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A slide and text version of this slide is also available.

Air is a gas. Gases have various properties that we can observe with our senses, including the gas
pressure, temperature (T), mass, and the volume (V) that contains the gas. Careful, scientific
observation has determined that these variables are related to one another and that the values of
these properties determine the state of the gas.

The relationship between temperature and volume, at a constant number of moles and pressure,
is called? ?? 
? ?in honor of the two French scientists who first
investigated this relationship. Charles did the original work, which was verified by Gay-Lussac.
They observed that if the pressure is held constant, the volume  is equal to a constant times the
temperature 

V = constant * T

In a scientific manner, we can fix any two of the four primary properties and study the nature of
the relationship between the other two by varying one and observing the variation of the other.
This slide shows a schematic "gas lab" in which we can illustrate the variation of the gas
properties. In the lab a theoretical gas is confined in a blue container. The volume of the gas is
shown in yellow and is determined by the position of a red piston. The volume can be changed
by moving the red piston using the red screw at the top of the piston. The number of moles of the
gas is indicated by the number of small black "molecules" in the volume. The number of moles
can be changed by injecting or withdrawing molecules using the pump at the left. There are two
probes inserted into the bottom of the container to measure the pressure and the temperature. The
pressure can be changed by adding or removing green weights from the top of the red piston, and
the temperature can be changed by heating the container with the "torch" at the bottom.

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·ut even if the radiation formula should prove to be absolutely accurate it


would after all be only an interpolation formula found by happy guesswork,
and would thus leave one rather unsatisfied. I was, therefore, from the day of
its origination, occupied with the task of giving it a real physical meaning.
(?, 1919 Nobel Prize address, 'The Origin and Development of the
Quantum Theory')

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Consequently, there remains only the one conclusion, that previous


electron theories suffer from an essential incompleteness which
demands a modification, but how deeply this modification should
go into the structure of the theory is a question upon which views
are still widely divergent. J. J. Thompson inclines to the most
radical view, as do J. Larmor, A. Einstein, and with him I. Stark
who even believe that the propagation of electromagnetic waves in
a pure vacuum does not occur precisely in accordance with the Maxwellian field equations, but
in definite energy quanta hv. I am of the opinion, on the other hand, that at present it is not
necessary to proceed in so revolutionary a manner, and that one may come successfully through
by seeking the significance of ?#
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??" ??. A definite decision with regard to these important
questions can only be brought about as a result of more experience. (?, Columbia
Lectures on Quantum Theory)

In 1900 Max Planck made a profound discovery in modern physics / Quantum Theory. He
showed (from purely formal / mathematical foundations) that light must be emitted and absorbed
in discrete amounts if it was to correctly describe observed phenomena (i.e. ·lackbody
radiation).
Prior to then light had been considered as a continuous electromagnetic wave, thus the discrete
nature of light was completely unexpected, as Albert Einstein explains;

About fifteen years ago [1899] nobody had yet doubted that a
correct account of the electrical, optical, and thermal properties
of matter was possible on the basis of Galileo-Newtonian
mechanics applied to molecular motion and of Maxwell's theory
of the electromagnetic field. (/*?("", 1915)

Then Planck showed that in order to establish a law of heat


radiation (Infra red light waves) consonant with experience, it was necessary to employ a method
of calculation whose incompatibility with the principles of classical physics became clearer and
clearer. For with this method of calculation, Planck introduced into physics the quantum
hypothesis, which has since received brilliant confirmation. (/*?("", on Quantum
Theory, 1914)

In the year nineteen hundred, in the course of purely theoretical (mathematical) investigation,
Max Planck made a very remarkable discovery: the law of radiation of bodies as a function of
temperature could not be derived solely from the Laws of Maxwellian electrodynamics. To
arrive at results consistent with the relevant experiments, radiation of a given frequency f had to
be treated as though it consisted of energy atoms (photons) of the individual energy hf, where h
is Planck's universal constant. During the years following, it was shown that light was
everywhere produced and absorbed in such energy quanta. In particular, Niels ·ohr was able to
largely understand the structure of the atom, on the assumption that the atoms can only have
discrete energy values, and that the discontinuous transitions between them are connected with
the emission or absorption of energy quantum. This threw some light on the fact that in their
gaseous state elements and their compounds radiate and absorb only light of certain sharply
defined frequencies. (/*?("", on Quantum Theory,
1940)

Even the Greeks had already conceived the atomistic nature of


matter and the concept was raised to a high degree of probability
by the scientists of the nineteenth century. ·ut it was Planck's
law of radiation that yielded the first exact determination -
independent of other assumptions - of the absolute magnitudes
of atoms. More than that, he showed convincingly that in
addition to the atomistic structure of matter there is a kind of atomistic structure to energy,
governed by the universal constant h, which was introduced by Planck. This discovery became
the basis of all twentieth-century research in physics and has almost entirely conditioned its
development ever since. Without this discovery it would not have been possible to establish a
workable theory of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that govern their
transformations. Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework of classical mechanics and
electrodynamics and ?"??????""#???' ?*"???
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". Despite remarkable partial gains, the problem is still far from a satisfactory solution.
(/*?("", on Quantum Theory, 1950)

We can now finally solve these problems by understanding the reason for these discrete energy
states, which are due to the fact that standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies, like notes
on the string of a guitar, thus while the correct Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter
predicts that energy exchanges will be discrete, as observed, the continuous e-m wave does not
anticipate this.
Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's (1900) discovery
that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states for electrons in molecules and atoms,
and further, that light is only ever emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete or 'quantum'
amounts, as the electrons move from one stable standing wave pattern to another.
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Teori Quantum: Max Planck


Struktur Gelombang Matter (WSM) & Standing Wave Interaksi (yang terjadi pada frekuensi
diskrit f) menjelaskan Quantum Energi Serikat Cetakan & Light 'Quanta' (E = hf)
ditemukan oleh Max Planck (1900).
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Akibatnya, hanya masih ada satu kesimpulan, bahwa teori elektron sebelumnya
menderita dari ketidaklengkapan penting yang menuntut modifikasi, tapi seberapa dalam
modifikasi ini harus pergi ke dalam struktur teori adalah sebuah pertanyaan atas mana pandangan
masih sangat beragam. JJ Thompson condong ke tampilan yang paling radikal, seperti halnya J.
Larmor, A. Einstein, dan dengan dia I. Stark yang bahkan percaya bahwa propagasi gelombang
elektromagnetik dalam ruang hampa murni tidak terjadi tepat sesuai dengan persamaan medan
Maxwellian, tetapi dalam hv energi kuanta yang pasti. Saya berpendapat, di sisi lain, bahwa saat
ini tidak perlu untuk melanjutkan dalam begitu revolusioner rupa, dan yang satu mungkin datang
berhasil melalui dengan mencari makna dari hv kuanta energi hanya dalam aksi bersama dengan
yang resonator mempengaruhi satu sama lain. Sebuah keputusan yang pasti mengenai
pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini penting hanya bisa dibawa sebagai hasil dari pengalaman lebih. (Max
Planck, Columbia Kuliah tentang Teori Quantum)



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Sekitar lima belas tahun lalu [1899] ada yang belum meragukan bahwa account yang benar dari
sifat listrik, optik, dan termal materi dimungkinkan atas dasar mekanika Newtonian Galileo-
diterapkan pada gerakan molekul dan teori Maxwell tentang medan elektromagnetik. (Albert
Einstein, 1915)
Kemudian Planck menunjukkan bahwa untuk membangun hukum radiasi panas (Infra
gelombang cahaya merah) konsonan dengan pengalaman, hal itu perlu menggunakan metode
perhitungan yang ketidaksesuaian dengan prinsip-prinsip fisika klasik menjadi lebih jelas dan
lebih jelas. Untuk dengan metode ini perhitungan, Planck diperkenalkan ke dalam fisika kuantum
hipotesis, yang sejak menerima konfirmasi brilian. (Albert Einstein, pada Teori Quantum, 1914)



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