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16 September 2010

 General
 Underwater Motion
 Model Test for Underwater Motion
 Hull Form Design
 Propeller Design
4

1. Introduction of the Torpedo System


Operational Concepts of the Torpedo

Fixed Wing
Surface Ship

Rotary Wing

Submarine

Submarine
5

Torpedo Composition

Warhead/ G&C Battery Afterbody


Acoustic Head
Exercise Head Section Section Section
6

Class of the Torpedo


Heavyweight Torpedo Lightweight Torpedo
limited by
Diameter 21inch/19inch 12.75inch
launch tube
limited by
Length < 6.5m < 2.8m
launch tube
Surface Ship/
Target Submarine
Submarine
Launching Surface Ship/ASROC/
Submarine
Platform Rotary Wing/Fixed Wing
Wire-guidance
Guidance Fire & Forget
/Fire & Forget
Warhead Bulk Bulk → Shaped Charge
7

ROK Navy Torpedo Programs

K744(LW) White Shark(HW) Blue Shark(LW)


in 1980s in 1990s in 2000s

Supercavitation Wire Guided HW Red Shark


Torpedo Torpedo in 2010s (ASROC)
in the Future in 2000s
8

2. Categories of hydrodynamics to torpedo


engineering
① The field of fluid mechanics
: estimating the state of fluid particles in the
neighborhood of a torpedo
② The field of maneuverability
: estimating the underwater motions due to
the hydrodynamic & hydrostatic pressure
acting on a torpedo body
9

3. Issues in Hydrodynamics to Torpedo


Engineering
 High Speed
• Highly Loaded Propeller
• Nano-Material
 Low Noise Level
• Self Noise
• Radiated Noise
 Cavitation Performance
• Nose Cavity
• Propeller Cavity
 Water Entry
 Maneuverability & Stability
10

4. Tools for hydrodynamics to torpedo


engineering such as
 Empirical Formula based on Database
 Numerical Method such as CFD
 Model Tests
 Underwater Motion Analysis
5. It would be used for
 Underwater Motion Simulation
 Hull Form Design
 Propeller Design
12

 6-DOF Equations of Motion


 The approach to estimate the underwater
motion of a torpedo is based on the 6-DOF
equations of motion.
 The equations are based on Newton’s laws
of motion defined in the Euclidean space.
 The equations are the plant equations for:
• hull form design
• controller design
• trajectory simulation
13

 Coordinate Systems
Space Fixed Coordinate
O X(North)

Y
p
x/u
o

Z Body Fixed y/v


q
Coordinate r
z/w
14

 Newton’s law of motion


F D(mUG)/Dt
M D(I)G/Dt
External Forces Space Fixed Coordinate  Body Fixed Coordinate

X    
m u  qw  rv  xG q 2  r 2  yG  pq  r   zG rp  q 

mv  ru  pw  y r  p   z qr  p   x  pq  r 
Hydrodynamic 2 2
Forces & Moments Y G G G

/ Z mw  pv  qu  z  p  q   x rp  q   y qr  p 


G
2 2
G G
Hydrostatic Forces
& Moments I x p  I z  I y qr  m yG w  pv  qu  zG v  ru  pw
/ K

 xG yG rp  q   zG xG qp  r   yG zG r 2  q 2 
Propulsion Forces
& Moments I y q  I x  I z rp  mzG u  qw  rv  xG w  pv  qu
 
M
/  yG zG  pq  r   xG yG rq  p   zG xG p 2  r 2
Control Forces &
Moments I z r  I y  I x pq  mxG v  ru  pw  yG u  qw  rv
N

 zG xG qr  p   yG zG  pr  q   xG yG q 2  p 2 
15

 Linear Equations of Motion


Thrust

m u = X u u + X u u + X T  ( W  B) sin 
Inertia Damping Control Static
force force force force

m v + ur  = Yr r + Yp p + Yv v + Yr r + Yp p + Yv v + Yr r + ( W  B) sin  cos 

m w
  uq = Z q q + Z w w
 + Z q q + Z w w + Z e e + ( W  B) cos  cos 

I x p = K p p  K r r + K p p  K r r + K v v + K v v
+ K r r  K e e r  e l   y B B cos  cos  + z B B sin  cos 

 + M q q + M w w + M q q + M e e  x B B cos  cos  + z B B sin 


I y q = M w w

I z r = N p p + N r r + N v v + N p p + N r r + N v v  N r r  x B B sin  cos   y B B sin 

 the origin of coordinate system = the center of gravity


16

 321-Euler Transform Matrix


T( , ,  )

 cos  cos cos  sin   sin  


 cos  sin   sin  sin  cos cos  cos  sin  sin  sin  sin  cos  
 sin  sin   cos  sin  cos  sin  cos  cos  sin  sin  cos  cos  

T 1 ( , , )

cos  cos  cos  sin   sin  sin  cos sin  sin   cos  sin  cos 
 cos  sin  cos  cos  sin  sin  sin   sin  cos  cos  sin  sin  
  sin  sin  cos  cos  cos  

 Singular Point at =90  Quaternion/Directional Cosine


17

 Equilibrium State
The equations of motions are decomposed into
equilibrium state equations & perturbed equations.
 W-B = Lift(Body) + Control Force
 Moment(Body) = Control Moment + xBBcos(Restoring Moment)

Lift Force
Control Force x
B
0

0 W

z
18

 Equilibrium State Equations(Level Flight)


Xu coso  (WB) sino +XT = 0
Zw sino +Ze o  (WB) coso = 0
xBB coso + (Mw +zB B) sino + Me o = 0

1
Z  e x B B  ( W  B) M  e
 o   tan
Z e M w  z B B  Z w M e

Z w sin  o  ( W  B) cos  o
o  
Z e

X T   X u cos  o  ( W  B) sin  o
19

 Perturbed Equations(Level Flight)


 Vertical Plane
m u  X u u  X u u  ( W  B) cos  o  

m w 
  cos  o    Z w w
  Z w w  Z q 
  Z q   Z  e  e  ( W  B) sin  o  

I y    M w w  M q 
  M w w   M q   M  e  e  x B B sin  o    z B B cos  o  

 Horizontal Plane

 
m v  cos  o r  Yv v  Yv v  Yp 
  Yp   Yr r  ( W  B) cos  o    Y r  r

I x 
  K v v  K v v  K p 
  K p   K r r  z B B cos  o    K  r  r  K  p  p

I z r  N v v  N v v  N p 
  N p   N r r  x B B cos  o    N  r  r
20

 Techniques to estimate the hydrodynamic


coefficients

Initial Design Phase

Detailed Design
Phase

Validation Phase
22

 There are two categories of model tests


for underwater motion;
① Free Running Model Test
: to validate the design results of underwater
motion.
: to modify the hydrodynamic forces &
moments.
② Captive Model Test
: to estimate the hydrodynamic forces &
moments.
23

 Free Running Model Test(1)


 FRM test makes use of a self-propelled scale
model of the vehicle fitted with all
appendages and remote control.
 The Area of Works
• to evaluate turning performance & course
keeping stability.
• to estimate hydrodynamic coefficients using
system ID techniques.
24

 Free Running Model Test(2)


 The major scale law is Froude number(U/(gL)1/2)
 very expensive
 test vehicles for the torpedo development
25

 Captive Model Test(1)


 Captive model test makes use of a towed
scale model of the vehicle fitted with all
appendages.
 The hydrodynamic forces & moments
generated by a vehicle’s hull are measured
and the results are analyzed to estimate
hydrodynamic coefficients through
regression techniques.
 The major scale law for underwater vehicle
test is Reynolds number(UL/).
26

 Captive Model Test(2)


 In captive model test, the model is tested
over a suitable range of important variables
such as propeller RPM, drift angle, yaw rate,
yaw acceleration and rudder angle.
 The propeller will usually exert an important
influence on the hydrodynamic coefficients.
Therefore, model tests to determine these
coefficients should be conducted with
propellers operation.
27

 Captive Model Test(3)


 To estimate the underwater motion of the
torpedo, we have performed model tests
such as

V-PMM Test

Rotating Arm Test

Coning Motion Test


29

 Design Objectives
 The following three are primary in all
designs and should be sustained throughout
the whole design process.
① the product should perform the functional
purpose of the customer.
② the design should be suitable for construction
within the capability of the technology and
resources available.
③ the cost should be acceptable to the customer.
30

 The topic of hull form design belongs to


the field of system integrations.
 At the beginning of design phase, the hull
shape should be proposed first prior to the
other design results.
 For hull form design, system & subsystem
requirements should be analyzed and integrated
to find the optimal solutions.
 Each designer of other parts can start to design
its components and arrange them in a space or
on the shape using these modified requirements.
31

 Hull Form Design Process


Requirements Initial Hull Form Design
-Constraint Analysis
-Designs for Candidates
Req. Analysis -Static & Dynamic Analysis
-Verification

Detailed Hull Form Design


Concept Study
-Analysis of Trade-off
-System & Subsystem Spec.
-Detailed Design
Generation
-Detailed Analysis
-Constraints Build-up
-Verification
-Investigation of Candidates

Sea Trial(Validation)
32

 Concept Study(sample)
① Battery & motor spec. by estimating drag, efficiency,
operating concept and so on.
② Effective horse power(PE) can be estimated from drag.
③ Motor Power(PM) & battery power(PB) can be obtained
using PE & efficiency.
④ Battery energy can be estimated using battery power(PB)
and operation time.

Battery Motor

Bearing Propeller
33

 Hull Form
3
1 2

1) The total length of the torpedo can be determined


considering speed, endurance, launch tube, arrangement of
inner components and so on.
2) If the total length of the torpedo and the length of the curved
parts at nose section & tail section were determined, the
parallel middle body could be easily defined with the length &
diameter.
3) Therefore the main concern in hull form design can be laid on
determine nose shape(1), tail shape(2) & control fin
shape(3).
34

-Nose Design-

 Constraints
Hydrodynamics
Sensor • Laminar-Turbulent
Transition Structure &
Characteristics Integrity
• Sensor Shape • Cavitation
• Flow Separation • Impact
• Uniform Thickness • Length, Diameter
of the Molding

Laminar – Turbulent Transition Cavitation Flow Separation


35

-Nose Design-

 Candidates for Nose Shape


 There are two representative nose shapes.
① Conformal Nose Shape
② Flat Nose Shape

Conformal Nose Flat Nose

 Trade-off study considering hydrodynamics


and acoustic sensors from a system’s point
of view.
36

-Nose Design-

 Flow Analysis
 Flow analysis is needed to check the flow
separation, cavitation & water entry impact.
 Example of viscous flow analysis
: RANS(Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equation
37

-Nose Design-

 Cavitation Analysis(1)
 Nose cavitation inception condition is closely
related to operational speed and depth.
 It can be estimated by analyzing the surface
pressure.

Nose Cavitation Depth

Speed

Surface Pressure Nose Cavity Inception Depth


38

-Nose Design-

 Cavitation Analysis(2)
 The cavity shape & its effects can be
estimated by using two-phase flow analysis
1.4
such as VOF.
1.2 Analysis, Ca=0.5
Analysis, Ca=0.4
1 Analysis, Ca=0.3
Analysis, Ca=0.2
0.8 Data, Ca=0.5
Data, Ca=0.4
0.6 Data, Ca=0.3
Data, Ca=0.2
0.4
Cp

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
s/d

Surface Pressure Distributions Cavity Shape(VOF)


 Experiment by Rouse and McNown(1948)  Diffuse Interface Method
39

-Nose Design-

 Cavitation Analysis(3)
 For designed hull form, cavitation inception
points and cavity shape can be verified
through model tests in a cavitation tunnel.

Nose Cavity Cavitation Inception Test


40

-Nose Design-

 Impact Force Analysis(1)


 When LWT enter the water, large impact
forces act on nose. H/W such as acoustic
sensors can be damaged by impact forces.
Impact Pressure
41

-Nose Design-

 Impact Force Analysis(2)


 At the variable atmosphere tank, the impact
force can be measured and the water entry
phenomenon can be observed.
42

-Tail Design-

 Constraints
Structure & Integrity
• Inner Space for the
Motor & Actuators
• Outer Space for Fins
Hydrodynamics • Length, Diameter
• Low Drag
• Separation
• Inflow at the Propeller

P: 0.630.750.800.860.920.920.950.970.980.991.041.041.071.121.151.211.231.281.371.44
43

-Tail Design-

 Flow Analysis
 Flow analysis is needed to check the
separation point at the tail and to analyze
inflow condition at propeller plane.

Velocity Contour Inflow at Propeller


44

-Tail Design-

 Inner Space Integrity Analysis


 The inner space of tail cone.
• If the space is small, motor and actuator cannot be arranged
• The system can be unstable due to moving the gravity and
buoyancy center.
 The digital mock-up tool to check the space

Motor

Actuator
Arrangement of the Motor and Actuators
45

-Control Fin Design-

 Constraints
Motion Characteristics
• Static & Dynamic Stability
• Minimum Splay Angle
• Minimum Attack Angle
• Maximum Movable Rudder Angle
• Rudder Torque
• Turn Rate

Hydromechanics Structure & Integrity


• Reduction of Tip Vortex • Length, Diameter
• Interaction with Propeller • Consider Additional
• Low Drag/High Lift Appendages
• Low Flow Nose
46

-Control Fin Design-

 Alternative Control configurations


 Because it is desirable to have a degree of
dynamic stability to motion, torpedo needs
to have large surfaces at the tail.
 The large area is associated with dynamic
stability but it is not necessary for
maneuvering. Thus a common design
compromise adopted is to provide flaps at
the after leading edge of fixed fins or all
movable surface.
47

-Control Fin Design-

Flap Fins All Movable Fins Control Fins w/ plates

Thrust Vectored Pump Jet

Integrated Motor Propulsor Pop-Up Fins


48

-Control Fin Design-

 Alternative Stern configurations


① Cruciform Arrangement
: The configuration at the stern with vertical
rudders and horizontal elevators
② X-Stern
: Two pairs of control surfaces are arranged at 45
to the horizontal & vertical planes through the
axis of hull.

Cruciform X-Stern
49

-Control Fin Design-

 Flow Analysis
 to estimate the control forces
 to know the influence of the fin tip vortex
 to check the flow separation.
50

-Control Fin Design-

 Rudder Torque Estimation


 The maximum value of rudder torque should be
found for the actuator specification.
• in case of lower estimation
: Overload at actuator  Decrease angular velocity  Actuation
time delay  Unstable closed-loop condition
• in case of higher estimation
: It is difficult to find the high power and small actuator.
 In initial design stage, the maximum torque is
estimated empirically and in detailed design state,
the torque model test is conducted.
 Challenges
• low aspect ratio wings
• dynamic effects on rudder torque
-turn rate : ~150/sec at unloaded condition
51

-Control Fin Design-

 Approaches to compensate propeller torque


Asymmetric Hull Form CRP Twisted Fins

•Submarine •Torpedo •Self-Propelled ACM


•UUV

The controllability of roll motion can be ameliorate lowering the center


of gravity & using control fins
52

-System Design-

 Integration of System
① Integrate the subsection design results
② Recalculate the weight distribution and buoyancy.
③ Arrange the equipments & check the interference
using 3-D digital mock-up.
④ Build the equations of motion.
53

-System Design-

 Weight Distribution Tolerance


: We determine the weight distribution tolerance by
checking floating state of exercise torpedo, stability
& equilibrium state.

Exercise
shut
War shut
54

-Dynamic Analysis-

 Equilibrium State
: the example of the equilibrium angle of attack and
the equilibrium elevator angle on the level flight.
20.0

Tht0
Delta0
10.0
Tht0, Delta0 [deg]

0.0

-10.0

-20.0
-0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15
xcg [m]
55

-Dynamic Analysis-

 Maneuverability & Stability Check


57

 Open Single Propeller for Underwater


Vehicles
 Large Roll
 It is used for low speed vehicles such as a
submarine & a self-propelled ACM
58

 Candidates for the torpedo’s propeller


① Open contra-rotating propeller
② Pump Jet
59

 Propeller design procedure


Design Requirements Selection of the Propeller Type

Determination of the Main


Dimensions

Drag Estimate & Wake Survey

Propeller Shape Design

Viscous Flow Analysis

Model Testing in
Towing Tank & Cavitation Tunnel
Radiated Noise
Estimation
At-sea Evaluation
Thank you!

Agency for Defense Development


Naval Systems R&D Institute
61

 Application Procedures of the Equations


of Motion in Initial Design Phase
Model Test System System
& CFD Design Simulation

Hull Form
DB
Design

Linear/ Stability Controllability


Nonlinear Eqn Analysis Analysis

Controller
Design
62

 Stability
: a torpedo’s capability to reestablish its
original undisturbed motion mode in all or
separate kinematic parameters.
 Controllability
: a torpedo’s capability to execute commands
proceeding from the control system to the
torpedo control surfaces.
 The more stable, the less controllable.
63

 Stability Modes
Disturbance
Original Path

Straight Line Stability

Disturbance
Original Path

Directional Stability

Disturbance
Original Path

Positional Stability
64

 Empirical Formula Results


 The comparisons of estimated sway forces with
those from experimental results.

Y` Y`
65

 CFD Results
 Numerical Tank : simulation of captive model test
66

 Application Procedures of the Equations


of Motion in Detailed Design Phase
Captive Model Test
Linear/ Controller
V-PMM Nonlinear Eqn Design

Hull Form System


Design Design
Coning Motion

Stability System
Rotating Arm Analysis Simulation

Controllability
CFD Analysis
67

1. In validation phase, the equations of


motion are used to plan the sea trial
test or to analyze the results.
2. If the sea trial tests have performed
according to the well-defined procedure
and there are some disagreements
between the simulated variables of
motion and the measured, the
equations of motion should be modified
using system identification techniques.
68

 System Identification
 SI is the technique to develop mathematical
models of vehicles from their dynamic
responses to control forces.
 When the system ID techniques are used to
estimate the hydrodynamic coefficients,
“simultaneous drift phenomenon” could
occur. In other words, there is a problem of
non-uniqueness or identifiability.

pseudo-binary random input, global searcher or


physical intuition
69

 System Identification Results(1)


: Extended Kalman Filter

Measured

Original

Identified

Added Mass Coef.


p
Damping Coef.

Control Force Coef.

iteration Time

Convergence of identified Validation


coefficients
70

 System Identification Results(2)


: Maximum Likelihood Method based on
Nelder & Mead Simplex method

Measured

Original

Identified

Added Mass Coef.


p

Damping Coef.

Control Force Coef.

iteration Time

Convergence of identified Validation


coefficients
71

 System Identification Results(3)


: Genetic Algorithm

Measured

Original

Identified

Added Mass Coef.


p
Damping Coef.

Control Force Coef.

Time
iteration

Convergence of identified Validation


coefficients
72

 System Identification Results(4)


 Based on the physical intuition and empirical
formula, Nelder & Mead simplex method
gives the most reasonable results in this case.

Kp Kp

Model EKF Nelder GA Empirical Model EKF Nelder GA Empirical


Test & Mead Formula Test & Mead Formula
73

 V-PMM
: Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism
 The area of works
 Resistance Test
 Static Test
 Control Surface Test
 Dynamic Test
 Roll Motion Test
74

 Static Test & Control Surface Test


 V-PMM test is very useful to obtain velocity-
dependent derivatives.

Control Force & Moment u


Surge force

Pitch Moment
V0 &q
Heave force
e

w
75

 Dynamic Test
 In dynamic test, added mass coefficients can
be obtained using pure heave motion and
pure pitch motion.

ao

o

Pure Heave Pure Pitch


76

 Devices
77

 The Sample of the Measured Results


0.0005 0.0005

0.00025
0.00025

N` 0

N'
Y'

Y`

-0.00025
a=0
a=4
a=0 -0.00025 a=8
a=4
a=12
a=8
-0.0005 a=-4
a=12
a=-8
a=-4
a=-8

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25


Rudder Angle(deg.) Rudder Angle(deg.)

Sway force vs. Rudder angle Yaw moment vs. Rudder angle
78

 Defects
1) V-PMM tests are typically performed in the
linear range.
2) It has some problems to obtain the
coupled coefficients.
3) The results of roll motion tests are not
trustable.
79

 Concepts
Model
U = R

Rotating Arm
R 

Axis fixed
in Tank

Circular Path of Model


80

1. Rotating Arm Test is the typical way to


estimate the underwater motion in the
nonlinear range.
2. It can provide not only estimation of
hydrodynamic forces and moments at
large value of , v, R but also
information on the cross coupling
between these three parameters.
81

 Variables
 Turning Rate(=V0/R)
: the only way to vary  at constant linear
speed is to vary R.
 Drift Angle
 Propeller RPM
 Control Surface Deflection Angle
82

 Tare Test
 In order to move the model along a circular
path at constant speed, a radial force and
gravity force must be applied through the
balance.
 The best way to account for the centrifugal
force tares would be set the model at the
required condition, make a run in air,
submerge the model, make a run, and
subtract the results in air from the
submerged results.
83
84

 The Sample of the Measured Results

Y` N`

Sway force vs. Drift angle Yaw moment vs. Drift angle
85

 Defects
1) A specialized facility of substantial size is
required.
2) Acceleration coefficients cannot be determined
as the flow field is steady with respect to the
model.
3) The model must be accelerated and data must
be obtained a single revolution.
4) In order to obtain values of Yr, Nr, Yv, and Nv at
=0, data at small values of  are necessary.
86

1. The motions of a maneuvering


submergible such as a torpedo can
consist of simultaneous rolling, pitching
and yawing.
2. In combined roll, pitch & yaw, the cross
flow velocity varies in magnitude and
direction along the length of the hull.
This introduces coupling effects which
may be important in certain situations.
87

3. To predict these motions, knowledge of


the hydrodynamic forces and moments
acting on the submergible is essential.
• there are no practical theoretical methods to
predict these coupling effects.
• the general test facilities cannot duplicate
the combined rotations
 a new test facility is needed.
88

4. Coning motion refers to the motion of the


model during the test.
5. In coning motion test, the model, set at an
angle of attack, is rotated about horizontal axis
while being towed on a straight course in a
towing tank.
6. The longitudinal axis of the model describes
the surface of a cone and the model
experience these combination of motions such
as roll, pitch, yaw and angle of attack.
89

 Devices
Side View
90

 The Sample of the measured results


0.00

K -0.02
K`
coning
VPMM
empirical

-0.04

0.00 0.40 P`0.80 1.20 1.60


p'
91

 Defects
1) Since the sting is used to mount the model,
there are some difficulties to use
propulsion system and control surface.
2) Acceleration coefficients cannot be
determined as the flow field is steady with
respect to the model.
92

 The requirements of the torpedo are


generated by the customer.
 Max. Speed
 Launching Platform : Diameter/Length/Weight
 Max. Operation Depth
 Min. Launching Water Depth
 Manufacturing simplicity – cost
 Detection Probability
 ….
93

 The definition changes from operational


description to a more specific performance
description by analyzing the requirements.
 Example : Detection Probability
Detection Capability

Reality

Contradictions
 Torpedo Dynamics : Speed/Turn rate/…

 Acoustic Sensor : Max. Power/Beam Width/…


94

1. The concept studies will be broad-brush


descriptions of possible solutions to the
requirements.
2. It will constitute the next level of description of
the torpedo. The description will include a
selection of equipments, estimates of size,
power and configuration.
3. By analyzing and integrating this description,
the hull form designers can set up
specifications and constraints for the hull
form design.
4. At the end of the concept study phase, a
couple of design candidates will be
investigated for further study.
95

 Initial Hull Form Design Process


DB Initial Hull Form Design Verification

Constraints
Analysis System Design
CFD Analysis
•Integration of
Subsection Subsections
Design •Weight Model Test
Distribution (V-PMM)
•Study of •Eqns of Motion
Candidates
•Shape design Analysis of Static
& Analysis & Dynamic
Characteristics
96

 Detailed Hull Form Design Process


Initial
Design Detailed Hull Form Design Considerations
Results
Selection of the Radiated
most promising System Design
Noise
design
•Integration of
Subsections Flow
Subsection •Weight Noise
Design tolerance
•Eqns of Motion
•Design of Model Test Cavitation
Detailed Shape
•Detailed CFD Analysis of Static
Analysis & Dynamic
Characteristics ……
97

 Cavitation is essentially the boiling of a


liquid at a constant temperature due to
pressure reductions.
98

 Types of Cavitation(1)
① Traveling Cavitation
 Traveling cavitation is composed of individual
transient cavities which form in the liquid and
move with along with the liquid as they expand,
shrink, and then collapse.

 These cavities grow in size as they pass through


the low pressure region and start to collapse
shortly after they enter the high pressure region.
99

 Types of Cavitation(1)
① Bubble Cavitation
 The simplest of cavitation structures should be
the activation and collapse of individual nuclei as
they are converted into and out of a low
pressure region.
 Nuclei
• concentration : 10~100/cm3
• Size : 10~100m
100

 Types of Cavitation(2)
② Sheet Cavitation
 In many situations bubble cavitation will suddenly
form a vapor field separation zone.
 The state of boundary layer preceding the cavity
will be reflected in the surface texture of the cavity
appearing glassy when laminar or rough when
turbulent.
101

 Types of Cavitation(3)
③ Cloud Cavitation
 Cavitation occurring with the unstable closure of
sheet cavities and other highly turbulent flows
form large assemblies of bubbles that collapse
violently.
 Similar structures form in mixing or shear layers
where cavitation occurs in vortices within
turbulence.
102

 Types of Cavitation(4)
④ Vortex Cavitation
 Vortex cavitation forms in the high shear zones
inside vortices. (tip cavitation)
 A little pressure distribution changes on the body
103

 The Effects of Cavitations


① effects that modify the hydrodynamics of
the flow
② effects that increase the noise
③ effects that produce damage on the solid
boundary surfaces
of the flow
104

 Propeller Design Requirements


• Thrust – efficiency
• Cavitation performance – inception point

• Noise – noise level & tonal


• Physical size – weight

• Manufacturing simplicity – cost

• Torque balance
105

 Trend in propeller
 Design Consideration
• Powering – Speed, Efficiency
• Radiated Noise

CR Propeller Highly-skewed Pump jet


CR propeller
106

 Propeller vs. pump jet


107

 Pump jet compared with open propeller


Advantage Disadvantage
 Better flow control at the  More difficult to design
propeller  More difficult to manufacture
 Better torque balance  More weight
 Better off-design
performance – less sensitive
to the body
 Slightly smaller diameter
 More Quiet
 More Efficient
 Passive Obstacle Avoidance
108

 Types of Pump Jet(1)


① Pre-Swirl
 stator in front of rotor
 torque balance at a single operating point
 quieter than other pump jets
 simpler than CR pump jet
 for the high speed submarine
109

 Types of Pump Jet(2)


② Post-Swirl
 stator behind rotor
 torque balance at a single operating point
 more efficient than pre-swirl pump jet
 simpler than CR pump jet
 for the torpedo
110

 Types of Pump Jet(3)


③ Contra-Rotating
 two rotors, each rotating in counter-direction
 torque balance at all operating points
 efficiency & cavitation performance are better
than other pump jets.
 more complex then other pump jets
• CR Motor or Gear Box
• CR Shaft
 for the torpedo
111

 Applications of pump jet


Platform
Submarine Torpedo
Country
 Sea-Wolf (SSN)  MK 48 (HWT)
US
 Virginia (SSN)  MK 50 ALWT (LWT)

 Swiftsure (SSN)
 Spearfish (HWT)
UK  Trafalga (SSN)
 Stingray (LWT)
 Vanguard (SSBN)

 White Shark (HWT)


ROK
 Blue Shark (LWT)

 Le Triomphant
France  MU-90 Impact (LWT)
(SSBN)
112

 Main Dimensions of propeller


① Diameter
 The larger, the better
 Limited by the hull diameter or so

② RPM
 The slower, the better
 Need to consider the motor performance

③ No. of blades
 Consider the vibration from blade passing(unsteady force)
 Consider the manufacturing cost
 Usually over 5. odd number preferred
113

 Drag = Frictional Drag + Residual Drag


① Frictional Drag
: the longitudinal components of the forces
acting on the body due to tangential sheer
stresses
② Residual Drag
: the longitudinal components of the forces
acting on the body due to normal pressure
stresses
: form drag/pressure drag
114

 Empirical Formulae

- Frictional (ITTC)

- Residual (Hoerner – for body of revolution)


115

 Wake Fraction(w)
 The propeller operates in the wake of the hull. There
the velocity is generally retarded to a degree
depending on the fullness of the hull and the position
of the propeller.
 The boundary layer of the hull will be thicker and thus
the wake retardation of the hull will be larger.
 The mean retardation of the wake behind the hull is
measured by the wake fraction w.
(w = 1-UA/U)
116

 Thrust Reduction(t)
 In the effect of propeller on the hull, the
suction of the propeller generally reduces
the pressure at the stern and hence
increases the drag force.
 The portion of this increase is called thrust
reduction.
117

 Empirical Formulae

- Estimating t & w is more of an art than a science

- For initial guess


118

 Quasi-steady analysis for wake

1
.51773
Y .59894
.65868
.71833
.77792
.83747
0.8 .89698
.96139
VOA
0.813225
0.76589
0.718555
0.67122 0.6
0.623885
0.57655

Va
0.529215
0.48188
Z 0.434545
0.4
0.38721
Hub(Body) 0.339875
0.29254
0.245205
0.19787
0.150535 0.2

0
0 90 180 270 360
Theta

Circumferential distribution of non-uniform


inflow field (wake) on propeller plane
119

 Grid system for potential flow analysis(1)


120

 Grid system for potential flow analysis(2)


(3D)  17 Jun 2000 BODY GRID | DUCT GRID | DUCT WAKE GRID 1 | FORWARD VANE GRID | FORWARD VANE WAKE GRID (3D)  17 Jun 2000 BODY GRID | DUCT GRID | DUCT WAKE GRID 2 | AFTER VANE GRID | AFTER VANE WAKE GRID

(3D)  17 Jun 2000 BODY GRID | DUCT GRID | DUCT WAKE GRID 1 | FORWARD VANE GRID | FORWARD VANE WAKE GRID (3D)  17 Jun 2000 BODY GRID | DUCT GRID | DUCT WAKE GRID 2 | AFTER VANE GRID | AFTER VANE WAKE GRID

Y
Z
Z
X Y
X
Z
Z X X
Y

Rotor and Duct Stator and Duct


121

 Results from potential flow analysis(1)

Pressure distribution on rotor and stator


122

 Results from potential flow analysis(2)

Rotor thrust & torque


123

 Quasi-steady analysis(1)

Circumferential pressure Circumferential pressure


distribution on suction side distribution on pressure side
124

 Quasi-steady analysis(2)
0.20
4 blade
5 blade
6 blade
0.15 7 blade
8 blade
9 blade
T'/T

10 blade
0.10
11 blade

0.05

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Harmonic

Harmonic analysis of thrust for different number of blades


125

 Grid systems for viscous flow analysis


126

 Results from viscous flow analysis(1)


Near hub At the mid span Near duct

Pressure Contour around Pressure and velocity vector distribution


rotor and stator at various radial location
127

 Results from viscous flow analysis(2)

Streamlines at the wake region


128

 Cavitation Tunnel Test


129

 Typical Noise Sources of a Torpedo


Flow Noise
Machinery noise

Propeller noise

 Propeller Radiated Noise


 One of main noise source of underwater weapon system
 Increase in being-detection
 Decrease in detection capability
130

 Types of Propeller Noise(1)


① Blade Rate Noise
 Non-uniform wake field
High Skew Propeller /
Increase of the number of blades

② Vibration Noise
 Unbalancing
 Cavitation
131

 Types of Propeller Noise(2)


③ Singing Noise
 Karman Vortex Shedding
-resonance with the natural freq. of the structure
 Tonal Frequency

④ Cavitation Noise
 High Speed, Low Depth
 tip vortex, back, face, hub vortex
132

 Propeller Cavitaion Noise


 Dominant noise source
 Increase 10~20dB of noise level
 Covers a wide range of radiated noise
spectra from 5Hz to 100kHz
133

 Solution to Propeller Noise


① Blade Shape Design
 Wake adapted
 Highly skewed
 Tip unloading
 Increase of the number of blades
 Ring Rotor Pump Jet

② Material
 Al-alloy
 High damping material – FRP, GRP, MMC
FRP: Fiber Reinforced Plastic
GRP: Graphite Reinforced Plastic
MMC: Metal Matrix Composite