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UNDERSTANDING ♥ HPV infection: HPV is a ♥ Bleeding after sexual

group of viruses that can intercourse, douching, or

CERVICAL CANCER infect the cervix. HPV is the a pelvic exam
cause of nearly all cervical ♥ Menstrual periods that last
The cervix is the lower, narrow end cancers. longer and are heavier than
of the uterus. Cervical cancrer is a
♥ Lack of regular Pap tests: before
disease in which cancer cells form
The Pap test helps doctors ♥ Bleeding after going through
in the tissues of the cervix. The
find abnormal cells. menopause
most common types of cervical
cancers are squamous cell cancer, ♥ Smoking: smoking ♥ Increased vaginal discharge
adenosquamous cancer and cigarettes slightly increases ♥ Pelvic pain
adenocarcinoma. the risk of cervical cancer. ♥ Pain during sex
♥ Weakened immune
system: suppressed immune
system increases the risk of
cervical cancer. SCREENING
♥ Sexual history: Women who ♥ Papanicolaou (Pap) smear for
have had many sexual cervical cytology is usual
partners have a higher risk of screening test. A
developing cervical cancer. computerized screening
♥ Using birth control pills program may increase the
for a long time: Using birth accuracy of manual
control pills for a long time (5 laboratory Pap screening by
or more years) may slightly as much as 30%.
♥ If Pap test is abnormal,
increase the risk of cervical
cancer colposcopy, and biopsy or
conization may be done.
♥ Additional testing includes
Studies have found a number of SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS metastatic workup (chest x-
factors that may increase the risk Early cervical cancers usually don't
ray, I.V. urogram,
of cervical cancer. For example, cause symptoms. When the cancer
cystoscopy, barium studies
infection with HPV (human grows larger, women may notice
may be done.
papillomavirus) is the main cause one or more of these symptoms:
of cervical cancer. HPV infection ♥ Abnormal vaginal bleeding
and other risk factors may act ♥ Bleeding that occurs between
together to increase the risk even regular menstrual periods

♥ Intracavitary radiation for A probe is placed against the cervix to cause freezing of
the tissues and subsequent necrosis. The procedure is
earlier localized stages painless although some clients have slight cramping
after the procedure. The client has a heavy watery
♥ External radiation for discharge for several weeks after the procedure.
generalized pelvis effect in ♥
later stages. SURGICAL
♥ Laser therapy may be used ♥ Surgery is an option for
to treat dysplasia. women with Stage I or II
♥ Chemotherapy may be used cervical cancer. The surgeon
as adjuvant to surgery or removes tissue that may
radiation treatments. contain cancer cells:

♥ LOOP Electrosurgical excision-is rapidly becoming the
non surgical management of choice for intraepithelial ♥ Pap Smear. Routine Pap
cells. This procedure is short and last 10-30 minutes. A testing has significantly
thin loop wire electrode transmits a painless electrical
current is used to cut away or peel off affected tissue. decreased the incidence of
LEEP results in a specimen that can be examined by a cervical cancer. Screening by
pathologist to ensure the lesion was completely
removed Pap test should be started
♥ when a woman becomes
♥ A laser beam is directed to the abnormal tissues where sexually active or by age 21,
energy from the beam is absorbed by the fluid in the regardless of sexual activity.
tissues where energy from the beam is absorbed by the
fluid in the tissues causing to vaporize .A small amount ♥ Vaccination. An HPV
of bleeding occurs with the procedure and may have a vaccine has been developed
slight vaginal discharge. Healing occurs in 6-12 weeks.
Disadvantage is that no specimen is available for study. to help prevent the incidence
♥ of cervical cancer.
♥ It is used for invasive cervical cancer that has extended
beyond the cervix but not to the pelvic wall, radiation
therapy is as effective as a radical hysterectomy.
Intracavitary and external radiation therapies are used
in combination depending on the extent and location of
the lesion. Intracavitary implants are usually used after
the client has completed 5 to 6 weeks of external
pelvic radiation in combination with chemotherapy.

♥ Cervical cancer generally responds poorly to
chemotherapy. These agents are usually reserved fpr
locally advanced carcinomas,unresesectable recurrent
tumors or widely metastatic disease.