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Air is a gas. Gases have various properties that we can observe with our senses, including the gas

pressure, temperature (T), mass, and the volume (V) that contains the gas. Careful, scientific

observation has determined that these variables are related to one another and that the values of

these properties determine the state of the gas.

The relationship between temperature and volume, at a constant number of moles and pressure,

is called? ??

??in honor of the two French scientists who first

investigated this relationship. Charles did the original work, which was verified by Gay-Lussac.

They observed that if the pressure is held constant, the volume is equal to a constant times the

temperature

V = constant * T

In a scientific manner, we can fix any two of the four primary properties and study the nature of

the relationship between the other two by varying one and observing the variation of the other.

This slide shows a schematic "gas lab" in which we can illustrate the variation of the gas

properties. In the lab a theoretical gas is confined in a blue container. The volume of the gas is

shown in yellow and is determined by the position of a red piston. The volume can be changed

by moving the red piston using the red screw at the top of the piston. The number of moles of the

gas is indicated by the number of small black "molecules" in the volume. The number of moles

can be changed by injecting or withdrawing molecules using the pump at the left. There are two

probes inserted into the bottom of the container to measure the pressure and the temperature. The

pressure can be changed by adding or removing green weights from the top of the red piston, and

the temperature can be changed by heating the container with the "torch" at the bottom.

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would after all be only an interpolation formula found by happy guesswork,

and would thus leave one rather unsatisfied. I was, therefore, from the day of

its origination, occupied with the task of giving it a real physical meaning.

(?, 1919 Nobel Prize address, 'The Origin and Development of the

Quantum Theory')

electron theories suffer from an essential incompleteness which

demands a modification, but how deeply this modification should

go into the structure of the theory is a question upon which views

are still widely divergent. J. J. Thompson inclines to the most

radical view, as do J. Larmor, A. Einstein, and with him I. Stark

who even believe that the propagation of electromagnetic waves in

a pure vacuum does not occur precisely in accordance with the Maxwellian field equations, but

in definite energy quanta hv. I am of the opinion, on the other hand, that at present it is not

necessary to proceed in so revolutionary a manner, and that one may come successfully through

by seeking the significance of ?#

?& ??

?"?? ?"?"?"?

??" ??. A definite decision with regard to these important

questions can only be brought about as a result of more experience. (?, Columbia

Lectures on Quantum Theory)

In 1900 Max Planck made a profound discovery in modern physics / Quantum Theory. He

showed (from purely formal / mathematical foundations) that light must be emitted and absorbed

in discrete amounts if it was to correctly describe observed phenomena (i.e. ·lackbody

radiation).

Prior to then light had been considered as a continuous electromagnetic wave, thus the discrete

nature of light was completely unexpected, as Albert Einstein explains;

About fifteen years ago [1899] nobody had yet doubted that a

correct account of the electrical, optical, and thermal properties

of matter was possible on the basis of Galileo-Newtonian

mechanics applied to molecular motion and of Maxwell's theory

of the electromagnetic field. (/*?("", 1915)

radiation (Infra red light waves) consonant with experience, it was necessary to employ a method

of calculation whose incompatibility with the principles of classical physics became clearer and

clearer. For with this method of calculation, Planck introduced into physics the quantum

hypothesis, which has since received brilliant confirmation. (/*?("", on Quantum

Theory, 1914)

In the year nineteen hundred, in the course of purely theoretical (mathematical) investigation,

Max Planck made a very remarkable discovery: the law of radiation of bodies as a function of

temperature could not be derived solely from the Laws of Maxwellian electrodynamics. To

arrive at results consistent with the relevant experiments, radiation of a given frequency f had to

be treated as though it consisted of energy atoms (photons) of the individual energy hf, where h

is Planck's universal constant. During the years following, it was shown that light was

everywhere produced and absorbed in such energy quanta. In particular, Niels ·ohr was able to

largely understand the structure of the atom, on the assumption that the atoms can only have

discrete energy values, and that the discontinuous transitions between them are connected with

the emission or absorption of energy quantum. This threw some light on the fact that in their

gaseous state elements and their compounds radiate and absorb only light of certain sharply

defined frequencies. (/*?("", on Quantum Theory,

1940)

matter and the concept was raised to a high degree of probability

by the scientists of the nineteenth century. ·ut it was Planck's

law of radiation that yielded the first exact determination -

independent of other assumptions - of the absolute magnitudes

of atoms. More than that, he showed convincingly that in

addition to the atomistic structure of matter there is a kind of atomistic structure to energy,

governed by the universal constant h, which was introduced by Planck. This discovery became

the basis of all twentieth-century research in physics and has almost entirely conditioned its

development ever since. Without this discovery it would not have been possible to establish a

workable theory of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that govern their

transformations. Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework of classical mechanics and

electrodynamics and ?"??????""#???' ?*"???

'

". Despite remarkable partial gains, the problem is still far from a satisfactory solution.

(/*?("", on Quantum Theory, 1950)

We can now finally solve these problems by understanding the reason for these discrete energy

states, which are due to the fact that standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies, like notes

on the string of a guitar, thus while the correct Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter

predicts that energy exchanges will be discrete, as observed, the continuous e-m wave does not

anticipate this.

Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's (1900) discovery

that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states for electrons in molecules and atoms,

and further, that light is only ever emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete or 'quantum'

amounts, as the electrons move from one stable standing wave pattern to another.

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Struktur Gelombang Matter (WSM) & Standing Wave Interaksi (yang terjadi pada frekuensi

diskrit f) menjelaskan Quantum Energi Serikat Cetakan & Light 'Quanta' (E = hf)

ditemukan oleh Max Planck (1900).

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Akibatnya, hanya masih ada satu kesimpulan, bahwa teori elektron sebelumnya

menderita dari ketidaklengkapan penting yang menuntut modifikasi, tapi seberapa dalam

modifikasi ini harus pergi ke dalam struktur teori adalah sebuah pertanyaan atas mana pandangan

masih sangat beragam. JJ Thompson condong ke tampilan yang paling radikal, seperti halnya J.

Larmor, A. Einstein, dan dengan dia I. Stark yang bahkan percaya bahwa propagasi gelombang

elektromagnetik dalam ruang hampa murni tidak terjadi tepat sesuai dengan persamaan medan

Maxwellian, tetapi dalam hv energi kuanta yang pasti. Saya berpendapat, di sisi lain, bahwa saat

ini tidak perlu untuk melanjutkan dalam begitu revolusioner rupa, dan yang satu mungkin datang

berhasil melalui dengan mencari makna dari hv kuanta energi hanya dalam aksi bersama dengan

yang resonator mempengaruhi satu sama lain. Sebuah keputusan yang pasti mengenai

pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini penting hanya bisa dibawa sebagai hasil dari pengalaman lebih. (Max

Planck, Columbia Kuliah tentang Teori Quantum)

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Sekitar lima belas tahun lalu [1899] ada yang belum meragukan bahwa account yang benar dari

sifat listrik, optik, dan termal materi dimungkinkan atas dasar mekanika Newtonian Galileo-

diterapkan pada gerakan molekul dan teori Maxwell tentang medan elektromagnetik. (Albert

Einstein, 1915)

Kemudian Planck menunjukkan bahwa untuk membangun hukum radiasi panas (Infra

gelombang cahaya merah) konsonan dengan pengalaman, hal itu perlu menggunakan metode

perhitungan yang ketidaksesuaian dengan prinsip-prinsip fisika klasik menjadi lebih jelas dan

lebih jelas. Untuk dengan metode ini perhitungan, Planck diperkenalkan ke dalam fisika kuantum

hipotesis, yang sejak menerima konfirmasi brilian. (Albert Einstein, pada Teori Quantum, 1914)

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