Walt Disney (ESPN, Inc.) and News Corporation Limited (STAR), ESS is Asia's definitive and complete sports provider. ESS has thirteen networks spanning the region - ESPN Asia, ESPN India, ESPN Taiwan, ESPN Singapore, ESPN Philippines, MBC-ESPN (Korea), ESPN Hong Kong, STAR Sports Hong Kong, Xing Kong Sports, STAR Sports India, STAR Sports Taiwan, STAR Sports S.E.A and STAR Sports Singapore. All eleven feeds are customised to deliver the world's premier sports events which are in line with local audience preferences. ESPN reaches over 110 million households while STAR Sports reaches over 54 million households. From basketball to badminton, soccer to swimming, ESPN STAR Sports brings its viewing audience of predominantly affluent, educated viewers between the ages of 15 and 54, the round-the-clock and round-the- globe sports entertainment they crave.web site url : http://www.espnstar.com/

HBOIndia Launched in 1992, HBO is a 24-hour commercial-free subscription movie channel offering viewers in Asia a choice of more than 120 programs every month. HBO also offers quality original movies and series that are produced by HBO, exclusively for viewers of the HBO channel. HBO is recognized as the best in the business at producing original programs for television, winning many Emmy and Golden Globe Awards year after year. Web site: http://www.hbosouthasia.com NDTV

New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV), founded in 1988, is India's first and largest private producer of news, current affairs and entertainment television NDTV is home to the country's best and brightest reporters, anchors and producers; 23 offices and studios across the country host India's most modern and sophisticated production and news gathering facilities. Web site: http://www.ndtv.com/

Media Broadcasting SonyEntertainmentTelevision. Sony Entertainment Television is dedicated to provide the best in Hindi
Media Broadcasting SonyEntertainmentTelevision. Sony Entertainment Television is dedicated to provide the best in Hindi
Media Broadcasting SonyEntertainmentTelevision. Sony Entertainment Television is dedicated to provide the best in Hindi

Media Broadcasting

SonyEntertainmentTelevision. Sony Entertainment Television is dedicated to provide the best in Hindi family entertainment to the largest percentage of the Indian population-the young adult. Web site: http://www.setindia.com/

Government policies

Protection & Regulation of Broadcasters Up linking & Down linking Guidelines;

Content regulated by MIB. Programming and advertisement codes laid down. All service providers are bound by the codes.

Copyright Act, 1957;

Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995 (CTN Act, 1995)

The Sports Broadcasting Signal (Mandatory Sharing With Prasar Bharti) Act 2007

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997 & Regulations framed there under; (TRAI)

Copyright Act 1957 Media Broadcasting ∑ As per the amendment introduced in the year 1995,
Copyright Act 1957 Media Broadcasting ∑ As per the amendment introduced in the year 1995,
Copyright Act 1957 Media Broadcasting ∑ As per the amendment introduced in the year 1995,

Copyright Act 1957

Media Broadcasting

As per the amendment introduced in the year 1995, Section 37 of the Act provides that every Broadcasting organization shall have a special right to be known as “Broadcast Reproduction Right” in respect of its broadcast.

Section 2(dd) – “Broadcast” means communication to the public –

By any means of wireless diffusion, whether in any one or more signs, sounds or visual images; or

of the forms of

By wire; and includes a re-broadcast

Section 2(b) of the CTN Act, 1995 – “Cable Services” means the transmission by cables of programmes including re-transmission by cable of any broadcast television signals.

Section 2(g) of CTN Act, 1995 – “Programme” means any television broadcast and include exhibition of films, features, dramas, advertisement and serials through video cassette recorders or video cassette players.

Rule 6(3) of the CTN Rules, 1994 – No cable operator shall carry or include in his cable service any programme in respect of which copyright subsists under the Copyright Act, 1957 unless he has been granted a licence by owners of copyright under that Act in respect of such programme.

Thus the broadcast through retransmission by wire is protected by Indian Law which still is an unresolved issue in the context of WIPO Treaty

Copyright Act, 1957

Fixation -Not specifically defined

Sec.37 (3) – Making sound recording or visual recording is illegal Sound Recording is very broadly defined

A recording of sounds from which sounds may be produced regardless of the medium on which such recording is made or the method by which the sounds are produced.

Ref. to defn of “Broadcast” & Sec.14 (reproduction by electronic means is the excl. right of the owner)

Fair Use

Media Broadcasting • Provisions contained in Sec.52 of the Act -In addition to all the
Media Broadcasting • Provisions contained in Sec.52 of the Act -In addition to all the
Media Broadcasting • Provisions contained in Sec.52 of the Act -In addition to all the

Media Broadcasting

Provisions contained in Sec.52 of the Act -In addition to all the other provisions of Fair Use viz., Fair dealing for private use including

Research,

Criticism,

to make back-up copies for studying interoperability of comp. programmes,

for reporting current events, etc.,

Making of ephemeral recordings is not infringement

Use for an official ceremony by the Government or in a religious ceremony.

Sec.39A – Every broadcast has to be with the license of the owner of the work that is being broadcast. License to reproduce the broadcast also requires license of the owner. Statute therefore recognizes and gives supremacy to the owner of the content.

Fiscal regulations

Most of the past one year, the media industry has been busy resisting the proposed Broadcasting Bill, which it believes could hamper its free functioning. Nevertheless, the growth in this industry has been phenomenal. On last count, there were as many as 313 television channels beaming into the country. In direct-to-home (DTH) broadcasting, stage has been set for competition between multiple players, as against between only two private operators till now.

With 122 million TV homes, out of which 71 million are cable and satellite connections, broadcasting is a high-opportunity business in India. Plenty of platform choice like direct-to-home, conditional access system and internet protocol television, makes TV broadcasting even more exciting.

Although information and broadcasting (I&B) minister P R Dasmunsi was the one to introduce mandatory-sharing ordinance for sports telecast, that came up for criticism from private channels, he recently pointed out that the potential in the media sector is huge. Dasmunsi said, "There is a huge potential for development of broadcasting in India and we have a lot of advanced technologies available with us. What we need to have is proper

Media Broadcasting selection of technologies suiting our requirements." The minister added, "Over the past few
Media Broadcasting selection of technologies suiting our requirements." The minister added, "Over the past few
Media Broadcasting selection of technologies suiting our requirements." The minister added, "Over the past few

Media Broadcasting

selection of technologies suiting our requirements." The minister added, "Over the past few years, the broadcasting sector in India has witnessed all round growth."

However, the finance ministry has been rather quiet on giving tax relief and any other sops to the media and broadcasting industry. Media companies, both TV channels and DTH players, have once again given a list of their budget expectations, despite disappointment in the previous few years. Stakeholders are hoping that this year would be different.

The Indian Broadcasting Foundation (IBF), that represents the television industry, has told the finance ministry that the broadcasting sector should be included under `Industrial Undertaking' as defined by the Section 72A of the Income Tax Act, 1961. The IBF memorandum to the FM points out that "Section 72A of the Income Tax Act, 1961, provides an incentive to robust companies to take over and amalgamate with the companies which would otherwise become a burden on the economy."

The memorandum states that the basic objective of Section 72A was to revive the financially weak businesses and synergise the business to achieve better growth, better profits, recovery of bad advances by banks and institutions, which will result in higher tax revenues and increase in employment. But, while Section 72A of the Income Tax Act defines the term `Industrial Undertaking', it does not cover the broadcasting sector. When the term `Industrial Undertaking' was introduced, broadcasting industry was in a nascent stage, and therefore the omission, it is believed.

IBF has also demanded that the base for fringe benefit tax (FBT) should be reduced from 20 per cent to 5 per cent for the TV broadcasting industry, as in the case of computer software industry. Also, customs and excise duties in the entertainment sector should be on par with the IT industry. Currently, custom duty plus countervailing duty and cess on broadcast equipment is 36.64 per cent, against 21.32 per cent for computers and 4 per cent for cellphones, says the IBF note.

In addition, the broadcasting industry wants the countervailing duty and cess charges to be removed on set-top boxes that are a must for the conditional access system (CAS). While the customs duty on set-top boxes were reduced to zero, CVD, cess and other duties come to 21.32 per cent. IBF has suggested that the government should exempt CVD, cess charges and additional duties on set-top boxes for the next 10 years. IBF also wants excise exemption for 10 years. A 'national fund' for cable infrastructure has also been sought.

Media Broadcasting An IBF official told DNA Money, "The duties in the broadcasting sector should
Media Broadcasting An IBF official told DNA Money, "The duties in the broadcasting sector should
Media Broadcasting An IBF official told DNA Money, "The duties in the broadcasting sector should

Media Broadcasting

An IBF official told DNA Money, "The duties in the broadcasting sector should be on par with the information technology (IT) sector." "Also there should be no discrimination with the print media vis-Ã -vis service tax," he said.

The recommendations of the broadcasting industry include bringing custom and excise duties on broadcasting equipment on par with IT equipment; reducing the custom duty on set-top boxes to zero; exempting broadcasting industry from service tax; and expansion of the definition of `Industrial Undertaking'. The total estimated advertising revenue across television media in 2007 was Rs 7,400 crore.

The Cable Television Networks Rules, 1994

The National Security Act, 1980

Almost everybody in the country is familiar with the cable television. It has been spreading its wings from the initial urban cities, right to the remote villages. There has been a haphazard mushrooming of cable television networks all over the country due to the availability of signals of foreign television networks via satellites. To check the screening of undesirable programmes and advertisements which are screened on these channels and to regulate the operation of the cable television networks in the country, so as to bring uniformity in their functioning, the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act was passed in both the Houses of the Parliament.

The Prasar Bharati Act ,1990 was passed to provide for the establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation for India, to be known as Prasar Bharati. It says that it shall be the primary duty of the Corporation to organize and conduct public broadcasting services to inform, educate and entertain the public and to ensure a balanced development of broadcasting on radio and television.

The Prasar Bharati Act ,1990 was passed to provide for

Media Broadcasting   the establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation for India, to be known as
Media Broadcasting   the establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation for India, to be known as
Media Broadcasting   the establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation for India, to be known as

Media Broadcasting

 

the establishment of a Broadcasting Corporation for India, to be known as Prasar Bharati. It says that it shall be the primary duty of the Corporation to organize and conduct public broadcasting services to inform, educate and entertain the public and to ensure a balanced development of broadcasting on radio and television.

The Bill is to provide for an independent authority to be known as the Broadcasting Authority of India which is for the purpose of facilitating and regulating broadcasting services in India.

International scenario

'Media' is the medium of carrying information, education and entertainment to the masses. It is an easier and efficient means of communication which plays a key role in the overall development of an economy. In an era where knowledge and facts are the tools for economic, political and cultural exchange, presence of the strong and constructive media in a country is important for catering to the diverse needs of individuals, society as a whole, small and large business and production houses, various research organizations, private sectors as well as the public sectors. Media is a conscience-keeper of the nation and has many tasks to perform in our day-to-day lives. It helps the Government to achieve various socioeconomic and political goals; educate urban and rural masses; instill a sense of responsibility among the people; as well as provide justice to the needy. It largely consists of print media like newspapers, magazines, journals and other publications, etc. as well as electronic media like radio, television, internet, etc. With the changing scenario of the world, it has acquired the status of an industry.

In India, the media and entertainment industry is undergoing remarkable change and is one of the fastest growing sectors. The main factors responsible for this are rising per capita/ national income; high economic growth and strong macro-economic fundamentals; and democratic set up, good governance as well as law and order position in the country. Specifically, spectacular growth of the television industry, new formats for film production and distribution, privatisation and growth of radio, gradually liberalising attitude of Government towards the sector, easier access to and for international companies as well as advent of digital communication and its technological innovations are the other attributes of the growth of the sector. The media industry plays an important role in creating people's

Media Broadcasting awareness about national policies and programmes by providing information and education, besides
Media Broadcasting awareness about national policies and programmes by providing information and education, besides
Media Broadcasting awareness about national policies and programmes by providing information and education, besides

Media Broadcasting

awareness about national policies and programmes by providing information and education, besides creating healthy business environment in the country. Thus, it helps people to be active partners in the nation-building endeavour.

The media industry has significantly benefited from liberal investment regime in the country. Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been permitted in its various segments. FDI upto 100 per cent has now been allowed for print media covering non-news publications and FDI (with FII) upto 26 per cent has been allowed for print and electronic media covering news and current affairs. However, the news sector has also been opened up for FIIs, NRIs and PIOs. The FDI (including FII) in FM radio broadcasting sector has been allowed at 20 per cent. While, FDI and FII upto 49 per cent have been permitted for cable network; direct to home (DTH) - (within this limit, FDI component not to exceed 20 per cent); setting up hardware facilities such as up-linking, hub (teleports); etc.

At present, there are 110 million TV households in India, out of which 70 million are cable and satellite homes and rest 40 million are served by the public broadcaster, that is, Doordarshan. Similarly, there are 132 million radio sets in the country. Further, over the years, the number of private satellite TV channels has grown very fast from 1 TV channel in 2000 to 273 TV channels till 31.12.2007. The news and current affairs TV channels constitute 58 per cent and non-news and current affairs TV channels constitute 42 per cent of total permitted 273 TV channels. The former channels have grown from 1 in 2000 to 158 till 31.12.2007, while latter rose from 0 to 115.

Media Broadcasting Porters five force model Threats of new entrants The industry argaining power of
Media Broadcasting Porters five force model Threats of new entrants The industry argaining power of
Media Broadcasting Porters five force model Threats of new entrants The industry argaining power of

Media Broadcasting

Porters five force model

Media Broadcasting Porters five force model Threats of new entrants The industry argaining power of suppliers

Threats of new entrants

Porters five force model Threats of new entrants The industry argaining power of suppliers Competitive

The industry

The industry
five force model Threats of new entrants The industry argaining power of suppliers Competitive rivalry within

argaining power of suppliers

Competitive rivalry within

Bargaining power of custom

Threat of Substitutes
Threat of
Substitutes
Bargaining power of Buyers Media Broadcasting Strength of Force— High The term 'suppliers' comprises all
Bargaining power of Buyers Media Broadcasting Strength of Force— High The term 'suppliers' comprises all
Bargaining power of Buyers Media Broadcasting Strength of Force— High The term 'suppliers' comprises all

Bargaining power of Buyers

Media Broadcasting

Strength of Force—High The term 'suppliers' comprises all sources for inputs that are needed in order to provide goods or services. Supplier bargaining power is likely to be high when:

Buyers (end users as well as advertisers) do not face significant switching costs and are extremely price sensitive.

Viewers' tastes frequently change, providing little loyalty to any particular network

Advertising buyers dictate television programming choices

The suppliers customers are fragmented, so their bargaining power is low,

The switching costs from one supplier to another are high,

His threat is especially high when the buying industry has a higher profitability than the supplying industry,

Media Broadcasting Bargaining Power of th Suppliers Strength of Force-- Low- Medium Similarly, the bargaining
Media Broadcasting Bargaining Power of th Suppliers Strength of Force-- Low- Medium Similarly, the bargaining
Media Broadcasting Bargaining Power of th Suppliers Strength of Force-- Low- Medium Similarly, the bargaining

Media Broadcasting

Bargaining Power of th Suppliers Strength of Force-- Low- Medium

Similarly, the bargaining power of customers determines how much customers can impose pressure on margins and volumes. Customers bargaining power is likely to be high when

Since most suppliers to Broadcasters have either been acquired/ have a tie-up with the broadcasters, the bargaining power of suppliers is low. For ex- Viacom has acquired Paramount.

However, Independent content providers pose a major challenge to online revenue model for broadcasters.

The supplying industry comprises a large number of small operators

The service is undifferentiated and can be replaces by substitutes,

The customer knows about the production costs of the product

Media Broadcasting Threat of New Entrants Strength of Force— Low The competition in an industry
Media Broadcasting Threat of New Entrants Strength of Force— Low The competition in an industry
Media Broadcasting Threat of New Entrants Strength of Force— Low The competition in an industry

Media Broadcasting

Threat of New Entrants Strength of Force—Low

The competition in an industry will be the higher, the easier it is for other companies to enter this industry. In such a situation, new entrants could change major determinants of the market environment (e.g. market shares, prices, customer loyalty) at any time. There is always a latent pressure for reaction and adjustment for existing players in this industry. The threat of new entries will depend on the extent to which there are barriers to entry. These are typically

High start-up capital is a big de motivator

New entrants have difficulty accessing distribution channels.

New entrant has some problems finding skilled employees, materials, and suppliers.

Serviceable used equipment is expensive.

Long-lasting economies of learning and scale also demotivate the potential new entrant

Economies of scale (minimum size requirements for profitable operations),

Brand loyalty of customers

Scarcity of important resources, e.g. qualified expert staff

Access to raw materials is controlled by existing players,

Distribution channels are controlled by existing players,

Threat of Substitutes

Media Broadcasting Strength of Force— Medium A threat from substitutes exists if there are alternative
Media Broadcasting Strength of Force— Medium A threat from substitutes exists if there are alternative
Media Broadcasting Strength of Force— Medium A threat from substitutes exists if there are alternative

Media Broadcasting

Strength of Force—Medium

A threat from substitutes exists if there are alternative products with lower prices of better performance parameters for the same purpose. They could potentially attract a significant proportion of market volume and hence reduce the potential sales volume for existing players. This category also relates to complementary products. Similarly to the threat of new entrants, the treat of substitutes is determined by factors like

The relative price for performance of substitutes,

Current trends.

Customers incur no incur switching costs.

Also, adequate substitutes are available.

Possibly, One Broadcasting medium substitute for the other(movies as a replacement For TV) Pirated content is a decent(and free substitute).

Other free time activities be could be substitutes (concerts, games, gambling, gardening, sports, restaurants)

Intensity of Rivalry among Competitors Strength of Force— High

Media Broadcasting This force describes the intensity of competition between existing players (companies) in an
Media Broadcasting This force describes the intensity of competition between existing players (companies) in an
Media Broadcasting This force describes the intensity of competition between existing players (companies) in an

Media Broadcasting

This force describes the intensity of competition between existing players (companies) in an industry. High competitive pressure results in pressure on prices, margins, and hence, on profitability for every single company in the industry. Competition between existing players is likely to be high when

There are many players of about the same size,

Players have similar strategies

There is not much differentiation between players and their products, hence, there is much price competition

Larger firms have created a critical mass, capacity to induce users to subsidiaries Companies and products, created size by consolidating complementing firms.

There are significant brand identities and product differences.

Competition is fierce; ethics are often questionable. Exit barriers are low, and also acquisitions/mergers are common.

Market share Media Broadcasting Service sectors sectors   2006-2007 2006-2007 Service sectors sectors
Market share Media Broadcasting Service sectors sectors   2006-2007 2006-2007 Service sectors sectors
Market share Media Broadcasting Service sectors sectors   2006-2007 2006-2007 Service sectors sectors

Market share

Media Broadcasting

Service sectors

sectors

 

2006-2007

2006-2007

Service sectors

sectors

 

2007-2008

2007-2008

Media Broad casting

Agriculture

 

18.5

13

Media Broad casting

Agriculture

 

18 15

Manufacturing

Financing, Insurance,

 

21

Manufacturing

Financing, Insurance,

 

37

Real Estate and

Service

 

60.5

20.8

Real Estate and

Service

 

23.5

55

Business Services & etc

 

Business Services & etc

 

Construction and IT

26.7

Construction and IT

17.3

Interpretation

Market share in Indian economy the service sector was drastically increased up to

2007 after words it decreased to 5.5% because of IT fall in India.

Broadcasting share in Indian economy

Interpretation

In service sector the portion of media broadcasting was slowly increased in this year

2008 due to the floods and elections the media broadcasting industry was increased.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

Media Broadcasting ∑ Latest technology is used by the Industry, along with that; it offers
Media Broadcasting ∑ Latest technology is used by the Industry, along with that; it offers
Media Broadcasting ∑ Latest technology is used by the Industry, along with that; it offers

Media Broadcasting

Latest technology is used by the Industry, along with that; it offers wide variety of solutions including some very creative ones.

There is strong expertise of broadcasters in core areas and also we see heavy competition which is a sign of prosperity for the Industry.

The industry is very sensitive to market trends/customers’ needs and develops solutions according to the fast changing requirements.

Competitive pricing helps the end customer as do customized solutions.

Box Office revenues are expected to see consistent growth in 2007.

Home movie downloads are becoming more accessible via the internet and those in the industry have successfully met this.

The industry expects to grow advertising revenues at a rate of 4.2% in 2007. Also, there is Strong network between public and private sector.

Opportunities

Media Broadcasting ∑ Downloads remain a small part of revenue growth, but there is rapid
Media Broadcasting ∑ Downloads remain a small part of revenue growth, but there is rapid
Media Broadcasting ∑ Downloads remain a small part of revenue growth, but there is rapid

Media Broadcasting

Downloads remain a small part of revenue growth, but there is rapid growing potential for revenue from downloads and transmissions to mobile phones, video on demand, video iPod, and internet downloads.

Now some broad casting companies are providing box offices also.

Conglomerates have the resources to seek out this changing market while balancing its initiatives on the television broadcasting level.

Change in technology and in consumer wants and needs brings about new opportunities for growth and for different players to catch a larger share of the industry.

Those who are able to create strategic partnerships and find alternative ways of doing business will thrive.

Increasing no. of channels.

Well awareness through broadcasting.

Weakness

Media Broadcasting ∑ Domination of 4-5 major players is a negative sign thus creating somewhat
Media Broadcasting ∑ Domination of 4-5 major players is a negative sign thus creating somewhat
Media Broadcasting ∑ Domination of 4-5 major players is a negative sign thus creating somewhat

Media Broadcasting

Domination of 4-5 major players is a negative sign thus creating somewhat monopolized industry.

The U.S. automobile industry has a major effect on the Broadcasting & Entertainment industry as it is one of the largest advertisers. Ongoing weakness of U.S. automakers will have an impact on advertising spending.

Environmental issues.

Full depending on power supply.

Remote area can not access.

Threats

Media Broadcasting ∑ Slowing Real GDP, inflation, and jobs are all concerns of the economy
Media Broadcasting ∑ Slowing Real GDP, inflation, and jobs are all concerns of the economy
Media Broadcasting ∑ Slowing Real GDP, inflation, and jobs are all concerns of the economy

Media Broadcasting

Slowing Real GDP, inflation, and jobs are all concerns of the economy in 2007.

With an unstable outlook, this industry will suffer if we experience economic decline.

Oil prices are beginning to rise, which will cause a decrease in available Challenges of Broadcast Industry and Opportunities for IT Solution Providers cash for consumers to spend. Also, declines in home prices in some areas will limit consumers’ ability to tap into the equity in their home.

The influx of DVR’s (Digital Video Recorders) into the homes of consumers has a negative impact on advertising revenues.

This is seen as advertisers insist that rates be based only on live viewing and not time shifted viewing.

Though broadcasters understand the evolution of advertising from television to the Internet, there is still an uncertainty as to whether or not the consumer traffic will remain or drop off to other alternatives.

With primetime viewing and movies turning digital, the threat of piracy and illegal downloads is more prevalent, which will hinder the industries growth.

Conclusion

Broadcasting Industry is going through a massive technical up gradation phase. This phase brings along many opportunities for various players across the value chain.

Media Broadcasting Broadcasters can look at generating revenues from newer mediums while future of existing
Media Broadcasting Broadcasters can look at generating revenues from newer mediums while future of existing
Media Broadcasting Broadcasters can look at generating revenues from newer mediums while future of existing

Media Broadcasting

Broadcasters can look at generating revenues from newer mediums while future of existing mediums is increasingly becoming unsure. This digital transition could be leveraged by IT solution providers by providing solutions ranging from back end support work to key hi- technology solutions and advanced data analytics. IT firms must identify their segment of operation (The tier they belong to), and then decide to specialize in specific capabilities which match with their business model. However, a word of caution is that neither revenues are predictable nor sustainability of these solutions can be guaranteed. Also, in case IT solution providers have to earn substantial revenue from this ever- emerging area, they must start delivering right now, since broadcasters are keener than any time before to adopt these solutions.