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Howard Smith
Preparing for the
process revolution

Agility through
processes using e3
June 2002

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Breaking news!

• BPML 1.0 has been released!

– Semantic superset of BPML 0.5, MS XLANG, IBM WSFL

• and WfMC are collaborating!

– WfMC to adopt BPMN

– BPMI to adopt wf-xml for development of BPQL

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• You know your business and understand agility
• Everyone needs a messaging backbone
• Until we have ubiquitous integration standards, some
of us will continue to use EAI
• Modern workflow products are effective
• Workflow and EAI is a powerful combination “BPM
• Web services are long over due

• So what’s new?

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Business Process Management, Workflow and EAI

• Workflow in stack of EAI

• Workflow in stack of B2BI Confusion

• Workflow in enterprise architecture

• Application vendors looking to BPM middleware, while building

out BPMS

• Invention of BPML, BPMS

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e3 Case study 1998
• 176 business processes
UK broadband
• A total of 127 third party components telecommunications
• 409 bespoke screens in place of 6000 COTS screens operator, employing
• seven month project time-scale 200 people and
providing leading
• three parallel projects: -BSS -OSS -ERP/CRM edge managed
• 9 proof of concepts services to wholesale
• up to 160 CSC and supplier personnel and corporate
Web Portal
network of 350,000
Management fibre km runs
alongside 3,500 km of
Order Management, Financial Accounting Decision Support canal networks. Their
Rating and Billing parent company
Marconi Plc set

Tuxedo and WebLogic

Easynet the objective
of becoming a stand-

Human Resources Procurement
alone business, no
Provisioning Network longer reliant on
Resource Mgt Marconi IT systems.
XaCCT Usage

Network Fault Network Perf. Trouble


Network elements IOB

Management Management Ticketing
/ Cisco network

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Old definition of processes

• Work that was partially done before the person got tired and left

• Work that is waiting for a telephone call from a customer

• Work that has to be processed at a specific time

• Work that has to be transferred to a different person, because the

person who did the first part got sick or quit before completing
the task

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Evolution of workflow
Charlie Plesums, WfMC Not just
people work

• Routing work horizontally between resources, including systems

and machines

• Routing work vertically, controlling steps that will be performed

along the process, such as invoking an automated service

• Data moved between processes, so integration with enterprise


• Workflow pushing into domain occupied by EAI

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Escalating process-related customer requirements
is driving a search for new tools

• IT companies spending 20-30% of IT budget on integration

• End users assume computer systems should be interoperable

• Systems integrators expected to do more for less $

• Integration projects extend into value chain

• Hundreds of enterprise applications in use, despite ERP

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Process requirements
• Emphasis on manageability, not • End user control of delivered
just automation processes
• End to end, no isolated pockets of • Extreme levels of process
process or application customisation and adaptation
• Enterprise architecture, not • Continuous process
piecemeal integration improvement, optimisation and
• Joined up thinking, process tuning
design reflects customer driven • Improvement extends to all
strategy processes, not just departments
• Top down deployment, eradicate • Focus on challenging, dynamic,
and avoid IT constraints extended core processes
• Long lived, value chain wide, • No distinction between human
transactional, multi-participant, work and computer work
dynamic, business processes • Incremental process automation

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The Next Fifty Years?

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The Next Fifty Years
“There is something wrong with IT,
something dreadfully wrong. For the
past fifty years computers have
been “data machines” recording the
after-the-fact results of business

Companies are stuck in this data-

centric world of IT where there's an
ever growing disconnect between
the business and the technology it

Because the data-centric paradigm

of IT won't take us past where we
are today, we must break it!”
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• Business Process Management Initiative (

• Business Process Management System (BPMS)
• Business Process Modelling Language (BPML)
• Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN)
• Business Process Query Language (BPQL)
• Web Services Choreography Interface (WSCI)

Unification of data, procedure and interaction, not just in the

form of a new system, but an innovation in computer science

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Two Key Industry Trends

Essentially the same Business processes

but simpler and more interoperable very different

Web Services BPMS

Data, Procedure, Interaction Data, Procedure, Interaction

(Complex, non-interoperable) (Complex, non-interoperable)

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The Big Picture - BPMS
Process Aware
Standards & New
wrappers capability
Web services BPMS
Connectors Projectors
Systems) Web services


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An analogy from past success

• Visicalc gave business people direct manipulation of familiar

rows and columns of data, and the ability to conduct what-if
analyses to optimise results

• Shift from hierarchical to relational data

– Demands for data management, aggregation and analysis

• Growth in significance of business data previously embedded in
and tied to applications structure and business logic

– Opportunity to create new applications (e.g. ERP)

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Value is delivered to the enterprise through new
capabilities and applications built upon them

Applications MRP ERP, CRM, SCM EPM, BPC, BPO

Platform Mainframe Operating System Web Services

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Four viewpoints on BPM

• Processes driving service composition and orchestration

• Process manufacturing, process as first class entity

• Process data, BPMS

• Process aware applications, BPQL

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Trends in Business Platform
“I run my business…” By
By managing
On this
this my
my processes
Using ERP
Distributed processes
does not
not necessarily
On this
this On
On the
the imply
imply distributed
database Internet

Sharing Sharing Sharing

data functions processes
(RDBMS) (Web Services) (BPMS)

Data centric Distributed Process centric

architecture computing architecture
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Source Ron Brown

Decreasing the turning circle of IT

by IT

Process management

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Process equivalence using BPML and BPMN

Process re-engineering

Desired Equivalence

Process discovery

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Traditional Process Mapping
• Pluses • Minuses
– Generates lots of diagrams – No generation of executable
– Easy to use tools for business code
users – No path to implementation
– Well documented business – Same diagram meaning
processes different things
– Ability to conceive and plan – Different diagrams meaning
end to end processes the same thing
– IT assisted in understanding – Some tools locked to
the business methodology
– Collaborative tools can – Risk of business losing
facilitate organisational patience
learning – Repository full of out of date

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Case 1
• Global company embarks on major process improvement
• Careful choice of “best” process mapping tool
• Limited rollout to 200 business users
• Within one month, hundreds of process diagrams

• Options

– Continue?
– Provide additional guidance in form of methodology?
– Stop digging?

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Case 2
• Urgent need to refresh of processes for next phase of growth
• Business user involvement in process design seen as critical
• IT fail to translate processes accurately into new systems
• Business loses interest in process mapping
• IT decide the tool and method is at fault
• IT ask business to re-map processes, business refuses

• Options
– Senior management to kick start the process?
– Go back to more traditional methods of requirements capture?

• In the meantime, diagrams collected are already out of date –

dead in the water

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Traditional EAI, B2BI … “BPM middleware”
• Pluses • Minuses
– Powerful tools for software – Partial generation of
engineers, helps them manage executable code
the complexity of the systems – Constrained by proprietary
they built middleware & no standard
– Off-the-shelf connectivity to
standard IT systems – Restricted to technical users
– Poor support for end user task
– Option to defer BPM decision mgt
– No visibility of the actual
business processes
– Requires buy in to an
architectural vision set by the
– Processes may get locked in
the integration strategy

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Case 3
• Global company feels encumbered by legacy systems
• Business collaboration blocked due to lack of integration
• No consistent enterprise architecture after years of point to point
• IT looks to IT solutions
• Requirements drawn up for integration
– Business view largely around processes
– IT view largely around EAI
• Long winded EAI package selection

• Within 6 months following EAI deployment, the business is

demanding processes that EAI cannot deliver

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Case 4
• Manufacturer buys EAI on the back of a new application
development project (EAI is bundled with the new package)
• IT realises EAI can be used for other purposes
• Point to point EAI projects pop up all over the business at points
of pain
• EAI support costs start to escalate
• No business owner for the EAI hub
• Point to point interfaces fall into disrepair

• EAI became the new legacy

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Learning from the past: E F Codd
• Large data banks must be protected from having to know how the data
is organised in the machine (the internal representation)
• Activities of users and most application programs should remain
unaffected when the internal representation of data is changed
• Changes in data representation will often be needed as' a result of
changes in query, update, and report traffic and natural growth in the
types of stored information
• A model based on n-ary relations, a normal form for data base
relations, and the concept of a universal data sub language are
• Three of the principal kinds of data dependencies which still need to be
removed from existing systems: ordering dependence, indexing
dependence, and access path dependence

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Processes have unique characteristics
• Business processes, computer networks, cellular telephony
networks, air traffic control networks and distributed computing
environments …

• Systems whose participants communicate, interact, interrupt one

another and change their structure

• Systems that grow, shrink, morph, merge and split

• Systems whose participants change their relationships and move

through the environment

• Mobile structure, focus on the interaction

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Different technologies have different “First Class”

Relational database Table, Procedure

Java Programming Object, Component

Workflow Management Document, Resource

Enterprise Application Integration Application Programming Interface

BPM “Process”

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BPML has a mathematical foundation

• Electronic engineers respect the differential calculus

• Database engineers respect the relational data model

• Process engineers respect the Pi-Calculus

• Formal process systems can be trusted

– just like you trust your RDBMS

• Formal process systems can be used for programming

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Measuring the value

• Process design to production time

• Process design to production cost
• Process automation level
• Process lifecycle continuity
• Process value chain coverage
• Process transactionality level
• Process customisation level
• Process completion time

• Total cost of process ownership

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e3 Case studies 2003
• Global Logistics Company wanting to design corporate processes top
down and manufacture localised variants (Process Customisation) to
avoid duplication among business units
• National Communications Operator needs to respond to market
opportunities or products announced by competitors by radically
reducing time to introduce new tariffs (Process Design to Production
Cost) from weeks (or months) to days
• Global Bank trying to understand why proprietary BPM middleware is not
giving them the end to end process management they seek (Process
• IT Services Firm discovering that workflow engines insufficient to meet
challenges of Business Process Outsourcing Operational Environment
(Process Value Chain and Automation Coverage)
• Global Telecommunications Company and Global Financial Services
Company disappointed that Process Mapping failed to provide efficient
Process Design to Deployment (Process Semantics, Process Path to

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• Need for an improved process lifecycle management

– Discovery, design, deployment, execution, operations, optimisation

“It’s flow charts! - Thank goodness.

I understand this :-)”

A CSC customer

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Contact details

CSC e3
Ron Brown
Technical Director, CSC Consulting & Systems Integration UK
+44 (0)7711 455478
Howard Smith
+44 (0)1252 363945

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