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# GAS TURBINES

SYSTEM THEORY

## PREPARED BY: SEMIN SANURI

DEPARTMENT OF MARINE ENGINEERING
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

OUTLINE:
1. GAS TURBINE OPERATING CYCLE
2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES
3. COMPRESSOR
4. BURNER SECTION
5. TURBINE
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

## Gas turbine cycle is best depicted by the Brayton Cycle.

The characteristics of the operating cycle are shown on the
pressure-temperature map, the pressure-specific
volume map, and the temperature-entropy map
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

## The gas turbine, as a continuous flow machine, is best

described by the first law of thermodynamics.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

## In most gas turbine applications, the numerical

magnitude of the difference in potential energy is so
small, relative to the other values in the equation, that it is
customary to disregard it. This first law equation is
rewritten as follows:
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

## For adiabatic processes (no heat transfer):

where HP is horsepower, C is the velocity of the air entering the compressor or air and
combustion products leaving the turbine, and gc is the gravitational constant 32.17 ft
lbm/lbfsec2.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

## where 0.707 (more exactly 0.7068) converts

Btu/sec to horsepower
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

## Thermal efficiency (ηt) of a gas turbine, considering the compression

and expansion processes as being irreversible, is defined as the
work output divided by the fuel energy input. The work output is
the total turbine work minus the work on the compressor (note
compressor work is negative). Therefore;
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES:

Compressor Efficiency:

## Compressor efficiency (ηc) is directly proportional to the compressor

pressure ratio and inversely proportional to the compressor discharge
temperature. The following equation more exactly defines compressor
efficiency:
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES:

## Compressor horsepower is the power that the compressor

consumes in compressing the air and moving it into the
combustor.

## where Wa is the air flow entering the compressor in lb/sec.

GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES:

Turbine Efficiency:

## Tracking turbine efficiency would be an excellent method to monitor the

health of a unit. However, as turbine inlet temperatures (TIT) have
climbed higher and higher, they have become virtually impossible to
measure on a long term basis. In fact, many manufacturers measure an
intermediate turbine temperature for gas turbine control. Where this is
the case the turbine inlet temperatures are calculated.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES:

## Total horsepower produced by the turbine. It includes the horsepower to

drive the compressor and, for single shaft machines, the power used by
the driven load. For units with separate power turbines, this horsepower
should equal the power absorbed by the compressor plus losses.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES:

## Decreases in power turbine efficiency are primarily the result of

loss of material due to erosion, corrosion, or foreign object damage.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES:

## On free power turbines units, this is the horsepower generated to drive

GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

2. COMPONENTS EFFICIENCIES:

## The internal pressure, temperature, and velocity variations within the

gas turbine are shown in figure below:
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:

## The compressor provides the high pressure, high

volume air which, when heated and expanded through the
turbine section, provides the power output required by the
process (mechanical drive, generator drive, etc.).
Compressor performance is generally shown as pressure
ratio plotted against airflow.

## Two types of compressors are in use today—they are the

axial compressor and the centrifugal compressor. The
axial compressor is used primarily in medium and high
horsepower applications, while the centrifugal
compressor is utilized in low horsepower applications.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:
The best way to illustrate airflow through a axial compressor
stage is by constructing velocity triangles as figure below:
Air leaves the stator vanes at an absolute
velocity of C1 and direction θ1. The velocity
of this air relative to the rotating blade is
W1 at the direction β1. Air leaves the
rotating stage with an absolute velocity C2
and direction θ2, and a relative velocity W2
and direction β2. Air leaving the second
stator stage has the same velocity triangle
as the air leaving the first stator stage. The
projection of the velocities in the axial
direction are identified as Cx, and the
tangential components are Cu. The flow
velocity is represented by the length of the
vector. Velocity triangles will differ at the
blade hub, mid-span, and tip just as the
tangential velocities differ.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:

## Pressure rise across each stage is a function of the air density, ρ,

and the change in velocity. From the velocity triangles the
pressure rise per stage is determined:

## This expression can be further simplified by combining the

differential pressure and density, and referring to feet of head:

## where AP/ρ is pressure rise across stage and Head is pressure

rise of the stage measured in feet head of the flowing fluid.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:

## The standard equation for compressor head is given below,

where Zave is the average compressibility factor of air, and
MW is the mole weight.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:
Before proceeding further, we will
define the elements of an airfoil:
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:

## The centrifugal compressor, like the axial compressor, is a

dynamic machine that achieves compression by applying
inertial forces to the air (acceleration, deceleration, turning)
by means of rotating impellers.
The centrifugal compressor is made up of one or more
stages, each stage consisting of an impeller and a diffuser.
The impeller is the rotating element and the diffuser is the
stationary element. Impellers may be either open, semi-
enclosed, or enclosed design.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:

## Velocity diagrams for a centrifugal compressor:

Centrifugal force, applied
in this way, is significant
in development of
pressure. Upon exiting
impeller, air moves into
diffuser (flow
decelerator). Same
deceleration of flow or
“diffuser action” that
causes pressure build-up
in axial flow compressor
also occurs in centrifugal
compressor.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:

## Velocity diagrams for a centrifugal compressor:

Impeller is the only means of adding energy to the air and all
the work on the air is done by these elements. The
stationary components, such as guide vanes and diffusers,
can only convert velocity energy into pressure energy (and
incur losses).
Pressure from impeller eye to impeller outlet is represented
by the following:
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:

## represents the increase in kinetic energy contributed to

the air by the impeller. Absolute velocity C1 (entering the
impeller) increases in magnitude to C2 (leaving impeller).

## measures pressure rise associated with the radial /

centrifugal field,

## is associated with the relative velocity of the air

entering and exiting the impeller.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

3. COMPRESSOR:

## Velocity diagrams for a centrifugal compressor:

The ideal head is defined by the following relationship:
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

4. BURNER SECTION:

## The burner section is made up of the diffuser duct, the

combustor, fuel nozzle and the transition duct.

Diffuser efficiency:
The fraction of the velocity head that is converted to static
pressure (diffuser efficiency) is a function of the area ratio
and diffuser angle. Diffuser efficiency is defined as:
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

4. BURNER SECTION:

## 1. HIGH COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY.

2. STABLE COMBUSTION.
3. LOW NOX FORMATION.
4. FREEDOM FROM BLOWOUT.
5. UNIFORM OR CONTROLLED DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE.
6. LOW PRESSURE LOSS.
7. EASY STARTING.
8. LONG LIFE.
9. FOR LIQUID FUEL OPERATION MINIMUM CARBON
ACCUMULATION.
GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

4. BURNER SECTION:

## COMBUSTORS MUST BE ABLE TO WITHSTAND

VARIOUS CONDITIONS:

## 1. A WIDE RANGE OF AIR FLOW.

2. FUEL FLOW.
3. DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE.
4. RAPID ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION.
5. VARIATION IN FUEL PROPERTIES.

## Combustor efficiency is defined as:

GAS TURBINES SYSTEM THEORY

4. BURNER SECTION:

## COMBUSTORS MUST BE ABLE TO WITHSTAND

VARIOUS CONDITIONS:

## 1. A WIDE RANGE OF AIR FLOW.

2. FUEL FLOW.
3. DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE.
4. RAPID ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION.
5. VARIATION IN FUEL PROPERTIES.

THANK YOU