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Preview of MS Power Point presentations

F. Wald

AB TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU

TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLAN

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT HELSINKI

UNIVERSITE DE TECHNOLOGIE D’HELSINKI

List of Lessons at Seminar

1. Introduction

Introduction 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

3. Welded connections

4. Bolted connections

Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

Prof. František Wald 7. Column bases

Czech Technical University in Prague 8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

List of content 1. Introduction

Timing 2. Basis of design

Lessons

National Annexes

in Window Help Format

with PP Presentations 3. Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins

CeStruCo CeStruCo 4. Welded connections

Access STEEL 5. Analysis, classification and modelling

Summary 6. Structural joints connecting H or I sections

7. Hollow section joints

3 4

List of content ECCS Concept in 1978

ECCS First draft in 1984

Timing Lessons

in Window Help Format CEN Started with Eurocodes in 1990

National Annexes with PP Presentations

CeStruCo CeStruCo

CEN EN 199x-x-x in 2005

Access STEEL Advantages

Summary European agreement

All structural materials under one safety concept

Weakness

Copyrights

Size (some countries only rules, some textbooks)

5 6

List of Eurocodes Eurocodes List of Actions

EN 1990 Eurocode 0: Basis of Structural Design EN 1991-1-1 Actions – Dead load published 04/02

EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures

EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures EN 1991-1-2 Actions – Fire 11/02

EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures EN 1991-1-3 Actions – Snow 07/03

Project team Prof. F. Bijlaard

EN 1991-1-4 Actions – Wind 04/05

EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete struc. EN 1991-1-5 Actions – Temperature 11/03

Project team Prof. D. Anderson

EN 1991-1-6 Actions – During erection 06/05

EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures EN 1991-1-7 Actions – Exceptional 05/06

EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures

EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design EN 1991-2 Actions – Transport on bridges 09/03

EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance EN 1991-3 Actions – Crane girders 11/06

EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

7

EN 1991-4 Actions – Silos and tanks 08/05 8

EN 1993-1-1 Basic rules First package 05/05

EN 1993-1-2 Fire resistance 04/05 From ENV 1991-1 Chapter 6 Connections

EN 1993-1-3

EN 1993-1-4

Thin walled

Corrosion resistant

Annex J Joints

EN 1993-1-5

EN 1993-1-6

Plates

Shells

Annex L Base plates

EN 1993-1-7

EN 1993-1-8

Plates 2

Connections 05/05

Annex K Hollow section joints

EN 1993-1-9 Fatigue 05/05

EN 1993-1-10 Brittle fracture 05/05

EN 1993-1-11 Tensile members (cables) ECCS TC10 comments to ENV 1993-1-1 May 12, 1992

EN 1993-1-12 HSS

EN 1993-2 Bridges CEN/TS250/SC3 project team, head Mr. Jouko Kouhi VTT, Finland

EN 1993-3-1 Mast prEN 1993-1-8 document N 1054 E Sept. 9, 2001

EN 1993-3-2 Chimneys

EN 1993-4-1 Silos 900 national comments

EN 1993-4-2 Tanks

EN 1993-4-3 Pipelines

Final draft Nov. 20, 2001

EN 1993-5 Pilots Voting April 16, 2004

EN 1993- 6 Crane girders

9 Acceptation by CEN May 11, 2005

10

Translations

UK N/A; France 12/2006; Poland 2007; Czech Rep. 8/2006 List of content

Timing

National Annexes Lessons

in Window Help Format

UK 12/2007; France 12/2006; Poland 2010; Czech Rep. 8/2006 National Annexes with PP Presentations

CeStruCo CeStruCo

Eurocodes be adopted for government construction

UK unknown; France Not; Poland 2010; Czech Rep. 2008 Access STEEL

Conclusions

Eurocodes be adopted for non-government construction

UK unknown; France Not; Poland 2010; Czech Rep. 2008

UK 2010; France 2010; Poland 2010; Czech Rep. 2010

11 12

National Annex for EN 1993-1-8 National Choice (Czech Rep.)

Alternative procedures Clause 1.2.6 Reference Standards, Group 6: Rivets

ČSN 02 2300: Rivets, Overview (Czech national standards).

Nationally Determined Parameters Clause 2.2 Partial safety factors, paragraph (2)

National choice is allowed in EN 1993-1-8 through (only): Numerical values of partial safety factors for joints are not changed, the values

in Table 2.1 should be used.

1.2.6(6) Reference standard Rivets Clause 3.1.1(3) General, paragraph (2)

2.2(2) Partial safety factors All bolt classes listened in Table 3.1 may be used.

3.1.1(3) Bolt classes Clause 3.4.2 Tension connections, paragraph (1)

If the preload is not explicitly required in design for slip resistance, the hand

3.4.2(1) Hand tightening of the nut is considered adequate tightening of the nut is considered adequate without the control of preload.

5.2.1(2) Classification of joints Clause 5.2.1 General, paragraph (2)

No additional information on classification of joints by their stiffness and strength

6.2.7.2(9) Requirements for elastic distribution of forces in bolt are given to that included in 5.2.1(2).

rows Clause 6.2.7.2 Beam-to-column joints with bolted end-plate

connections, paragraph (9)

The requirements for elastic distribution of forces in the bolt rows introduced

13 14

in (6.26) are not changed.

CeStruCo =

Summary Civil enginnering Structural Connections

List of content Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Timing Bouwen met Staall, Netherlands

Building Research Establishment Ltd., United Kingdom

National Annexes Lessons

in Window Help Format

with PP Presentations Czech Technical University (contractor), Czech Republic

CeStruCo Luleå University of Technology, Sweden

Access STEEL CeStruCo University of Coimbra, Portugal

Summary Politechnica University of Timisoara, Romania

Review

KREKON Design office, Rotterdam, Netherlands Czech

EXCON a.s., Prague, Czech Republic

15

Constructional Steelwork Association Ostrava, CR 16

ESDEP Basic European educational project 1. Introduction

WIVISS CD lessons 2. Bolts

3. Welding

SteelCall Virtual office 4. Structural Modelling

Stainless SteelCall Internet/CD 5. Simple Connections

6. Moment Resistance Connections

SSEDTA PP presentation + lessons

7. Column Bases

CeStruCo Connection design 8. Seismic Design

NFATEC Internet courses 9. Fire Design

10. Hollow Section Joints

SDCWASS Austenitic stainless steel 11. Cold-Formed Member Joints

DIFISEK Fire design 12. Aluminium Connections

13. Design Cases

17 18

Internet / CD Version Lessons in Window Help Format

Lessons in Window help format

Textbook in PDF file

Worked examples

Presentations

PowerPoint

Programme „Nonlinear analyses of joints by component method“

Video film

Tools for connection design

Example of Software

Example of Tables

19 20

Prepared by RoboHelp tool at Czech Technical University in Prague

Coimbra University

Prediction of behaviour by component method

Based on with nonlinear force - deformation diagram of components

Fire test on 8th storey building Cardington, January 16, 2003 21 22

of ENV 1993-1-1 to EN1993-1-8

Lessons

in Window Help Format

with PP Presentations

CD / Internet lessons

CeStruCo

www.fsv.cvut.cz/cestruco

prepared at Delft University

23 24

Access STEEL – Informational tool

Summary at www.access-steel.com

List of content

Timing Lessons

in Window Help Format

CeStruCo CeStruCo

Access STEEL

Summary

25 26

Eurocodes 1993-1-x and EN 1994-1-x for not steel specialists Topics

Project Initiation

Scheme Development

Multi-storey Buildings

Detailed Design Verification Single Buildings

Residential Construction

For practising designers, architects and their clients Fire Safety Engineering

Detailed design of elements

Step-by-step guidance

Full supporting information

250 separate technical resources + 50 interlinked modules

Worked examples Client's guide

Interactive worked examples Concept designs

Flow Charts

English, French, German and Spanish Non-conflicting Complementary Information

Project of EU eContent Programme Worked examples (Pasive and Interactive)

27 28

29 30

Example - Flow Charts Example - Non-Conflicting Complementary Information

31 32

33 34

Informational system based on hypertext engine EN 1993-1-8 – Connectors and joints

EN 1993-1-8 – Will be used from 2007 (mostly)

Access STEEL – Informational tool for EC3 on internet

35 36

List of Lessons at Seminar

Bases of Design 1. Introduction

2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

according to EN 1993-1-8 3. Welded connections

4. Bolted connections

Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

Prof. František Wald

7. Column bases

8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Bases of Design All joints should have a design resistance

such that the structure is capable

Eccentricity at Intersections

of satisfying all the basic design requirements

Connection Modelling in Global Analyses given in EN 1993-1-1.

Global Analysis of Lattice Girders

Classification of Joints

Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints

Summary

3 4

Resistance of members and cross-sections γM0, γM1, γM2

Resistance of bolts, rivets, pins, welds, plates in bearing γ M2 The forces and moments applied to joints

Slip resistance γ M3, γ M3,ser at the ultimate limit state

Bearing resistance of an injection bolt γ M4

Resistance of joints in hollow section lattice girder γ M5 should be determined

Resistance of pins at serviceability limit state γ M6,ser according to the principles in EN 1993-1-1.

Preload of high strength bolts γ M7

Recommended values

γ M2 = γ M3 = 1,25 (EN 1993-1-1 γ M0 = 1,00, γ M1 = 1,10)

γ M3,ser = γ M7 = 1,10 Frequency bar chart

Effect of actions

γ M4 = γ M5 = γ M6,ser = 1,00 Resistance

5 6

Resistance of Joints Topics

On the basis of the resistances of its basic components

Bases of Design

Eccentricity at Intersections

Linear-elastic or elastic-plastic analysis

Connection Modelling in Global Analyses

Fasteners with different stiffnesses Global Analysis of Lattice Girders

With the highest stiffness should be designed to carry the load. Classification of Joints

(An exception bolts and slip resistant bolts).

Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints

Summary

7 8

Reduction of Resistance

Eccentricity at Intersections of Angles Connected by One Leg

The joints and members should be designed for the resulting (and other unsymmetrically connected members in tension)

moments and forces 2,0(e2 −0,5d0 )t fu

With 1 bolt: Nu,Rd =

Except in the case of particular types of structures - lattice girders γ M2

In the case of joints of angles or tees attached by either a single β2 Anet fu

line of bolts or two lines of bolts With 2 bolts: Nu,Rd =

γ M2

Centroidal axes

β3 Anet fu

With 3 or more bolts: Nu,Rd =

γ M2

Fasteners Reduction factors

Pitch p1 < 2,5 do > 5,0 do

2 bolts β2 0,4 0,7

Fasteners 3 bolts or more β3 0,5 0,7

9 10

Bases of Design STIFFNESS RESISTANCE

Eccentricity at Intersections

Full-strength Partial-strength Pinned

Connection Modelling in Global Analyses

Global Analysis of Lattice Girders Rigid Continuous Semi-continuous -

Classification of Joints

Semi - rigid Semi-continuous Semi-continuous -

Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints

Summary Pinned - - Simple

11 12

Elastic analysis at the Serviceability Limit State Elastic analysis at the Ultimate Limit State

Design joint properties based on the type of global analysis Modified stiffness Sj,ini and resistance Mj,Rd

Initial stiffness Sj,ini and resistance Mj.Rd

M

M Sj,ini

M j,Rd

2

3 M j,Rd

Mj,Sd Sj,ini / η

M j,Sd Sj,ini

φ

φ

η is stiffness modification coefficient

13 14

Sj,ini

Rigid - Plastic Analysis

M j,Rd

Mj,Sd Sj,ini / η

Resistance Mj,Rd and deformation capacity φCd

φ

M

Other types of joints

M j,Rd

(beam-to-beam joints,

Type of connection Beam-to-column joints

beam splices, column

base joints)

Welded 2 3

Bolted end-plates 2 3

Bolted flange cleats 2 3,5 φCd φ

Base plates - 3

15 16

Full curve description MODELLING TYPE OF FRAME ANALYSIS

analysis

M j,Rd

Continuous Rigid Full-strength Rigid/full strength

continuous Semi-rigid/full-strength

S j,ini Semi-rigid/partial-strength

φCd φ

17 18

Topics Global Analysis of Lattice Girders

Hollow sections

Bases of Design

Assumption the members connected by pinned joints

Eccentricity at Intersections (for the distribution of axial forces)

Connection Modelling in Global Analyses Secondary moments (due to rigidity of joints)

Moments resulting from transverse loads

Global Analysis of Lattice Girders Moments resulting from eccentricities

Source of the bending moment

Secondary effects Transverse loading Eccentricity

Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints

Compression chord Yes

Summary Tension chord Not No

Yes

Brace member if criter. is satisfied No

Joint Not (if criter. is satisfied)

19 20

Moments, caused by the rotational stiffness's of the joints, Momets should be taken into account in the design of the

may be neglected in the design of members and joints.

members to which they are applied

Joint geometry is within the range Brace members may be considered

Ratio of the system length to the depth of the as pin-connected to the chords.

member in the plane is not less than 6 Moments resulting from transverse loads applied to

chord members need not be distributed into brace

members, and vice versa.

Chords may be considered as continuous

beams, with simple supports at panel points.

21 22

May be neglected in the design

Centric of tension chord members and brace members

May be neglected in the design of connections

if the eccentricities are within the limits:

Negative eccentricity −0,55 d0 ≤ e ≤ 0,25 d0

−0,55 h0 ≤ e ≤ 0,25 h0

e eccentricity

d0 diameter of the chord

Positive eccentricity

h0 depth of the chord, in the plane of the lattice girder

23 24

Topics Based on Resitance

Bases of Design

Moment, M

Eccentricity at Intersections

Connection Modelling in Global Analyses M b,pl,Rd Full strength connection

Classification of Joints Bending moment resistance

of connected beam

Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints

Summary

Rotation, φ

25 26

Accuracy of calculation Deformation capacity of connected member

5% Ultimate Limit State

20% Serviceability Limit State Moment,

Elastic rotation M

M M

Relative moment M j / M pl,Rd of connected beam

_ φ

E Ic φ Ultimate rotation

1,0 Rigid φ=

column base L c M c,pl,Rd of connected beam

0,8 Ductile connection (Class 1) φ

S j.ini.c.n = 30 E I c / L c M

0,6 Semi-ductile connection (Class 2)

0,4 S j.ini.c.s = 12 E I c / L c λ o = 1,36 Brittle connection (Class 3)

Rotation, φ

Pinned column base

0

0 0,01 0,002 0,003 φ ,27rad 28

Prediction of column resistance Prediction of column resistance

based on the lower support bending stiffness based on the lower support bending stiffness

Relative stiffness of base plate for λ ≤ 0 ,5 is the limit S j .ini > 0 ,

S j.ini

E I c/ L c Simplified boundary

50 for 0 ,5 < λ < 3,93 is the limit S j .ini ≥ 7 ( 2λ − 1 )E I c / Lc ,

40

30 Accurate boundary and for 3 ,93 ≤ λ is the limit S j .ini ≥ 48 I c / Lc .

20

10 The limiting stiffness 12 E Ic / Lc (slenderness lower than λ = 1,36 )

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 λ0

Relative slenderness of column 29 30

Classification of Joints Topics

National Annex Bases of Design

may give additional information

Eccentricity at Intersections

on the classification of joints

by their stiffness and strength Connection Modelling in Global Analyses

in Cl 5.2.2.1(2) Global Analysis of Lattice Girders

Pin is difficult to define Classification of Joints

Small moment resistance Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints

Small stiffness Summary

High deformation/rotational capacity

31 32

Component method

φa

Ma

Mb

Ma Mb T

φb

Forces and moments acting on the joint

Vb2,Ed Vb1,Ed

Bases of Design

= F t1.Rd = F t1.Rd = F t1.Rd Eccentricity at Intersections

= Ft2.Rd <F

= F t3.Rd

= F t2.Rd

<F <F

t2.Rd

t3.Rd

Connection Modelling in Global Analyses

z1 t3.Rd

z2

z3

≤ F c.Rd ≤F c.Rd

≤ F c.Rd Global Analysis of Lattice Girders

Plastic distribution Elastic distribution Classification of Joints

Elastic-plastic distribution

Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints

Shear forces Summary

A bolt row in shear only

Rest of shear resistance of each bolt row

Supplement of shear resistance of each bolt row 35 36

List of Lessons at Seminar

1. Introduction

2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

Welded Connections 3. Welded connections

4. Bolted connections

Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

Prof. František Wald

7. Column bases

8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Bases of design

Fillet weld Fillet welds

Design model But weld

Design independent of the direction of loading Plug welds

Very long welds Groove welds

Design example a

EN 1993-1-8 requirements

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members

Design rules + Design models

Welding in cold-formed zones

Design of partially penetrated butt weld

Summary 3 4

Fillet welds –

Definition of Effective Throat Thickness a Topics

The effective throat thickness of a fillet weld should not be less than 3 mm

Bases of design

Fillet weld

Design model

Design of independent of the direction of loading

Very long welds

Example - Modelling the resistance

Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members

Welding in cold-formed zones

Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld

Design throat thickness of flare groove welds in rectangular structural hollow section

5 Summary 6

Design Model of Fillet Welds Plane Stresses

Huber –Misses- Henckey condition of plasticity (HMH)

Triaxial state of stress (needed exceptionally only)

Plane state of stress (needed very often)

σz

σx2 + σz2 - σx2 σz2 + 3τ2 ≤ (fy / γM) 2

σx

σ┴ normal stresses perpendicular to the throat Uniaxial state of stress (from the material tests)

σ║ normal stresses parallel to the axis of weld (omitted) σ ≤ fy / γM0

τ┴ shear stresses perpendicular to the axis of weld τ ≤ fy / (γM0 √3)

τ║ shear stresses parallel to the axis of weld 7 8

Standard and steel grade Correlation factor

(

σ 2⊥ + 3 τ 2⊥ + τ 2II ) ≤ f u (β w γ Mw ) EN 10025 EN 10210 EN 10219 βw

S 235

S 235 H S 235 H 0,80

S 235 W

σ⊥ ≤ f u γ Mw S 275 S 275 H

S 275 H

S 275 N/NL S 275 NH/NLH 0,85

S 275 NH/NLH

S 275 M/ML S 275 MH/MLH

fu Ultimate tensile strength of connected material S 355

S 355 H

βw Correlation factor S 355 N/NL S 355 H

S 355 NH/NLH 0,90

S 355 M/ML S 355 NH/NLH

S 355 MH/MLH

S 355 W

S 420 N/NL

S 420 MH/MLH 1,00

S 420 M/ML

γMw partial safety factor for material of welds S 460 N/NL

S 460 NH/NLH

S 460 M/ML S 460 NH/NLH 1,00

9 S 460 MH/MLH 10

S 460 Q/QL/QL1

Bases of design

N ⊥ Sd

Fillet weld F w,Sd

Design model F w,Rd F w,Rd

Design independent of the direction of loading

Very long welds La V⊥ ,Sd

Example - Modelling the resistance V // ,Sd

Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection fu

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members fvw ,d =

3 β w γ Mw

Welding in cold-formed zones

Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld Fw ,Rd = a fvw ,d

Summary 11 12

Topics Very Long Welds

Bases of design Overloading of weld ends

due to the different deformation of the connected elements

Fillet weld

Design model

τ// τ// τ// τ //

Design of independent of the direction of loading

Very long welds

Design example

Lw

Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members

Welding in cold-formed zones

Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld

Summary 13 14

τ// τ//

Long welds Topics

Lw Bases of design

Reduction of design strength Fillet weld

β Lw = 1,2 − 0,2 (Lw 150 a ) ≤ 1,0 Design model

Design of independent of the direction of loading

βLw

1 Very long welds

0,8 Design examples

0,6

Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection

0,4

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members

0,2

L/a Welding in cold-formed zones

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld

15 Summary 16

τ ΙΙ = 0

τ = F 2a l

σ⊥ = τ ⊥ = σ R 2

From plane stress analysis is

F 2a l ≤ fu (β γ

w Mw 3 ) Has to be satisfied

σ2⊥ + 3 τ2⊥ ≤ f u (β w γ Mw )

After substitution

(σ R

) (

2

2 +3 σ R 2 )=

2

2 σ2R ≤ f u (β w γ Mw )

17

(

σR ≤ f u β w γ Mw 2 ) 18

Vl

Weld VSd

Welds are loaded by longitudinal shear force

Transferred by web τII = FSd 2 a h

V l = V Sd S I

fillets

Bending moment M Sd = F Sd e where V shear force

Sd

Transferred by the shape of.weld S Static moment of flange to neutral axis

Centre of gravity, Iwe and cross section modulus W we I moment of inertia

For weld at lower flange cross section modulus Wwe,1 and stress is This longitudinal force is carried by two welds effective thickness a

(

σ ⊥1 = τ ⊥1 = M Sd )

2 W we ,1 Shear stress

For upper weld on flange is

τ II = V l 2 a ≤ f u β w γ Mw 3

(

σ ⊥ 2 = τ ⊥ 2 = M Sd )

2 W we , 2

19 Maximum stress is at the point of maximum shear force 20

Bases of design Connection to plate deformed out of its plate

Fillet weld

Design model

Design of independent of the direction of loading

Very long welds

Worked Examples

Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members

Welding in cold-formed zones

Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld

Summary 21 22

t fb

Unstiffened column flanges Unstiffened column flanges

In EN 1993-1-8 Chapter 4.10 In EN1993-1-8 Clause 6.2.4.4

t fb fyb

beff = twc + 2 s + 7 t fc Ft ,fc ,Rd = (twc + 2 s + 7 k t fc )

γ M0

⎛t 2 ⎞⎛f ⎞

beff = twc + 2 s + 7 ⎜ fc ⎟ ⎜ yc ⎟ ⎛f t ⎞

⎜ t ⎟⎜f ⎟ rc k = min ⎜ yc fc ; 1⎟

⎝ fb ⎠ ⎝ yb ⎠ beff ⎜f t ⎟

t wc

⎝ yb fb ⎠

σ

t fc

twc thickness of column web

tfc thickness of column flange twc is thickness of column web

tfb thickness of beam flange tfc thickness of column flange

s equal to fillet radius rc for hot rolled column sections tfb thickness of beam flange

23 s is equal to fillet radius rc for hot rolled column sections 24

Weld Design for Full Resistance

Topics of Connecting Members - Loading by Normal Force

Bases of design Not directly in code

Fillet weld σt τ⊥

a > 0,7 σw

Design model fu / γ Mw σ

FSd

σ⊥

Design of independent of the direction of loading σ = FSd / (t h) t

Very long welds FSd the acting design force

Example - Modelling the resistance fu plate design strength

Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection t the thinness of connecting plate

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members b width of connecting plate

Throat thickness of a fillet weld used in a hollow section joints full capacity of a plate the thickness S235:

(f / γ ) t ( 235 / 1,10 ) t

Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld a > 0,7 y M 0 = 0,7 = 0,52 t ≈ 0,5 t

fu / γ Mw 360 / 1,25

Summary 25 26

of Connecting Members - Loading by Shear Force or Full Resistance of Connecting Members

τ

VSd the design shear force in weld

full capacity of a plate the thickness S235

τt f /( 3 γ M 0 ) t 235 /( 1,1∗ 3 ) t

a > 0,85 ≈ 0,85 y = 0,85 = 0,36 t ≅ 0,4 t

fw / γ Mw fu / γ Mw 360 / 1,25

27 28

Bases of design

Fillet weld May be carried out

within a length 5 t either side of a cold-formed zone

Design model

Cold-formed zones are normalized after cold-forming but before

Design of independent of the direction of loading welding

Very long welds r / t - ratio satisfy the relevant values:

Example - Modelling the resistance

Maximum thickness (mm)

Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection r/t Fully killed Aluminium-killed steel

(Al ≥ 0,02 %)

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members

≥ 25 any

Welding in cold-formed zones ≥ 10 any

≥ 3,0 24

Design of partially penetrated butt weld ≥ 2,0 12

≥ 1,5 10

Summary 29 ≥ 1,0 6 30

V

Topics Butt welds

1/2 V

Bases of design Fully suply the cross-section

Fillet weld U

Design model

Design of independent of the direction of loading π

Very long welds

Example - Modelling the resistance For low quality is decreased design strength

Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection

Calculation as fillet weld

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members

Welding in cold-formed zones

Design of partially penetrated butt weld

Summary 31 32

t

anom

a nom.1

a nom.2

anom ,1 + anom ,2 ≥ t

t

t

anom

a nom.1 c nom ≤

5

cnom ≤ 3 mm

anom a nom c nom

a nom.2 Partial penetration with an effective width

anom ,1 + anom ,2 < t

. a1 = anom,1 − 2 mm

a2 = anom,2 − 2 mm

33 34

Topics Summary

Bases of design Chapter 4 Welded connections

Fillet weld

+

Design model

Design of independent of the direction of loading Rules for connection of open sections

Very long welds Component method

Example - Modelling the resistance Rules for connection of hollow sections

Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection

Welded

Weld design for full resistance of connecting members

Welding in cold-formed zones

Design of partially penetrated butt weld

Summary 35 36

List of Lessons at Seminar

1. Introduction

Bolted Connections 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

(Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins)

3. Welded connections

4. Bolted connections

Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

Prof. František Wald

7. Column bases

8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

General

Design resistance of individual fasteners Nominal values of the yield strength fyb

Non-preloading bolts

Single lap joints and the ultimate tensile strength fub for bolts

Bearing through packing

Slotted holes Bolt class 4.6 4.8 5.6 5.8 6.8 8.8 10.9

Long joints

Rivets

Anchor bolts fyb (N/mm2) 240 320 300 400 480 640 900

Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts

Design for block tearing fub (N/mm2) 400 400 500 500 600 800 1000

Lug angles

Pin connections Note: Bolts 12.9 are not allowed

Injection bolts

Summary 3 4

Shear connections

Normal

A Fv,Ed ≤ Fv,Rd

from 4.6 to 10.9 +1 mm for M 12

Bearing type Fv,Ed ≤ Fb,Rd

B

Fv,Ed.ser ≤ Fs,Rd,ser

8.8 or 10.9 +2 mm for M 16 up M 24

Fv,Ed ≤ Fv,Rd

Slip-resistant at serviceability +3 mm for M 27 and bigger

Fv,Ed ≤ Fb,Rd

C

Fv,Ed ≤ Fs,Rd Extra large With loose 3 mm (M12) up 8 mm (M27)

Fv,Ed ≤ Fb,Rd 8.8 or 10.9

Slip-resistant at ultimate

Fv,Ed ≤ Nnet,Rd Slotted (elongated)

Tension connections

Accurate – flushed bolts

D Ft,Ed ≤ Ft,Rd

Non-preloaded Ft,Ed ≤ Bp,Rd

from 4.6 to 10.9 for bolt M20 must be the clearance Δd < 0,3 mm

E Ft,Ed ≤ Ft,Rd

8.8 or 10.9

Preloaded Ft,Ed ≤ Bp,Rd 5 6

Positioning of Holes for Bolts and Rivets Maximum Values for Spacings

p1 e1

Edge and end distances are unlimited, except :

Minimum values for spacings e2

for compression members in order to avoid local buckling

p2

and to prevent corrosion in exposed members and;

End distance e1 1,2 d0

for exposed tension members to prevent corrosion.

Edge distance e2 1,2 d0

Distance in slotted holes e3 1,5 d0

Distance in slotted holes e4 1,5 d0

Spacing p1 2,2 d0

Spacing p2 2,4 d0

7 8

in compression between the fasteners: minimum line spacing of p2 = 1,2d0

ε = 235 / fy

9 10

General Plane of shear is going through threads of bolt:

Design resistance of individual fasteners

Non-preloading bolts For classes 4.6 a 5.6

Single lap joints

Bearing through packing Fv ,Rd = (0,6 f ub A s ) γ M2

Slotted holes

Long joints

Rivets

For classes 8.8 a 10.9

Anchor bolts

Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts Fv , Rd = (0,5 f ub A s ) γ M2

Design for block tearing A s Core area of cross section of bolt

Lug angles

Pin connections f ub Ultimate strength of bolt

Injection bolts

γ M2 Partial safety factor of bolt

Summary 11 12

d0

Fb,. Rd = (2 ,5 α f u d t ) γ M2 e1 p1

Fv , Rd = (0,6 f ub A ) γ M2

where α is minimum from formulas

e1 3 d 0 ; p1 3 d 0 - 1 4 ; f ub f u ; 1,0

A Full area of cross section of bolt

fub Ultimate strength of bolt t minimum thickness in one direction

Fb.Sd

γ M2 Partial safety factor of bolt d diameter of bolt

d0 diameter of hole

f ub strength of bolt

13 f u strength of material (0,8 in oversized holes) 14

In oversized holes reduction 0,8

Inner bolt

Load on a bolt is not parallel to the edge,

the bearing resistance may be verified separately

for the bolt load components parallel and normal to the end

R 10

20

Outer bolt

30

e1 40 IPE 200

p 1 60 L 140 P 10 - 140 x 100

VSd = 110 kN

e1 40 M 20 - 5.6

tw tp 4

4

5,6 10 10 50

10

15 16

p1 e1 Tensile Resistance

p1 = 3 d0 e1 = 1,2 d 0

Ft,Rd = (k 2 fub A s ) γ M2

F F

e1 1,2 d 0

α= = = 0,4

3 d0 3 d0

For the holes 1: Holes 1 Holes 2

p1 3 d0 As Area of core of bolt

α= − 0,25 = − 0,25 = 1 − 0,25 = 0,75

3 d0 3 d0

γ Mb Partial safety factor

Fb ,Rd = (∑α )

2,5 d t fu 2,5 d t fu 2,5 d t fu

= (2 ⋅ 0,4 + 2 ⋅ 0,75 )⋅ = 2,3 ⋅

γ M2 γ M2 γ M2 k2 = 0,90 for regular bolt head

2)Total bearing resistance is based on smallest of the

k2 = 0,63 for countersunk bolt

individual resistances

Fb .Rd = (∑α )

2,5 d t fu 2,5 d t fu 2,5 d t fu

= (2 ⋅ 0,4 + 2 ⋅ 0,40)⋅ = 1,6 ⋅17

γ M2 γ M2 γ M2 18

Punching Shear Resistance Combined Shear and Tension

F t,exp Experimental tensile resistance / predicted tensile resistance

Bp,Rd = 0,6 π dm tp fu / γM2 F t 1,0 Treads in shear plane

Shank in shear plane

F v,S Ft,S

tp plate thickness F v,R

+

1 ,4 F t,R

≤1

0,5

dm the mean of the across points and across

flats dimensions of the bolt head or the nut,

Experimental shear resistance

whichever is smaller predicted tensile resistance

0 F v,exp

d1 + d 2 d1 d w dm 0 0,5 1,0 Ft

dm =

2 d2 19 Owens G.W., Cheal D.B.: Structural Steelwork Connections, Butterworths, 1989.20

1,5 fu d t General

Reduction of bearing resistance Fb ,Rd ≤ Design resistance of individual fasteners

γ M2 Non-preloading bolts

Single lap joints

Bearing through packing

M 16 - 5.6

Slotted holes

P5 - 60 x 840

Long joints

Rivets

8 5

FSd Anchor bolts

30 30 Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts

Design for block tearing

Lug angles

Pin connections

Injection bolts

21

Summary 22

Shear and Bearing pass through Packing Bearing Resistance in Slotted Holes

60% of resistance in circular holes

Reduction of bolt shear resistance

(force perpendicular to the long direction of the slot)

9d

βp = 22 18

18

200

Force, F, kN

8 d + 3 tp 40 40 8 16 8

180

Circular holes, (test 1c-16-1-d+2)

40 40 8 16 8 160

β p ≤ 1,0 M 16 M 16

140

120

β p

100

1,0 tp

10 10 Slotted holes, (test 5c-16-1-d+2,5)

80

35 35

50 50 60

25 25

40

0,5 110 110 20

Displacement , mm

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

0 t p

0,3 d 1,0 d 1,5 d

23 24

Long Connection Scope of the Lecture

General

Reduction of shear resistance L j − 15d Design resistance of individual fasteners

β Lf = 1 − Non-preloading bolts

200 d

Single lap joints

β Lt β Lt ≤ 1,0 Bearing through packing

1

Slotted holes

β Lt ≥ 0,75

0,8

0,75

Long connections

0,6 Rivets

Lj

Anchor bolts

Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts

0,4

0,2 Design for block tearing

0 Lug angles

Lj

0 15d 65d

Pin connections

Injection bolts

25

Summary 26

General

Philosophy of design was used for bolts Design resistance of individual fasteners

(class A)

Non-preloading bolts

Single lap joints

Bolts spacing's recommendations are coming from rivets Bearing through packing

Slotted holes

Long joints

Rivets

Anchor bolts

Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts

Design for block tearing

Lug angles

Pin connections

Injection bolts

27

Summary 28

The nominal yield strength does not exceed General

Design resistance of individual fasteners

when the anchor bolts act in shear 640 N/mm2 Non-preloading bolts

Single lap joints

otherwis not more than 900 N/mm2 Bearing through packing

Slotted holes

Long joints

For bolts with cut threads reduction by a factor of 0,85 Rivets

Anchor bolts

Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts

Design for block tearing

Lug angles

Pin connections

Injection bolts

29

Summary 30

Slip-resistant Connections

using 8.8 or 10.9 Bolts Friction Coefficient μ

Fp.Cd

Tests

Prestressing force EN 14399-2:2002 High strength structural bolting for preloading -

Fs.Rd Part 2 : Suitability Test for Preloading

Table for class of friction surfaces

With painted surface treatments a loss of pre-load may occur

Fs,. Rd = (k s n μ γ M3,ser ) F p, Cd over time.

Class of friction surfaces Slip factor µ

F p,Cd is design prestressing force of bolt (= 0,7 f ub A s),

A blasted, metal spraying (EN 1090) 0,5

μ friction coefficient B blasted (EN 1090) 0,4

n number of friction planes C cleaned (EN 1090) 0,3

D cleaned (EN 1090) 0,2

ks coefficient corresponding to clearance of hole

31 32

Description ks k s n μ ( Fp ,C − 0,8 Ft ,Ed )

Fs,Rd =

γ M2

Normal holes 1,0

Δ Fb

Ft

external

or short slotted holes with the axis of the slot perpendicular to 0,85 Fb

preload Δ Fj tensile force

Fp

the direction of load transfer total bolt force

0,7

the direction of load transfer

Short slotted holes with the axis of the slot parallel to the δ p,ext

0,76 δb δp

direction of load transfer elongation of the bolt plate shortening

δ b,ext

Long slotted holes

0,63

with the axis of the slot parallel to the direction of load transfer 33 34

General Block tearing consists of failure in shear at the row of bolts

Design resistance of individual fasteners along the shear face of the hole group accompanied by

Non-preloading bolts tensile rupture along the line of bolt holes on the tension

Single lap joints face of the bolt group.

Bearing through packing

Slotted holes

Long joints

Rivets

Anchor bolts

Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts

Design for block tearing

N Ed

N Ed

Lug angles

Pin connections

Injection bolts

Summary 35

N Ed

36

N Ed

Test FE Model

Rupture

Orbison J.G., Wagner M. E., Fritz W.P.: Tension plane behavior in of steel tension members, Journal of Constructional Steel Research,

single-row bolted connections subject to block shear, Journal of 60 , 2004, s. 1615 – 1635, ISSN 0143-974X.

Constructional Steel Research, 49, 1999, s. 225 – 239. 37 38

P10; 1.4401

35

Symmetric bolt group subject to concentric loading 40

70

240

100

35

25

L - 100 x 100 10 70

materiál 1.4401

30 + 7 x 30 +30

8 x M16; 70

60

Ant net area subjected to tension 240

fu Ant 1 A 0,5 × 530× (35 − 2 × 9) ×10 1 (2 × 240− 6 ×18 − 2 × 9)×10 = 72 + 409 = 481kN

Veff,1,Rd = + fy nv = = + × 220×

γM2 3 γM0 1,25×103 3 1,1×103

Eccentric loading

In angle (staggered rows)

Veff,2,Rd = 0,5 fu Ant / γM2 + (1/√3) fy Anv / γM0 Veff,2,Rd =

0,5 fu,p Ant

+

1 A

fy,p nv = =

0,5 × 530× (60 − 189)×10 1

+ × 220×

(240− 3 ×18 − 9)×10 = 70 + 204 = 274kN

γM2 3 γM0 1,25×103 3 1,1×103

39 40

d

t

1,5 fu d t p1

Reduction of bearing resistance Fb ,Rd ≤ β 2 Anet fu p1

γ M2 Nu .Rd =

γM2

( )

2 ,0 e 2 − 0 ,5 d 0 t f u ≥

≤ 52,5

d 0 d0

e2 N u .Rd =

γ M2 p1 p1 p1 p1

β 3 Anet fu

Nu .Rd =

γM2

Reduction factors

Pitch p1

2 bolts β2 0,4 0,7

3 and more bolts β3 0,5 0,7

41 42

Worked Example – Fin Plate Worked Example – Fin Plate, Shear Resistance

3 x M20, 8.8

P10 - 230 x 110

meteriál S235 HEA 200

10 S235

35 80 45

70 70

IPE 300 45 230

S235 70 70

70

230 45

70 50

50

VSd = 100 kN 45

5

50 50 In beam web

60 0 ,5 fu,b1 Ant 1 A 0 ,5 × 360 × 276 ,9 1 1171,5

VRd,11 = + fy,b1 nv = + × 235 × = 199 kN

γ M2 3 γ M0 1,25 3 1,0

43 44

General

Design resistance of individual fasteners

Non-preloading bolts

45

Single lap joints

70 70

Bearing through packing

70 70 Slotted holes

45

Long joints

Rivets

50

50 Anchor bolts

Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts

Design for block tearing

In beam web Lug angles

fu,b1 Ant 1 A 360 × 681,6 1 553 ,8

Pin connections

NRd,u,6 = + fy,b1 nv = + × 235 × = 298 kN Injection bolts

γ M,u 3 γ M0 1,1 3 1,0

45

Summary 46

General

Design resistance of individual fasteners

Non-preloading bolts

Single lap joints

Bearing through packing

Slotted holes

1. The lug angle to transmit a force 1,2 times the force in the outstand of Long joints

the angle connected. Rivets

2. The fasteners connecting the lug angle to the outstand of the angle Anchor bolts

member should be designed to transmit a force 1,4 times the force in Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts

the outstand of the angle member. Design for block tearing

3. The connection of a lug angle to a gusset plate or other supporting part Lug angles

should terminate at the end of the member connected.

Pin connections

4. The connection of the lug angle to the member should run from the end

of the member to a point beyond the direct connection of the member to Injection bolts

the gusset or other supporting part. 47

Summary 48

Pin Connections Design of Pin

Analysis Given thickness t

As bolt (shear, bearing)

As beam (bending)

FEd γ M 0 2 d 0 F γ d

Combination of shear and bending a≥

2 t fy

+

3

: c ≥ Ed M 0 + 0

2 t fy 3

d = 30 Given geometry

F Sd

d3 = t1 t2 t1

20

c c

t 1 = 10 t 1 = 10

c =1 c =1 FEd γ M 0

t2 = 18 M Sd t ≥ 0,7 : d 0 ≤ 2,5 t

49

fy 50

Resistance of one shear area of pin in shear Resistance of pin in bending

Fv . Rd = (0,6 A f up ) γ Mp ≥ Fv .Sd = 0,5 FSd M Rd = (0,8 W el A f yp ) γ Mp ≥ M Sd = (FSd 8 )(t + 4 c + 2 t 1 )

F Sd applied force

F Sd applied force

f yp yield point of pin

f up strength of pin

γMp = 1,45 partial safety material factor t1 t2 t1

γMp = 1,45 partial safety material factor c c

A cross sectional area of pin

A Cross sectional area of pin W el = π d 3 32 cross sectional elastic modulus of pin M Sd

51 52

Analysis of Pin –

Combination of Bending and Shear Analysis of Pin - Bearing

Stresses due to bending and shear: Bearing stress of plate and pin

(MSd M Rd ) + (Fv ,Sd Fv , Rd ) ≤ 1

2 2

( )

Fb, Rd = 1,5 t d f y γ Mp pro f yp ≥ f y a 2 t 1 ≥ t

f yp yield point of pin

t1

c

t2 t1

c

γMp = 1,45 partial safety material factor

M Sd

53 54

Analysis of Pin - Serviceability Scope of the Lecture

Replaceable pin General

the contact bearing stress should satisfy σh,Ed ≤ fh,Rd Design resistance of individual fasteners

Non-preloading bolts

E FEd ,ser ( d 0 − d ) Single lap joints

σ h,Ed = 0,591 Bearing through packing

d2 t Slotted holes

Long joints

fh,Ed = 2,5 fy / γM6,ser Rivets

d the diameter of the pin; Anchor bolts

Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts

d0 the diameter of the pin hole;

Design for block tearing

FEd,ser the design value of the force to be transferred in bearing, Lug angles

under the characteristic load combination Pin connections

for serviceability limit states Injection bolts

55

Summary 56

σ2

k t k s d t b ,re sin β σf b ,re sin

t2

β 1,33

Fb,Rd,resin =

t1

σ2 t2

1

1,0

σ1 t1

1,33

1,0

γ M4

σ2 t

σ2

σ σ 1 1 2

σ2 t2

σ1 σ1 σ2

ß coefficient depending of the thickness ratio 1.0 2.0 t / t 1 2

Bolts of class 8.8 or 10.9 tb, resin effective bearing thickness of the resin

kt 1,0 for serviceability limit state

The design ultimate shear load of any bolt in a Category A

1,2 for ultimate limit state

Preloaded injection bolts should be used for Category B

ks 1,0 for holes with normal clearances or (1,0 - 0,1 m),

and C connections for oversized holes;

m the difference (in mm) between the normal and oversized

57 hole dimensions 58

General

Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins

Design resistance of individual fasteners

Non-preloading bolts in Chapter 3 of EN 1993-1-8

Single lap joints

Bearing through packing Non-preloaded bolts

Slotted holes

Long joints Preloaded bolts – preload (0,7 fub)

Rivets

Anchor bolts Injection bolts (replacement of rivets;

Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts bolts 8.8 and 10.9)

Design for block tearing

Lug angles Pins (including serviceability)

Pin connections

Injection bolts

Summary 59 60

List of Lessons at Seminar

1. Introduction

Basics of structural joints 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

(Structural Joints Connecting Open Sections)

3. Welded connections

4. Bolted connections

Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

Prof. František Wald

7. Column bases

8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

General Experimentation

Component method Curve fitting

Basic components Finite element analysis

Assembly Simplified analytical models – Component Method

Resistance M Experiment

Stiffness

Rotation capacity Function lt hb M

φ = C1( kM )1 + C3 ( kM )3 + C5 ( kM )5

M-N interaction

ta

Summary 3

φ

4

Rotational stiffness

Moment resistance

General

Rotation capacity Component method

M, moment, kNm

Initial stiffness Sj, ini

Basic components

Joint

resistance Assembly

M j, Rd Experimental curve

Resistance

Elastic Design curve

limit Stiffness

2/3 M j, Rd Rotation capacity

M-N interaction

Rotation,φ , mrad Summary

Deformation capacity φj,Cd 5 6

Procedure Rotational Capacity

Decomposition of joint M Bending moment, kNm

Component description Experimental curve

Column web in tension

Joint assembly Bilinear model

Connection M

j.Rd

rotational

capacity φ pl

Components in compression Rotational

Classification Web panel in shear capacity

φ

of joint

Column web in compression

Representation 0 φ el φu φ Cd Rotation, mrad

Joint

Modelling in analyses 7 8

Zoetemeijer P.: Summary of the research on bolted

beam-to-column connections, TU-Delft report 26-6-90-2,

glfe eflg Delft, 1990.

c

Zoetemeijer P.: Summary of the Research on Bolted

c Unstiffened column web in shear to ot Beam-to-Column Connections (period 1978 - 1983), Ref.

o Unstiffened column web in compression No. 6-85-M, Steven Laboratory, Delft, 1983.

t Beam flange in compression

f Column flange in bending Zoetemeijer P.: Proposal for Standardisation of

l Bolt row in tension Extended End Plate Connection based on Test results -

g End plate in bending

e Unstiffened column web in tension Test and Analysis, Ref. No. 6-83-23, Steven Laboratory,

Delft, 1983.

9 10

Practical Application

of the Component Method Spring Models

Parallel configuration

F

Design tables 1

Green book 2

Fu = F1.u + F2.u

Blue book 1

2

k = k1 + k2

F 1 2

1

Simplified hand calculation Fu = min (F1.u; F2.u)

2 1 / k = 1 / k1 +1 / k2

δ = δ1 + δ2 .

11 d 12

Scope of the Lecture Description of Basic Components

General

The structural properties of basic joint components are

Component method described in Chapter 6 of EN 1993-1-8.

Basic components e.g.

VEd

VEd Fc,Ed

Ft,Ed

Stiffness

Column flange in bending Ft,Ed

M-N interaction

Ft,Ed

Summary etc.

13 14

Stiffness coefficient F L Stiffness coefficient

δ b = t ,Ed b

2 E As Ft ,Ed m 3

δp =

Ft ,Ed A 3E I 2 Leff ,ini t 3

kb = = 2,0 s F F 3E I 3 Leff ,ini t 3

E δb Lb k p = t ,Ed = t ,Ed = 12 = 0 ,5

E δ p E Ft ,Ed m 3 m3 m3

As

k b = k 10 =1,6 Leff.ini = 1,7 Leff

Lb

Resistance, see bolts Leff t 3

k p = k 4 = k 5 = k 6 = 0,85

Deformation capacity - britle 15

m3 16

Ft,Ed

By equivalent T-stub in tension

Mode 1 - Plate failure

F

n m

Mode 2 - Plate and bolts failure

L eff

t 2

Mode 3 - Bolts failure

B B

17 18

Bolt head / washer size influence Effective Length

F/2 F/2

F/2 F/2

Circular failure

Q Q Single bolt

ϕ u ϕ Bolt group

Q n m Q

Mode 1 only

dw dw

Another failure

Single bolt

u

ϕ ϕ Bolt group

Q n m Q

C C

19 20

Circular Failure Bolt in Corner λ2 1,4

F F

Leff ,op = α m

1,2

⇒ F F

1,0

F ϕ In EN 1993-1-8 0,8

δ

2r r=m r=n

graph only

Virtual work m

0,6

on cone deformation α

α λ2 = 2

r m+e 0,4

ϕ/2 r´

m

λ1 = 0,2

Leff ,cp = 2 π m

ϕ/2

ϕ m+e

δ ϕ/2

x 0,0

α 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 λ1

α α

21 22

e

e e

mx mx mx

Weld

w bp

e Yield lines

mx

23 24

Column Flange with Backing Plates Flange Cleat in Bending

e bp As equivalent T-stub flange

Increase of resistance Mode 1 h bp

only e bp

4M pl ,1,Rd + 2M bp ,Rd

FT,1,Rd =

m

2

M pl,1,Rd = 0,25Σl eff ,1t f fy / γ M 0

2

M bp,Rd = 0,25Σl eff ,1t bp fy ,bp / γ M 0

25 26

g ≤ 0,4 ta g > 0,4 ta see EN 1993-1-8

ra emin ra emin

m m

0,8 r a 0,5 t a

g ≤0,4 t a g >0,4 t a

ba

Effective length ℓeff = 0,5ba

27 28

General Welded connection

Component method

Basic components

Ft,Rd

Assembly z M j,Rd

Resistance Fc,Rd

Stiffness

Rotation capacity M j ,Rd =Ft ,Rd z

M-N interaction

Summary 29 30

Design Resistance Simplified Lever Arm

Boted connection – one bolt row

Ft.Rd

Ft.Rd

z z z z z

z z

Fc.Rd Fc.Rd

M j ,Rd = ∑F i ti ,Rd

zi

31 32

More Bolt Rows - Firs Bolt Row (start from top) More Bolt Rows – Second Bolt Row

Limits Colum web in shear Column web in Beam flange in Colum web in shear Column web in Beam flange in

compression compression

Limit compression compression

by By shear Ft1.Rd

Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd

Ft2.Rd

part

Resistance Column flange in Column web in tension End plate in bending

bending,

of

second bolt row Ft2.Rd Ft2.Rd Ft2.Rd

bending bending

of Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd F

t1.Rd Column web in tension Column flange in bending Column web in tension

first bolt row

Resistance Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd

Taking into account bolt General

rows groups Component method

Ft2.Rd

F

t1.Rd

Ft1.Rd F

t1.Rd

Basic components

Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd

Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd

Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd

Assembly

Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd

Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd

Resistance

Stiffness

Part in compression

F

t1.Rd

F

t1.Rd

Rotation capacity

Ft2.Rd Ft2.Rd

M-N interaction

Part in tension Ft3.Rd Ft3.Rd

35

Summary 36

φ

Rotational Stiffness Shape Stiffness Ratio Factor

Rotatinal stiffness Sj = M / φ From curve fitting ⎛ M

ψ

⎞

S j ,ini

μ= = ⎜ κ Sd ⎟ ≥1

Fi Sj ⎜ M ⎟

Deformation or a component

δi = M, moment, kNm ⎝ j ,Rd ⎠

ki E

j,

Joint

∑δ i resistance

M j, Rd

Initial stiffness S ini

Rotation in joint φj = i

z Elastic Design curve

Joint with more springs limit

2/3 M j, Rd Shape by stiffness ratio factor

Mj Fi z Fi z 2 E z2 E z2

S j .ini = = = = →

φj ∑δ i

Fi

∑k ∑

1 1

μ∑

1 Deformation capacity φj,Cd

z E i ki ki Rotation,φ , mrad

37 38

δ

p q lg

∑k eff ,i zi

pq k eq = i

lg z1 z z

z

n Mj φ 2 φ

o 1

i φ1 φ2 φ3 k eff =

1

∑k i i

n i p p z1

o q q

g g Lever arm

l l ∑k eff ,i z i

2

z4

z= i

∑k i

eff ,i z i

39 40

General For platic global analyses

For basic safety M

Component method

Basic components M j.Rd

Assembly

φCd

Resistance Ductile components

Stiffness Plate in bending 0,0 φ el φu φCd φ

Rotation capacity Column web in shear

M-N interaction Brittle components

Summary 41

Bots, welds

42

Upper Limits for Material In EN 1993-1-8

In the US standard only

F Deem to satisfy criteria

Brittle

Ductile

Welded joints

Unstiffned φCD ,min = 0,015

Unstiffned in tension + Stiffened in compression + No shear

δ influece

φCd ,min = 0,025 hc / hb

δ Cd,1 δ Cd,2

F

Ductile

Boted joints

Brittle Plate failure

δ

End plate/column flange thickness t ≤ 0,36 d fub / fy

δ Cd,1

δ 43Cd,2 44

General For most portal frame connections (pitched rafters)

Component method In EN 1993-1-8

Basic components Limit 5% of normal force resistance of connected element

Linear interaction

Assembly NSd M

+ Sd ≤ 1

Resistance N j ,Rd M j ,Rd

Stiffness

Component method

Rotation capacity

M-N interaction

Summary 45 46

NSd

NSd M

Normal force, kN + Sd ≤ 1

N j ,Rd M j ,Rd

e Normal force

w e N j,t,M,Rd

f Nj,t,M=0,Rd f Linear interaction

F 3,t

F2,t

5 % error Linear interaction

et

n Nj,t,M,Rd

g d Moment,

kNm g M j.c.N d Moment F1,t

h c M j.t.N

h c

Component method F2,c

et

i Linear interaction Component method

i m Nj,c,M,Rd

N j,c,M=0,Rd F1,c

j k 47

N j,c,M,Rd

48

j k

Component Method - Resistance Stiffness

Centre of the part in tension

F t.Rd

Simplification to two springs

Bolts

Compressed part – in centre of flage

zt

N Sd M Sd Fc.t.Rd

z Ft.Rd

NSd NSd c.t

zc z z

MSd MSd

Neutral axis zc z

c.b

F c.Rd Fc.b.Rd

Fc.Rd Active part

Bolts and compressed part Two compressed parts

49 50

Normal force, kN Moment, kNm

200 30

Test Test SN 1500

100 SN 1500 25

Moment, Prediction by component method

20 kNm

0 10 20

-10 0

SN 1000 15 Prediction of resistance

-100 by interaction

Interaction 10

-200 Component method

5

Rotation, rad

0

0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04

51 52

Moment, kNm

Normal force, kN Test EE7

800 Component method 120

100

400 EE7

EE6 Moment,

kNm 80

0 EE1 Prediction of resistance

0 EE2

by interaction

-50 EE3 60

50 EE4

-400 EE5

40

20

Rotation, rad

0

0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06

53 54

List of Lessons at Seminar

1. Introduction

2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

Design of Simple Connections (of Open Sections) 3. Welded connections

4. Bolted connections

Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

Prof. František Wald

7. Column bases

8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Flow Charts

New and Flexible Approach to Training for

Simple connections - fin plates

Simple connections - end plates

Engineers in Construction

Column splices for both axial load & moment

Column bases (axial load only)

Non-conflicting Complementary Information

Design model for simple end plate connections

A: Detailing guidance

B: Shear resistance

Leson 16 Design of Simple Joints

C: Tying resistance

Design model for simple fin plate connections

A: Detailing

B: Shear resistance

C: Tying resistance

Design model for simple Column splices (non-bearing)

Initial sizing for non-bearing splices

Design model for simple Column bases - axially loaded

Passive examples

Beam to beam fin plate connection

Beam to column end plate connection

Column splice (non-bearing)

Column base, axially loaded

Column splice (bearing)

3 4

Flow chart

5 6

Example – Fin Plate

Subject to shear

1 3 1 3 1

2 2 2

1. Fin plate

2. Supported beam

3. Column

4. Supporting beam

7 8

Mode of failure - subject to shear Ductility requirements

Bolts in shear VRd,1

not guided by bolt shear failure

Fin plate in bearing VRd,2

Fin plate in shear (gross section) VRd,3

Fin plate in shear (net section) VRd,4

Fin plate in shear (block shear) VRd,5

Fin plate in bending VRd,6

Fin plate in buckling (LTB) VRd,7

Beam web in bearing VRd,8

Beam web in shear (gross section) VRd,9

Beam web in shear (net section) VRd,10

Beam web in shear (block shear) VRd,11

Supporting column web or supporting beam web (punching shear) VRd,12 9 10

Rotation capacity requirements Subject to tying forces

1. Given rules in initial design

Depth of Fin plate Fin plate width Horizontal gap Beam edge Fin plate edge 1 1 1

3 3

supported beam thickness bp (mm) gh (mm) distance distance

hb1 (mm) tp (mm) e2,b (mm) e2 (mm)

hb1 ≤ 600 10 100 10 40 50 4

hb1 > 600 10 120 20 40 60

bp

or gh

gv 2 2 2

2. Limit of hight and calculate required rotation e1,b

e1

1. Fin plate

hp ≤ hb − 2t f,b1 − 2r

a

p1

hp 2. Supported beam

p1

3. Column

4. Supporting beam

e 2 e 2,b he

11 12

z

Example – Fin Plate Summary

Mode of failure – subject to tying Design of simple connections not described

in EN 1993-1-8

Bolts in shear NRd,u,1

Fin plate in bearing NRd,u,2

Fin plate in tension (block tearing) NRd,u,3 Tables

Fin plate in tension (net section) NRd,u,4

Green book UK

Blue book Germany

Beam web in bearing NRd,u,5

ECCS TC10 document (in preparation)

Beam web in tension (block tearing) NRd,u,6

Beam web in tension (net section) NRd,u,7

Access STEEL materials on internet

Supporting column web in bending NRd,u,8

13 14

1. Introduction

2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

3. Welded connections Thank you for your attention

4. Bolted connections

5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

7. Column bases

8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

15 16

Structural Steelwork Eurocodes Simple Joints

be either:

Design of Simple Joints

– Pinned.

– Rigid.

1 2

Rigid Joints: – “A nominally pinned connection shall be designed

– Expensive to fabricate and construct. so that it cannot develop significant moments

which might adversely affect members of the

structure.”

Real Pin Joints:

– Also expensive

Simple Joints:

– Need to be flexible

3 4

Joints must: – 1. Strength:

– Transfer actions. » able to transfer moments & forces.

– Accept required rotations. – 2. Stiffness:

» have an appropriate slope on M - Ø curve.

– 3.Deformability:

» Have adequate rotation capacity.

5 6

Stiffness Requirement Strength Requirement

S j,ini not greater than: 0,5 E Ib / Lb. Depends upon the members connected.

S j,ini is the initial rotational stiffness of the connection. compared to the connected members.

Ib is the second moment of area of the connected

beam. Remember that shear and any axial load must be

Lb is the length of the connected beam. transferred between members.

7 8

Mpbisisfully

Mpc fullyplastic

plasticmoment

momentofofresistance

resistanceofofcolumn.

beam.

Joint must not fail as a consequence of any large

rotations required.

Mpc Mpc

Mpb Mpb connection in initial state.

Mpc Mpc

then Mj,Rd = 0.25Mpb then Mj,Rd = 0.25*2*Mpc

φ

M Many joints currently assumed to operate as simple

joints transfer moments in excess of EC3 limits.

Contact between beam

flange and column face

Resulting designs function satisfactorily.

φ

Figure 2 : Effect of gap closure

11 12

Transfer of Forces Beam to Column Joints

Example 1

– Welding.

– Bolting.

Top and seat cleats Seat and stability cleats

– Riveting,(occasionally ).

(major and minor axes (major and minor axes)

13 14

Example 2 Example 3

bolted to beam and column) axis: Welded to beam,

Welded fin plate: (minor axis: bolted to column).

bolted to beam, welded to column. Tab plate: (major axis:

Shear plate (major axis) Shear plate (major axis)

welded to beam, bolted to

column).

15 16

Supporting

Supported beam

beam

Figure 4:

Beam to beam

connections

Single

Double notched

notched angle

end plateconnection

connection

2.1.2 Should any tying forces need to be considered ( as is the case in the

U.K.NAD). Then the connection must also be checked for such action which

will involve consideration of the following potential failure modes, remembering

that it will often be necessary to combine the axial and the shear forces to

obtain a resultant action.

17 18

Transfer of Forces Simple Web Angle Connection

– Beam into bolts.

– Bolts into angle.

– Angle into bolts.

– Bolts into column flange. a1

Lv

a3

a2

19 20

Forces

Block shear in beam web (amended failure zone).

– Block shear.

Bearing in bolts to beam web.

Web of beam into bolts:

Shear in bolts.

– Bearing.

Tensile capacity of web cleats.

Shear failure in bolts.

Tensile capacity of bolts to column face.

Bearing and block shear in angle legs.

Shear in bolts to column flange.

Bearing in bolts to column flange.

21 22

Minimum end distance. real behaviour has been introduced.

Minimum edge distance. The concept of joints as an assemblage of components

Maximum end and edge distances. has been put forward.

Minimum bolt spacing. Requirements for strength, stiffness and rotation capacity

Maximum bolt spacing. have been described.

Examples of practical details are provided.

23 24

List of Lessons at Seminar

1. Introduction

Column Bases 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

3. Welded connections

4. Bolted connections

Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8

5. Basics of structural joints

Prof. František Wald 6. Design of simple connections

7. Column bases

8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1

Basis of design ENV 1993-1-1

Components – Annex L (1992)

– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension – Annex A2 – Design of Joints (1992, 1999)

– Base plate and concrete in compression

– Anchor bolt in shear COST C1

Assembly - Semirigid connections (EU project, finished 1999)

– Resistance

– Stiffness

– Pre-design

Classification

Worked examples

Summary

Base plate in bending

Baseplate and concrete Baseplate in bending Column flange and web Anchor bolt

and anchor bolts in tension

in compression anchor bolts in tension in compression in shear

Base plate in bending

and concrete in compression

Major components

Scope of the Lecture Base-plate in bending

Basis of design

and anchor bolts in tension

Components

– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension

Column flange F

– Base plate in bending and concrete in compression e m

– Anchor bolt in shear

Assembly

– Resistance

– Stiffness t

– Pre-design l eff

Classification

Base plate

Worked examples

Summary

F

Contact of Edge of T stub

δb = Θp n

m n

Θp δb

Q=0 Q=0

8 ,82m 3 As <

Lb .lim = > Lb

Leff t 3

40

180

160

L bf 140 Experiment W13/98

L b 120

Experiment W14/97 φ 24 - 355

315 3

L be 100

Prediction

P6 - 40 x 50 40 5

80 50 10

d 60 10

6

40 5

P10 - 95 x 95

20

Lbe ≅ 8 d

0

95 95

0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6

Deformation, mm

e

F / Σ B t.Rd

1

Mode 2

n m Mode 3

0,8

FRd.3 FRd.1 FRd.2

Bt.Rd B t.Rd Mode 1

Bt.Rd Bt.Rd B B 0,6

Q Q Q Q

0,4 Mode 1*

a) Mode 3 b) Mode 1 c) Mode 2

0,2

FRd.1*

0

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5

Base plate – no contact B B

4 l eff M pl.Rd / Σ B t.Rd

FRd.1*

Resistance

300 300 W97-12

Experiment

200 200

m = 32

Complex calculation Complex calculationm = 67

150 150

B B Simplified prediction

100 100

50 50

∗

2 Leff M´ pl .Rd W97-02

Deformation, mm Deformation, mm

= 0 0

F Rd .1

0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8

No prying

0 ,425 Leff t 3 As

kp = kb = 2 ,0

e m

m3 Lb

Prying accured

0 ,85 Leff t 3 A

Prying occured

l 1 = 2 α m − (4 m + 1,25 e )

No prying

l 1 = 2 α m − (4 m + 1,25 e )

kp = kb = 1,6 s l2 = 2π m l2 = 4π m

m3 Lb Leff ,1 = min(l 1 ;l 2 ) Leff ,1 = min(l 1 ;l 2 )

Leff ,2 = l 1 Leff ,2 = l 1

e w e

ex

mx

Effective Length for Hollow Sections

(not in EN 1993-1-8)

a

bp

ac

b b bc

No prying (a) m

Prying

l 1 = 4.m x+1,25 e x l 1 = 4.m x+1,25 e x m m eb ea

l 2 = 2 π mx l 2 = 4 π mx

l 3 = 0,5 bp l 3 = 0,5 bp Leff .1 = π m Leff .2 =

b

(a − a c )2 + (b − bc )2

l 4 = 0,5 w + 2 mx + 0,625 ex l 4 = 0,5 w + 2 mx + 0,625 ex m= − e a + eb

2 2

2

l 5 = e + 2 mx + 0,625 ex l 5 = e + 2 mx + 0,625 ex Leff .5 = π m Leff .4 =

a 2

l 6 = π mx + 2 e l 6 = 2 π mx + 4 e + eb

2 2

2 ea

Leff ,1 = min(l 1 ;l 2 ;l 3 ;l 4 ;l 5 ;l 6 ) Leff ,1 = min(l 1 ;l 2 ;l 3 ;l 4 ;l 5 ;l 6 ) Leff .3 = m (a − ac )2 + (b − bc )2

8 e a eb

Leff ,2 = min(l 1 ;l 3 ;l 4 ;l 5 ) Leff ,2 = min(l 1 ;l 3 ;l 4 ;l 5 )

L eff = min ( Leff .1 ; Leff .2 ; Leff .3 ; Leff .4 ; Leff .5 )

Basis of design

and concrete in compression

Components FSd FRd

Column flange

– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension

– Base plate and concrete in compression

c tw c

– Anchor bolt in shear

Assembly t

– Resistance L

– Stiffness Base plate fj

– Pre-design

Classification

Flexible

base plate

Worked examples

3D behaviour – concrete in crushing

Summary

(the same as EN 1992-1-1) a1 c

c

a ar

t c c

a 1 b1 t

Joint coefficient kj = h Effective width

ab b b1

1

br

Elastic resistance ensuring small deformations, to unit length M′ = t 2 fydfyd

M

⎧a + 2 a r ⎫ 6

⎪5 a ⎪ 1

⎪ ⎪ Bending moment to unit length M ′ = 1f j c 2 2

a 1 = min ⎨ ⎬ a1 ≥ a M ′ =2 f j c

Effective width ⎪ a + h ⎪ 2

1 1 f 2c 2 =1 1 2t 2 f

⎩⎪5b1 ⎭⎪

Equivalent length of cantilever c f j cj = 6t fy y

22 6

fy

⎧b + 2 br ⎫ Effective width c=t

fy

⎪5 b ⎪ 3 γ Mc0 =f jt

⎪ ⎪ 3 γ M0 fj

Effective width b1 = min ⎨ ⎬ b1 ≥ b

⎪ b + h ⎪

⎪⎩5 a 1 ⎪⎭

Contact Area Comparison to FE simulation

Vertical deformation at the surface, mm Vertical deformation along the block height

c

0,0 top of the concrete block

c elastic deformation of the whole block elastic deformation

c Ap A 0,1

F

} local deformation under plate

predicted value

δ glob

deformation at the edge

δ edge

deformation at the axis

δ axis

A eq

c c 0 0,1

c

F α ar 1800 Force, kN

δ r = deformation of elastic hemisphere F

E c Ar tw

1600 L

t

1400 Calculated strength

0 ,85 F

δ r = 1200 Experiment δ

Ec L ar

Concrete and grout

1000

Concrete

F E c a eq . el L E c a eq . el L 800

kc = = =

δ E 1 ,5 * 0 ,85 E 1 ,275 E 600

Prediction based on local and global deformation,

fy 400

a eq.el = t w + 2,5 t ≈ a eq.str = t w + 2 c = t w + 2 t

3 f jγ M 0 200 Prediction based on local deformation only

cfl

0

x

E Ip

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9

δ Deformation, mm

Grout

t tg

tg Scope of the Lecture

tg Basis of design

o tg Components

h 45

– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension

o

45

– Base plate in bending and concrete in compression

– Anchor bolt in shear

Assembly

βj = 2 / 3 lower nut

– Resistance

f c.g ≥ 0,2 f c – Stiffness

– Pre-design

t g ≤ 0,2 min (a ; b) packings Classification

t g ≥ 0,2 min (a ; b) Worked examples

Summary

Components in Shear Anchor Bolt in Shear

Fh

Resistance in tension

Fh

Reduce resistance in tension

δh

Resistance in bending and shear

δh

0

4.6 5.6

0 ,375 f ub As 0 ,250 f ub As

F v .Rd = F v .Rd =

γ Mb γ Mb

Format as bolts in shear

Resistance

Scope of the Lecture

N Rd M Rd

Basis of design Aeff active part

Components

– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension rb r c

– Anchor bolt in shear

∑ F t.Rd

N Rd = fAeff f j − ∑ Ft .Rd

Assembly j

– Resistance

– Stiffness N Rd = Aeff Mf jRd- =∑

∑FFt .tRd.Rd rb + Aeff f j rc .

M Rd = ∑ F t . Rd rb + Aeff f j rc

– Pre-design

Classification

Worked examples

Plastic design – force equilibrium

Summary Complex shape of contact area

M1 , N

M

1 Scope of the Lecture

Basis of design

M 2, N 2 Components

M N=0 – Base plate in bending and bolt in tension

– Base plate and concrete in compression

N Rd = Aeff f j − ∑ Ft .Rd – Anchor bolt in shear

Assembly

– Resistance

compression

tension M Rd = ∑ Ft .Rd rb + Aeff f j rc . – Stiffness

– Pre-design

Ft.Rd 0 N N Classification

M=0

Worked examples

Interaction diagram

Summary

History of Loading MSd

NSd c c

Moment c cc c

MRd Non-proportional c

Non-proportional loading loading

Moment

Proportional loading Proportional c

loading z

Nonlinear part of the curve

Column base zT zc

Plastification of one component resistance

N φRd = Aeff fkj −⎪⎨ ∑ Ft .Rd

⎧ kp

0 Normal force t

⎪

Anchor bolts in tension and one flange in compression ⎩ kc kc kc

Ft Fc kb

M Rd = ∑ Ft .Rd⎛ rb + Aeff f j rc .

e0 NSd

S j.ini ⎞

0 Rotation ⎜ ⎟

M Rd = min ⎜ ⎟

FT .Rd z Fc .Rd z

;

⎜ zc zt ⎟

⎜1− 1+ ⎟

⎝ M Sd / N Sd M Sd / N Sd ⎠

Stiffness

MSd / NSd = konst. xc <N Sd / MSd < ∝ Moment, kNm

t = 30

120

2 25 400 kN M

M Sd / N Sd Ez 100

Rd

Sj = HE 160 B M 20 - 10.9

M Sd / N Sd − α 1

μ∑ c c

80 20 t

ki 60

z k −z k c

c cc c

α= c c t t 15

∑c F N Rd = Aeff f j − ∑10Ft .Rd

40

kc + kt N Rd = Aeff f j − t .Rd 20

μ = ( 1,5 γ )

2 ,7 0 Rotation, mrad

⎧ k 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

rM M

p

1+ ⎪

⎩

t

kc kc kc

M Sd / N Sd kb

γ =

r/2 Sensitivity study, base plate thickness

M Rd / N Sd +

M Sd / N Sd

Simplified contact area

M

Sd

Lever arm is changing by the activation of one bolt row

Lever arm is changing by the activation of both bolt rows M 24

t Force, kN Moment, kNm

30

Base plate thickness, t, mm 80

40 200

M pl.Rd Ekb

2 000 Simplified prediction h = 1 000 100 Experiment

N pl.Rd Anchor bolt

30 0 60 W7-4.20-prop

0,5

25 1 600 200 Force, kN

j −∑ ∑ Ft .Rd

M

1 000

20 N Rd = Aeff fColumn F

resistancet .Rd

420 590

100 E k p N Rd40 = Aeff f j −Prediction HE 160 B

N

15 Base plate

0

590 0,5 t = 20

h = 500

0 420 200 E k c Force, kN

100 Moment, kNm 100

1 600 0,5 Concrete

0 0

Deformation, δ , mm

0 10 Rotation, mrad

Comparison to experiment

Pre-design, stiffness

Scope of the Lecture

E z2t

S j .ini .app = Basis of design

20 Components

M M – Base plate in bending and bolt in tension

Sd Sd

– Base plate and concrete in compression

N Rd = Aeff f j − ∑ Ft .Rd – Anchor bolt in shear

Assembly

– Resistance

M Rd = ∑ Ft .Rd rb + Aeff f j rc . – Stiffness

– Pre-design

z z Classification

Worked examples

Lever arm Summary

Classification

Non-Sway by Resistance

β = a 1 = b1 = 280 mm

Fcr,res

a = b = 500 mm

1

h = 1000 mm

M 24 -420

Accuracy 0,9 S j,ini,pin S j,ini,pin = 7 100 kNm / rad

t = 40 mm

5% in resistance and 10% in serviceability 0,8

a 1 = b1 = 420 mm

S j,ini,stif a = b = 500 mm

h = 1000 mm

0,7 M 24 -420

Simillar to beam-to-column joints S j,ini,stif = 74 800 kNm / ra

0,6 _

0,0001 0,01 1,00 100,0 log S

λo ≤ 2

pro λ o ≤ 0,5 Sj,ini ≥ 0 Sway Frames for Serviceability

pro 0,5 < λ o < 3,93 Sj,ini ≥ 7 (2 λ o - 1) E Ic / Lc 5 kN

115 kN 115 kN

yS / yP

pro λ o ≥ 3,93 Sj,ini ≥ 48 E Ic / Lc

y

HE 200 B

1,0

HE 200 B 4m

0,8

λ o ≤ 1,36 0,6

S j,ini,pin

Sj,ini ≥ 12 E Ic / Lc. 0,4

5m

S j,ini,stif

0,2

0,01 100

log S

0,0001 1

Relative moment Scope of the Lecture

1,0 Rigid

0,8

connection Basis of design

0,6

S j.ini.c.n = 30 E Ic / L c Components

– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension

0,4 S j.ini.c.s = 12 E I c / Lc λ o = 1,36

– Base plate and concrete in compression

0,2 Semi-rigid connection

– Anchor bolt in shear

Hinge

0 Assembly

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 Relative rotation, φ

– Resistance

In relative values – Stiffness

– Pre-design

Classification

Worked examples

Summary

c tw=9 c

a1 = 1600

MSd

FSd

a = 420 ar = 590

HE 200 B

c

tf =15 rb

t = 30

M 24 c

e a = 50 br = 590

30

eb = 90 hc =200

p = 240 b = 420 b1 = 1600

b eff r

tf =15 c

h = 1000

c

e c = 60 rb = 160

c

Contact area

Mj.Rd / M Ny.pl.Rd

F F F

1,0 F F Sd

F

F Sd

Sd Sd

F F

Sd Sd Sd

Sd Sd

0,8

2 2 1,2 m

S = 30 E I c / L c

0,6 j.ini.c.n

IPE 550

0,4 S j.ini.c.s = 12 E I c / L c (for λ o < 1,36 )

0,2 HE 340 B HE 340 B

0 9m

0 0,1 0,2 0,3

φ = φ E I c / Lc

Worked diagram

24 m

Frame imperfections – by equivalent forces

Element imperfections – by stability check

Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy

Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy

Fy Fy Fy Fy

2 Fx 2 2 2

Fx Fx Fx

Fx Fx Fx Fx N

2 2

N

Fx = 0,38 kN

H φ

w Fy = 23,00 kN w2 Fy = 26,79 kN

1

w1 = 2,64 kN/m

w = 1,65 kN/m

2

Load combination H φ

N N

Comparison

Maximal Maximal Maximal Vertical Horizontal

Elastic design – connection stiffness, pre-design moment moment moment deformation sway

in base plate in corner in rafter of rafter of corner

kNm kNm kNm mm mm

S j .ini.b − c = = = 242 100 kNm/ rad

kf 8 ,5

214,09 305,90 274,73 95,54 19,42

E z 2 t 210 000 * 700 2 * 20

z S j .ini.b − b = = = 343 000 kNm/ rad 3

kf 6

2,5

2

S j .ini.cb = = = 50 400 kNm/ rad 1

kf 20

0,5

z 0

Basis of design Component method

Components

– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension

Good accuracy

– Base plate and concrete in compression

– Anchor bolt in shear

Worked examples

Assembly – Savings by taking into account of

– Resistance stiffness (for serviceability only)

– Stiffness

– Pre-design – Hand calculation unusual

Classification

Worked examples

Summary

List of Lessons at Seminar

1. Introduction

2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

Fire Design of Connections 3. Welded connections

4. Bolted connections

Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

Prof. František Wald

7. Column bases

8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Structural fire design Thermal analyses

of fire compartment or local fire

Temperature of connections (EN 1991-1-1)

Connectors at elevated temperature Transfer of heat into the structure

(EN 199x-1-2)

Component method

Mechanical loading at fire situation

Structural integrity (EN 1990, EN 1991-1-x)

Summary Mechanical modelling of structure at elevated temperature

(EN 199x-1-2)

3 4

Steel looses with temperature strength and stiffness Fire protection is applied to the member

and its connections

Rules based to protect as members

Steel structures expand when heated and contract

on cooling

Component approach in EN 1993-1-8

together with a method for calculation

Temperature within the connections is lower the behaviour of welds and bolts

compare to connecting steel members at elevated temperature

Connection moment, shear and axial capacity can be

evaluated at elevated temperature

5 6

Scope of the Lecture Analytical Models of Heat Transfer

Structural fire design 1. Section factor (Am /V) method simmilar as for members

Am /V surface/volume ratio

Temperature of connections

2. Based on the temperature of the beam lower flange

Connectors at elevated temperature

Concrete slab

Component method h ≤ 400 mm h > 400 mm

Structural integrity 0,62 θ0 0,70 θ0

h h

h

0,88 θ 0 0,88 θ0

7 8

Accuracy Demonstration

on 7th Large Scale Fire Experiments on Steel Frame Fire Test January 16. 2003

A B C D E F

4

9000 9000 9000 9000 9000

Motivation

6000

q

3

s Temperatures in elements and connections

r

Internal forces in the connections

9000 o

Behaviour of the composite slab

2

n

6000

1

t p

Fire Compartment for Structural Integrity Fire Test, January 16, 2003 9 10

Fire Compartment

Instrumentation

148 thermocouples

57 low temperature strain gauges

10 high temperature strain gauges

37 deformations

10 video cameras

2 thermo-imaging cameras

Moderate Fire No Collapse Reached

Maximal temperature 1108 °C in 55 min 13 Deflections over 1000 mm; residual deflections 925 mm 14

Instrumentation C441

West view

C447

D E C444

Walls C442 C448

C443 C445

C454 - 462 C486 - 488 C472 - 475

2 C446 C449

C463 - 471 C475 - 479

G521 G525 G529 G533 120

D1/2-E1/2

G534 North view

G522 G526 G530

C441 - 449 C483 - 485 C450 - 453 C483

C484

G523 G527 G531 C485

G535

FIRE COMPARTMENT N

G536

D2 E2 G524 G528 C480 - 482 G532 DE1/2

1

Fin plate connection

Window West view

Thermocouples at elements and connections, numbered Cijk

Thermocouples in compartment 300 mm below ceiling, numbered Gijk C450 4th bolt row

Fire compartment

C451 3rd bolt row

N

C4522nd bolt row

D1 E1

C453 1st bolt row

120

15 E1/2-D1/2 16

26

h min

28’ θθcon,ø

T=

con,ø = 275

330=°C

con,ø 330 °C

°C

980,0°C 980,0°C

of the structure under 400°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C Heating θ, °C Heating

1000 400 1000 400

600 600

400,0°C 400,0°C

Time Time

0 0

0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min

17 18

t = t0 +t =042

h min

42’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 645=°C645 °C t = t0 +t =044

h min

44’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 660=°C660 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C

1000 400 1000 400

600 600

400,0°C 400,0°C

0 0

0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min

25 26

t = t0 +t =046

h min

46’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 685=°C685 °C t = t0 +t =048

h min

48’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 710=°C710 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C

1000 400 1000 400

600 600

400,0°C 400,0°C

0 0

0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min

27 28

t = t0 +t =050

h min

50’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 730=°C730 °C t = t0 +t =052

h min

52’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 775=°C775 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C

1000 400 1000 400

600 600

400,0°C 400,0°C

0 0

0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min

29 30

t = t0 +t =054

h min

54’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 810=°C810 °C t = t0 +t =056

h min

56’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 835=°C835 °C

980,0°C

The maximal temperature of 1088 °C 980,0°C

by its lower flange in 57 min

800 800

600 600

Gas temperature

θ, °C Cooling Gas temperature

1000 θ, °C Cooling

400 1000 400

600

600

Time

400,0°C 400,0°C

0

0 30 60 90 t,min 0 Time

0 30 60 90 t,min

31 32

t = t0 +t =058

h min

58’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 855=°C855 °C t = t0 +t =160

h min

00’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 880=°C880 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

Gas temperature

Gas temperature θ, °C Cooling

θ, °C Cooling 400 1000 400

1000

600

600 400,0°C 400,0°C

Time

Time 0

0 0 30 60 90 t,min

0 30 60 90 t,min

33 34

t = t0 +t =162

h min

02’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 900=°C900 °C t = t0 +t =164

h min

04’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 885=°C885 °C

was reached in 63 min

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C

1000 400 1000 400

600 600

400,0°C 400,0°C

0 0

0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min

35 36

t = t0 +t =178

h min

18’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 775=°C755 °C t = t0 +t =180

h min

20’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 745=°C745 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C

1000 400 1000 400

600 600

400,0°C 400,0°C

0 0

0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min

43 44

t = t0 +t =182

h min

22’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 740=°C740 °C t = t0 +t =184

h min

24’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 730=°C730 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C

1000 400 1000 400

600 600

400,0°C 400,0°C

0 0

0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min

45 46

t = t0 +t =176

h min

26’ θcon,øTcon,ø

= 720=°C720 °C t = t0 +t =178

h min

28’ θcon,ø = 710=°C

Tcon,ø 710 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C

1000 400 1000 400

600 600

400,0°C 400,0°C

0 0

0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min

47 48

Fin plate connection after the fire test

Temperature Differences Measured by Thermocouples

Measured temperature, °C

D2 E2

Difference shown

1000 by the thermo

imaging

800 camera

600

D1 E1

400

Fin plate, by 4th bolt

200 Beam, bottom flange

0

0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 Time, min

67 68

Scope of the Lecture

Connection temperature, °C Predicted

Structural fire design

1000

from gas measured temp.

based on "section factor" Temperature of connections

800 D2 E2 Connectors at elevated temperature

600 Component method

Predicted

400 from beam bottom flange

based on measured temp. D1 E1 Structural integrity

200

Measured Summary

0

0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 Time, min

69 70

Bolts and Welds Properties at Elevated Temperature Bolt Resistance at Elevated Temperature

Factors kb,θ; kw,θ are used to describe the strength reduction Marked loss of strength between 300 and 700ºC

1

Bolt

Shear resistance of bolts in fire γ

0,9 Fv ,t ,Rd = Fv ,Rd k b ,θ m

0,8 k b,θ

γ m ,fi

0,7 Bearing resistance of bolts in fire

0,6

Carbon steel γm

Fb ,t ,Rd = Fb ,Rd k b ,θ

0,5 k y,θ

Tension resistance of a bolts in fire

γ m ,fi

0,4

0,3 γm

0,2

Weld Ften ,t ,Rd = Ft ,Rd k b ,θ

k w,θ γ m ,fi

0,1

0 γΜ partial safety factor for the resistance

θ a ,°C

0 200 400 600 800 1000

71 γΜ,fi partial safety factor for fire 72

Filled Weld Resistance at Elevated Temperature Butt Weld Resistance at Elevated Temperature

Design strength per unit length of a fillet weld For full penetration butt weld up to 700ºC

in a fire as equal to the strength of the weaker part

γm of the joint

Fw ,t ,Rd = Fw ,Rd k w ,θ

γ m ,fi using the appropriate reduction factors for steel

γΜ partial safety factor for the resistance For temperatures higher than 700ºC

the reduction factors for fillet welds

γΜ,fi partial safety factor for fire to butt welds

73 74

Structural fire design Decomposition of joint

Componnet description

Temperature of connections Joint assembly

Connectors at elevated temperature

Component method e

f gi M

e fgi

Structural integrity φ

c z

Summary d h c dh

75 76

Decomposition of joint Decomposition of joint

Componet description Componnet description

Joint assembly Joint assembly e

f gi M

e fgi

Component Joint c φ z

Force d h

Moment c dh

F i ;θ = k y ,θ F i ; 20 º C ; M i ;θ = k y ;θ M i ; 20 º C ;

M, kNm

Deformation F k y ;θ Rotation Moment

i ;θ

δ i ;θ = = δ i ; 20 º C M k y ;θ 20 ºC

K i ;θ k E ;θ φi ;θ = i ;θ = φi ; 20 º C ; 100ºC

Si ;θ k E ;θ 50 500ºC

Stiffness Stiffness 600ºC

K i ;θ = k E ,θ K i ; 20 º C ; E z2

Si ;θ = θ = k E ;θ Si ; 20 º C ; 700ºC Rotation

1 800ºC φ , mrad

∑i k 77

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 78

i ;θ

P 28

500 kN 500 kN

150

4 x M24

of the truss lower flange Section factor Am / V = 54 ,0 / 1 ,24 = 43 ,18 m - 1

Required R30 Fire resistance t = 44 min

P 28 (exposed to nominal standard fire curve)

500 kN 500 kN

150

4 x M24

85 125 40 45

Protected dp = 15 mm

Intumescent paint Am λ p 0 ,1

= 43 ,18 = 288 Wm - 3 K - 1

Fire resistance V dp 0 ,015

79

(exposed to nominal standard fire curve) t = 112 min 80

Structural fire design If used catenary actions of beams and slabs

Temperature of connections

Connectors at elevated temperature In case of advanced design models

Component method

Structural integrity

Summary Resistance of connections

to horizontal forces at ultimate limit state

(for fu)

81 82

Normal force, kN

300

I. Beam only

200 II. One section

III. Full floor

100

20 40

0

60 80 100

Time, min

-100

-200

720°C

Heating Cooling

I. II.

III.

83 84

4 x 6,0 m

Low Temperature Strain Gauges Protected Columns

PLAN D1 E1

Internal wall 5th floor

of the fire compartment

11,0 m 99 97 105

107

500

103 101 111 109

7,0 m

99, 103 97, 101 107, 111 105, 109

83 81 91 89

N

D1 E1 81, 85 91, 95 89, 93

83,87

UC 305 x 305 x 198 UC 305 x 305 x 137

500

4th floor

UC 305 x 305 x 137

(UC 305 x 305 x 198)

20 20 115 113

500

119 117

115, 119 113,117

15,2

309,2 127 125 At external

(314,5)

y 320,5 columns

123 121

(31,4) 13,8 (339,9)

21,7 (19,1) 127, 123 121, 125

20

z

20

500

3rd floor 85 Internal External (with 1 m of beam) 86

Stress, MPa

Column D1 Column E1

83 81 91 89 Bending moments, kNm 5th floor

150

600 d-D1; d-E1

93 b-D1

c-D1 4th floor

100 c-D1; c-E1

95 87 85 95 93 b-D1

87 400

50 3rd floor a-D1

Time, min. c-E1

0 200

2nd floor

15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210

-50 Time, min. D2 D1

0

81 D1, E1 60

0 120

-100 83 d-E1

89 4th floor d-D1

500 mm -200

-150 91

a-D1

-200

87 88

Force, kN

300

Everage

Ft,5 5th floor Ft,5 BS 5950: Structural use of steelwork in buildings

c-E1 d-D1; d-E1

200

c-D1 Ft,4 4th floor Ft,4 c-D1; c-E1 EN 1991-1-7 Actions – Exceptional loading

b-D1

3rd floor

100 3rd floor a-D1

(5th foor) d-D1 d-E1

Ft,3 Column ties

0 Ft,3

0 60 120 Time, min. 2nd floor

-100 d-D1 D2 D1

d-E1

-200 4th floor Tie anchoring

Everage re-entrant corner

-300 c-D1

-400 c-E1

A

-500 Beam model Tie anchoring

free column A

Forces at 3rd, 4th and 5th floor calculated from strainganges at level c,d

89 90

Required Tie Forces Column ties Scope of the Lecture

Structural fire design

Tie anchoring

re-entrant corner Temperature of connections

Connectors at elevated temperature

A

Tie anchoring

free column A

Component method

Edge ties Beams not used as ties

Structural integrity

Ft = min [0,5 ( 1,4 gk + 1,6 qk ) st L; 75] Summary

gk the characteristic value of permanent action,

qk the characteristic value of variable action,

L the beam span

st the mean transverse spacing of the ties adjacent to that being checked

91 92

Well designed connections at ambient temperature 1. Introduction

do not need to be recalculated at elevated temperature, 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

if are not directly exposed to fire 3. Welded connections

The structural fire design according to EN 1993-1-2 4. Bolted connections

is ready for design of connections exposed to fire 5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

7. Column bases

Thermal analyses Transfer of heat Mechanical behaviour

of fire compartment into structure at elevated temperature 8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

or local fire

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

EN 1991-1-2 EN 199x-1-2

93 94

95

List of Lessons at Seminar

1. Introduction

2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

Seismic Design of Connections 3. Welded connections

4. Bolted connections

Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints

6. Design of simple connections

Prof. František Wald

7. Column bases

8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Principles Basic conditions

Design criteria Over-strength demand

Ductility demand (rotation capacity)

Beam-to-column typologies

Robustness demand

Design and fabrication recommendations (reliable detailing together with material behaviour)

Welding technology

Strain-rate loading Northridge and Kobe earthquake

M - φ modelling Unexpected damages to connections

Column web panel Detailing practices

Summary Welding

3 4

Principles Strong Column/Weak Beam design principle

Design criteria Panel zone strength

Beam-to-column typologies Connection strength and degradation characteristics

Design and fabrication recommendations P-δ effects

Welding technology

Member local buckling

Strain-rate loading

M - φ modelling

Column web panel

Summary 5 6

Requirements for Connection

Design Criteria in USA Successful Performance

Guidelines designs for frames with different Welded Joints

anticipated seismic demands Through-Thickness Strength

1997 NEHRP Provisions Base Material Notch-Toughness

AISC Seismic Provisions Weld Wire Notch-Toughness

Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (OMRF) Weld backing and Run out Tabs

Plastic rotation capacities of 0,01 rad Reinforcing Fillet Welds

Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (IMRF) Cope Hole Size, Shape, Workmanship

Plastic rotation capacities of 0,02 rad Bolted Joints

Special Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF) Bolt Sizing, Hole Type, Tightening

Plastic rotation capacities of 0,03 rad

7 Net Section Strength 8

EN 1998-1-1 basic provisions concerning steel joints Principles

General rules for steel connections in dissipative Design criteria

structures Beam-to-column typologies

Requirements for MRF (Moment Resistant Frame) Design and fabrication recommendations

beam-to-column connections

Welding technology

EN 1993-1-8

Strain-rate loading

Rotational stiffness of a joint Sj

axial force NSd in the connected member not exceed 10% M - φ modelling

Rotation capacity Column web panel

9

Summary 10

FEMA/SAC test programmes Prescriptive Moment Frame Connection

Connection type classified for certain ranges of

Member size

Plastic rotation angle

Connection types

Welded Unreinforced Flange (WURF)

Welded Cover Plated Flange (WCPF)

Welded Flange Plates (WFP)

Welded Vertical Ribbed Flange (WVRF)

Welded Column Tree with Bolted Beam (WCT/BB)

Welded Single Haunch (WSH)

Welded Double Haunch (WDH) 11 12

Welded Flange Plate Connection Welded Column Tree with Bolted Beam

13 14

Guidelines as pre-qualified for certain conditions Bolted end plate (BEP)

of use

Bolted end plate (BEP)

Welded flange plates with bolted beam (WFPBB)

Bolted single haunch (BSH)

Bolted double haunch (BDH)

15 16

Welded flange plates with bolted beam (WFPBB) Bolted double haunch (BDH)

17 18

Beam-to-Column Typologies Beam-to-Column Typologies

Specific joints in Japan Specific joints in Europe

Extended end plate joint

A A

Stiffener Stiffener

.

.

.

10M20 - 10.9

A-A

19 20

Specific joints in Europe Specific joints in Europe

C C

Welded joint B B

Welded flange plate joint

.

.

.

.

.

.

3M20 - 6.6

C-C

B-B

21 22

General Rules

Scope of the Lecture for Steel Connections in Dissipative Structures

Principles Localisation of plastic strains, high residual stresses,

Design criteria and fabrication defects

By experimental evidence

Beam-to-column typologies

Design and fabrication recommendations Non dissipative connections of dissipative members

Welding technology Full penetration butt welds

Deemed to satisfy the overstrength criterion

Strain-rate loading

For fillet weld or bolted non dissipative connections

M - φ modelling

Column web panel Rd ≥ 1,35 R fy

Summary 23 24

General Rules Requirements for Moment Resistant Frame

for Steel Connections in Dissipative Structures beam-to-column connections

Bolted joints Structure dissipate energy in the beams

In shear categories B and C (slip resistant) only Connections between the beams and the columns should be

Un tension category E With controlled tightening of the bolts designed for the required degree of overstrength

Shear joints with fitted bolts are also allowed. Moment resistance Mpl.Rd and the shear force (VG, Ed + VM,Ed)

Bolted shear connection evaluated in 6.6.2 of standard EN 1998-1

The shear resistance of the bolts should be higher than 1,2 times Dissipative semi-rigid and/or partial strength connections

the bearing resistance are permitted provided all of the following conditions

The strength and ductility of members and their connections Connections have a rotation capacity consistent with global

under cyclic loading deformations

Should be supported by experimental evidence Members framing into the connections are demonstrated to be

stable at the ultimate limit state (ULS)

For all types of connections in dissipative zones

Effect of connections deformation on global drift is taken into

Available plastic rotation φ = δ /( 0 ,5 L ) account

p

25 26

Beam-to-Column Connections Design and Fabrication Recommendations

Connection design Material properties

Plastic rotation capacity φCd in the plastic hinge Yield-to-Ultimate Stress Ratio (YUSR)

Not less than 35 mrad for structures of ductility class H YUSR (fy/fu) = 0,65 or 0,80

and 25 mrad for structures of ductility class M with q>2. For a plastic rotation capacity up to 0,030 rad.

Under cyclic loading without degradation of strength and stiffness YUSR = 0,95

greater than 20% Reduced plastic hinge length at a plastic rotation capacity of 0,030 rad

Supported by experimental evidence

Partial strength connections The plastified length of the beam with YUSR = 0,95

Column capacity design from the plastic capacity of connections Half the corresponding length in YUSR = 0,80

27 28

Principles Access Hole Size and Geometry

Design criteria

Beam-to-column typologies

Design and fabrication recommendations

Welding technology

Strain-rate loading

M - φ modelling

Column web panel

Summary 29 30

Design and Fabrication Recommendations Scope of the Lecture

Access Hole Size and Geometry Principles

Increasing the size of the web cope

Design criteria

Easier welding on the beam bottom flange

Better weld quality Beam-to-column typologies

25 Design and fabrication recommendations

10

25

10 Welding technology

38

20

20

Strain-rate loading

25 25 50 M - φ modelling

Standard Modified Column web panel

Configurations of weld access hole

31

Summary 32

The strain-rate loading has an important influence on the

behaviour of joints Stress

A strain rate typical for steel members yielding under

seismic action in the range of 0,03-0,06 s-1

Increases the yield strength

Lower ultimate strength of welded connections

Ductility is reduced by up to 27% Conventional speed

Decrease of ductility due to high strain rates is not straightforward E

Very high speed

for cyclic loading

Strain

33 34

Stress, MPa -1

α DIF , fy = f y ,dyn / f y 800 502 s

10 -2s -1

10 -4s -1

α DIF , fu = f u .dyn / f u 600

400 140 s -1

αDIF.fy α DIF .fu 50 s -1

200

>1s 1,0 1,00 Strain, %

0

100 ms 1,1 1,05 15 30 45 60 75

10 ms 1,6 1,05

EN 10088-2 1.4307 (304L)

1 ms 1,9 1,05 increase of f02 o cca 7% - 28%

35 36

Scope of the Lecture M - φ Modelling

Principles Stable behaviour

Design criteria Unstable curve

Beam-to-column typologies Slip in connection

Design and fabrication recommendations M M M

Welding technology

Strain-rate loading φ φ φ

M - φ modelling

Column web panel

Summary 37 38

M - φ Modelling Parametres

φ j .i

Stable behaviour Rotational capacity β Δ .i =

φ j .el

Unstable curve Ei

βe =

Slip in connection Energy M j .el (φi − φel )

Ei φi

Rotational capacity and β E .i =

φel M j .el (φix − φel )

energy

S j .i

β S .i =

Stiffness S j .ini

M j .i

β M .i =

39 Resistance M j .ini 40

M

Sj.ini

Models Exponential Curve Ma

Sj.ini

Sj.s

M0

Curve fitting Initial stiffness Sj,ini

Initial stiffness Moment resistance M0 φa φ

Unloading - M0

M j = S j .i φi = M i −1 −

Component cycling description ⎡ (S j .ini − S j .s )(φ a − φ )n ⎤

1/ n j .s a

Assembling ⎢1 + ⎥

⎣⎢ ⎦⎥

2 M0

41 42

Scope of the Lecture Column Web Panel

Principles T joints or double T joints with unsymmetrical loads strong

influence on the behaviour of the joint

Design criteria The resistance of the joint is reduced by between 20 - 40%

Beam-to-column typologies and the ductility is increased by 150 - 200%, due to the web

Design and fabrication recommendations panel.

Welding technology Adding supplementary web plates on the column web panel

can increase the resistance of the joint.

Strain-rate loading

M - φ modelling

Column web panel

Summary 43 44

High strength bolts (in US HSFG, High Strength Friction

r Grip bolts) can be used as ordinary bolts in seismic joints

It is recommended that they are tightened at a level of 50%

of their preloading force.

In this case the surfaces of the plates do not have to be

beff prepared for working as a slip-resistant connection

Ls

beff

Principles 1. Introduction

2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8

Design criteria

3. Welded connections

Beam-to-column typologies

4. Bolted connections

Design and fabrication recommendations 5. Basics of structural joints

Welding technology 6. Design of simple connections

Strain-rate loading 7. Column bases

M - φ modelling 8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2

9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

Column web panel

Summary 47 48

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