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• Living organisms have the ability to detect
the internal and external environment
The changes which cause response in the body
are called stimuli
• Two types of stimuli:
• (a) internal stimuli
• Changes in blood pressure, sugar level
• (b) external stimuli
– Changes in light intensity, sound, temperature,
pressure, touch
Stimuli receptors Effector

• A response is the ways an organisms react after
stimulus is detected
Stimuli receptors Effector

When stimuli are detected and eventually result
in reponse it is called coordination
Stimuli receptors Effector

• Coordination ensures the activities of an
organism function as an intergrated whole
Coordination and

Nervous system Endocrine system

Nervous system

Intergrating effectors
receptors centre
Nervous system
Central nervous
• Sensory receptors
– Detect changes in the external environment
• Found in eyes, nose, ears, tongue, skin
- Detect changes in the internal environment
Located in specific internal organs
• Examples of external environment receptors:
– Light sensitive cell in the retina
– Temperature and touch receptor in the skin
– Vibration sensitive cells in the ears
• Examples of internal environment
receptors :
– Cells sensitive to level of carbon dioxide in the
blood, blood osmotic pressure
Pancreatic cells detect blood glucose level
• Intergrating centre
– Intergrating centre is the central nervous system
( brain, spinal cord)
Intergration happens when information from the
receptors is interpreted to bring appropriate
• Effectors
– Carry out the responses to stimuli
– Effectors – muscle cells, glands
Sensory receptor is Impulse carried along
stimulated , nerve the afferent pathway through
impules are the afferent nerves

Impulses arrive at the

intergrating centre

Reponse to the
stimuli take place Integration centre sent
response in the
impulse form

Impulses is carried by
efferent pathway through the
efferent nerves to effectors
Pathway involved in detecting and responding to
change in the internal environment

Change in the Detected by temperature

blood temperature sensitive cells in hypothalamus

Effectors – smooth Impulses are carried by

mucles of the arterioles, afferent nerves to the
sweat gland, etc thermoregulatory centre
in hypothalamus

Impulses are carried

from hypthalamus Integration occur in
to the effector through thermoregulatory centre
efferent nerves
Change in the blood temperature
Detected by temperature
sensitive cells in hypothalamus
Impulses are carried by afferent nerves to the
thermoregulatory centre in hypothalamus
The role of the human nervous
Human nervous system

Central nervous Peripheral nervous

system system

Spinal cord Cranial spinal

nerves nerves
Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly
from the brain, in contrast to spinal nerves
which emerge from segments of the spinal
• Nervous system performs three main functions :
– 1. sensory
– 2. intergrative
– 3. motor
• sensory receptors detect stimuli – initiate
impulses that carry information to the CNS
• CNS – initiate suitable responses
• Motor commands from the CNS are transmitted
to the effectors - muscles, glands
• Human brain :
– Cerebrum
– Cerebellum
– Medulla oblongata
– Thalamus
– Hypothalamus
Cerebral cortex
- largest, most complex part of the brain
- divided into two – left hemisphere
- right hemisphere
• Left hemisphere – controls movements on the
right side of the body
Functions – receive the sensory input and
carries out integrative functions before
initiating motor response
– Coordinates the activities other parts of the brain
• Outer region of the cerebrum - cerebral cortex
– Many folds to increase surface area

– Function –
• directs voluntary muscle movement, result in sensory
perception (know what he sees, hears, smell)
Mental abilities – learning, memorising,
reasoning, language skills, mathematic skills,
imagination, artistic talents, personality
• Damage to this area can cause specific defect –
speech impairment, reading difficulty, paralyse
• Cerebellum
– The coordinating centre for body movements
– Receieves information from sensory receptor from
all parts of the body and from the cerebrum
– Evaluate infromation and relays the need for
coordinated movements back to the cerebrum
– Cerebrum then sends appropriate commands to the
• Medulla oblongata
– Function –
• regulates the internal body processes that do not require
conscious effort – heartbeat, breathing, vasoconstriction
• Reflex centre for vomiting, coughing, sneezing,
hiccupping, swallowing
• Hypothalamus
– Function – homeostatic regulation
– Coordintion centre for regulating sleep, hunger,
thirst, body temperature, water balance, blood
– Control centre for endocrine system (hormone)
• Pituitary gland
– Function – secretes hormones that influence other
glands and body functions
The hypothalamus controls the release of
several hormone from the pituitary gland
• Thalamus
– Function –
• sorting the incoming and outgoing information in the
cerebral cortex
• Enhancing and blocking signals from the sensory
receptors to the cerebrum
The spinal cords and it functions
• Spinal cord is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid
-shock absorber and provide nutrients
• Consist of white matter and grey matter
Dorsal root
• Spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord
through two branches/ roots:
• Dorsal roots
• Ventral roots
Dorsal root
• Dorsal roots
– Contains axon of the afferent neurons which conduct
nerve impulses from the sensory receptors to the
spinal cord
Dorsal root
– Dorsal root ganglion contains the cell bodies of
afferent neurons
• Ventral root
– Contains the axons of the efferent neurons which
conduct impulses away from the spinal cord to the
Dorsal root
• The spinal cord :
– Processes sensory information and send out
responses through the efferent neurones
– Contains neurones that transfer signals to and from
the brain
– Neural pathway for reflexes
Pathway off the impulse


Neuron afferent Spinal cord


Neuron efferent

The neurones
• The nervous system is made up of millions of
nerve cells calls neurones
• Neurones transmit nerve impulses to other
nerve cells, glands, muscles
• Three types of neurones:
• Afferent neurones
• Efferent neurones
• internuerones
• Afferent neurones
– Carry sensory information from the receptor cells to
the brain and spinal cord
Movement of impulse
• Efferent neurones
– Carry information from the brain or spinal cord to the
effectors (muscle, gland cells)
Movement of impulse
• Interneurones
– Convey nerve impulses between various parts
of the brain and spinal cord
– Transmit nerve impulses between afferent
neurones and efferent neurones
– Transmit nerve impulses from one side of the
spinal cord to the other side or from brain to
the spinal cord
The transmission pathway of information
Receptors pick up Nerve impulses
the ringing of Nerve impulses
from the
doorbell transfer from the
receptors moves
afferent to the
in the afferent

Brain interpretes
From the Interneurones
impulses, give order
interneurones sent impulses
in the form of
impulses is to the brain
transmitted to
the efferent
neurones and then
to the muscles
The muscles in the
arm carry out response
The transmission of information along
the neurones
• The transmission of information along the
neurones is through electical signals known as
nerve impulses
• Impulse – positive charges that travel along the
axon to the synaptic terminal
• A neurones will not transmit impulses if the
stimulation is not strong enough
Interpret, Integration,
Brain Response


impulse impulse
Afferent neurones interneurones Efferent neurones



Receptors pick up Nerve impulses
the ringing of Nerve impulses
from the
doorbell transfer from the
receptors moves
afferent to the
in the afferent

Brain interpretes
From the Interneurones
impulses, give order
interneurones sent impulses
in the form of
impulses is to the brain
transmitted to
the efferent
neurones and then
to the muscles
The muscles in the
arm carry out response
The transmission of information
across synapses
• Neurones are not connected to each other
• Beyond the synaptic terminal there is synaptic
cleft (narrow space) that separate synaptic
terminal from the dendrite of a receiving

Synaptic terminal

dendrite Synaptic cleft

• Synapse is the site where two neurones or a
neurone and an effector cell communicate
• Electrical signals must be transmitted across the
synaptic cleft to an adjacent cell
• The transmission of nerve impulses across the
synaptic cleft occurs with the help of
neurotransmitter (chemical substances)
• Neurotransmitter is stored in the synaptic
• The transmission of impulses involves the
conversion of electrical signal into chemical
Electrical Chemical Electrical
signal signal signal
Electrical impulses Neurotransmitter diffuse
reaches the presynaptic across the synaptic cleft
membrane and bind to specific
that attached to the
postsynaptic membrane

Impulses is transferred Binding of the

to another neurones neurotransmitter to
generates a new impulses
• The transmission of nerve impulses across
synapses is an active process which required
• Synaptic terminal contains abundant
mitochondria to generate energy for
transmission of nerve impulses
• After the neurotransmitter has relayed its
– Broken down by enzymes
– Taken up again by the synaptic terminal and
• Examples of neurotransmitter :
• Acetylcholine
• Noradrenaline
• Serotonin
• dopamine
• The functions of synapses :
• Controlling and intergrating the nerve impulses
• Facilitating the transmission of nerve impulses in one
– Synaptic vesicles only present in synaptic terminals
– Only presynaptic membrane can discharge neurotransmitter
– Receptors only present in postsynaptic membranes
Action of skeletal muscle

Voluntary action Involuntary action

• Voluntary action of the skeleton muscle
– Voluntary actions are under conscious control
– Information that reaches cerebral cortex or
conscious level result in a perception of the
external environment
Stimulus receptor Afferent


effector Efferent
• Involuntary action that involves the skeletal
muscles: the reflex arc
– Involves skeletal muscle that does not require
consciuos effort
• Example – if a finger touch a hot stove, the
reactions is to pull the finger away without
having to thing
• Rapid, automatic
• The nerve pathway involved is called reflex arc
Reflex arc

Sharp pin pierces Nerve impulses transmitted

the skin – sensory receptor along an afferent neurone
in the skin generate toward the spinal cord
nerve impulses

In spinal cord the

Pin can be pulled nerve impulses are
out immediately transmitted to the

Efferent neurone
From interneurone the
carries the nerve
impulses are transmitted
impulses to the
to the efferent neurone
The importance of reflexes
- Cut the time of response
- the pain is slightly delayed after the response
has been made
• Only involves the spinal cord, the brain is
reserved for more complex task
• Reflex that involves the brain
– The opening and closing of the pupil of the eye
– Automatic response, we have no control of the size
of the pupil
• Another types of automatic response is knee
jerk reflex
– Involves afferent neuron and efferent neurone
Knee jerk response

The force stretches Rubber hammer

the quadriceps muscles hits a tendon that
and stimulate the connect the
stretch receptors in quadriceps muscle
the muscles, triggering in the thigh to a
nerve impulses bone in the lower

Afferent neurones transmit The efferent neurones

impulses to the efferent transmit impulses to
neurones in the spinal the quadriceps muscle,
cord muscle contract, the leg
jerking forward
Reflex arc

Afferent neurones - Afferent neurones – brain

interneurones – efferent - interneurone – efferent
neurones – effector neurone – effector

-- piercing of the skin --opening and closing of

the pupil

Afferen neurone – efferent neurone

--knee jerk reflect
Involuntary action which involves smooth
muscles, cardiac muscle or glands

1. The autonomic nervous system

- controls involuntary actions involving :
* glands
*cardiac muscle
* smooth muscle of the internal organs
– Connects the medula oblongata and hypothalamus
with the internal organs and regulates the internal
body processes
– Require no conscious effort
– Impulses are not transfered to the cerebral cortex –
we were not aware of the response
– Enable vital functions – heartbeats, blood
circulation – continues during unconsciousness /
– Autonomic nervous system can be divided into :
• Sympathetic division
• Parasympathetic division
Sympathetic division
- prepares the body for stressful situations
- increase the pulse rate, blood pressure,
breathing rate
slows down the digestive system – more blood is
available to carry oxygen to vital organs (heart,
Parasympathetic division
- prepares the body during ordinary situations /
relaxed state
decrease the pulse rate, blood pressure,
breathing rate
-stimulate the digestive system to continue
breaking down food
Diseases of the nervous system
1. Parkinson's disease
- affect the muscular movements causing tremors
or trembling of the arms, jaws, leg, face
- difficulty maintaining normal postures, impaired
balance and coordination
2. Alzheimer's disease
- neurological disorder causes the loss of
reasoning and ability to care fo oneself
- individuals becomes confuse, forgetful, lose
ability to read, write, eat, walk and talk
• The information for involuntary actions does not
involve the cerebral cortex
– No perception is generated
– We not aware of the response
The role of Hormones in humans
• Hormones are chemical messengers produced
by the endocrine gland
• Endocrine glands – ductless glands that
release hormones directly into the interstitial
fluid and then to the bloodstream
• Hormones only affect specific target cell
• Hormones causes the target cell to respond in a
specific manner
The need for the endocrine
• The endocrine and nervous system play
important roles in maintaining homeostasis
• Some physiological processes need both
system too work together, others only involve
the endocrine system
The nervous system The endocrine system
controls voluntary controls involuntary
and involuntary actions actions

conveys impulses conveys chemical signals

message conducted message are conveyed

via neurones via bloodstream

message are carried message are carried to

between specific various destinations
responses or effects
responses or effects are long lasting
are temporary
message are conveyed
message are conveyed slowly
The human endocrine system
- consist of glands that contain hormones-
secreting cells
- the glands secrete different types of hormones
involved in specific physiological processes
Function of hormones

Reproduction Growth Homeostasis

Follicle stimulating Growth hormone,

hormone, luteinising thyroid stimulating
hormone, oestrogen, hormone, thyroxine
progesterone, androgen

Insulin, glucagon,
Endocrine gland

Anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary

gland gland

Antidiuretic hormone
Thyroid stimulating (ADH)
hormone (TSH) Oxytoxin
follicle stimulating
hormone (FSH)
luteinising hormone (LH)
adrenocorticotrophic hormone
growth hormone (GH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Other endocrine glands
• Thyroid gland
– Thyroxine
• Adrenal cortex
– Aldosterone
• Pancreas
– Insulin
– Glucagon
• Ovaries
– Oestrogen
– Progesterone
• Testis
– Testosterone
Regulation of hormone secretion
- endocrine gland release hormones more
frequently when stimulated
• hormone secretion is normally regulated to
prevent over production or under production
• Regulation of hormone is controlled by:
• Signals from nervous system
• Other hormones
• The level of specific substances in the body
The regulation of hormone secretion by signal
from the nervous system
- pituitary gland is the master of endocrine gland
because it secreters hormones that control
other endocrine gland
• The pituitary gland is controlled by
• Posterior pituitary gland contains axons and
synaptic terminals of the neurosecretory cells
that originate in the hypothalamus
• Hypothalamus :
• Controlling the secretion of hormones from the pituitary
• Link between the nervous system and the endocrine
• Maintain homeostasis by receiving impulses of the
internal environment
• Have specialised nerve cells called neurosecretory
Neurosecretory cells
in hypothalamus
Hypothalamic releasing
ADH, oxytoxin hormones, hypothalamic
pass through the inhibiting hormones
axon into the
posterior pituitary These hormones are
cells and stored in carried in the blood
the synaptic terminals stream to the anterior

Hypothalamic releasing
ADH and oxytoxin hormones stimulate the
are secreted into seretion of anterior pituitary
the bloodstream hormones
Hypothalamic inhibiting
hormones prevent the secretion
of the anterior pituitary

ADH and oxytoxin

Hypothalamic inhibiting Hypothalamic releasing
hormones hormones

Posterior pituitary
gland Anterior pituitary

ADH , oxytoxin
Secreted into the Inhibition of secretion of Secretion of anterior
Blood stream Anterior pituitary hormones Pituitary hormones
The regulation of hormone secretion by other

Thyroid releasing hormones

Anterior pituitary gland

Thyroid stimulating hormones

Thyroid gland

Thyroxine hormones
Are released
• The secretion of most hormones is first
regulated and controlled by the nervous system
• Hormones that are released by the pituitary
gland are used to stimulate other glands to
secrete hormones

Posterior Anterior
pituitary pituitary


- kidney - smooth muscle - mammary
tubule in the uterus glands


- thyroid - ovaries, HORMONE
testes - bone, tissues
• The release of a hormone from the target exerts
a negative feedback control
Thyroid releasing
hormone from
hypothalamus TRH stimulate the
anterior pituitary
to secrete TSH

TSH stimulates the

thyroid gland to
When thyroxine secrete thyroxine
concentration is high,
its inhibit TRH production
from the hypothalamus
and TSH from the anterior
The regulation of hormone secretion by the level
of specific substances in the blood
- the secretion of hormones is regulated by the
level of specific substances in the blood
• Examples :
• Blood glucose level rises, the pancreas
produces insulin
• Insulin increase the glucose uptake by the cell
• Cells metabolise or convert the glucose to
• The blood glucose level returns to normal
The involvement of the nervous and
endocrine system in a fight or flight
Fight or flight situation

Nerve impulses from the

hypothalamus stimulate the
neurones from the sympathetic
division of the autonomic nervous
system in the adrenal medulla

Adrenaline and
noradrenaline cause an Stimulate the adrenal
increase in heartbeat, medulla to secrete
breathing rates, blood adrenaline and
pressure, blood glucose noradrenaline
level, metabolic activity
Fight or flight situations

Nerve impulses from hypothalamus

Stimulates the neurones from the symphathethic

Division of the autonomic nervous system in the adrenal

Stimulate the cells of the adrenal medulla to secrete

Adrenaline and noradrenaline

Adrenaline and noradrenaline cause increase in heartbeat,

Blood pressure, blood glucose level, metabolic activity
• The hearts contracts vigorously to pump larger
amount of oxygen and glucose to the brain and
• Skeletal muscle becomes more energised and
enable a person to fight or flee immediately
from danger
• The nervous and endocrine system working
together to bring immediate response to cope
with threat
Hormon imbalance and related disease
1. growth hormone
- over secretion
– gigantism
- acromegally (adult) – bones, hand, feet, cheek
& other tissues enlarge
- under secretion :
- dwarfism
- genetically enginered growth hormone is given
to the children allowing them to attain normal
2. Thyroxine
- over secretion :
- increase metabolic rate – excessive sweating,
heat intolerence, nervousness, rapid heart rate,
weight loss
- goitre – thyroid gland enlarge – iodine
- thyroid gland cannot synthesise enough
thyroxine, its enlarge in response from
pituitary gland
– Under secretion :
• Child - Severe mental retardation (cretinism)
• Adult – myxedema – slow heart rate, low body
temperature, sensitive to cold, gain weight easily
3. Insulin
- Over secretion – hypoglecaemia (low level
of glucose in the body)
- symptoms – fatigue, insomnia, mental
confusion, nervousness, mood swings, fainting
spells, headaches
– Under secretion – diabetes mellitus
• Abnormally high level of glucose in the blood
• Body do not produce enough insulin or cannot use the
insulin that are produced
• Increase frequency of urination
• Large quantities are produced by genetically engineered
bacteria – injected to the patient
4. ADH
- Over secretion
- high retention of water in the body
– Under secretion
• Diabetes insipidus
• Excrete a large amount of urine
• Always thirsty, drinks frequently
• Water lost in the urine
Homeostasis in humans
• The maintainance of relatively constant internal
environment is known a homeostasis
• Internal environment consist of phyical factors
and chemical factors
The excretory system
• Primary organs – kidneys
– Regulate water and salt balance – excreting more or
les salt, increasing intake or loss of water
– Regulate osmotic pressure and ionic level in the
– Excrete waste products
– Regulate blood pH
Waste products

From metabolic reactions

- urea, creatinine Foreign substances in
(from amino acids) the diet
- uric acids (from nucleic acids) - drugs, toxin
The human kidney
• Kidneys filter blood and form urine

• Urine exits thorugh the ureter, urinary

bladder and urethra
• Urine consist of :
• Water
• Urea
• Disolved waste
• Exces nutrients
• Kidney has two region :
• Renal cortex – outer light red region
• Renal medulla – inner dark red region
The nephron
- the funcional unit of a kidney
- each kidney – about one million nephrons
- consists of three major parts :
1. glomerulus and its blood vessels
2. Bowman's capsule
3. renal tube
• Renal tube is made up of :
• Proximal convoluted tubule
• Loop of Henle
• Distal convoluted tubule
• Three basic processes to produce urine:
• Ultrafiltration
• Reabsorption
• Secretion
Ultrafiltration in Bowman's capule
- podocytes and endothelium of the the
glomerulus form a filtration membrane
permits the passage of water and solute from the
blood into the capsular space
• Blood pressure is high when it reach the
• The pressure increase because the afferent
arteriole has larger diameter than the efferent
• Blood enters the glomerulus
– Ultrafiltration take place
– High pressure forces fluid through the filtration
membrane into the capsular space
– Filtration membrane filter certain size of molecules
– Fluid that pass the filtration membrane is called
glomerulus filtrate
• Glomerulus contents :
• Water, glucose, amino acids, urea, mineral salts, small
• Same composition as blood plasma
• No red blood cells, plasma proteins (too large)

Blood capillaries join

together to form renal

arteriole Blood capillaries -
Peritubular capillaries

Efferent arteriole
divides into blood capillaries
surrounding kidney tubules
- take place when substances move across the
walls of the renal tubule into the capillary
- Chloride ions move out passively
- reabsorption of glucose and amino acids through
active transport
- movement of solutes into the capillary network
increase the concentration solute in the
capillary network
- water moves into the blood capillaries by
- Loop of Henle:
- water, sodium, chloride ions are reabsorbed
- Distal convoluted tubule :
- watery filtrate contains low in salt, high in waste (
- more water, sodium, chloride ions are
- Collecting duct :
- filtrate has very little salt, 99% of water has been
- only 1 % of the water leaves as urine
urine moves down the collecting duct
- some urine diffuse out into surrounding fluid
and blood ( small size )
45% of the original urea remain to be excreted
as urine
- there are waste products in the blood that were
not filtered
secretion is a process in which waste and
excess substances that were not initially
filtered are secreted into the renal tube
- Secretion at – renal tubule, collecting ducts,
distal convoluted tubule
- occurs by active and passive transport
secreted substances :
– Hydrogen ions
– Potassium ions (K+)
– Urea
– Creatinine
– Toxin
– drugs
• Positive feedback mechanism produces a
response that intensifies the original change
• Example :
– The release of the oxytoxin which stimulates and
intensifies uterine contraction during labour
- by adjusting the amount of ions to reabsorb or
secretion, the kidneys can regulate chemical
composition of the blood
The constituents of urine
- pH – slightly acidic
- Water – 1-2 litres
- Uric acid - 0.8g
- Cl- - 6.3g
- Creatinine – 1.6 g
- Na+ - 4 g
- HCO3- - 0.03 g
- Urea – 30 g
Negative feedback mechanism
• Internal environment of the human body must
be maintain at constant level
• Internal environment :
– Tissue fluid
– Blood
– lymph
• Factors affecting internal environment:
• Blood sugar level
• Body temperature
• Blood osmotic pressure
• Partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Partial pressure of oxygen
and carbon dioxide
Body temperature

Blood sugar level

Blood osmotic pressure
• The maintenance of relatively constant internal
environment - Homeostasis
• Homeostasis is achieved by negative feedback
• Whenever changes occur in internal
environment our body will initiates a corrective
Value rise Corrective
Negative feedback

Blood Normal
pressure value Normal value

Value drops
• Kidney involves in negative feedback
mechanism to maintain homeostasis
The role of kidneys in Homeostasis
- the body gains and loss water every day
• Kidney control the water content of the blood at
constant level
– osmoregulation
Osmoregulation – the process of maintaining
the water content of the blood at constant
Homeostasis achieved by regulating the
volume of urine production and excretion
The result – increase
Drinks too the blood osmotic pressure
much water and return to normal

Blood osmotic Less water is

pressure drops reabsorbed into the
below normal blood

Osmoreceptor cells Low level of ADH

in hypothalamus are cause the distal tubule
less stimulated & collecting duct less permeable
to water

Pituitary glands Less ADH is

less stimulated secreted from pituitary
Low level of ADH
cause the distal tubule
& collecting duct less permeable
to water

Less water is
reabsorbed into the
Drinks too
little Water content of the
urine decreases.
Urine more concentrated , dark
Blood osmotic
pressure increases
above normal
Blood pressure return
to normal
Osmoreceptor cells
in the hypothalamus
detect increase in More water is reabsorbed
blood osmotic from the filtrate into the
pressure blood

Osmoreceptor cells
in the hypothalamus ADH increases
stimulate pituitary the permeability of the
gland to release more ADH distal tubule and
collecting duct
ADH increases
the permeability of the
distal tubule and
collecting duct

More water is reabsorbed

from the filtrate into the
• The lower osmotic pressure reduces the activity
of the hypothalamic osmoreceptor cells
• Osmoreceptor cells stop stimulating pituitary
gland to secrete more ADH
Kidney Problem
- kidneys of some people are damaged due to
diseases , drug or injury
- Haemodialysis
- kidney transplants
haemodialysis – the process of filtering blood by
using an artificial means that replace the
functions of a failed kidney
– Blood from the artery is passed through the machine
which contains a dialyser
– Dialyser has two sections separated by semi
permeable membrane
– Blood passes on one side of the membrane and
dialysis solution passes on the other
– The different concentration gradient between the
blood and dialysis solution is such that the waste
molecules and excess salts can diffuse through the
Toxin from the blood diffuse
through the semi permeable

Blood Dialysis

Required ions and

glucose are added
into the dialysis

Semi permeable membrane

• Another treatment for impaired kidney is the
transplant of a healthy kidney from a donor to
the patient
The regulation of blood sugar level
- pancreas gland is responsible for maintaining
the blood sugar level within 75-110mg/100ml
- pancreas secrete insulin hormone and
glucagons into the bloodstream
Insulin and glucagons
High blood sugar

Low blood sugar

• Insulin reduce the blood glucose level
• Glucagon increase the the blood glucose level
• Both hormone work in opposition to regulate
the blood glucose level
• Diabetes mellitus
– Defects in production, release, and reception of
– The proximal convoluted tubule cannot reabsorb all
the glucose from the kidney filtrate
The regulation of body temperature
- the body temperature fluctuate
- maintains at 37 C
Changes in the Cause initial
external temp. change in body

Changes detected by

Thermoreceptors in Thermoreceptors in
hypothalamus the skin detect external
detect blood temp. temperature

Thermoregulatory centre
in the hypothalamus Adrenal,
thyroid glands

Erector muscles Skeletal

Smooth muscles Sweat gland
in the skin muscles
in the arterioles
Temperature rises

Internal temp.
rises, vasodilation occurs
when smooth muscles around
afferent arteriole relax

Increase blood Increase the amount

flows through the of heat radiated and loss
skin by the skin
Internal temp. rises

Sweat glands secrete

sweat to the surface
of the skin and evaporate

The body cools

and the internal
temperature drops
to set point once
The temperature
drop beneath set point
sweating stop, body heat
Internal temperature
rises above the set

Erector muscles
in the skill relax
lowering the skin
hair, warm air is not

Internal temperature
drops below the
set point, erector muscle
contract, raising the skin
hairs, trapping layer of warm air
Internal temperature
Internal temperature drops beneath set
rise above set point point

Skeletal muscle are Skeletal muscles

not stimulated,shivering are stimulated, shivering
does not occur occurs
Internal temperature Internal temperature
rise above the set point drops beneath below
the set point

Adrenal and thyroid

glands are less stimulated Adrenal and thyroid
to secrete adrenaline and glands are stimulated
thyroxine to secrete more adrenaline
and thyroxine

Metabloc rate increase,

The metabolic rate
more heat is generated
is low, no excess heat
is generated
Practising a healthy lifestyle
• Drugs can alter brain functions and the rates at
which neurones releases neurotransmitter
• The abuse of drugs reuslt in a tolerance of the
• More and more drugs is needed to get the same
initial effect on the person
• Types of drugs:
• Stimulants
• Depressants
• Hallucinogens
• Narcotics
• Stimulants
– Increase activity of the central nervous system
– Blocks the removal of pleasure -inducing
– e.g. - cocaine
• Depressants
– Slow down the activity of the central nervous system
– Slow down the transmission of nerve impulses
– e.g : alcohol
– Inhibits the release of ADH
– Large volumes of urine
• Hallucinogens
– LSD (D-lysergic acid diethylamide)
– See, hear and percieve things that do not exist
• Narcotics
– Feeling euphoria, block pain signals, slow down
normal brain function
– e.g.: heroine, morphine
– Mimick neurotransmitter binding to their receptor
Plant Hormones
• Types of plant hormones :
– Auxins
– ethylene
• Plant produce hormones for growth and
- promote cell elongation cell lengthening
- produced in apical meristem at the tip of the
- result – increase the stem length by increasing
the rate of cell division
• The role of auxins in phototropism:
– Growth of plants towards light is caused by unequal
distribution of auxins in the shoot
Sunlight from
all side
Even distribution
of auxin
• When a plant is exposed to light from one
• Auxin build up on the side in the shade, and
stimulate the growth of the side that do not
receive sunlight
• The side that do not receive sunlight divide
faster and elongate faster than the side that
receive sunlight
• Result – the shoot bending towards the lights
• Auxin result in positive phototropism in plant
The role of auxin in geotropism
- if the seeds is buried horizontally
- light and gravity causes the auxins to be
transported to the lower side of the root or shoot
• The auxin that accumulate at the lower side of
the shoot stimulate the elongation of the shoot
• Result – the shoot bends upwards
• The auxin that accumulate at the lower side of
the root inhibits the elongation of the root
• The upper side of the root elongated faster than
the lower side of the root
• The root bend downwards
• When the root bend downward, the auxin
distribution becomes equal on all side
• The roots continue to grow straight downwards
• Auxin are also used to stimulate the growth of
adventitious roots from the stem
– Used to trigger the adventitious roots for commercial
• Induce the development of fruit without
fertilisation or parthenocarpy
• Parthenocarpy is used to produce seedles fruits
- a plant hormone which is synthesised during the
ripening of the fruit
- synthesised in – fruits, leaves, stem
- in the form of gas
- functions :
- speeds up the ripening of fruits
- stimulating the production of cellulase
- cellulase hydrolyses the cellulose in plants
making it soft
- promotes the breakdown of complex
carbohydrates into simple sugar
- make fruits taste sweet
• Placing a basket of ripe mangoes with unripe
bananas can induce ripening of banana