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Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Steel Structures Publications 33

Teknillisen korkeakoulun teräsrakennetekniikan laboratorion julkaisuja 31

Espoo 2007 TKK-TER-33

DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS TO EUROCODE


Preview of MS Power Point presentations

F. Wald

AB TEKNILLINEN KORKEAKOULU
TEKNISKA HÖGSKOLAN
HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT HELSINKI
UNIVERSITE DE TECHNOLOGIE D’HELSINKI
List of Lessons at Seminar
1. Introduction
Introduction 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
3. Welded connections
4. Bolted connections
Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
Prof. František Wald 7. Column bases
Czech Technical University in Prague 8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Summary List of Content in EN 1993-1-8


ƒ List of content 1. Introduction
ƒ Timing 2. Basis of design
Lessons

ƒ National Annexes
in Window Help Format
with PP Presentations 3. Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins
ƒ CeStruCo CeStruCo 4. Welded connections
ƒ Access STEEL 5. Analysis, classification and modelling
ƒ Summary 6. Structural joints connecting H or I sections
7. Hollow section joints

3 4

Summary Development of Eurocodes


ƒ List of content ƒ ECCS Concept in 1978
ƒ ECCS First draft in 1984
ƒ Timing Lessons
in Window Help Format ƒ CEN Started with Eurocodes in 1990
ƒ National Annexes with PP Presentations

ƒ CEN ENV 199x-x-x in 1992 (actions nationally only)


ƒ CeStruCo CeStruCo
ƒ CEN EN 199x-x-x in 2005
ƒ Access STEEL ƒ Advantages
ƒ Summary ƒ European agreement
ƒ All structural materials under one safety concept
ƒ Weakness
ƒ Copyrights
ƒ Size (some countries only rules, some textbooks)
5 6
List of Eurocodes Eurocodes List of Actions
ƒ EN 1990 Eurocode 0: Basis of Structural Design ƒ EN 1991-1-1 Actions – Dead load published 04/02
ƒ EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
ƒ EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures ƒ EN 1991-1-2 Actions – Fire 11/02
ƒ EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures ƒ EN 1991-1-3 Actions – Snow 07/03
Project team Prof. F. Bijlaard
ƒ EN 1991-1-4 Actions – Wind 04/05
ƒ EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete struc. ƒ EN 1991-1-5 Actions – Temperature 11/03
Project team Prof. D. Anderson
ƒ EN 1991-1-6 Actions – During erection 06/05
ƒ EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures ƒ EN 1991-1-7 Actions – Exceptional 05/06
ƒ EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
ƒ EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design ƒ EN 1991-2 Actions – Transport on bridges 09/03
ƒ EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance ƒ EN 1991-3 Actions – Crane girders 11/06
ƒ EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures
7
ƒ EN 1991-4 Actions – Silos and tanks 08/05 8

Structural Steel Eurocodes (20 documents) Development of EN 1993-1-8


ƒ EN 1993-1-1 Basic rules First package 05/05
ƒ EN 1993-1-2 Fire resistance 04/05 From ENV 1991-1 Chapter 6 Connections
ƒ
ƒ
EN 1993-1-3
EN 1993-1-4
Thin walled
Corrosion resistant
Annex J Joints
ƒ
ƒ
EN 1993-1-5
EN 1993-1-6
Plates
Shells
Annex L Base plates
ƒ
ƒ
EN 1993-1-7
EN 1993-1-8
Plates 2
Connections 05/05
Annex K Hollow section joints
ƒ EN 1993-1-9 Fatigue 05/05
ƒ EN 1993-1-10 Brittle fracture 05/05
ƒ EN 1993-1-11 Tensile members (cables) ƒ ECCS TC10 comments to ENV 1993-1-1 May 12, 1992
ƒ EN 1993-1-12 HSS
ƒ EN 1993-2 Bridges ƒ CEN/TS250/SC3 project team, head Mr. Jouko Kouhi VTT, Finland
ƒ EN 1993-3-1 Mast ƒ prEN 1993-1-8 document N 1054 E Sept. 9, 2001
ƒ EN 1993-3-2 Chimneys
ƒ EN 1993-4-1 Silos ƒ 900 national comments
ƒ EN 1993-4-2 Tanks
ƒ EN 1993-4-3 Pipelines
ƒ Final draft Nov. 20, 2001
ƒ EN 1993-5 Pilots ƒ Voting April 16, 2004
ƒ EN 1993- 6 Crane girders
9 ƒ Acceptation by CEN May 11, 2005
10

Eurocode Implementation - Examples Summary


ƒTranslations
UK N/A; France 12/2006; Poland 2007; Czech Rep. 8/2006 ƒ List of content
ƒ Timing
ƒNational Annexes Lessons
in Window Help Format

UK 12/2007; France 12/2006; Poland 2010; Czech Rep. 8/2006 ƒ National Annexes with PP Presentations

ƒ CeStruCo CeStruCo
ƒEurocodes be adopted for government construction
UK unknown; France Not; Poland 2010; Czech Rep. 2008 ƒ Access STEEL
ƒ Conclusions
ƒEurocodes be adopted for non-government construction
UK unknown; France Not; Poland 2010; Czech Rep. 2008

ƒNational standards withdrawn


UK 2010; France 2010; Poland 2010; Czech Rep. 2010
11 12
National Annex for EN 1993-1-8 National Choice (Czech Rep.)
ƒ Alternative procedures Clause 1.2.6 Reference Standards, Group 6: Rivets
ƒ ČSN 02 2300: Rivets, Overview (Czech national standards).
ƒ Nationally Determined Parameters Clause 2.2 Partial safety factors, paragraph (2)
National choice is allowed in EN 1993-1-8 through (only): ƒ Numerical values of partial safety factors for joints are not changed, the values
in Table 2.1 should be used.
ƒ 1.2.6(6) Reference standard Rivets Clause 3.1.1(3) General, paragraph (2)
ƒ 2.2(2) Partial safety factors ƒ All bolt classes listened in Table 3.1 may be used.
ƒ 3.1.1(3) Bolt classes Clause 3.4.2 Tension connections, paragraph (1)
ƒ If the preload is not explicitly required in design for slip resistance, the hand
ƒ 3.4.2(1) Hand tightening of the nut is considered adequate tightening of the nut is considered adequate without the control of preload.
ƒ 5.2.1(2) Classification of joints Clause 5.2.1 General, paragraph (2)
ƒ No additional information on classification of joints by their stiffness and strength
ƒ 6.2.7.2(9) Requirements for elastic distribution of forces in bolt are given to that included in 5.2.1(2).
rows Clause 6.2.7.2 Beam-to-column joints with bolted end-plate
connections, paragraph (9)
ƒ The requirements for elastic distribution of forces in the bolt rows introduced
13 14
in (6.26) are not changed.

CeStruCo =
Summary Civil enginnering Structural Connections
ƒ List of content ƒ Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
ƒ Timing ƒ Bouwen met Staall, Netherlands
ƒ Building Research Establishment Ltd., United Kingdom
ƒ National Annexes Lessons
in Window Help Format
with PP Presentations ƒ Czech Technical University (contractor), Czech Republic
ƒ CeStruCo ƒ Luleå University of Technology, Sweden
ƒ Access STEEL CeStruCo ƒ University of Coimbra, Portugal
ƒ Summary ƒ Politechnica University of Timisoara, Romania

Review
ƒ KREKON Design office, Rotterdam, Netherlands Czech
ƒ EXCON a.s., Prague, Czech Republic
15
ƒ Constructional Steelwork Association Ostrava, CR 16

European Educational Projects Textbook


ƒ ESDEP Basic European educational project 1. Introduction
ƒ WIVISS CD lessons 2. Bolts
3. Welding
ƒ SteelCall Virtual office 4. Structural Modelling
ƒ Stainless SteelCall Internet/CD 5. Simple Connections
6. Moment Resistance Connections
ƒ SSEDTA PP presentation + lessons
7. Column Bases
ƒ CeStruCo Connection design 8. Seismic Design
ƒ NFATEC Internet courses 9. Fire Design
10. Hollow Section Joints
ƒ SDCWASS Austenitic stainless steel 11. Cold-Formed Member Joints
ƒ DIFISEK Fire design 12. Aluminium Connections
13. Design Cases
17 18
Internet / CD Version Lessons in Window Help Format
ƒ Lessons in Window help format
ƒ Textbook in PDF file
ƒ Worked examples
ƒ Presentations
ƒ PowerPoint
ƒ Programme „Nonlinear analyses of joints by component method“
ƒ Video film
ƒ Tools for connection design
ƒ Example of Software
ƒ Example of Tables
19 20
Prepared by RoboHelp tool at Czech Technical University in Prague

PowerPoint Presentations Software

Non-linear Analysis of Steel Connections


Coimbra University
Prediction of behaviour by component method
Based on with nonlinear force - deformation diagram of components
Fire test on 8th storey building Cardington, January 16, 2003 21 22

Video Film CeStruCo on CD

ƒ Educational material to support conversion


of ENV 1993-1-1 to EN1993-1-8
Lessons
in Window Help Format
with PP Presentations
ƒ CD / Internet lessons

Statically Stressed Bolts in Dynamically Loaded Connections


CeStruCo
www.fsv.cvut.cz/cestruco
prepared at Delft University

23 24
Access STEEL – Informational tool
Summary at www.access-steel.com
ƒ List of content
ƒ Timing Lessons
in Window Help Format

ƒ National Annexes with PP Presentations

ƒ CeStruCo CeStruCo
ƒ Access STEEL
ƒ Summary

25 26

Access STEEL – Information System Access STEEL - Documents


ƒ Eurocodes 1993-1-x and EN 1994-1-x for not steel specialists ƒ Topics
ƒ Project Initiation
ƒ Scheme Development
ƒ Multi-storey Buildings
ƒ Detailed Design Verification ƒ Single Buildings
ƒ Residential Construction
ƒ For practising designers, architects and their clients ƒ Fire Safety Engineering
ƒ Detailed design of elements
ƒ Step-by-step guidance
ƒ Full supporting information
ƒ 250 separate technical resources + 50 interlinked modules
ƒ Worked examples ƒ Client's guide
ƒ Interactive worked examples ƒ Concept designs
ƒ Flow Charts
ƒ English, French, German and Spanish ƒ Non-conflicting Complementary Information
ƒ Project of EU eContent Programme ƒ Worked examples (Pasive and Interactive)
27 28

Example - Client's Guide Example - Concept Designs

29 30
Example - Flow Charts Example - Non-Conflicting Complementary Information

31 32

Example – Pasive Worked Example Example – Interactive Worked Example

33 34

Access STEEL Summary


ƒ Informational system based on hypertext engine ƒ EN 1993-1-8 – Connectors and joints
ƒ EN 1993-1-8 – Will be used from 2007 (mostly)

ƒ CeStruCo – Educational material to EN 1993-1-8


ƒ Access STEEL – Informational tool for EC3 on internet

35 36
List of Lessons at Seminar
Bases of Design 1. Introduction
2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
according to EN 1993-1-8 3. Welded connections
4. Bolted connections
Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
Prof. František Wald
7. Column bases
8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Topics General Requirements


ƒ Bases of Design ƒ All joints should have a design resistance
such that the structure is capable
ƒ Eccentricity at Intersections
of satisfying all the basic design requirements
ƒ Connection Modelling in Global Analyses given in EN 1993-1-1.
ƒ Global Analysis of Lattice Girders
ƒ Classification of Joints
ƒ Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints
ƒ Summary

3 4

Partial safety factors for joints Applied Forces and Moments


ƒ Resistance of members and cross-sections γM0, γM1, γM2
ƒ Resistance of bolts, rivets, pins, welds, plates in bearing γ M2 ƒ The forces and moments applied to joints
ƒ Slip resistance γ M3, γ M3,ser at the ultimate limit state
ƒ Bearing resistance of an injection bolt γ M4
ƒ Resistance of joints in hollow section lattice girder γ M5 should be determined
ƒ Resistance of pins at serviceability limit state γ M6,ser according to the principles in EN 1993-1-1.
ƒ Preload of high strength bolts γ M7
ƒ Recommended values
ƒ γ M2 = γ M3 = 1,25 (EN 1993-1-1 γ M0 = 1,00, γ M1 = 1,10)
ƒ γ M3,ser = γ M7 = 1,10 Frequency bar chart
Effect of actions
ƒ γ M4 = γ M5 = γ M6,ser = 1,00 Resistance

5 6
Resistance of Joints Topics
ƒ On the basis of the resistances of its basic components
ƒ Bases of Design
ƒ Eccentricity at Intersections
ƒ Linear-elastic or elastic-plastic analysis
ƒ Connection Modelling in Global Analyses
ƒ Fasteners with different stiffnesses ƒ Global Analysis of Lattice Girders
ƒ With the highest stiffness should be designed to carry the load. ƒ Classification of Joints
ƒ (An exception bolts and slip resistant bolts).
ƒ Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints
ƒ Summary

7 8

Reduction of Resistance
Eccentricity at Intersections of Angles Connected by One Leg
ƒ The joints and members should be designed for the resulting (and other unsymmetrically connected members in tension)
moments and forces 2,0(e2 −0,5d0 )t fu
With 1 bolt: Nu,Rd =
ƒ Except in the case of particular types of structures - lattice girders γ M2
ƒ In the case of joints of angles or tees attached by either a single β2 Anet fu
line of bolts or two lines of bolts With 2 bolts: Nu,Rd =
γ M2
Centroidal axes
β3 Anet fu
With 3 or more bolts: Nu,Rd =
γ M2
Fasteners Reduction factors
Pitch p1 < 2,5 do > 5,0 do
2 bolts β2 0,4 0,7
Fasteners 3 bolts or more β3 0,5 0,7

Setting out lines


9 10

Topics Types of Joint Modelling


ƒ Bases of Design STIFFNESS RESISTANCE
ƒ Eccentricity at Intersections
Full-strength Partial-strength Pinned
ƒ Connection Modelling in Global Analyses
ƒ Global Analysis of Lattice Girders Rigid Continuous Semi-continuous -
ƒ Classification of Joints
Semi - rigid Semi-continuous Semi-continuous -
ƒ Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints
ƒ Summary Pinned - - Simple

11 12
Elastic analysis at the Serviceability Limit State Elastic analysis at the Ultimate Limit State
ƒ Design joint properties based on the type of global analysis Modified stiffness Sj,ini and resistance Mj,Rd
ƒ Initial stiffness Sj,ini and resistance Mj.Rd
M
M Sj,ini
M j,Rd
2
3 M j,Rd
Mj,Sd Sj,ini / η
M j,Sd Sj,ini

φ
φ
η is stiffness modification coefficient
13 14

Stiffness Modification Coefficient η M


Sj,ini
Rigid - Plastic Analysis
M j,Rd

Mj,Sd Sj,ini / η
Resistance Mj,Rd and deformation capacity φCd
φ
M
Other types of joints
M j,Rd
(beam-to-beam joints,
Type of connection Beam-to-column joints
beam splices, column
base joints)
Welded 2 3
Bolted end-plates 2 3
Bolted flange cleats 2 3,5 φCd φ
Base plates - 3
15 16

Elastic - Plastic Analysis Joint Modelling and Frame Global Analysis


ƒ Full curve description MODELLING TYPE OF FRAME ANALYSIS

M Elastic analysis Rigid-plastic Elastic-plastic analysis


analysis
M j,Rd
Continuous Rigid Full-strength Rigid/full strength

Semi- Semi-rigid Partial-strength Rigid/partial-strength


continuous Semi-rigid/full-strength
S j,ini Semi-rigid/partial-strength

Simple Pinned Pinned Pinned


φCd φ

17 18
Topics Global Analysis of Lattice Girders
ƒ Hollow sections
ƒ Bases of Design
ƒ Assumption the members connected by pinned joints
ƒ Eccentricity at Intersections (for the distribution of axial forces)
ƒ Connection Modelling in Global Analyses ƒ Secondary moments (due to rigidity of joints)
ƒ Moments resulting from transverse loads
ƒ Global Analysis of Lattice Girders ƒ Moments resulting from eccentricities

ƒ Classification of Joints Type of component


Source of the bending moment
Secondary effects Transverse loading Eccentricity
ƒ Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints
Compression chord Yes
ƒ Summary Tension chord Not No
Yes
Brace member if criter. is satisfied No
Joint Not (if criter. is satisfied)
19 20

Secondary Moments Moments Resulting from Transverse Loads


Moments, caused by the rotational stiffness's of the joints, Momets should be taken into account in the design of the
may be neglected in the design of members and joints.
members to which they are applied
ƒ Joint geometry is within the range ƒ Brace members may be considered
ƒ Ratio of the system length to the depth of the as pin-connected to the chords.
member in the plane is not less than 6 ƒ Moments resulting from transverse loads applied to
chord members need not be distributed into brace
members, and vice versa.
ƒ Chords may be considered as continuous
beams, with simple supports at panel points.
21 22

Moments resulting from Eccentricities Moments resulting from Eccentricities


ƒ May be neglected in the design
ƒ Centric of tension chord members and brace members
ƒ May be neglected in the design of connections
if the eccentricities are within the limits:
ƒ Negative eccentricity ƒ −0,55 d0 ≤ e ≤ 0,25 d0
ƒ −0,55 h0 ≤ e ≤ 0,25 h0
e eccentricity
d0 diameter of the chord
ƒ Positive eccentricity
h0 depth of the chord, in the plane of the lattice girder
23 24
Topics Based on Resitance
ƒ Bases of Design
Moment, M
ƒ Eccentricity at Intersections
ƒ Connection Modelling in Global Analyses M b,pl,Rd Full strength connection

ƒ Global Analysis of Lattice Girders Partial strength connection


ƒ Classification of Joints Bending moment resistance
of connected beam
ƒ Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints
ƒ Summary
Rotation, φ

25 26

Based on Stiffness (Values for Column Bases) Based on Rotational Capacity


ƒ Accuracy of calculation ƒ Deformation capacity of connected member
ƒ 5% Ultimate Limit State
ƒ 20% Serviceability Limit State Moment,
Elastic rotation M
M M
Relative moment M j / M pl,Rd of connected beam
_ φ
E Ic φ Ultimate rotation
1,0 Rigid φ=
column base L c M c,pl,Rd of connected beam
0,8 Ductile connection (Class 1) φ
S j.ini.c.n = 30 E I c / L c M
0,6 Semi-ductile connection (Class 2)
0,4 S j.ini.c.s = 12 E I c / L c λ o = 1,36 Brittle connection (Class 3)

0,2 Semi-rigid column base


Rotation, φ
Pinned column base
0
0 0,01 0,002 0,003 φ ,27rad 28

Column Bases – Braced Frames Column Bases – Braced Frames


ƒ Prediction of column resistance ƒ Prediction of column resistance
based on the lower support bending stiffness based on the lower support bending stiffness
Relative stiffness of base plate for λ ≤ 0 ,5 is the limit S j .ini > 0 ,
S j.ini
E I c/ L c Simplified boundary
50 for 0 ,5 < λ < 3,93 is the limit S j .ini ≥ 7 ( 2λ − 1 )E I c / Lc ,
40
30 Accurate boundary and for 3 ,93 ≤ λ is the limit S j .ini ≥ 48 I c / Lc .
20
10 The limiting stiffness 12 E Ic / Lc (slenderness lower than λ = 1,36 )
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 λ0
Relative slenderness of column 29 30
Classification of Joints Topics
ƒ National Annex ƒ Bases of Design
may give additional information
ƒ Eccentricity at Intersections
on the classification of joints
by their stiffness and strength ƒ Connection Modelling in Global Analyses
in Cl 5.2.2.1(2) ƒ Global Analysis of Lattice Girders
ƒ Pin is difficult to define ƒ Classification of Joints
ƒ Small moment resistance ƒ Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints
ƒ Small stiffness ƒ Summary
ƒ High deformation/rotational capacity
31 32

Modelling of Joint by Rotational Springs Shear Panel


ƒ Component method

φa
Ma
      Mb
Ma Mb T
φb
Forces and moments acting on the joint

Joint Shear panel Shear panel N b2,Ed N b1,Ed


Vb2,Ed Vb1,Ed

separatelly in connections M b2,Ed Mb1,Ed

33 Forces and moments acting on the web panel at the connections 34

Distribution of Internal Forces Topics


ƒ Bases of Design
= F t1.Rd = F t1.Rd = F t1.Rd ƒ Eccentricity at Intersections
= Ft2.Rd <F
= F t3.Rd
= F t2.Rd
<F <F
t2.Rd

t3.Rd
ƒ Connection Modelling in Global Analyses
z1 t3.Rd
z2
z3
≤ F c.Rd ≤F c.Rd
≤ F c.Rd ƒ Global Analysis of Lattice Girders
Plastic distribution Elastic distribution ƒ Classification of Joints
Elastic-plastic distribution
ƒ Modelling of Beam-to-Column Joints
ƒ Shear forces ƒ Summary
ƒ A bolt row in shear only
ƒ Rest of shear resistance of each bolt row
ƒ Supplement of shear resistance of each bolt row 35 36
List of Lessons at Seminar
1. Introduction
2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
Welded Connections 3. Welded connections
4. Bolted connections
Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
Prof. František Wald
7. Column bases
8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Topics Bases of Design


ƒ Bases of design
ƒ Fillet weld ƒ Fillet welds
ƒ Design model ƒ But weld
ƒ Design independent of the direction of loading ƒ Plug welds
ƒ Very long welds ƒ Groove welds
ƒ Design example a

ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection


EN 1993-1-8 requirements
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members
Design rules + Design models
ƒ Welding in cold-formed zones
ƒ Design of partially penetrated butt weld
ƒ Summary 3 4

Fillet welds –
Definition of Effective Throat Thickness a Topics
ƒ The effective throat thickness of a fillet weld should not be less than 3 mm
ƒ Bases of design
ƒ Fillet weld
ƒ Design model
ƒ Design of independent of the direction of loading
ƒ Very long welds
ƒ Example - Modelling the resistance
ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members
ƒ Welding in cold-formed zones
ƒ Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld
ƒ Design throat thickness of flare groove welds in rectangular structural hollow section
5 ƒ Summary 6
Design Model of Fillet Welds Plane Stresses
ƒ Huber –Misses- Henckey condition of plasticity (HMH)
ƒ Triaxial state of stress (needed exceptionally only)
ƒ Plane state of stress (needed very often)
σz
σx2 + σz2 - σx2 σz2 + 3τ2 ≤ (fy / γM) 2
σx

a effective throat thickness of the fillet weld


σ┴ normal stresses perpendicular to the throat ƒ Uniaxial state of stress (from the material tests)
σ║ normal stresses parallel to the axis of weld (omitted) σ ≤ fy / γM0
τ┴ shear stresses perpendicular to the axis of weld τ ≤ fy / (γM0 √3)
τ║ shear stresses parallel to the axis of weld 7 8

Design Model Correlation factor βw for fillet welds


Standard and steel grade Correlation factor
(
σ 2⊥ + 3 τ 2⊥ + τ 2II ) ≤ f u (β w γ Mw ) EN 10025 EN 10210 EN 10219 βw
S 235
S 235 H S 235 H 0,80
S 235 W
σ⊥ ≤ f u γ Mw S 275 S 275 H
S 275 H
S 275 N/NL S 275 NH/NLH 0,85
S 275 NH/NLH
S 275 M/ML S 275 MH/MLH
fu Ultimate tensile strength of connected material S 355
S 355 H
βw Correlation factor S 355 N/NL S 355 H
S 355 NH/NLH 0,90
S 355 M/ML S 355 NH/NLH
S 355 MH/MLH
S 355 W
S 420 N/NL
S 420 MH/MLH 1,00
S 420 M/ML
γMw partial safety factor for material of welds S 460 N/NL
S 460 NH/NLH
S 460 M/ML S 460 NH/NLH 1,00
9 S 460 MH/MLH 10
S 460 Q/QL/QL1

Topics Design Independent of the Direction of Loading


ƒ Bases of design
N ⊥ Sd
ƒ Fillet weld F w,Sd
ƒ Design model F w,Rd F w,Rd
ƒ Design independent of the direction of loading
ƒ Very long welds La V⊥ ,Sd
ƒ Example - Modelling the resistance V // ,Sd
ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection fu
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members fvw ,d =
3 β w γ Mw
ƒ Welding in cold-formed zones
ƒ Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld Fw ,Rd = a fvw ,d
ƒ Summary 11 12
Topics Very Long Welds
ƒ Bases of design ƒ Overloading of weld ends
due to the different deformation of the connected elements
ƒ Fillet weld
ƒ Design model
τ// τ// τ// τ //
ƒ Design of independent of the direction of loading
ƒ Very long welds
ƒ Design example
Lw
ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members
ƒ Welding in cold-formed zones
ƒ Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld
ƒ Summary 13 14

τ// τ//
Long welds Topics
Lw ƒ Bases of design
ƒ Reduction of design strength ƒ Fillet weld
β Lw = 1,2 − 0,2 (Lw 150 a ) ≤ 1,0 ƒ Design model
ƒ Design of independent of the direction of loading
βLw
1 ƒ Very long welds
0,8 ƒ Design examples
0,6
ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection
0,4
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members
0,2
L/a ƒ Welding in cold-formed zones
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
ƒ Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld
15 ƒ Summary 16

Two Fillet Welds in Parallel Shear Fillet Weld in Normal Shear


τ ΙΙ = 0
τ = F 2a l
σ⊥ = τ ⊥ = σ R 2
From plane stress analysis is

F 2a l ≤ fu (β γ
w Mw 3 ) Has to be satisfied

σ2⊥ + 3 τ2⊥ ≤ f u (β w γ Mw )

After substitution

(σ R
) (
2
2 +3 σ R 2 )=
2
2 σ2R ≤ f u (β w γ Mw )

17
(
σR ≤ f u β w γ Mw 2 ) 18
Vl

Connection of Cantilever Flange - Web


Weld VSd

Shear force V Sd = FSd.


Welds are loaded by longitudinal shear force
Transferred by web τII = FSd 2 a h
V l = V Sd S I
fillets
Bending moment M Sd = F Sd e where V shear force
Sd
Transferred by the shape of.weld S Static moment of flange to neutral axis
Centre of gravity, Iwe and cross section modulus W we I moment of inertia
For weld at lower flange cross section modulus Wwe,1 and stress is This longitudinal force is carried by two welds effective thickness a
(
σ ⊥1 = τ ⊥1 = M Sd )
2 W we ,1 Shear stress
For upper weld on flange is
τ II = V l 2 a ≤ f u β w γ Mw 3
(
σ ⊥ 2 = τ ⊥ 2 = M Sd )
2 W we , 2
19 Maximum stress is at the point of maximum shear force 20

Topics Effective Width of Welded Beam-to-Column Connection


ƒ Bases of design ƒ Connection to plate deformed out of its plate
ƒ Fillet weld
ƒ Design model
ƒ Design of independent of the direction of loading
ƒ Very long welds
ƒ Worked Examples
ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members
ƒ Welding in cold-formed zones
ƒ Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld
ƒ Summary 21 22

Effective Width Effective Width


t fb
ƒ Unstiffened column flanges ƒ Unstiffened column flanges
ƒ In EN 1993-1-8 Chapter 4.10 ƒ In EN1993-1-8 Clause 6.2.4.4

t fb fyb
beff = twc + 2 s + 7 t fc Ft ,fc ,Rd = (twc + 2 s + 7 k t fc )
γ M0
⎛t 2 ⎞⎛f ⎞
beff = twc + 2 s + 7 ⎜ fc ⎟ ⎜ yc ⎟ ⎛f t ⎞
⎜ t ⎟⎜f ⎟ rc k = min ⎜ yc fc ; 1⎟
⎝ fb ⎠ ⎝ yb ⎠ beff ⎜f t ⎟
t wc
⎝ yb fb ⎠
σ
t fc
twc thickness of column web
tfc thickness of column flange twc is thickness of column web
tfb thickness of beam flange tfc thickness of column flange
s equal to fillet radius rc for hot rolled column sections tfb thickness of beam flange
23 s is equal to fillet radius rc for hot rolled column sections 24
Weld Design for Full Resistance
Topics of Connecting Members - Loading by Normal Force
ƒ Bases of design ƒ Not directly in code
ƒ Fillet weld σt τ⊥
a > 0,7 σw
ƒ Design model fu / γ Mw σ
FSd
σ⊥
ƒ Design of independent of the direction of loading σ = FSd / (t h) t
ƒ Very long welds FSd the acting design force
ƒ Example - Modelling the resistance fu plate design strength
ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection t the thinness of connecting plate
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members b width of connecting plate
ƒ Throat thickness of a fillet weld used in a hollow section joints full capacity of a plate the thickness S235:
(f / γ ) t ( 235 / 1,10 ) t
ƒ Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld a > 0,7 y M 0 = 0,7 = 0,52 t ≈ 0,5 t
fu / γ Mw 360 / 1,25
ƒ Summary 25 26

Weld Design for Full Resistance Weld Design


of Connecting Members - Loading by Shear Force or Full Resistance of Connecting Members
τ

τ VSd h ƒ Loading by shear force ∼ 0,5 t

τ = VSd / (t h) t ƒ Loading by normal force ∼ 0,4 t


VSd the design shear force in weld
full capacity of a plate the thickness S235
τt f /( 3 γ M 0 ) t 235 /( 1,1∗ 3 ) t
a > 0,85 ≈ 0,85 y = 0,85 = 0,36 t ≅ 0,4 t
fw / γ Mw fu / γ Mw 360 / 1,25

27 28

Topics Welding in Cold-Formed Zones


ƒ Bases of design
ƒ Fillet weld ƒ May be carried out
within a length 5 t either side of a cold-formed zone
ƒ Design model
ƒ Cold-formed zones are normalized after cold-forming but before
ƒ Design of independent of the direction of loading welding
ƒ Very long welds ƒ r / t - ratio satisfy the relevant values:
ƒ Example - Modelling the resistance
Maximum thickness (mm)
ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection r/t Fully killed Aluminium-killed steel
(Al ≥ 0,02 %)
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members
≥ 25 any
ƒ Welding in cold-formed zones ≥ 10 any
≥ 3,0 24
ƒ Design of partially penetrated butt weld ≥ 2,0 12
≥ 1,5 10
ƒ Summary 29 ≥ 1,0 6 30
V
Topics Butt welds
1/2 V
ƒ Bases of design ƒ Fully suply the cross-section
ƒ Fillet weld U
ƒ Design model
ƒ Design of independent of the direction of loading π
ƒ Very long welds
ƒ Example - Modelling the resistance ƒ For low quality is decreased design strength
ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection
ƒ Calculation as fillet weld
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members
ƒ Welding in cold-formed zones
ƒ Design of partially penetrated butt weld
ƒ Summary 31 32

t
anom
a nom.1

Design of Partially Penetrated Butt Weld anom a nom c nom


a nom.2

a = anom – 2 mm ƒ Full penetration T joints


anom ,1 + anom ,2 ≥ t
t
t
anom
a nom.1 c nom ≤
5
cnom ≤ 3 mm
anom a nom c nom
a nom.2 ƒ Partial penetration with an effective width
anom ,1 + anom ,2 < t
. a1 = anom,1 − 2 mm
a2 = anom,2 − 2 mm
33 34

Topics Summary
ƒ Bases of design ƒ Chapter 4 Welded connections
ƒ Fillet weld
+
ƒ Design model
ƒ Design of independent of the direction of loading ƒ Rules for connection of open sections
ƒ Very long welds ƒ Component method
ƒ Example - Modelling the resistance ƒ Rules for connection of hollow sections
ƒ Effective width of welded beam-to-column connection
ƒ Welded
ƒ Weld design for full resistance of connecting members
ƒ Welding in cold-formed zones
ƒ Design of partially penetrated butt weld
ƒ Summary 35 36
List of Lessons at Seminar
1. Introduction
Bolted Connections 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
(Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins)
3. Welded connections
4. Bolted connections
Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
Prof. František Wald
7. Column bases
8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Scope of the Lecture Material


ƒ General
ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners ƒ Nominal values of the yield strength fyb
ƒ Non-preloading bolts
ƒ Single lap joints and the ultimate tensile strength fub for bolts
ƒ Bearing through packing
ƒ Slotted holes Bolt class 4.6 4.8 5.6 5.8 6.8 8.8 10.9
ƒ Long joints
ƒ Rivets
ƒ Anchor bolts fyb (N/mm2) 240 320 300 400 480 640 900
ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts
ƒ Design for block tearing fub (N/mm2) 400 400 500 500 600 800 1000
ƒ Lug angles
ƒ Pin connections Note: Bolts 12.9 are not allowed
ƒ Injection bolts
ƒ Summary 3 4

Categories of Bolted Connections Holes (ENV 1990)


Shear connections
ƒ Normal
A Fv,Ed ≤ Fv,Rd
from 4.6 to 10.9 ƒ +1 mm for M 12
Bearing type Fv,Ed ≤ Fb,Rd

B
Fv,Ed.ser ≤ Fs,Rd,ser
8.8 or 10.9 ƒ +2 mm for M 16 up M 24
Fv,Ed ≤ Fv,Rd
Slip-resistant at serviceability ƒ +3 mm for M 27 and bigger
Fv,Ed ≤ Fb,Rd

C
Fv,Ed ≤ Fs,Rd ƒ Extra large With loose 3 mm (M12) up 8 mm (M27)
Fv,Ed ≤ Fb,Rd 8.8 or 10.9
Slip-resistant at ultimate
Fv,Ed ≤ Nnet,Rd ƒ Slotted (elongated)
Tension connections
ƒ Accurate – flushed bolts
D Ft,Ed ≤ Ft,Rd
Non-preloaded Ft,Ed ≤ Bp,Rd
from 4.6 to 10.9 ƒ for bolt M20 must be the clearance Δd < 0,3 mm
E Ft,Ed ≤ Ft,Rd
8.8 or 10.9
Preloaded Ft,Ed ≤ Bp,Rd 5 6
Positioning of Holes for Bolts and Rivets Maximum Values for Spacings
p1 e1
ƒ Edge and end distances are unlimited, except :
ƒ Minimum values for spacings e2
ƒ for compression members in order to avoid local buckling
p2
and to prevent corrosion in exposed members and;
End distance e1 1,2 d0
ƒ for exposed tension members to prevent corrosion.
Edge distance e2 1,2 d0
Distance in slotted holes e3 1,5 d0
Distance in slotted holes e4 1,5 d0
Spacing p1 2,2 d0
Spacing p2 2,4 d0

7 8

Local Buckling of Plate Staggered Rows


in compression between the fasteners: ƒ minimum line spacing of p2 = 1,2d0

ƒ need not to be checked if p1 / t is smaller than 9 ε


ε = 235 / fy

ƒ according to EN 1993-1-1 using 0,6 p1 as buckling length

t thickness of the thinner outer connected part

9 10

Scope of the Lecture Resistance in Shear in One Shear Plane


ƒ General Plane of shear is going through threads of bolt:
ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners
ƒ Non-preloading bolts For classes 4.6 a 5.6
ƒ Single lap joints
ƒ Bearing through packing Fv ,Rd = (0,6 f ub A s ) γ M2
ƒ Slotted holes
ƒ Long joints
ƒ Rivets
For classes 8.8 a 10.9
ƒ Anchor bolts
ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts Fv , Rd = (0,5 f ub A s ) γ M2
ƒ Design for block tearing A s Core area of cross section of bolt
ƒ Lug angles
ƒ Pin connections f ub Ultimate strength of bolt
ƒ Injection bolts
γ M2 Partial safety factor of bolt
ƒ Summary 11 12
d0

Resistance in Shear in One Shear Plane Resistance in Bearing d

Plane of shear is going through shaft of bolt


Fb,. Rd = (2 ,5 α f u d t ) γ M2 e1 p1

Fv , Rd = (0,6 f ub A ) γ M2
where α is minimum from formulas

e1 3 d 0 ; p1 3 d 0 - 1 4 ; f ub f u ; 1,0
A Full area of cross section of bolt
fub Ultimate strength of bolt t minimum thickness in one direction
Fb.Sd
γ M2 Partial safety factor of bolt d diameter of bolt
d0 diameter of hole
f ub strength of bolt
13 f u strength of material (0,8 in oversized holes) 14

Resistance in Bearing Bearing of Plate and Bolt


In oversized holes reduction 0,8
ƒ Inner bolt
Load on a bolt is not parallel to the edge,
the bearing resistance may be verified separately
for the bolt load components parallel and normal to the end
R 10
20

ƒ Outer bolt
30
e1 40 IPE 200
p 1 60 L 140 P 10 - 140 x 100
VSd = 110 kN
e1 40 M 20 - 5.6

tw tp 4
4
5,6 10 10 50

10

15 16

Bearing Resistance of Bolt Group


p1 e1 Tensile Resistance
p1 = 3 d0 e1 = 1,2 d 0

ƒ For the holes 2:


Ft,Rd = (k 2 fub A s ) γ M2
F F
e1 1,2 d 0
α= = = 0,4
3 d0 3 d0
ƒ For the holes 1: Holes 1 Holes 2
p1 3 d0 As Area of core of bolt
α= − 0,25 = − 0,25 = 1 − 0,25 = 0,75
3 d0 3 d0
γ Mb Partial safety factor

1)Total bearing resistance is based on direct summarising f ub Ultimate bolt strength


Fb ,Rd = (∑α )
2,5 d t fu 2,5 d t fu 2,5 d t fu
= (2 ⋅ 0,4 + 2 ⋅ 0,75 )⋅ = 2,3 ⋅
γ M2 γ M2 γ M2 k2 = 0,90 for regular bolt head
2)Total bearing resistance is based on smallest of the
k2 = 0,63 for countersunk bolt
individual resistances
Fb .Rd = (∑α )
2,5 d t fu 2,5 d t fu 2,5 d t fu
= (2 ⋅ 0,4 + 2 ⋅ 0,40)⋅ = 1,6 ⋅17
γ M2 γ M2 γ M2 18
Punching Shear Resistance Combined Shear and Tension
F t,exp Experimental tensile resistance / predicted tensile resistance
Bp,Rd = 0,6 π dm tp fu / γM2 F t 1,0 Treads in shear plane
Shank in shear plane

F v,S Ft,S
tp plate thickness F v,R
+
1 ,4 F t,R
≤1

0,5
dm the mean of the across points and across
flats dimensions of the bolt head or the nut,
Experimental shear resistance
whichever is smaller predicted tensile resistance
0 F v,exp
d1 + d 2 d1 d w dm 0 0,5 1,0 Ft
dm =
2 d2 19 Owens G.W., Cheal D.B.: Structural Steelwork Connections, Butterworths, 1989.20

Single Lap Connection with One Bolt Scope of the Lecture


1,5 fu d t ƒ General
Reduction of bearing resistance Fb ,Rd ≤ ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners
γ M2 ƒ Non-preloading bolts
ƒ Single lap joints
ƒ Bearing through packing
M 16 - 5.6
ƒ Slotted holes
P5 - 60 x 840
ƒ Long joints
ƒ Rivets
8 5
FSd ƒ Anchor bolts
30 30 ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts
ƒ Design for block tearing
ƒ Lug angles
ƒ Pin connections
ƒ Injection bolts
21
ƒ Summary 22

Shear and Bearing pass through Packing Bearing Resistance in Slotted Holes
60% of resistance in circular holes
Reduction of bolt shear resistance
(force perpendicular to the long direction of the slot)
9d
βp = 22 18
18
200
Force, F, kN

8 d + 3 tp 40 40 8 16 8
180
Circular holes, (test 1c-16-1-d+2)
40 40 8 16 8 160
β p ≤ 1,0 M 16 M 16
140
120
β p
100
1,0 tp
10 10 Slotted holes, (test 5c-16-1-d+2,5)
80
35 35
50 50 60
25 25
40
0,5 110 110 20
Displacement , mm
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

0 t p
0,3 d 1,0 d 1,5 d
23 24
Long Connection Scope of the Lecture
ƒ General
Reduction of shear resistance L j − 15d ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners
β Lf = 1 − ƒ Non-preloading bolts
200 d
ƒ Single lap joints
β Lt β Lt ≤ 1,0 ƒ Bearing through packing
1
ƒ Slotted holes
β Lt ≥ 0,75
0,8
0,75
ƒ Long connections
0,6 ƒ Rivets
Lj
ƒ Anchor bolts
Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts
0,4
ƒ
0,2 ƒ Design for block tearing
0 ƒ Lug angles
Lj
0 15d 65d
ƒ Pin connections
ƒ Injection bolts
25
ƒ Summary 26

Rivet Connections Scope of the Lecture


ƒ General
ƒ Philosophy of design was used for bolts ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners
(class A) ƒ
ƒ
Non-preloading bolts
Single lap joints
Bolts spacing's recommendations are coming from rivets ƒ Bearing through packing
ƒ Slotted holes
ƒ Long joints
ƒ Rivets
ƒ Anchor bolts
ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts
ƒ Design for block tearing
ƒ Lug angles
ƒ Pin connections
ƒ Injection bolts
27
ƒ Summary 28

Anchor Bolts Scope of the Lecture


ƒ The nominal yield strength does not exceed ƒ General
ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners
ƒ when the anchor bolts act in shear 640 N/mm2 ƒ Non-preloading bolts
ƒ Single lap joints
ƒ otherwis not more than 900 N/mm2 ƒ Bearing through packing
ƒ Slotted holes
ƒ Long joints
ƒ For bolts with cut threads reduction by a factor of 0,85 ƒ Rivets
ƒ Anchor bolts
ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts
ƒ Design for block tearing
ƒ Lug angles
ƒ Pin connections
ƒ Injection bolts
29
ƒ Summary 30
Slip-resistant Connections
using 8.8 or 10.9 Bolts Friction Coefficient μ
Fp.Cd
ƒ Tests
ƒ Prestressing force ƒ EN 14399-2:2002 High strength structural bolting for preloading -
Fs.Rd Part 2 : Suitability Test for Preloading
ƒ Table for class of friction surfaces
ƒ With painted surface treatments a loss of pre-load may occur
Fs,. Rd = (k s n μ γ M3,ser ) F p, Cd over time.
Class of friction surfaces Slip factor µ
F p,Cd is design prestressing force of bolt (= 0,7 f ub A s),
A blasted, metal spraying (EN 1090) 0,5
μ friction coefficient B blasted (EN 1090) 0,4
n number of friction planes C cleaned (EN 1090) 0,3
D cleaned (EN 1090) 0,2
ks coefficient corresponding to clearance of hole
31 32

Hole Size Coefficient ks Combined Tension and Shear


Description ks k s n μ ( Fp ,C − 0,8 Ft ,Ed )
Fs,Rd =
γ M2
Normal holes 1,0
Δ Fb

Oversized holes bolt


Ft
external
or short slotted holes with the axis of the slot perpendicular to 0,85 Fb
preload Δ Fj tensile force
Fp
the direction of load transfer total bolt force

Long slotted holes with the axis of the slot perpendicular to Fj


0,7
the direction of load transfer
Short slotted holes with the axis of the slot parallel to the δ p,ext
0,76 δb δp
direction of load transfer elongation of the bolt plate shortening
δ b,ext
Long slotted holes
0,63
with the axis of the slot parallel to the direction of load transfer 33 34

Scope of the Lecture Block Tearing


ƒ General ƒ Block tearing consists of failure in shear at the row of bolts
ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners along the shear face of the hole group accompanied by
ƒ Non-preloading bolts tensile rupture along the line of bolt holes on the tension
ƒ Single lap joints face of the bolt group.
ƒ Bearing through packing
ƒ Slotted holes
ƒ Long joints
ƒ Rivets
ƒ Anchor bolts
ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts
Design for block tearing
N Ed
ƒ N Ed

ƒ Lug angles
ƒ Pin connections
ƒ Injection bolts
ƒ Summary 35
N Ed
36
N Ed
Test FE Model

Rupture

ƒ Topkaya C.: A finite element parametric study on block shear failure


ƒ Orbison J.G., Wagner M. E., Fritz W.P.: Tension plane behavior in of steel tension members, Journal of Constructional Steel Research,
single-row bolted connections subject to block shear, Journal of 60 , 2004, s. 1615 – 1635, ISSN 0143-974X.
Constructional Steel Research, 49, 1999, s. 225 – 239. 37 38

Design Model Worked Example - Angle


P10; 1.4401
35
ƒ Symmetric bolt group subject to concentric loading 40
70

240

Veff,1,Rd = fu Ant / γM2 + (1/√3) fy Anv / γM0


100
35
25

L - 100 x 100 10 70
materiál 1.4401
30 + 7 x 30 +30
8 x M16; 70
60
Ant net area subjected to tension 240

Anv net area subjected to shear In plate (staggered rows)


fu Ant 1 A 0,5 × 530× (35 − 2 × 9) ×10 1 (2 × 240− 6 ×18 − 2 × 9)×10 = 72 + 409 = 481kN
Veff,1,Rd = + fy nv = = + × 220×
γM2 3 γM0 1,25×103 3 1,1×103
ƒ Eccentric loading
In angle (staggered rows)
Veff,2,Rd = 0,5 fu Ant / γM2 + (1/√3) fy Anv / γM0 Veff,2,Rd =
0,5 fu,p Ant
+
1 A
fy,p nv = =
0,5 × 530× (60 − 189)×10 1
+ × 220×
(240− 3 ×18 − 9)×10 = 70 + 204 = 274kN
γM2 3 γM0 1,25×103 3 1,1×103
39 40

Single Lap Connection Single Lap Connection


d
t

1,5 fu d t p1
Reduction of bearing resistance Fb ,Rd ≤ β 2 Anet fu p1
γ M2 Nu .Rd =
γM2
( )
2 ,0 e 2 − 0 ,5 d 0 t f u ≥
≤ 52,5
d 0 d0

e2 N u .Rd =
γ M2 p1 p1 p1 p1
β 3 Anet fu
Nu .Rd =
γM2

Reduction factors
Pitch p1
2 bolts β2 0,4 0,7
3 and more bolts β3 0,5 0,7
41 42
Worked Example – Fin Plate Worked Example – Fin Plate, Shear Resistance
3 x M20, 8.8
P10 - 230 x 110
meteriál S235 HEA 200
10 S235
35 80 45

70 70
IPE 300 45 230
S235 70 70
70
230 45
70 50
50
VSd = 100 kN 45

5
50 50 In beam web
60 0 ,5 fu,b1 Ant 1 A 0 ,5 × 360 × 276 ,9 1 1171,5
VRd,11 = + fy,b1 nv = + × 235 × = 199 kN
γ M2 3 γ M0 1,25 3 1,0

43 44

Worked Example – Fin Plate, Tying Resistance Scope of the Lecture


ƒ General
ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners
ƒ Non-preloading bolts
45
ƒ Single lap joints
70 70
ƒ Bearing through packing
70 70 ƒ Slotted holes
45
ƒ Long joints
ƒ Rivets
50
50 ƒ Anchor bolts
ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts
ƒ Design for block tearing
In beam web ƒ Lug angles
fu,b1 Ant 1 A 360 × 681,6 1 553 ,8
ƒ Pin connections
NRd,u,6 = + fy,b1 nv = + × 235 × = 298 kN ƒ Injection bolts
γ M,u 3 γ M0 1,1 3 1,0
45
ƒ Summary 46

Lug Angles Scope of the Lecture


ƒ General
ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners
ƒ Non-preloading bolts
ƒ Single lap joints
ƒ Bearing through packing
ƒ Slotted holes
1. The lug angle to transmit a force 1,2 times the force in the outstand of ƒ Long joints
the angle connected. ƒ Rivets
2. The fasteners connecting the lug angle to the outstand of the angle ƒ Anchor bolts
member should be designed to transmit a force 1,4 times the force in ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts
the outstand of the angle member. ƒ Design for block tearing
3. The connection of a lug angle to a gusset plate or other supporting part ƒ Lug angles
should terminate at the end of the member connected.
ƒ Pin connections
4. The connection of the lug angle to the member should run from the end
of the member to a point beyond the direct connection of the member to ƒ Injection bolts
the gusset or other supporting part. 47
ƒ Summary 48
Pin Connections Design of Pin
ƒ Analysis ƒ Given thickness t
ƒ As bolt (shear, bearing)
ƒ As beam (bending)
FEd γ M 0 2 d 0 F γ d
ƒ Combination of shear and bending a≥
2 t fy
+
3
: c ≥ Ed M 0 + 0
2 t fy 3

d = 30 ƒ Given geometry
F Sd

d3 = t1 t2 t1
20
c c

t 1 = 10 t 1 = 10
c =1 c =1 FEd γ M 0
t2 = 18 M Sd t ≥ 0,7 : d 0 ≤ 2,5 t
49
fy 50

Analysis of Pin - Shear Analysis of Pin - Bending


Resistance of one shear area of pin in shear Resistance of pin in bending
Fv . Rd = (0,6 A f up ) γ Mp ≥ Fv .Sd = 0,5 FSd M Rd = (0,8 W el A f yp ) γ Mp ≥ M Sd = (FSd 8 )(t + 4 c + 2 t 1 )

F Sd applied force
F Sd applied force
f yp yield point of pin
f up strength of pin
γMp = 1,45 partial safety material factor t1 t2 t1
γMp = 1,45 partial safety material factor c c
A cross sectional area of pin
A Cross sectional area of pin W el = π d 3 32 cross sectional elastic modulus of pin M Sd

51 52

Analysis of Pin –
Combination of Bending and Shear Analysis of Pin - Bearing
Stresses due to bending and shear: Bearing stress of plate and pin
(MSd M Rd ) + (Fv ,Sd Fv , Rd ) ≤ 1
2 2
( )
Fb, Rd = 1,5 t d f y γ Mp pro f yp ≥ f y a 2 t 1 ≥ t

fy yield point of plates


f yp yield point of pin
t1
c
t2 t1
c
γMp = 1,45 partial safety material factor

M Sd

53 54
Analysis of Pin - Serviceability Scope of the Lecture
ƒ Replaceable pin ƒ General
the contact bearing stress should satisfy σh,Ed ≤ fh,Rd ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners
ƒ Non-preloading bolts
E FEd ,ser ( d 0 − d ) ƒ Single lap joints
σ h,Ed = 0,591 ƒ Bearing through packing
d2 t ƒ Slotted holes
ƒ Long joints
fh,Ed = 2,5 fy / γM6,ser ƒ Rivets
d the diameter of the pin; ƒ Anchor bolts
ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts
d0 the diameter of the pin hole;
ƒ Design for block tearing
FEd,ser the design value of the force to be transferred in bearing, ƒ Lug angles
under the characteristic load combination ƒ Pin connections
for serviceability limit states ƒ Injection bolts
55
ƒ Summary 56

Injection Bolts Bearing Strength of an Injection Bolt β


σ2
k t k s d t b ,re sin β σf b ,re sin
t2
β 1,33
Fb,Rd,resin =
t1
σ2 t2
1
1,0
σ1 t1
1,33
1,0
γ M4
σ2 t
σ2
σ σ 1 1 2

σ2 t2
σ1 σ1 σ2
ß coefficient depending of the thickness ratio 1.0 2.0 t / t 1 2

1.0 2.0 t1/ t2 fb,resin bearing strength of the resin


ƒ Bolts of class 8.8 or 10.9 tb, resin effective bearing thickness of the resin
kt 1,0 for serviceability limit state
ƒ The design ultimate shear load of any bolt in a Category A
1,2 for ultimate limit state
ƒ Preloaded injection bolts should be used for Category B
ks 1,0 for holes with normal clearances or (1,0 - 0,1 m),
and C connections for oversized holes;
m the difference (in mm) between the normal and oversized
57 hole dimensions 58

Scope of the Lecture Summary


ƒ General
ƒ Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins
ƒ Design resistance of individual fasteners
ƒ Non-preloading bolts in Chapter 3 of EN 1993-1-8
ƒ Single lap joints
ƒ Bearing through packing ƒ Non-preloaded bolts
ƒ Slotted holes
ƒ Long joints ƒ Preloaded bolts – preload (0,7 fub)
ƒ Rivets
ƒ Anchor bolts ƒ Injection bolts (replacement of rivets;
ƒ Slip-resistant connections using 8.8 or 10.9 bolts bolts 8.8 and 10.9)
ƒ Design for block tearing
ƒ Lug angles ƒ Pins (including serviceability)
ƒ Pin connections
ƒ Injection bolts
ƒ Summary 59 60
List of Lessons at Seminar
1. Introduction
Basics of structural joints 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
(Structural Joints Connecting Open Sections)
3. Welded connections
4. Bolted connections
Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
Prof. František Wald
7. Column bases
8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Scope of the Lecture Different Approaches


ƒ General ƒ Experimentation
ƒ Component method ƒ Curve fitting
ƒ Basic components ƒ Finite element analysis
ƒ Assembly ƒ Simplified analytical models – Component Method
ƒ Resistance M Experiment
ƒ Stiffness
ƒ Rotation capacity Function lt hb M
φ = C1( kM )1 + C3 ( kM )3 + C5 ( kM )5
ƒ M-N interaction
ta
ƒ Summary 3
φ
4

Moment-Rotation Characteristic Scope of the Lecture


ƒ Rotational stiffness
ƒ Moment resistance
ƒ General
ƒ Rotation capacity ƒ Component method
M, moment, kNm
Initial stiffness Sj, ini
ƒ Basic components
Joint
resistance ƒ Assembly
M j, Rd Experimental curve
ƒ Resistance
Elastic Design curve
limit ƒ Stiffness
2/3 M j, Rd ƒ Rotation capacity
ƒ M-N interaction
Rotation,φ , mrad ƒ Summary
Deformation capacity φj,Cd 5 6
Procedure Rotational Capacity
ƒ Decomposition of joint M Bending moment, kNm
ƒ Component description Experimental curve
Column web in tension
ƒ Joint assembly Bilinear model
Connection M
j.Rd

Components in tension Plastic


rotational
capacity φ pl
Components in compression Rotational
ƒ Classification Web panel in shear capacity
φ
of joint
Column web in compression
ƒ Representation 0 φ el φu φ Cd Rotation, mrad
Joint
ƒ Modelling in analyses 7 8

Decomposition of Joint Background References


ƒ Zoetemeijer P.: Summary of the research on bolted
beam-to-column connections, TU-Delft report 26-6-90-2,
glfe eflg Delft, 1990.
c
ƒ Zoetemeijer P.: Summary of the Research on Bolted
c Unstiffened column web in shear to ot Beam-to-Column Connections (period 1978 - 1983), Ref.
o Unstiffened column web in compression No. 6-85-M, Steven Laboratory, Delft, 1983.
t Beam flange in compression
f Column flange in bending ƒ Zoetemeijer P.: Proposal for Standardisation of
l Bolt row in tension Extended End Plate Connection based on Test results -
g End plate in bending
e Unstiffened column web in tension Test and Analysis, Ref. No. 6-83-23, Steven Laboratory,
Delft, 1983.
9 10

Practical Application
of the Component Method Spring Models
ƒ Parallel configuration
F
ƒ Design tables 1

ƒ Green book 2
Fu = F1.u + F2.u
ƒ Blue book 1
2

k = k1 + k2

ƒ Computer programs ƒ Serial configuration d δ = min (δ1; δ2)

F 1 2
1
ƒ Simplified hand calculation Fu = min (F1.u; F2.u)

2 1 / k = 1 / k1 +1 / k2

δ = δ1 + δ2 .
11 d 12
Scope of the Lecture Description of Basic Components
ƒ General
ƒ The structural properties of basic joint components are
ƒ Component method described in Chapter 6 of EN 1993-1-8.
ƒ Basic components ƒ e.g.
VEd

ƒ Assembly ƒ Column web panel in shear


VEd Fc,Ed

ƒ Resistance ƒ Column web in transverse compression


Ft,Ed

ƒ Column web in transverse tension


ƒ Stiffness
ƒ Column flange in bending Ft,Ed

ƒ Rotation capacity ƒ End-plate in bending


ƒ M-N interaction
Ft,Ed

ƒ Flange cleat in bending Ft,Ed

ƒ Summary etc.
13 14

Bolts in Tension Ft,Ed End-plate in Bending Ft,Ed

ƒ Analytical model ƒ Analytical model


ƒ Stiffness coefficient F L ƒ Stiffness coefficient
δ b = t ,Ed b
2 E As Ft ,Ed m 3
δp =
Ft ,Ed A 3E I 2 Leff ,ini t 3
kb = = 2,0 s F F 3E I 3 Leff ,ini t 3
E δb Lb k p = t ,Ed = t ,Ed = 12 = 0 ,5
E δ p E Ft ,Ed m 3 m3 m3
As
k b = k 10 =1,6 Leff.ini = 1,7 Leff
Lb
ƒ Resistance, see bolts Leff t 3
k p = k 4 = k 5 = k 6 = 0,85
ƒ Deformation capacity - britle 15
m3 16

Ft,Ed

End-Plate Resistance Failure Modes


ƒ By equivalent T-stub in tension
ƒ Mode 1 - Plate failure
F
n m
ƒ Mode 2 - Plate and bolts failure
L eff
t 2
ƒ Mode 3 - Bolts failure
B B

ƒ Deformation capacity - ductile


17 18
Bolt head / washer size influence Effective Length
F/2 F/2
F/2 F/2
ƒ Circular failure
Q Q ƒ Single bolt
ϕ u ϕ ƒ Bolt group
Q n m Q
ƒ Mode 1 only
dw dw

F/4 F/4 F/2 F/2 F/4 F/4

Q/2 Q/2 Q/2 Q/2


ƒ Another failure
ƒ Single bolt
u
ϕ ϕ ƒ Bolt group
Q n m Q
C C
19 20

α =8 2p 5,5 4,75 4,45


Circular Failure Bolt in Corner λ2 1,4

F F
Leff ,op = α m
1,2

⇒ F F
1,0
F ϕ ƒ In EN 1993-1-8 0,8
δ
2r r=m r=n
graph only
ƒ Virtual work m
0,6

on cone deformation α
α λ2 = 2
r m+e 0,4
ϕ/2 r´
m
λ1 = 0,2
Leff ,cp = 2 π m
ϕ/2
ϕ m+e
δ ϕ/2
x 0,0
α 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 λ1
α α
21 22

Bolt at Oversize T stub Position


e
e e
mx mx mx

Weld
w bp
e Yield lines
mx

23 24
Column Flange with Backing Plates Flange Cleat in Bending
e bp ƒ As equivalent T-stub flange
ƒ Increase of resistance Mode 1 h bp

only e bp

4M pl ,1,Rd + 2M bp ,Rd
FT,1,Rd =
m
2
M pl,1,Rd = 0,25Σl eff ,1t f fy / γ M 0
2
M bp,Rd = 0,25Σl eff ,1t bp fy ,bp / γ M 0

25 26

Influence of Gap Another Components


g ≤ 0,4 ta g > 0,4 ta ƒ see EN 1993-1-8
ra emin ra emin
m m
0,8 r a 0,5 t a

g ≤0,4 t a g >0,4 t a

ba
ƒ Effective length ℓeff = 0,5ba
27 28

Scope of the Lecture Design Resistance


ƒ General ƒ Welded connection
ƒ Component method
ƒ Basic components
Ft,Rd
ƒ Assembly z M j,Rd
ƒ Resistance Fc,Rd
ƒ Stiffness
ƒ Rotation capacity M j ,Rd =Ft ,Rd z
ƒ M-N interaction
ƒ Summary 29 30
Design Resistance Simplified Lever Arm
ƒ Boted connection – one bolt row
Ft.Rd
Ft.Rd
z z z z z
z z
Fc.Rd Fc.Rd

M j ,Rd = ∑F i ti ,Rd
zi

31 32

More Bolt Rows - Firs Bolt Row (start from top) More Bolt Rows – Second Bolt Row
Limits Colum web in shear Column web in Beam flange in Colum web in shear Column web in Beam flange in
compression compression
Limit compression compression
by By shear Ft1.Rd

shear and and compressed


Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd
Ft2.Rd

compressed part Ft2.Rd Ft2.Rd

part
Resistance Column flange in Column web in tension End plate in bending
bending,
of
second bolt row Ft2.Rd Ft2.Rd Ft2.Rd

Resistence Column flange in Column web in tension End plate in


bending bending
of Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd F
t1.Rd Column web in tension Column flange in bending Column web in tension
first bolt row
Resistance Ft1.Rd Ft1.Rd

of Ft2.Rd Ft2.Rd Ft2.Rd

33 both bobt rows 34

More Bolt Rows - Third Bot Row Scope of the Lecture


ƒ Taking into account bolt ƒ General
rows groups ƒ Component method
Ft2.Rd

ƒ Etc. Ft3.Rd Ft3.Rd

F
t1.Rd
Ft1.Rd F
t1.Rd
ƒ Basic components
Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd
Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd
Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd
ƒ Assembly
Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd
Ft2.Rd

Ft3.Rd
ƒ Resistance
ƒ Stiffness
Part in compression
F
t1.Rd
F
t1.Rd
ƒ Rotation capacity
Ft2.Rd Ft2.Rd
ƒ M-N interaction
Part in tension Ft3.Rd Ft3.Rd

35
ƒ Summary 36
φ
Rotational Stiffness Shape Stiffness Ratio Factor
Rotatinal stiffness Sj = M / φ ƒ From curve fitting ⎛ M
ψ

S j ,ini
μ= = ⎜ κ Sd ⎟ ≥1
Fi Sj ⎜ M ⎟
Deformation or a component
δi = M, moment, kNm ⎝ j ,Rd ⎠
ki E
j,
Joint
∑δ i resistance
M j, Rd
Initial stiffness S ini
Rotation in joint φj = i
z Elastic Design curve
Joint with more springs limit
2/3 M j, Rd Shape by stiffness ratio factor
Mj Fi z Fi z 2 E z2 E z2
S j .ini = = = = →
φj ∑δ i
Fi
∑k ∑
1 1
μ∑
1 Deformation capacity φj,Cd

z E i ki ki Rotation,φ , mrad
37 38

More Components Equivalent stiffness


δ
p q lg
∑k eff ,i zi
pq k eq = i
lg z1 z z
z
n Mj φ 2 φ
o 1
i φ1 φ2 φ3 k eff =
1
∑k i i
n i p p z1
o q q
g g ƒ Lever arm
l l ∑k eff ,i z i
2
z4
z= i

∑k i
eff ,i z i

39 40

Scope of the Lecture Rotation Capacity


ƒ General ƒ For platic global analyses
ƒ For basic safety M
ƒ Component method
ƒ Basic components M j.Rd
ƒ Assembly
φCd
ƒ Resistance ƒ Ductile components
ƒ Stiffness ƒ Plate in bending 0,0 φ el φu φCd φ
ƒ Rotation capacity ƒ Column web in shear
ƒ M-N interaction ƒ Brittle components
ƒ Summary 41
ƒ Bots, welds
42
Upper Limits for Material In EN 1993-1-8
ƒIn the US standard only
F ƒ Deem to satisfy criteria
Brittle
Ductile
ƒ Welded joints
ƒ Unstiffned φCD ,min = 0,015
ƒ Unstiffned in tension + Stiffened in compression + No shear
δ influece
φCd ,min = 0,025 hc / hb
δ Cd,1 δ Cd,2

F
Ductile
ƒ Boted joints
Brittle ƒ Plate failure
δ
ƒ End plate/column flange thickness t ≤ 0,36 d fub / fy
δ Cd,1
δ 43Cd,2 44

Scope of the Lecture M-N Interaction


ƒ General ƒ For most portal frame connections (pitched rafters)
ƒ Component method ƒ In EN 1993-1-8
ƒ Basic components ƒ Limit 5% of normal force resistance of connected element
ƒ Linear interaction
ƒ Assembly NSd M
+ Sd ≤ 1
ƒ Resistance N j ,Rd M j ,Rd
ƒ Stiffness
ƒ Component method
ƒ Rotation capacity
ƒ M-N interaction
ƒ Summary 45 46

Example VSd M Sd Application of EN 1993-1-8 Procedure


NSd
NSd M
Normal force, kN + Sd ≤ 1
N j ,Rd M j ,Rd
e Normal force
w e N j,t,M,Rd
f Nj,t,M=0,Rd f Linear interaction
F 3,t
F2,t
5 % error Linear interaction
et
n Nj,t,M,Rd
g d Moment,
kNm g M j.c.N d Moment F1,t

h c M j.t.N
h c
Component method F2,c
et
i Linear interaction Component method
i m Nj,c,M,Rd
N j,c,M=0,Rd F1,c
j k 47
N j,c,M,Rd
48
j k
Component Method - Resistance Stiffness
Centre of the part in tension
F t.Rd
ƒ Simplification to two springs
ƒ Bolts
ƒ Compressed part – in centre of flage
zt

N Sd M Sd Fc.t.Rd
z Ft.Rd

Centre of the part in compression zt z


NSd NSd c.t

zc z z
MSd MSd
Neutral axis zc z
c.b

F c.Rd Fc.b.Rd
Fc.Rd Active part
Bolts and compressed part Two compressed parts

ƒ As for base plates


49 50

Evaluation on Tests M - φ Diagram Praha Test


Normal force, kN Moment, kNm

200 30
Test Test SN 1500
100 SN 1500 25
Moment, Prediction by component method
20 kNm
0 10 20
-10 0
SN 1000 15 Prediction of resistance
-100 by interaction
Interaction 10
-200 Component method
5
Rotation, rad
0
0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04
51 52

Evaluation on Coimbra Tests M - φ Diagram Coimbra Test


Moment, kNm
Normal force, kN Test EE7
800 Component method 120

Interaction Experiments Prediction by component method


100
400 EE7
EE6 Moment,
kNm 80
0 EE1 Prediction of resistance
0 EE2
by interaction
-50 EE3 60
50 EE4
-400 EE5
40

20
Rotation, rad
0
0 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06
53 54
List of Lessons at Seminar
1. Introduction
2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
Design of Simple Connections (of Open Sections) 3. Welded connections
4. Bolted connections
Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
Prof. František Wald
7. Column bases
8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

SSEDTA Lecture List of Lessons related to Connection Design


ƒ Flow Charts
ƒ New and Flexible Approach to Training for ƒ
ƒ
Simple connections - fin plates
Simple connections - end plates

Engineers in Construction
ƒ Column splices for both axial load & moment
ƒ Column bases (axial load only)
ƒ Non-conflicting Complementary Information
ƒ Design model for simple end plate connections
ƒ A: Detailing guidance
ƒ B: Shear resistance
ƒ Leson 16 Design of Simple Joints ƒ
ƒ
C: Tying resistance
Design model for simple fin plate connections
ƒ A: Detailing
ƒ B: Shear resistance
ƒ C: Tying resistance

ƒ Access STEEL information tool on internet


ƒ Design model for simple Column splices (non-bearing)
ƒ Initial sizing for non-bearing splices
ƒ Design model for simple Column bases - axially loaded
ƒ Passive examples
ƒ Beam to beam fin plate connection
ƒ Beam to column end plate connection
ƒ Column splice (non-bearing)
ƒ Column base, axially loaded
ƒ Column splice (bearing)
3 4

Example – Fin Plate


ƒ Flow chart

5 6
Example – Fin Plate
ƒ Subject to shear
1 3 1 3 1

2 2 2

1. Fin plate
2. Supported beam
3. Column
4. Supporting beam

7 8

Example – Fin Plate Example – Fin Plate


ƒ Mode of failure - subject to shear ƒ Ductility requirements
Bolts in shear VRd,1
not guided by bolt shear failure
Fin plate in bearing VRd,2
Fin plate in shear (gross section) VRd,3
Fin plate in shear (net section) VRd,4
Fin plate in shear (block shear) VRd,5
Fin plate in bending VRd,6
Fin plate in buckling (LTB) VRd,7
Beam web in bearing VRd,8
Beam web in shear (gross section) VRd,9
Beam web in shear (net section) VRd,10
Beam web in shear (block shear) VRd,11
Supporting column web or supporting beam web (punching shear) VRd,12 9 10

Example – Fin Plate Example – Fin Plate


ƒ Rotation capacity requirements ƒ Subject to tying forces
1. Given rules in initial design
Depth of Fin plate Fin plate width Horizontal gap Beam edge Fin plate edge 1 1 1
3 3
supported beam thickness bp (mm) gh (mm) distance distance
hb1 (mm) tp (mm) e2,b (mm) e2 (mm)
hb1 ≤ 600 10 100 10 40 50 4
hb1 > 600 10 120 20 40 60
bp

or gh
gv 2 2 2
2. Limit of hight and calculate required rotation e1,b
e1
1. Fin plate
hp ≤ hb − 2t f,b1 − 2r
a
p1
hp 2. Supported beam
p1

φavailable > φrequired e1


3. Column
4. Supporting beam
e 2 e 2,b he
11 12
z
Example – Fin Plate Summary
ƒ Mode of failure – subject to tying ƒ Design of simple connections not described
in EN 1993-1-8
Bolts in shear NRd,u,1
Fin plate in bearing NRd,u,2
Fin plate in tension (block tearing) NRd,u,3 ƒ Tables
Fin plate in tension (net section) NRd,u,4
ƒ Green book UK
ƒ Blue book Germany
Beam web in bearing NRd,u,5
ƒ ECCS TC10 document (in preparation)
Beam web in tension (block tearing) NRd,u,6
Beam web in tension (net section) NRd,u,7
ƒ Access STEEL materials on internet
Supporting column web in bending NRd,u,8
13 14

List of Lessons at Seminar


1. Introduction
2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
3. Welded connections Thank you for your attention
4. Bolted connections
5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
7. Column bases
8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

15 16
Structural Steelwork Eurocodes Simple Joints

‹ Frames are traditionally analysed assuming joints to


be either:
Design of Simple Joints
– Pinned.

– Rigid.

‹ However few joints meet these ideals.

1 2

Design Considerations of Joints EC 3 Requirement

‹ EC3 states that:


‹ Rigid Joints: – “A nominally pinned connection shall be designed
– Expensive to fabricate and construct. so that it cannot develop significant moments
which might adversely affect members of the
structure.”
‹ Real Pin Joints:
– Also expensive

‹ Simple Joints:
– Need to be flexible

3 4

Joint Requirements Joint Properties

‹ Joints have three principal properties:


‹ Joints must: – 1. Strength:
– Transfer actions. » able to transfer moments & forces.
– Accept required rotations. – 2. Stiffness:
» have an appropriate slope on M - Ø curve.
– 3.Deformability:
» Have adequate rotation capacity.

5 6
Stiffness Requirement Strength Requirement

S j,ini not greater than: 0,5 E Ib / Lb. ‹ Depends upon the members connected.

where: ‹ Ensures that joint has only a small resistance


S j,ini is the initial rotational stiffness of the connection. compared to the connected members.
Ib is the second moment of area of the connected
beam. ‹ Remember that shear and any axial load must be
Lb is the length of the connected beam. transferred between members.

7 8

Maximum Moment Resistance Rotation Capacity

Mpbisisfully
Mpc fullyplastic
plasticmoment
momentofofresistance
resistanceofofcolumn.
beam.
‹ Joint must not fail as a consequence of any large
rotations required.
Mpc Mpc

‹ Not sufficient to consider just the detail of the


Mpb Mpb connection in initial state.

Mpc Mpc

If Mpb < 2Mpc If Mpb > 2Mpc


then Mj,Rd = 0.25Mpb then Mj,Rd = 0.25*2*Mpc

Figure 1: Maximum moment resistance requirement for simple joints 9 10

Effect of Gap Closure Practicalities

φ
M ‹ Many joints currently assumed to operate as simple
joints transfer moments in excess of EC3 limits.
Contact between beam
flange and column face
‹ Resulting designs function satisfactorily.

M ‹ Supported by extensive research.

φ
Figure 2 : Effect of gap closure
11 12
Transfer of Forces Beam to Column Joints
Example 1

‹ Joints likened to links in a chain.

‹ Strength determined by weakest link.

‹ Principal transfers by:


– Welding.
– Bolting.
Top and seat cleats Seat and stability cleats
– Riveting,(occasionally ).
(major and minor axes (major and minor axes)

13 14

Beam to Column Joints Beam to Column Joints


Example 2 Example 3

Single web cleat (major axis: Double web cleats (minor


bolted to beam and column) axis: Welded to beam,
Welded fin plate: (minor axis: bolted to column).
bolted to beam, welded to column. Tab plate: (major axis:
Shear plate (major axis) Shear plate (major axis)
welded to beam, bolted to
column).
15 16

Typical Beam to Beam Joint Simple Web Angle Connection

Supporting
Supported beam
beam

Figure 4:
Beam to beam
connections

Single
Double notched
notched angle
end plateconnection
connection
2.1.2 Should any tying forces need to be considered ( as is the case in the
U.K.NAD). Then the connection must also be checked for such action which
will involve consideration of the following potential failure modes, remembering
that it will often be necessary to combine the axial and the shear forces to
obtain a resultant action.
17 18
Transfer of Forces Simple Web Angle Connection

‹ Shear force must be transferred to column.

‹ This involves several steps:


– Beam into bolts.
– Bolts into angle.
– Angle into bolts.
– Bolts into column flange. a1
Lv
a3
a2
19 20

Transfer of Forces Checks Needed for Tying


Forces

‹ Web of beam into bolts:


‹ Block shear in beam web (amended failure zone).
– Block shear.
‹ Bearing in bolts to beam web.
‹ Web of beam into bolts:
‹ Shear in bolts.
– Bearing.
‹ Tensile capacity of web cleats.
‹ Shear failure in bolts.
‹ Tensile capacity of bolts to column face.
‹ Bearing and block shear in angle legs.
‹ Shear in bolts to column flange.
‹ Bearing in bolts to column flange.

21 22

Other Detailing Guidance Summary

‹ The philosophy of simple joints in terms of idealised and


‹ Minimum end distance. real behaviour has been introduced.
‹ Minimum edge distance. ‹ The concept of joints as an assemblage of components
‹ Maximum end and edge distances. has been put forward.
‹ Minimum bolt spacing. ‹ Requirements for strength, stiffness and rotation capacity
‹ Maximum bolt spacing. have been described.
‹ Examples of practical details are provided.

23 24
List of Lessons at Seminar
1. Introduction
Column Bases 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
3. Welded connections
4. Bolted connections
Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8
5. Basics of structural joints
Prof. František Wald 6. Design of simple connections
7. Column bases
8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1
1

Scope of the Lecture Background Materials


‹ Basis of design ‹ ENV 1993-1-1
‹ Components – Annex L (1992)
– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension – Annex A2 – Design of Joints (1992, 1999)
– Base plate and concrete in compression
– Anchor bolt in shear ‹ COST C1
‹ Assembly - Semirigid connections (EU project, finished 1999)
– Resistance
– Stiffness
– Pre-design
‹ Classification
‹ Worked examples
‹ Summary

Fixing by Base Plate Component Method


Base plate in bending
Baseplate and concrete Baseplate in bending Column flange and web Anchor bolt
and anchor bolts in tension
in compression anchor bolts in tension in compression in shear

Column web in compression


Base plate in bending
and concrete in compression

Anchor bolts in shear

Major components
Scope of the Lecture Base-plate in bending
‹ Basis of design
and anchor bolts in tension
‹ Components
– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension
Column flange F
– Base plate in bending and concrete in compression e m
– Anchor bolt in shear
‹ Assembly
– Resistance
– Stiffness t
– Pre-design l eff
‹ Classification
Base plate
‹ Worked examples
‹ Summary

F
Contact of Edge of T stub
δb = Θp n
m n
Θp δb

Q=0 Q=0

8 ,82m 3 As <
Lb .lim = > Lb
Leff t 3

Embedded Anchor Bolt Force, kN


40
180
160
L bf 140 Experiment W13/98
L b 120
Experiment W14/97 φ 24 - 355
315 3
L be 100
Prediction
P6 - 40 x 50 40 5

80 50 10
d 60 10
6
40 5
P10 - 95 x 95
20

Lbe ≅ 8 d
0
95 95
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6
Deformation, mm

CEB documents for anchor bolts resistance


e
F / Σ B t.Rd
1
Mode 2
n m Mode 3
0,8
FRd.3 FRd.1 FRd.2
Bt.Rd B t.Rd Mode 1
Bt.Rd Bt.Rd B B 0,6

Q Q Q Q
0,4 Mode 1*
a) Mode 3 b) Mode 1 c) Mode 2

0,2

End plate – contact or no contact


FRd.1*

0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5
Base plate – no contact B B
4 l eff M pl.Rd / Σ B t.Rd

350 Force, kN 350 Force, kN


FRd.1*

Resistance
300 300 W97-12

250 Simplified prediction 250


Experiment
200 200
m = 32
Complex calculation Complex calculationm = 67
150 150

B B Simplified prediction
100 100

50 50


2 Leff M´ pl .Rd W97-02
Deformation, mm Deformation, mm

= 0 0
F Rd .1
0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8

Stiffness Effective length of T stub

No prying
0 ,425 Leff t 3 As
kp = kb = 2 ,0
e m

m3 Lb
Prying accured
0 ,85 Leff t 3 A
Prying occured
l 1 = 2 α m − (4 m + 1,25 e )
No prying
l 1 = 2 α m − (4 m + 1,25 e )
kp = kb = 1,6 s l2 = 2π m l2 = 4π m
m3 Lb Leff ,1 = min(l 1 ;l 2 ) Leff ,1 = min(l 1 ;l 2 )
Leff ,2 = l 1 Leff ,2 = l 1
e w e

ex

mx
Effective Length for Hollow Sections
(not in EN 1993-1-8)
a
bp
ac
b b bc
No prying (a) m
Prying
l 1 = 4.m x+1,25 e x l 1 = 4.m x+1,25 e x m m eb ea
l 2 = 2 π mx l 2 = 4 π mx
l 3 = 0,5 bp l 3 = 0,5 bp Leff .1 = π m Leff .2 =
b
(a − a c )2 + (b − bc )2
l 4 = 0,5 w + 2 mx + 0,625 ex l 4 = 0,5 w + 2 mx + 0,625 ex m= − e a + eb
2 2
2
l 5 = e + 2 mx + 0,625 ex l 5 = e + 2 mx + 0,625 ex Leff .5 = π m Leff .4 =
a 2
l 6 = π mx + 2 e l 6 = 2 π mx + 4 e + eb
2 2
2 ea
Leff ,1 = min(l 1 ;l 2 ;l 3 ;l 4 ;l 5 ;l 6 ) Leff ,1 = min(l 1 ;l 2 ;l 3 ;l 4 ;l 5 ;l 6 ) Leff .3 = m (a − ac )2 + (b − bc )2
8 e a eb
Leff ,2 = min(l 1 ;l 3 ;l 4 ;l 5 ) Leff ,2 = min(l 1 ;l 3 ;l 4 ;l 5 )
L eff = min ( Leff .1 ; Leff .2 ; Leff .3 ; Leff .4 ; Leff .5 )

Scope of the Lecture Base plate in bending


‹ Basis of design
and concrete in compression
‹ Components FSd FRd
Column flange
– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension
– Base plate and concrete in compression
c tw c
– Anchor bolt in shear
‹ Assembly t
– Resistance L
– Stiffness Base plate fj
– Pre-design
‹ Classification
‹ Flexible
base plate
‹ Worked examples
‹ 3D behaviour – concrete in crushing
‹ Summary

Concrete 3D Resistance in Crushing c cc


(the same as EN 1992-1-1) a1 c
c
a ar

t c c
a 1 b1 t
Joint coefficient kj = h Effective width
ab b b1
1
br
Elastic resistance ensuring small deformations, to unit length M′ = t 2 fydfyd
M
⎧a + 2 a r ⎫ 6
⎪5 a ⎪ 1
⎪ ⎪ Bending moment to unit length M ′ = 1f j c 2 2
a 1 = min ⎨ ⎬ a1 ≥ a M ′ =2 f j c
Effective width ⎪ a + h ⎪ 2
1 1 f 2c 2 =1 1 2t 2 f
⎩⎪5b1 ⎭⎪
Equivalent length of cantilever c f j cj = 6t fy y
22 6
fy
⎧b + 2 br ⎫ Effective width c=t
fy
⎪5 b ⎪ 3 γ Mc0 =f jt
⎪ ⎪ 3 γ M0 fj
Effective width b1 = min ⎨ ⎬ b1 ≥ b
⎪ b + h ⎪
⎪⎩5 a 1 ⎪⎭
Contact Area Comparison to FE simulation
Vertical deformation at the surface, mm Vertical deformation along the block height
c
0,0 top of the concrete block
c elastic deformation of the whole block elastic deformation

c Ap A 0,1
F
} local deformation under plate

predicted value
δ glob
deformation at the edge
δ edge
deformation at the axis
δ axis
A eq

edge axis foot of the concrete block Vertical deformation, mm


c c 0 0,1
c

Stiffness Comparison to Experiments


F α ar 1800 Force, kN
δ r = deformation of elastic hemisphere F
E c Ar tw
1600 L
t
1400 Calculated strength
0 ,85 F
δ r = 1200 Experiment δ
Ec L ar
Concrete and grout
1000
Concrete
F E c a eq . el L E c a eq . el L 800
kc = = =
δ E 1 ,5 * 0 ,85 E 1 ,275 E 600
Prediction based on local and global deformation,

fy 400
a eq.el = t w + 2,5 t ≈ a eq.str = t w + 2 c = t w + 2 t
3 f jγ M 0 200 Prediction based on local deformation only
cfl
0
x
E Ip
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9
δ Deformation, mm

Grout
t tg
tg Scope of the Lecture
tg ‹ Basis of design
o tg ‹ Components
h 45
– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension
o
45
– Base plate in bending and concrete in compression
– Anchor bolt in shear
Assembly
βj = 2 / 3 lower nut
‹
– Resistance
f c.g ≥ 0,2 f c – Stiffness
– Pre-design
t g ≤ 0,2 min (a ; b) packings ‹ Classification
t g ≥ 0,2 min (a ; b) ‹ Worked examples
‹ Summary
Components in Shear Anchor Bolt in Shear
Fh
Resistance in tension
Fh
Reduce resistance in tension
δh
Resistance in bending and shear
δh
0

4.6 5.6
0 ,375 f ub As 0 ,250 f ub As
F v .Rd = F v .Rd =
γ Mb γ Mb
Format as bolts in shear

Resistance
Scope of the Lecture
N Rd M Rd
‹ Basis of design Aeff active part

‹ Components
– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension rb r c

– Base plate in bending and concrete in compression


– Anchor bolt in shear
∑ F t.Rd
N Rd = fAeff f j − ∑ Ft .Rd
‹ Assembly j

– Resistance
– Stiffness N Rd = Aeff Mf jRd- =∑
∑FFt .tRd.Rd rb + Aeff f j rc .
M Rd = ∑ F t . Rd rb + Aeff f j rc
– Pre-design
‹ Classification
‹ Worked examples
Plastic design – force equilibrium
‹ Summary Complex shape of contact area

M1 , N
M
1 Scope of the Lecture
‹ Basis of design
M 2, N 2 ‹ Components
M N=0 – Base plate in bending and bolt in tension
– Base plate and concrete in compression
N Rd = Aeff f j − ∑ Ft .Rd – Anchor bolt in shear
‹ Assembly
– Resistance
compression
tension M Rd = ∑ Ft .Rd rb + Aeff f j rc . – Stiffness
– Pre-design
Ft.Rd 0 N N ‹ Classification
M=0
‹ Worked examples
Interaction diagram
‹ Summary
History of Loading MSd
NSd c c
Moment c cc c
MRd Non-proportional c
Non-proportional loading loading
Moment
Proportional loading Proportional c
loading z
Nonlinear part of the curve
Column base zT zc
Plastification of one component resistance
N φRd = Aeff fkj −⎪⎨ ∑ Ft .Rd
⎧ kp
0 Normal force t

Anchor bolts in tension and one flange in compression ⎩ kc kc kc
Ft Fc kb

M Rd = ∑ Ft .Rd⎛ rb + Aeff f j rc .
e0 NSd
S j.ini ⎞
0 Rotation ⎜ ⎟
M Rd = min ⎜ ⎟
FT .Rd z Fc .Rd z
;
⎜ zc zt ⎟
⎜1− 1+ ⎟
⎝ M Sd / N Sd M Sd / N Sd ⎠

Simplified contact area

Stiffness
MSd / NSd = konst. xc <N Sd / MSd < ∝ Moment, kNm
t = 30
120
2 25 400 kN M
M Sd / N Sd Ez 100
Rd
Sj = HE 160 B M 20 - 10.9
M Sd / N Sd − α 1
μ∑ c c
80 20 t
ki 60
z k −z k c
c cc c
α= c c t t 15
∑c F N Rd = Aeff f j − ∑10Ft .Rd
40
kc + kt N Rd = Aeff f j − t .Rd 20

μ = ( 1,5 γ )
2 ,7 0 Rotation, mrad

/ 2Rd = ∑ Ft⎪⎨k.Rd rb + Aeff f j rc . Rd = ∑ Ft .Rd rb + Aeff f j rc .


⎧ k 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
rM M
p

1+ ⎪

t
kc kc kc
M Sd / N Sd kb
γ =
r/2 Sensitivity study, base plate thickness
M Rd / N Sd +
M Sd / N Sd
Simplified contact area

Normal force, kN NSd


M
Sd

3 000 HE 200 B Components Assembly


Lever arm is changing by the activation of one bolt row
Lever arm is changing by the activation of both bolt rows M 24
t Force, kN Moment, kNm
30
Base plate thickness, t, mm 80
40 200
M pl.Rd Ekb
2 000 Simplified prediction h = 1 000 100 Experiment
N pl.Rd Anchor bolt
30 0 60 W7-4.20-prop
0,5
25 1 600 200 Force, kN
j −∑ ∑ Ft .Rd
M
1 000
20 N Rd = Aeff fColumn F
resistancet .Rd
420 590
100 E k p N Rd40 = Aeff f j −Prediction HE 160 B
N
15 Base plate
0
590 0,5 t = 20

M Rd = ∑ Ft .Rd rb + Aeff f j rc . M Rd20 = ∑ Ft .Rd rb + Aeff f j rc .


h = 500
0 420 200 E k c Force, kN
100 Moment, kNm 100
1 600 0,5 Concrete
0 0
Deformation, δ , mm
0 10 Rotation, mrad

Sensitivity study, base plate thickness, resistance


Comparison to experiment
Pre-design, stiffness
Scope of the Lecture
E z2t
S j .ini .app = ‹ Basis of design
20 ‹ Components
M M – Base plate in bending and bolt in tension
Sd Sd
– Base plate and concrete in compression
N Rd = Aeff f j − ∑ Ft .Rd – Anchor bolt in shear
‹ Assembly
– Resistance
M Rd = ∑ Ft .Rd rb + Aeff f j rc . – Stiffness
– Pre-design
z z ‹ Classification
‹ Worked examples
Lever arm ‹ Summary

Classification
Non-Sway by Resistance

‹ According to stiffness Fcr.pin t = 12 mm


β = a 1 = b1 = 280 mm
Fcr,res
a = b = 500 mm
1
h = 1000 mm
M 24 -420
‹ Accuracy 0,9 S j,ini,pin S j,ini,pin = 7 100 kNm / rad
t = 40 mm
5% in resistance and 10% in serviceability 0,8
a 1 = b1 = 420 mm
S j,ini,stif a = b = 500 mm
h = 1000 mm
0,7 M 24 -420
‹ Simillar to beam-to-column joints S j,ini,stif = 74 800 kNm / ra
0,6 _
0,0001 0,01 1,00 100,0 log S

λo ≤ 2
pro λ o ≤ 0,5 Sj,ini ≥ 0 Sway Frames for Serviceability
pro 0,5 < λ o < 3,93 Sj,ini ≥ 7 (2 λ o - 1) E Ic / Lc 5 kN
115 kN 115 kN
yS / yP
pro λ o ≥ 3,93 Sj,ini ≥ 48 E Ic / Lc
y
HE 200 B
1,0
HE 200 B 4m
0,8
λ o ≤ 1,36 0,6
S j,ini,pin
Sj,ini ≥ 12 E Ic / Lc. 0,4
5m
S j,ini,stif
0,2

Asked stiffness for relative slenderness 0


0,01 100
log S
0,0001 1
Relative moment Scope of the Lecture
1,0 Rigid
0,8
connection ‹ Basis of design
0,6
S j.ini.c.n = 30 E Ic / L c ‹ Components
– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension
0,4 S j.ini.c.s = 12 E I c / Lc λ o = 1,36
– Base plate and concrete in compression
0,2 Semi-rigid connection
– Anchor bolt in shear
Hinge
0 ‹ Assembly
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 Relative rotation, φ
– Resistance
In relative values – Stiffness
– Pre-design
‹ Classification
‹ Worked examples
‹ Summary

Worked Example – Base plate c bc =200 c


c tw=9 c
a1 = 1600
MSd
FSd
a = 420 ar = 590
HE 200 B
c
tf =15 rb
t = 30
M 24 c
e a = 50 br = 590
30
eb = 90 hc =200
p = 240 b = 420 b1 = 1600
b eff r
tf =15 c
h = 1000
c
e c = 60 rb = 160
c

Contact area

Worked Example – Frame (sway)


Mj.Rd / M Ny.pl.Rd
F F F
1,0 F F Sd
F
F Sd
Sd Sd
F F
Sd Sd Sd
Sd Sd
0,8
2 2 1,2 m
S = 30 E I c / L c
0,6 j.ini.c.n
IPE 550
0,4 S j.ini.c.s = 12 E I c / L c (for λ o < 1,36 )
0,2 HE 340 B HE 340 B
0 9m
0 0,1 0,2 0,3
φ = φ E I c / Lc

Worked diagram
24 m
‹ Frame imperfections – by equivalent forces
‹ Element imperfections – by stability check
Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy
Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy Fy
Fy Fy Fy Fy
2 Fx 2 2 2
Fx Fx Fx
Fx Fx Fx Fx N
2 2
N
Fx = 0,38 kN
H φ
w Fy = 23,00 kN w2 Fy = 26,79 kN
1
w1 = 2,64 kN/m
w = 1,65 kN/m
2

First load combination Second load combination

Load combination H φ

N N

Comparison
Maximal Maximal Maximal Vertical Horizontal
‹ Elastic design – connection stiffness, pre-design moment moment moment deformation sway
in base plate in corner in rafter of rafter of corner
kNm kNm kNm mm mm

0 337,85 318,10 113,68 73,70

z E z 2 t 210 000 * 700 2 * 20 108,20 290,13 307,62 109,80 27,43


S j .ini.b − c = = = 242 100 kNm/ rad
kf 8 ,5
214,09 305,90 274,73 95,54 19,42
E z 2 t 210 000 * 700 2 * 20
z S j .ini.b − b = = = 343 000 kNm/ rad 3
kf 6
2,5
2

E z 2 t 210 000 * 400 2 * 30 1,5


S j .ini.cb = = = 50 400 kNm/ rad 1
kf 20
0,5

z 0

Scope of the Lecture Summary


‹ Basis of design ‹ Component method
‹ Components
– Base plate in bending and bolt in tension
Good accuracy
– Base plate and concrete in compression
– Anchor bolt in shear
‹ Worked examples
‹ Assembly – Savings by taking into account of
– Resistance stiffness (for serviceability only)
– Stiffness
– Pre-design – Hand calculation unusual
‹ Classification
‹ Worked examples
‹ Summary
List of Lessons at Seminar
1. Introduction
2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
Fire Design of Connections 3. Welded connections
4. Bolted connections
Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
Prof. František Wald
7. Column bases
8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Scope of the Lecture Structural Fire Design – Procedure of Design


ƒ Structural fire design ƒ Thermal analyses
of fire compartment or local fire
ƒ Temperature of connections (EN 1991-1-1)
ƒ Connectors at elevated temperature ƒ Transfer of heat into the structure
(EN 199x-1-2)
ƒ Component method
ƒ Mechanical loading at fire situation
ƒ Structural integrity (EN 1990, EN 1991-1-x)
ƒ Summary ƒ Mechanical modelling of structure at elevated temperature
(EN 199x-1-2)

3 4

Connections under Fire EN 1993-1-2 Approaches


ƒ Steel looses with temperature strength and stiffness ƒ Fire protection is applied to the member
and its connections
ƒ Rules based to protect as members
ƒ Steel structures expand when heated and contract
on cooling
ƒ Component approach in EN 1993-1-8
together with a method for calculation
ƒ Temperature within the connections is lower the behaviour of welds and bolts
compare to connecting steel members at elevated temperature
ƒ Connection moment, shear and axial capacity can be
evaluated at elevated temperature
5 6
Scope of the Lecture Analytical Models of Heat Transfer
ƒ Structural fire design 1. Section factor (Am /V) method simmilar as for members
Am /V surface/volume ratio
ƒ Temperature of connections
2. Based on the temperature of the beam lower flange
ƒ Connectors at elevated temperature
Concrete slab
ƒ Component method h ≤ 400 mm h > 400 mm
ƒ Structural integrity 0,62 θ0 0,70 θ0

ƒ Summary 0,75 θ0 0,88 θ0


h h
h

0,88 θ 0 0,88 θ0

7 8

Accuracy Demonstration
on 7th Large Scale Fire Experiments on Steel Frame Fire Test January 16. 2003

A B C D E F

4
9000 9000 9000 9000 9000
Motivation
6000
q
3
s ƒ Temperatures in elements and connections
r
ƒ Internal forces in the connections
9000 o
ƒ Behaviour of the composite slab
2
n
6000
1
t p

Fire Compartment for Structural Integrity Fire Test, January 16, 2003 9 10

Fire Compartment
Instrumentation
ƒ 148 thermocouples
ƒ 57 low temperature strain gauges
ƒ 10 high temperature strain gauges
ƒ 37 deformations
ƒ 10 video cameras
ƒ 2 thermo-imaging cameras

Interier Exterier, Fire load 11 12


Moderate Fire No Collapse Reached

Maximal temperature 1108 °C in 55 min 13 Deflections over 1000 mm; residual deflections 925 mm 14

Fin Plate Connection before the Experiment


Instrumentation C441
West view
C447
D E C444
Walls C442 C448
C443 C445
C454 - 462 C486 - 488 C472 - 475
2 C446 C449
C463 - 471 C475 - 479
G521 G525 G529 G533 120
D1/2-E1/2
G534 North view
G522 G526 G530
C441 - 449 C483 - 485 C450 - 453 C483
C484
G523 G527 G531 C485
G535
FIRE COMPARTMENT N
G536
D2 E2 G524 G528 C480 - 482 G532 DE1/2
1
Fin plate connection
Window West view
Thermocouples at elements and connections, numbered Cijk
Thermocouples in compartment 300 mm below ceiling, numbered Gijk C450 4th bolt row
Fire compartment
C451 3rd bolt row
N
C4522nd bolt row
D1 E1
C453 1st bolt row

120
15 E1/2-D1/2 16

t = 26 min. θcon,ø = 275 °C t = t0t +t==028’


26
h min
28’ θθcon,ø
T=
con,ø = 275
330=°C
con,ø 330 °C
°C

980,0°C 980,0°C

In 26 min of fire is temperature


of the structure under 400°C
800 800

600 600

Gas temperature Gas temperature


θ, °C Heating θ, °C Heating
1000 400 1000 400
600 600
400,0°C 400,0°C
Time Time
0 0
0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min
17 18
t = t0 +t =042
h min
42’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 645=°C645 °C t = t0 +t =044
h min
44’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 660=°C660 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

Buckling of beam lower flange Buckling of beam lower flange

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C
1000 400 1000 400
600 600
400,0°C 400,0°C
0 0
0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min
25 26

t = t0 +t =046
h min
46’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 685=°C685 °C t = t0 +t =048
h min
48’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 710=°C710 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C
1000 400 1000 400
600 600
400,0°C 400,0°C
0 0
0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min
27 28

t = t0 +t =050
h min
50’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 730=°C730 °C t = t0 +t =052
h min
52’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 775=°C775 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C
1000 400 1000 400
600 600
400,0°C 400,0°C
0 0
0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min
29 30
t = t0 +t =054
h min
54’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 810=°C810 °C t = t0 +t =056
h min
56’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 835=°C835 °C

980,0°C
The maximal temperature of 1088 °C 980,0°C

of secondary beam was reached


by its lower flange in 57 min
800 800

600 600

Gas temperature
θ, °C Cooling Gas temperature
1000 θ, °C Cooling
400 1000 400
600
600
Time
400,0°C 400,0°C
0
0 30 60 90 t,min 0 Time
0 30 60 90 t,min
31 32

t = t0 +t =058
h min
58’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 855=°C855 °C t = t0 +t =160
h min
00’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 880=°C880 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

Gas temperature
Gas temperature θ, °C Cooling
θ, °C Cooling 400 1000 400
1000
600
600 400,0°C 400,0°C
Time
Time 0
0 0 30 60 90 t,min
0 30 60 90 t,min
33 34

t = t0 +t =162
h min
02’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 900=°C900 °C t = t0 +t =164
h min
04’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 885=°C885 °C

Maximal temperature 980,0°C 980,0°C

of fin plate connection 908,3°C


was reached in 63 min
800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C
1000 400 1000 400
600 600
400,0°C 400,0°C
0 0
0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min
35 36
t = t0 +t =178
h min
18’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 775=°C755 °C t = t0 +t =180
h min
20’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 745=°C745 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C
1000 400 1000 400
600 600
400,0°C 400,0°C
0 0
0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min
43 44

t = t0 +t =182
h min
22’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 740=°C740 °C t = t0 +t =184
h min
24’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 730=°C730 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C
1000 400 1000 400
600 600
400,0°C 400,0°C
0 0
0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min
45 46

t = t0 +t =176
h min
26’ θcon,øTcon,ø
= 720=°C720 °C t = t0 +t =178
h min
28’ θcon,ø = 710=°C
Tcon,ø 710 °C

980,0°C 980,0°C

800 800

600 600

θ, °C θ, °C
1000 400 1000 400
600 600
400,0°C 400,0°C
0 0
0 30 60 90 t,min 0 30 60 90 t,min
47 48
Fin plate connection after the fire test
Temperature Differences Measured by Thermocouples

Measured temperature, °C
D2 E2
Difference shown
1000 by the thermo
imaging
800 camera

600
D1 E1
400
Fin plate, by 4th bolt
200 Beam, bottom flange

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 Time, min

Maximal temperature of fin plate by 4th bolt 908 °C in 63 min


67 68

Analytical Prediction Compared to Test


Scope of the Lecture
Connection temperature, °C Predicted
ƒ Structural fire design
1000
from gas measured temp.
based on "section factor" ƒ Temperature of connections
800 D2 E2 ƒ Connectors at elevated temperature
600 ƒ Component method
Predicted
400 from beam bottom flange
based on measured temp. D1 E1 ƒ Structural integrity
200
Measured ƒ Summary
0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 Time, min

Measured 908 °C in 63 min.; predicted 878 °C in 53 min


69 70

Bolts and Welds Properties at Elevated Temperature Bolt Resistance at Elevated Temperature
ƒ Factors kb,θ; kw,θ are used to describe the strength reduction ƒ Marked loss of strength between 300 and 700ºC
1
Bolt
ƒ Shear resistance of bolts in fire γ
0,9 Fv ,t ,Rd = Fv ,Rd k b ,θ m
0,8 k b,θ
γ m ,fi
0,7 ƒ Bearing resistance of bolts in fire
0,6
Carbon steel γm
Fb ,t ,Rd = Fb ,Rd k b ,θ
0,5 k y,θ
ƒ Tension resistance of a bolts in fire
γ m ,fi
0,4
0,3 γm
0,2
Weld Ften ,t ,Rd = Ft ,Rd k b ,θ
k w,θ γ m ,fi
0,1
0 γΜ partial safety factor for the resistance
θ a ,°C
0 200 400 600 800 1000
71 γΜ,fi partial safety factor for fire 72
Filled Weld Resistance at Elevated Temperature Butt Weld Resistance at Elevated Temperature
ƒ Design strength per unit length of a fillet weld ƒ For full penetration butt weld up to 700ºC
in a fire as equal to the strength of the weaker part
γm of the joint
Fw ,t ,Rd = Fw ,Rd k w ,θ
γ m ,fi using the appropriate reduction factors for steel

γΜ partial safety factor for the resistance ƒ For temperatures higher than 700ºC
the reduction factors for fillet welds
γΜ,fi partial safety factor for fire to butt welds

73 74

Scope of the Lecture Component Method


ƒ Structural fire design ƒ Decomposition of joint
ƒ Componnet description
ƒ Temperature of connections ƒ Joint assembly
ƒ Connectors at elevated temperature
ƒ Component method e
f gi M
e fgi
ƒ Structural integrity φ
c z
ƒ Summary d h c dh

75 76

Component Method Component Method


ƒ Decomposition of joint ƒ Decomposition of joint
ƒ Componet description ƒ Componnet description
ƒ Joint assembly ƒ Joint assembly e
f gi M
e fgi
Component Joint c φ z
Force d h
Moment c dh
F i ;θ = k y ,θ F i ; 20 º C ; M i ;θ = k y ;θ M i ; 20 º C ;
M, kNm
Deformation F k y ;θ Rotation Moment
i ;θ
δ i ;θ = = δ i ; 20 º C M k y ;θ 20 ºC
K i ;θ k E ;θ φi ;θ = i ;θ = φi ; 20 º C ; 100ºC
Si ;θ k E ;θ 50 500ºC
Stiffness Stiffness 600ºC
K i ;θ = k E ,θ K i ; 20 º C ; E z2
Si ;θ = θ = k E ;θ Si ; 20 º C ; 700ºC Rotation
1 800ºC φ , mrad
∑i k 77
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 78
i ;θ
P 28

500 kN 500 kN
150

Worked Example Fire Resistance 85 125 40 45


4 x M24

ƒ Fire resistance of an end plate connection ƒ Unprotected


of the truss lower flange Section factor Am / V = 54 ,0 / 1 ,24 = 43 ,18 m - 1
ƒ Required R30 Fire resistance t = 44 min
P 28 (exposed to nominal standard fire curve)
500 kN 500 kN
150

4 x M24
85 125 40 45
ƒ Protected dp = 15 mm
Intumescent paint Am λ p 0 ,1
= 43 ,18 = 288 Wm - 3 K - 1
Fire resistance V dp 0 ,015
79
(exposed to nominal standard fire curve) t = 112 min 80

Scope of the Lecture Structural Integrity


ƒ Structural fire design ƒ If used catenary actions of beams and slabs
ƒ Temperature of connections
ƒ Connectors at elevated temperature ƒ In case of advanced design models
ƒ Component method
ƒ Structural integrity
ƒ Summary ƒ Resistance of connections
to horizontal forces at ultimate limit state
(for fu)
81 82

FE Simulation of Cardington Test Experiment in Cardington


Normal force, kN
300
I. Beam only
200 II. One section
III. Full floor
100

20 40
0
60 80 100
Time, min
-100

-200

- 300 Model of structure


720°C
Heating Cooling

Observed joint 6 x 3,75 m

I. II.
III.

83 84
4 x 6,0 m
Low Temperature Strain Gauges Protected Columns
PLAN D1 E1
Internal wall 5th floor
of the fire compartment
11,0 m 99 97 105
107
500
103 101 111 109
7,0 m
99, 103 97, 101 107, 111 105, 109
83 81 91 89
N

Window 1,27 x 8,70 m 87 85 95 93


D1 E1 81, 85 91, 95 89, 93
83,87
UC 305 x 305 x 198 UC 305 x 305 x 137
500
4th floor
UC 305 x 305 x 137
(UC 305 x 305 x 198)
20 20 115 113
500
119 117
115, 119 113,117
15,2
309,2 127 125 At external
(314,5)
y 320,5 columns
123 121
(31,4) 13,8 (339,9)
21,7 (19,1) 127, 123 121, 125

20
z
20
500
3rd floor 85 Internal External (with 1 m of beam) 86

Measured Stresses at External Columns Measured Bending Moments in Columns


Stress, MPa
Column D1 Column E1
83 81 91 89 Bending moments, kNm 5th floor
150
600 d-D1; d-E1
93 b-D1
c-D1 4th floor
100 c-D1; c-E1
95 87 85 95 93 b-D1
87 400
50 3rd floor a-D1
Time, min. c-E1
0 200
2nd floor
15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210
-50 Time, min. D2 D1
0
81 D1, E1 60
0 120
-100 83 d-E1
89 4th floor d-D1
500 mm -200
-150 91
a-D1
-200

Section 500 mm above the floor at 4th floor


87 88

Measured Forces in External Columns Required Tie Forces - References


Force, kN

300
Everage
Ft,5 5th floor Ft,5 ƒ BS 5950: Structural use of steelwork in buildings
c-E1 d-D1; d-E1
200
c-D1 Ft,4 4th floor Ft,4 c-D1; c-E1 ƒ EN 1991-1-7 Actions – Exceptional loading
b-D1
3rd floor
100 3rd floor a-D1
(5th foor) d-D1 d-E1
Ft,3 Column ties
0 Ft,3
0 60 120 Time, min. 2nd floor
-100 d-D1 D2 D1
d-E1
-200 4th floor Tie anchoring
Everage re-entrant corner
-300 c-D1

-400 c-E1
A
-500 Beam model Tie anchoring
free column A

Edge ties Beams not used as ties


Forces at 3rd, 4th and 5th floor calculated from strainganges at level c,d
89 90
Required Tie Forces Column ties Scope of the Lecture
ƒ Structural fire design
Tie anchoring
re-entrant corner ƒ Temperature of connections
ƒ Connectors at elevated temperature
A
Tie anchoring
free column A
ƒ Component method
Edge ties Beams not used as ties
ƒ Structural integrity
Ft = min [0,5 ( 1,4 gk + 1,6 qk ) st L; 75] ƒ Summary
gk the characteristic value of permanent action,
qk the characteristic value of variable action,
L the beam span
st the mean transverse spacing of the ties adjacent to that being checked
91 92

Summary List of Lessons at Seminar


ƒ Well designed connections at ambient temperature 1. Introduction
do not need to be recalculated at elevated temperature, 2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
if are not directly exposed to fire 3. Welded connections
ƒ The structural fire design according to EN 1993-1-2 4. Bolted connections
is ready for design of connections exposed to fire 5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
7. Column bases
Thermal analyses Transfer of heat Mechanical behaviour
of fire compartment into structure at elevated temperature 8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
or local fire
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1
EN 1991-1-2 EN 199x-1-2
93 94

Thank you for your attention

95
List of Lessons at Seminar
1. Introduction
2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
Seismic Design of Connections 3. Welded connections
4. Bolted connections
Lessons Connection Design according to EN 1993-1-8 5. Basics of structural joints
6. Design of simple connections
Prof. František Wald
7. Column bases
8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1

1 2

Scope of the Lecture Principles


ƒ Principles ƒ Basic conditions
ƒ Design criteria ƒ Over-strength demand
ƒ Ductility demand (rotation capacity)
ƒ Beam-to-column typologies
ƒ Robustness demand
ƒ Design and fabrication recommendations (reliable detailing together with material behaviour)
ƒ Welding technology
ƒ Strain-rate loading ƒ Northridge and Kobe earthquake
ƒ M - φ modelling ƒ Unexpected damages to connections
ƒ Column web panel ƒ Detailing practices
ƒ Summary ƒ Welding
3 4

Scope of the Lecture Design Criteria for Seismic Resistant Frames


ƒ Principles ƒ Strong Column/Weak Beam design principle
ƒ Design criteria ƒ Panel zone strength
ƒ Beam-to-column typologies ƒ Connection strength and degradation characteristics
ƒ Design and fabrication recommendations ƒ P-δ effects
ƒ Welding technology
ƒ Member local buckling
ƒ Strain-rate loading
ƒ M - φ modelling
ƒ Column web panel
ƒ Summary 5 6
Requirements for Connection
Design Criteria in USA Successful Performance
ƒ Guidelines designs for frames with different ƒ Welded Joints
anticipated seismic demands ƒ Through-Thickness Strength
ƒ 1997 NEHRP Provisions ƒ Base Material Notch-Toughness
ƒ AISC Seismic Provisions ƒ Weld Wire Notch-Toughness
ƒ Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (OMRF) ƒ Weld backing and Run out Tabs
ƒ Plastic rotation capacities of 0,01 rad ƒ Reinforcing Fillet Welds
ƒ Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (IMRF) ƒ Cope Hole Size, Shape, Workmanship
ƒ Plastic rotation capacities of 0,02 rad ƒ Bolted Joints
ƒ Special Moment Resisting Frames (SMRF) ƒ Bolt Sizing, Hole Type, Tightening
ƒ Plastic rotation capacities of 0,03 rad
7 ƒ Net Section Strength 8

Design Criteria in Europe Scope of the Lecture


ƒ EN 1998-1-1 basic provisions concerning steel joints ƒ Principles
ƒ General rules for steel connections in dissipative ƒ Design criteria
structures ƒ Beam-to-column typologies
ƒ Requirements for MRF (Moment Resistant Frame) ƒ Design and fabrication recommendations
beam-to-column connections
ƒ Welding technology
ƒ EN 1993-1-8
ƒ Strain-rate loading
ƒ Rotational stiffness of a joint Sj
ƒ axial force NSd in the connected member not exceed 10% ƒ M - φ modelling
ƒ Rotation capacity ƒ Column web panel
9
ƒ Summary 10

Beam-to-Column Typologies Connection Types


ƒ FEMA/SAC test programmes ƒ Prescriptive Moment Frame Connection
ƒ Connection type classified for certain ranges of
ƒ Member size
ƒ Plastic rotation angle
ƒ Connection types
ƒ Welded Unreinforced Flange (WURF)
ƒ Welded Cover Plated Flange (WCPF)
ƒ Welded Flange Plates (WFP)
ƒ Welded Vertical Ribbed Flange (WVRF)
ƒ Welded Column Tree with Bolted Beam (WCT/BB)
ƒ Welded Single Haunch (WSH)
ƒ Welded Double Haunch (WDH) 11 12
Welded Flange Plate Connection Welded Column Tree with Bolted Beam

13 14

Field Bolted Types of Connections Field Bolted Types of Connections


ƒ Guidelines as pre-qualified for certain conditions ƒ Bolted end plate (BEP)
of use
ƒ Bolted end plate (BEP)
ƒ Welded flange plates with bolted beam (WFPBB)
ƒ Bolted single haunch (BSH)
ƒ Bolted double haunch (BDH)

15 16

Field Bolted Types of Connections Field Bolted Types of Connections


ƒ Welded flange plates with bolted beam (WFPBB) ƒ Bolted double haunch (BDH)

17 18
Beam-to-Column Typologies Beam-to-Column Typologies
ƒ Specific joints in Japan ƒ Specific joints in Europe
ƒ Extended end plate joint
A A
Stiffener Stiffener
.

.
.

10M20 - 10.9

A-A

19 20

Beam-to-Column Typologies Beam-to-Column Typologies


ƒ Specific joints in Europe ƒ Specific joints in Europe
C C
ƒ Welded joint B B
ƒ Welded flange plate joint
.
.
.
.
.
.

3M20 - 6.6

C-C
B-B

21 22

General Rules
Scope of the Lecture for Steel Connections in Dissipative Structures
ƒ Principles ƒ Localisation of plastic strains, high residual stresses,
ƒ Design criteria and fabrication defects
ƒ By experimental evidence
ƒ Beam-to-column typologies
ƒ Design and fabrication recommendations ƒ Non dissipative connections of dissipative members
ƒ Welding technology ƒ Full penetration butt welds
ƒ Deemed to satisfy the overstrength criterion
ƒ Strain-rate loading
ƒ For fillet weld or bolted non dissipative connections
ƒ M - φ modelling
ƒ Column web panel Rd ≥ 1,35 R fy
ƒ Summary 23 24
General Rules Requirements for Moment Resistant Frame
for Steel Connections in Dissipative Structures beam-to-column connections
ƒ Bolted joints ƒ Structure dissipate energy in the beams
ƒ In shear categories B and C (slip resistant) only ƒ Connections between the beams and the columns should be
ƒ Un tension category E With controlled tightening of the bolts designed for the required degree of overstrength
ƒ Shear joints with fitted bolts are also allowed. ƒ Moment resistance Mpl.Rd and the shear force (VG, Ed + VM,Ed)
ƒ Bolted shear connection evaluated in 6.6.2 of standard EN 1998-1
ƒ The shear resistance of the bolts should be higher than 1,2 times ƒ Dissipative semi-rigid and/or partial strength connections
the bearing resistance are permitted provided all of the following conditions
ƒ The strength and ductility of members and their connections ƒ Connections have a rotation capacity consistent with global
under cyclic loading deformations
ƒ Should be supported by experimental evidence ƒ Members framing into the connections are demonstrated to be
stable at the ultimate limit state (ULS)
ƒ For all types of connections in dissipative zones
ƒ Effect of connections deformation on global drift is taken into
ƒ Available plastic rotation φ = δ /( 0 ,5 L ) account
p
25 26

Requirements for Moment Resistant Frame


Beam-to-Column Connections Design and Fabrication Recommendations
ƒ Connection design ƒ Material properties
ƒ Plastic rotation capacity φCd in the plastic hinge ƒ Yield-to-Ultimate Stress Ratio (YUSR)
ƒ Not less than 35 mrad for structures of ductility class H ƒ YUSR (fy/fu) = 0,65 or 0,80
ƒ and 25 mrad for structures of ductility class M with q>2. ƒ For a plastic rotation capacity up to 0,030 rad.
ƒ Under cyclic loading without degradation of strength and stiffness ƒ YUSR = 0,95
greater than 20% ƒ Reduced plastic hinge length at a plastic rotation capacity of 0,030 rad
ƒ Supported by experimental evidence
ƒ Partial strength connections ƒ The plastified length of the beam with YUSR = 0,95
ƒ Column capacity design from the plastic capacity of connections ƒ Half the corresponding length in YUSR = 0,80

27 28

Scope of the Lecture Design and Fabrication Recommendations


ƒ Principles ƒ Access Hole Size and Geometry
ƒ Design criteria
ƒ Beam-to-column typologies
ƒ Design and fabrication recommendations
ƒ Welding technology
ƒ Strain-rate loading
ƒ M - φ modelling
ƒ Column web panel
ƒ Summary 29 30
Design and Fabrication Recommendations Scope of the Lecture
ƒ Access Hole Size and Geometry ƒ Principles
ƒ Increasing the size of the web cope
ƒ Design criteria
ƒ Easier welding on the beam bottom flange
ƒ Better weld quality ƒ Beam-to-column typologies
25 ƒ Design and fabrication recommendations
10
25
10 ƒ Welding technology
38
20
20
ƒ Strain-rate loading
25 25 50 ƒ M - φ modelling
Standard Modified ƒ Column web panel
Configurations of weld access hole
31
ƒ Summary 32

Strain-Rate Loading Strain-Rate of Carbon Steel


ƒ The strain-rate loading has an important influence on the
behaviour of joints Stress
ƒ A strain rate typical for steel members yielding under
seismic action in the range of 0,03-0,06 s-1
ƒ Increases the yield strength
ƒ Lower ultimate strength of welded connections
ƒ Ductility is reduced by up to 27% Conventional speed
ƒ Decrease of ductility due to high strain rates is not straightforward E
Very high speed
for cyclic loading
Strain

33 34

Strain-Rate of Carbon Steel Strain-Rate of Austenitic Steel


Stress, MPa -1
α DIF , fy = f y ,dyn / f y 800 502 s
10 -2s -1
10 -4s -1
α DIF , fu = f u .dyn / f u 600

400 140 s -1

Time to yield stress


αDIF.fy α DIF .fu 50 s -1
200
>1s 1,0 1,00 Strain, %
0
100 ms 1,1 1,05 15 30 45 60 75
10 ms 1,6 1,05
ƒ EN 10088-2 1.4307 (304L)
1 ms 1,9 1,05 increase of f02 o cca 7% - 28%
35 36
Scope of the Lecture M - φ Modelling
ƒ Principles ƒ Stable behaviour
ƒ Design criteria ƒ Unstable curve
ƒ Beam-to-column typologies ƒ Slip in connection
ƒ Design and fabrication recommendations M M M

ƒ Welding technology
ƒ Strain-rate loading φ φ φ

ƒ M - φ modelling
ƒ Column web panel
ƒ Summary 37 38

M - φ Modelling Parametres
φ j .i
ƒ Stable behaviour ƒ Rotational capacity β Δ .i =
φ j .el
ƒ Unstable curve Ei
βe =
ƒ Slip in connection ƒ Energy M j .el (φi − φel )

Ei φi
ƒ Rotational capacity and β E .i =
φel M j .el (φix − φel )
energy
S j .i
β S .i =
ƒ Stiffness S j .ini

M j .i
β M .i =
39 ƒ Resistance M j .ini 40

M
Sj.ini
Models Exponential Curve Ma
Sj.ini
Sj.s

M0
ƒ Curve fitting ƒ Initial stiffness Sj,ini
ƒ Initial stiffness ƒ Moment resistance M0 φa φ

ƒ Moment resistance ƒ Unloading Sj,s Sj.s

ƒ Unloading - M0

ƒ Component (S j .ini − S j .s )(φa − φ ) − S (φ − φ )


M j = S j .i φi = M i −1 −
ƒ Component cycling description ⎡ (S j .ini − S j .s )(φ a − φ )n ⎤
1/ n j .s a

ƒ Assembling ⎢1 + ⎥
⎣⎢ ⎦⎥
2 M0

41 42
Scope of the Lecture Column Web Panel
ƒ Principles ƒ T joints or double T joints with unsymmetrical loads strong
influence on the behaviour of the joint
ƒ Design criteria ƒ The resistance of the joint is reduced by between 20 - 40%
ƒ Beam-to-column typologies and the ductility is increased by 150 - 200%, due to the web
ƒ Design and fabrication recommendations panel.
ƒ Welding technology ƒ Adding supplementary web plates on the column web panel
can increase the resistance of the joint.
ƒ Strain-rate loading
ƒ M - φ modelling
ƒ Column web panel
ƒ Summary 43 44

Column Web Panel High Strength Bolts in Seismic Joints


ƒ High strength bolts (in US HSFG, High Strength Friction
r Grip bolts) can be used as ordinary bolts in seismic joints
ƒ It is recommended that they are tightened at a level of 50%
of their preloading force.
ƒ In this case the surfaces of the plates do not have to be
beff prepared for working as a slip-resistant connection
Ls
beff

For static loads For seismic loads 45 46

Scope of the Lecture List of Lessons at Seminar


ƒ Principles 1. Introduction
2. Bases of design according to EN 1993-1-8
ƒ Design criteria
3. Welded connections
ƒ Beam-to-column typologies
4. Bolted connections
ƒ Design and fabrication recommendations 5. Basics of structural joints
ƒ Welding technology 6. Design of simple connections
ƒ Strain-rate loading 7. Column bases
ƒ M - φ modelling 8. Fire design of connections, EN 1993-1-2
9. Seismic design, EN 1998-1-1
ƒ Column web panel
ƒ Summary 47 48