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Frederick Winslow Taylor

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Frederick Winslow Taylor

Taylor circa 1900

March 20, 1856 (1856-03-20)


Born
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania U.S.

March 21, 1915(1915-03-21) (aged 59)


Died
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania U.S.

Cause of death Pneumonia

West Laurel Hill Cemetery


Resting place
Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania U.S.

Nationality American

Efficiency expert
Occupation
Management consultant
"Father" of the
Known for Scientific management
& Efficiency Movement

Spouse Louise M. Spooner

Kempton, Robert and Elizabeth (all


Children
adopted orphans)

Franklin Taylor
Parents
Emily Annette Winslow

Awards Elliott Cresson Medal (1902)

Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical
engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency.[1] He is regarded as the father of scientific
management and was one of the first management consultants.[2] Taylor was one of the
intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly
influential in the Progressive Era.

Contents
[hide]
• 1 Biography
• 2 Work
○ 2.1 Managers and workers
○ 2.2 Propaganda techniques
○ 2.3 Management theory
○ 2.4 Relations with ASME
○ 2.5 Patents
• 3 Taylor's influence
○ 3.1 United States
○ 3.2 France
○ 3.3 Switzerland
○ 3.4 USSR
○ 3.5 Criticism of Taylor
• 4 Tennis accomplishments
• 5 See also
• 6 Publications
• 7 References
• 8 Bibliography
• 9 Further reading
• 10 External links

[edit] Biography
Taylor was born in 1856 to a wealthy Quaker family in Germantown, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania. Taylor's ancestor, Samuel Taylor, settled in Burlington, New Jersey, in 1677.
Taylor's father, Franklin Taylor, a Princeton-educated lawyer, built his wealth on mortgages.[3]
Taylor's mother, Emily Annette Taylor (née Winslow), was an ardent abolitionist and a coworker
with Lucretia Mott. Educated early by his mother, Taylor studied for two years in France and
Germany and traveled Europe for 18 months.[4] In 1872, he entered Phillips Exeter Academy in
Exeter, New Hampshire.
Upon graduation, Taylor was accepted at Harvard Law School. However, due to rapidly
deteriorating eyesight, Taylor had to consider an alternative career. After the depression of 1873,
Taylor became an industrial apprentice patternmaker, gaining shop-floor experience at a pump-
manufacturing company, Enterprise Hydraulic Works, in Philadelphia. Taylor's career
progressed in 1878 when he became a machine shop laborer at Midvale Steel Works. At
Midvale, Taylor was promoted to gang-boss, foreman, research director, and finally chief
engineer of the works. Taylor became a student of Stevens Institute of Technology, studying via
correspondence[5] and obtaining a degree in mechanical engineering in 1883. On May 3, 1884, he
married Louise M. Spooner of Philadelphia.
From 1890 until 1893 Taylor worked as a general manager and a consulting engineer to
management for the Manufacturing Investment Company of Philadelphia, a company that
operated large paper mills in Maine and Wisconsin. He spent time as a plant manager in Maine.
In 1893, Taylor opened an independent consulting practice in Philadelphia. His business card
read "Systematizing Shop Management and Manufacturing Costs a Specialty". In 1898, Taylor
joined Bethlehem Steel, where he, Maunsel White, and a team of assistants developed high speed
steel. For his process of treating high speed tool steels he received a personal gold medal at the
Paris exposition in 1900, and was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal that same year by the
Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. Taylor was forced to leave Bethlehem Steel in 1901 after
antagonisms with other managers. In 1901, Frederick and Louise Taylor adopted three orphans:
Kempton, Robert and Elizabeth.
On October 19, 1906, Taylor was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the
University of Pennsylvania.[6] Taylor eventually became a professor at the Tuck School of
Business at Dartmouth College.[7] Late winter of 1915 Taylor caught pneumonia and one day
after his fifty-ninth birthday, on March 21, 1915 he died. He was buried in West Laurel Hill
Cemetery, in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.
[edit] Work
Taylor was a mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. Taylor is
regarded as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
and director of a famous firm. In Peter Drucker's description,
Frederick W. Taylor was the first man in recorded history who deemed work deserving of
systematic observation and study. On Taylor's 'scientific management' rests, above all, the
tremendous surge of affluence in the last seventy-five years which has lifted the working masses
in the developed countries well above any level recorded before, even for the well-to-do. Taylor,
though the Isaac Newton (or perhaps the Archimedes) of the science of work, laid only first
foundations, however. Not much has been added to them since – even though he has been dead
all of sixty years.[8]
Taylor was also an accomplished tennis player. He and Clarence Clark won the first doubles
tournament in the 1881 U.S. National Championships, the precursor of the U.S. Open.[1]
Future U.S. Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis coined the term scientific management in the
course of his argument for the Eastern Rate Case before the Interstate Commerce Commission in
1910. Brandeis debated that railroads, when governed according to the principles of Taylor, did
not need to raise rates to increase wages. Taylor used Brandeis's term in the title of his
monograph The Principles of Scientific Management, published in 1911. The Eastern Rate Case
propelled Taylor's ideas to the forefront of the management agenda. Taylor wrote to Brandeis "I
have rarely seen a new movement started with such great momentum as you have given this
one." Taylor's approach is also often referred to as Taylor's Principles, or frequently
disparagingly, as Taylorism. Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles:
1. Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the
tasks.
2. Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them
to train themselves.
3. Provide "Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that
worker's discrete task" (Montgomery 1997: 250).
4. Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply
scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform
the tasks.
[edit] Managers and workers
Taylor had very precise ideas about how to introduce his system:
It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements
and working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. And the
duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with
management alone.[9]
Workers were supposed to be incapable of understanding what they were doing. According to
Taylor this was true even for rather simple tasks.
'I can say, without the slightest hesitation,' Taylor told a congressional committee, 'that the
science of handling pig-iron is so great that the man who is ... physically able to handle pig-iron
and is sufficiently phlegmatic and stupid to choose this for his occupation is rarely able to
comprehend the science of handling pig-iron.[10]
The introduction of his system was often resented by workers and provoked numerous strikes.
The strike at Watertown Arsenal led to the congressional investigation in 1912. Taylor believed
the labourer was worthy of his hire, and pay was linked to productivity. His workers were able to
earn substantially more than those under conventional management,[11] and this earned him
enemies among the owners of factories where scientific management was not in use.
[edit] Propaganda techniques
Taylor promised to reconcile labor and capital.
With the triumph of scientific management, unions would have nothing left to do, and they
would have been cleansed of their most evil feature: the restriction of output. To underscore this
idea, Taylor fashioned the myth that 'there has never been a strike of men working under
scientific management', trying to give it credibility by constant repetition. In similar fashion he
incessantly linked his proposals to shorter hours of work, without bothering to produce evidence
of "Taylorized" firms that reduced working hours, and he revised his famous tale of Schmidt
carrying pig iron at Bethlehem Steel at least three times, obscuring some aspects of his study and
stressing others, so that each successive version made Schmidt's exertions more impressive,
more voluntary and more rewarding to him than the last. Unlike [Harrington] Emerson, Taylor
was not a charlatan, but his ideological message required the suppression of all evidence of
worker's dissent, of coercion, or of any human motives or aspirations other than those his vision
of progress could encompass.[12]
[edit] Management theory
Taylor thought that by analyzing work, the "One Best Way" to do it would be found. He is most
remembered for developing the time and motion study. He would break a job into its component
parts and measure each to the hundredth of a minute. One of his most famous studies involved
shovels. He noticed that workers used the same shovel for all materials. He determined that the
most effective load was 21½ lb, and found or designed shovels that for each material would
scoop up that amount. He was generally unsuccessful in getting his concepts applied and was
dismissed from Bethlehem Steel. Nevertheless, Taylor was able to convince workers who used
shovels and whose compensation was tied to how much they produced to adopt his advice about
the optimum way to shovel by breaking the movements down into their component elements and
recommending better ways to perform these movements. It was largely through the efforts of his
disciples (most notably H.L. Gantt) that industry came to implement his ideas. Moreover, the
book he wrote after parting company with Bethlehem Steel, Shop Management, sold well.
[edit] Relations with ASME
Taylor was president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) from 1906 to
1907. While president, he tried to implement his system into the management of the ASME but
was met with much resistance. He was only able to reorganize the publications department and
then only partially. He also forced out the ASME's long-time secretary, Morris L. Cooke, and
replaced him with Calvin W. Rice. His tenure as president was trouble-ridden and marked the
beginning of a period of internal dissension within the ASME during the Progressive Age.[13]
In 1912, Taylor collected a number of his articles into a book-length manuscript which he
submitted to the ASME for publication. The ASME formed an ad hoc committee to review the
text. The committee included Taylor allies such as James Mapes Dodge and Henry R. Towne.
The committee delegated the report to the editor of the American Machinist, Leon P. Alford.
Alford was a critic of the Taylor system and the report was negative. The committee modified
the report slightly, but accepted Alford's recommendation not to publish Taylor's book. Taylor
angrily withdrew the book and published Principles without ASME approval.[14]
[edit] Patents
Taylor authored 42 patents.[15]
[edit] Taylor's influence
[edit] United States

One of Carl G. Barth's speed-and-feed slide rules.

A Gantt chart.
• Carl G. Barth helped Taylor to develop speed-and-feed-calculating slide rules to a
previously unknown level of usefulness. Similar aids are still used in machine shops
today. Barth became an early consultant on scientific management and later taught at
Harvard.
• H. L. Gantt developed the Gantt chart, a visual aid for scheduling tasks and displaying the
flow of work.
• Harrington Emerson introduced scientific management to the railroad industry, and
proposed the dichotomy of staff versus line employees, with the former advising the
latter.
• Morris Cooke adapted scientific management to educational and municipal organizations.
• Hugo Münsterberg created industrial psychology.
• Lillian Gilbreth introduced psychology to management studies.
• Frank Gilbreth (husband of Lillian) discovered scientific management while working in
the construction industry, eventually developing motion studies independently of Taylor.
These logically complemented Taylor's time studies, as time and motion are two sides of
the efficiency improvement coin. The two fields eventually became time and motion
study.
• Harvard University, one of the first American universities to offer a graduate degree in
business management in 1908, based its first-year curriculum on Taylor's scientific
management.
• Harlow S. Person, as dean of Dartmouth's Amos Tuck School of Administration and
Finance, promoted the teaching of scientific management.
• James O. McKinsey, professor of accounting at the University of Chicago and founder of
the consulting firm bearing his name, advocated budgets as a means of assuring
accountability and of measuring performance.
[edit] France
In France, Le Chatelier translated Taylor's work and introduced scientific management
throughout government owned plants during World War I. This influenced the French theorist
Henri Fayol, whose 1916 Administration Industrielle et Générale emphasized organizational
structure in management. In the classic General and Industrial Management Fayol wrote that
"Taylor's approach differs from the one we have outlined in that he examines the firm from the
"bottom up." he starts with the most elemental units of activity – the workers' actions – then
studies the effects of their actions on productivity, devises new methods for making them more
efficient, and applies what he learns at lower levels to the hierarchy..."[16] He suggests that Taylor
has staff analysts and advisors working with individuals at lower levels of the organization to
identify the ways to improve efficiency. According to Fayol, the approach results in a "negation
of the principle of unity of command."[17] Fayol criticized Taylor's functional management in this
way: In Shop Management, Taylor said[18] « ... the most marked outward characteristics of
functional management lies in the fact that each workman, instead of coming in direct contact
with the management at one point only, ... receives his daily orders and help from eight different
bosses... these eight were (1) route clerks, (2) instruction card men, (3) cost and time clerks, (4)
gang bosses, (5) speed bosses, (6) inspectors, (7) repair bosses, and the (8) shop
disciplinarian. »[18] This, Fayol said, was an unworkable situation, and that Taylor must have
somehow reconciled the dichotomy in some way not described in Taylor's works.
[edit] Switzerland
In Switzerland, the American Edward Albert Filene established the International Management
Institute to spread information about management techniques.
[edit] USSR
In the Soviet Union, Vladimir Lenin was very impressed by Taylorism, which he and Joseph
Stalin sought to incorporate into Soviet manufacturing. Taylorism and the mass production
methods of Henry Ford thus became highly influential during the early years of the Soviet
Union. Nevertheless "[...] Frederick Taylor's methods have never really taken root in the Soviet
Union."[19] The voluntaristic approach of the Stakhanovite movement in the 1930s of setting
individual records was diametrically opposed to Taylor's systematic approach and proved to be
counter-productive.[20] The stop-and-go of the production process – workers having nothing to do
at the beginning of a month and 'storming' during illegal extra shifts at the end of the month –
which prevailed even in the 1980s had nothing to do with the successfully taylorized plants e.g.,
of Toyota which are characterized by continuous production processes (heijunka) which are
continuously improved (kaizen).[21]
"The easy availability of replacement labor, which allowed Taylor to choose only 'first-class
men,' was an important condition for his system's success."[22] The situation in the Soviet Union
was very different. "Because work is so unrhythmic, the rational manager will hire more workers
than he would need if supplies were even in order to have enough for storming. Because of the
continuing labor shortage, managers are happy to pay needed workers more than the norm, either
by issuing false job orders, assigning them to higher skill grades than they deserve on merit
criteria, giving them 'loose' piece rates, or making what is supposed to be 'incentive' pay, premia
for good work, effectively part of the normal wage. As Mary Mc Auley has suggested under
these circumstances piece rates are not an incentive wage, but a way of justifying giving workers
whatever they 'should' be getting, no matter what their pay is supposed to be according to the
official norms."[23]
Taylor and his theories are also referenced (and put to practice) in the 1921 dystopian novel We
by Yevgeny Zamyatin.
[edit] Criticism of Taylor
Management theorist Henry Mintzberg is highly critical of Taylor’s methods. Mintzberg states
that an obsession with efficiency allows measureable benefits to overshadow less quantifiable
social benefits completely, and social values get left behind.[24]
Taylor's methods have also been challenged by socialist intellectuals. The argument put forward
relates to progressive defanging of workers in the workplace and the subsequent degradation of
work as management, powered by capital, uses Taylor's methods to render work repeatable,
precise yet monotonous and skill-reducing.[25]
[edit] Tennis accomplishments
Taylor won the inaugural United States National tennis doubles championship at Newport
Casino in 1881.[1]
[edit] See also
• Assembly line
• Frank Bunker Gilbreth, Sr.
• Henry Ford
• Scientific management
[edit] Publications
Taylor published many articles and short monographs. A selection:
• 1894. Notes on Belting
• 1895. A Piece-rate System
• 1896. The adjustment of wages to efficiency; three papers .... New York, For the
American economic association by the Macmillan company; London, S. Sonnenschein &
co..
• 1903. Shop management; a paper read before the American society of mechanical
engineers. New York.
• 1906. On the art of cutting metals, by Mr. F. W. Taylor; an address made at the opening
of the annual meeting in New York, December 1906. New York, The American society of
mechanical engineers.
• 1911. Principles of Scientific Management. New York and London, Harper & brothers.
• 1911. Shop management, by Frederick Winslow Taylor ... with an introduction by Henry
R. Towne .... New York, London, Harper & Brothers.
• 1911. A treatise on concrete, plain and reinforced: materials, construction, and design of
concrete and reinforced concrete. (2d ed). New York, J. Wiley & sons.
• 1912. Concrete costs. New York, J. Wiley & sons.
[edit] References
1. ^ a b c "F. W. Taylor, Expert in Efficiency, Dies". New York Times. March 22, 1915.
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0320.html. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
"Frederick Winslow Taylor, originator of the modern scientific management movement, died here
today from pneumonia. He was 59 years old, and was a former President of the American Society
of Mechanical Engineers."
2. ^ "Frederick Taylor, Early Century Management Consultant". The Wall Street Journal. June 13,
1997. http://www.cftech.com/BrainBank/TRIVIABITS/FredWTaylor.html. Retrieved May 4,
2008.
3. ^ Mary Ellen Papesh (February 14, 1998). "Frederick Winslow Taylor". University of St. Francis.
http://www.stfrancis.edu/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/bbios/biograph/fwtaylor.htm. Retrieved May 4,
2008.
4. ^ "Frederick Winslow Taylor". Miami University. 2003.
http://www.units.muohio.edu/technologyandhumanities/taylor.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
5. ^ Kanigel 1997:182-183,199
6. ^ Charles Custis Harrison (October 8, 1906). "Letter to Taylor". Stevens Institute of Technology
Archives. http://stevens.cdmhost.com/cdm4/item_viewer.php?
CISOROOT=/p4100coll1&CISOPTR=1382&CISOBOX=1&REC=13. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
7. ^ "Richard A. D'Aveni On Changing the Conversation: Tuck and the Field of Strategy". Tuck
School of Business. Archived from the original on August 4, 2007.
http://web.archive.org/web/20070804050415/http://www.tuck.dartmouth.edu/faculty/publications
/voices_rad.html. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
8. ^ Drucker 1974: 181
9. ^ Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, cited by Montgomery 1989:229, italics with
Taylor
10.^ Montgomery 1989:251
11.^ Taylor 1911, p. 95.
12.^ Montgomery 1989:254 For the stories about Schmidt Montgomery refers to Charles D. Wrege
and Amadeo G. Perroni, "Taylor's Pig Tale: A Historical Analysis of Frederick W. Taylor's Pig-
Iron experiments" in: Academy of Management Journal, 17 (March 1974), 6-27
13.^ Jaffe 1957:34
14.^ Jaffe 1957:36-40; Nelson 1980:181-184)
15.^ "F.W. Taylor Collection: Patents". S.C. Williams Library. Archived from the original on
November 12, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071112144955/http://www.lib.stevens-
tech.edu/collections/fwtaylor/guide/part1/patents.html. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
16.^ Fayol, 1987, p. 43
17.^ Fayol, 1987,p. 44
18.^ a b Fayol, 1949, p. 68
19.^ Atta 1986: 335
20.^ Atta 1986: 331
21.^ Head 2005: 38-59
22.^ Atta 1986: 329
23.^ Atta 1986: 333
24.^ Mintzberg 1989:333
25.^ Harry Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth
Century, 1974

[edit] Bibliography
• Atta, Don Van (1986), “Why Is There No Taylorism in the Soviet Union?” in:
Comparative Politics, Vol. 18, No. 3. (Apr., 1986), pp. 327–337
• Head, Simon (2005), The new ruthless economy. Work and power in the digital age,
Oxford University Press, Paperback Edition
• Drucker, Peter (1974). Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. New York:
Harper & Row. ISBN 1-412-80627-5.
• Fayol, H. (1987). General and industrial management: Henri Fayol’s classic revised by
Irwin Gray. Belmont, CA: David S. Lake Publishers.
• Jaffe, William (1957). L.P. Alford and the Evolution of Modern Industrial Management.
With an introduction by David B. Porter. New York: New York University Press.
• Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma
of Efficiency. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-86402-1.
• Mintzberg, Henry (ed.) (1989). Mintzberg on Management. New York, New York: The
Free Press. ISBN 978-1416573197.
• Montgomery, David (1989), The Fall of the House of Labor: The Workplace, the State,
and American Labor Activism, 1865-1925, Cambridge University Press, Paperback
edition
• Taylor, Frederick Winslow (1911), The Principles of Scientific Management, New York,
NY, USA and London, UK: Harper & Brothers, OCLC 233134, LCCN 11-010339,
http://books.google.com/books?id=HoJMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA3#v=onepage&f=false.
Also available from Project Gutenberg.
[edit] Further reading
• Aitken, Hugh (1960), Taylorism at Watertown Arsenal. Scientific management in action,
1908-1915, Harvard UPCompara
• Boddy, David (2002). Management: An Introduction (2nd ed. ed.). New York: Pearson
Education. ISBN 0-273-65518-3.
• Nelson, Daniel (1980). Frederick W. Taylor and the Rise of Scientific Management.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-08160-5.
• Nelson, Daniel (ed.) (1992). A Mental Revolution: Scientific Management Since Taylor.
Columbus: Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0-8142-0567-4.
• Taylor, Frederick Winslow (1903), Shop Management, New York, NY, USA: American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, OCLC 2365572, http://books.google.com/books?
id=Am4I-N4XN2QC&pg=PA3#v=onepage&f=false. "Shop Management" began as an
address by Taylor to a meeting of the ASME, which published it in pamphlet form. The
link here takes the reader to a 1912 republication by Harper & Brothers. Also available
from Project Gutenberg.
• Taylor, Frederick, Scientific Management (includes "Shop Management" (1903), "The
Principles of Scientific Management" (1911) and "Testimony Before the Special House
Committee" (1912)), Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-415-27983-6
• Weisbord, Marvin (2004). Productive Workplaces Revisited (Chapter 2: Scientific
Management Revisited: A Tale of Two Taylors; Chapter 3: The Consulting Engineer:
Taylor Invents a New Profession.). ISBN 0-7879-7117-0.
[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Frederick Winslow Taylor

• Special Collections – F.W. Taylor Collection , Stevens Institute of Technology has an


extensive collection at its library
• Crossen, Cynthia (November 6, 2006). "Early Industry Expert Soon Realized a Staff Has
Its Own Efficiency". Wall Street Journal.
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB116277621193713997.html. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
• The Principles of Scientific Management (full text)
• NY Times Obituary, March 22, 1915: F. W. Taylor, Expert in Efficiency, Dies
• A Selection from Frederick Taylor's Essays
• Works by Frederick Winslow Taylor at Project Gutenberg
• The Principles of Scientific Management, with more information.
• CNA Duties, with more information.
• Shop Management, 1911 edition, online
• An undergraduate's biography of Taylor (birth year of 1856 is incorrectly reported as
1865 here)
• Biography-West Laurel Hill Cemetery web site

[hide]v · d · eU.S. National Championships men's doubles champions

(1881) Clarence Clark / Frederick Winslow Taylor • (1882) Richard Sears / James Dwight •
(1883) Richard Sears / James Dwight • (1884) Richard Sears / James Dwight • (1885) Richard
Sears / Joseph Clark • (1886) Richard Sears / James Dwight • (1887) Richard Sears / James
Dwight • (1888) Oliver Campbell / Valentine G. Hall • (1889) Henry Slocum / Howard Taylor
• (1890) Valentine G. Hall / Clarence Hobart • (1891) Oliver Campbell / Bob Huntington •
(1892) Oliver Campbell / Bob Huntington • (1893) Clarence Hobart / Frederick Hovey •
(1894) Clarence Hobart / Frederick Hovey • (1895) Malcolm Chance / Robert Wrenn • (1896)
Carr Neel / Sam Neel • (1897) Leo Ware / George Sheldon • (1898) Leo Ware / George
Sheldon • (1899) Holcombe Ward / Dwight F. Davis • (1900) Holcombe Ward / Dwight F.
Davis • (1901) Holcombe Ward / Dwight F. Davis • (1902) Reginald Doherty / Lawrence
Doherty • (1903) Reginald Doherty / Lawrence Doherty • (1904) Holcombe Ward / Beals
Wright • (1905) Holcombe Ward / Beals Wright • (1906) Holcombe Ward / Beals Wright •
(1907) Fred Alexander / Harold Hackett • (1908) Fred Alexander / Harold Hackett • (1909)
Fred Alexander / Harold Hackett • (1910) Fred Alexander / Harold Hackett • (1911) Raymond
Little / Gus Touchard • (1912) Maurice McLoughlin / Tom Bundy • (1913) Maurice
McLoughlin / Tom Bundy • (1914) Maurice McLoughlin / Tom Bundy • (1915) Clarence
Griffin / Bill Johnston • (1916) Clarence Griffin / Bill Johnston • (1917) Fred Alexander /
Harold Throckmorton • (1918) Vincent Richards / Bill Tilden • (1919) Norman Brookes /
Gerald Patterson • (1920) Clarence Griffin / Bill Johnston • (1921) Vincent Richards / Bill
Tilden • (1922) Vincent Richards / Bill Tilden • (1923) Brian Norton / Bill Tilden • (1924)
Howard Kinsey / Robert Kinsey • (1925) Vincent Richards / R. Norris Williams • (1926)
Vincent Richards / R. Norris Williams • (1927) Francis Hunter / Bill Tilden • (1928) George
Lott / John F. Hennessey • (1929) George Lott / Johnny Doeg • (1930) George Lott / Johnny
Doeg • (1931) Wilmer Allison / John Van Ryn • (1932) Ellsworth Vines / Keith Gledhill •
(1933) George Lott / Lester Stoefen • (1934) George Lott / Lester Stoefen • (1935) Wilmer
Allison / John Van Ryn • (1936) Don Budge / Gene Mako • (1937) Gottfried von Cramm /
Henner Henkel • (1938) Don Budge / Gene Mako • (1939) John Bromwich / Adrian Quist •
(1940) Jack Kramer / Ted Schroeder • (1941) Jack Kramer / Ted Schroeder • (1942) Gardnar
Mulloy / Bill Talbert • (1943) Jack Kramer / Frank Parker • (1944) Bob Falkenburg / Don
McNeill • (1945) Gardnar Mulloy / Bill Talbert • (1946) Gardnar Mulloy / Bill Talbert •
(1947) Jack Kramer / Ted Schroeder • (1948) Gardnar Mulloy / Bill Talbert • (1949) John
Bromwich / Bill Sidwell • (1950) John Bromwich / Frank Sedgman • (1951) Ken McGregor /
Frank Sedgman • (1952) Mervyn Rose / Vic Seixas • (1953) Rex Hartwig / Mervyn Rose •
(1954) Vic Seixas / Tony Trabert • (1955) Kosei Kamo / Atsushi Miyagi • (1956) Lew Hoad /
Ken Rosewall • (1957) Ashley Cooper / Neale Fraser • (1958) Alex Olmedo / Ham Richardson
• (1959) Roy Emerson / Neale Fraser • (1960) Roy Emerson / Neale Fraser • (1961) Chuck
McKinley / Dennis Ralston • (1962) Rafael Osuna / Antonio Palafox • (1963) Chuck McKinley
/ Dennis Ralston • (1964) Chuck McKinley / Dennis Ralston • (1965) Roy Emerson / Fred
Stolle • (1966) Roy Emerson / Fred Stolle • (1967) John Newcombe / Tony Roche

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Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Winslow_Taylor"
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