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Access Systems

6/3/2008
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1 Overall Diagram

Transport Network Access System


user
Network
user

user

user

user

user

The System is designed to transfer information from its point of


generation (the user) to the first node of the (transport) network.

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2 Point to Multipoint Architecture

Network Network
Access Access
WAN System System
LAN user
(Internet / Intranet)
user

user

user

LAN user

user

long(er) distances short distances

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high capacity medium capacity
QoS mandatory QoS not mandatory
licensed frequency bands unlicensed frequency bands
(unlicensed also applicable)
scheduled access contention based access
IEEE 802.16 IEEE 802.11

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3 Overall Diagram
Wired / Wireless
Hub / Switch / Router

Wireless
VoIP
Gateway
(GW)

Gateway
PSTN

PC PC PC
Indoor
Gate keeper
(GK)

100 / 1000 Mbps Ethernet switch

Wired / Wireless
Hub / Switch / Router
Internet

Wireless
VoIP
Router
(R)

Gateway

PC PC PC
Indoor
servers

Wired / Wireless

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Hub / Switch / Router
SNMP
mgr

Wireless
VoIP
Gateway

PC PC PC
Indoor

Indoor

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4 BWA Concepts (IEEE 802.16)
Base Subscriber
Station Station
WAN (BS) (SS)
LAN user
(Internet / Intranet)
user

user

user

LAN user

user

Traffic is generated as Service Flows (SF)

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Service Flow is a flow of packets to which specific QoS level is guaranteed
Service Flows and their associated QoS parameters are defined before the operation of the
network, but can also be modified, added or deleted during operation
Packets are identified as belonging to a specific Service Flow based on the Connection Identifier
(CID)
CID is used by Subscriber Stations (SS) to request uplink bandwidth grants from the Base
Station (BS)

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5 BWA Concepts (IEEE 802.16)

Four different types of bandwidth grants are defined:


Continuous Grant (CG)
For real time services like E1, VOIP (without silence suppression)
Fixed size data packets on a periodic basis
Service parameters: unsolicited grant size, normal grant interval
Real Time Variable Rate (RT-VR)
For real time services like MPEG video
Variable bit rates
Guaranteed rate and delay requirement
Service parameters: committed burst (CIR), polling time interval (CT)
Non Real Time Variable Rate (NRT-VR)
Variable bit rate services
Guaranteed rate required, guaranteed delay not required
Service may expand to occupy full bandwidth – rate limit required

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Service parameters: committed burst, polling time interval, excess burst (MIR)
Best Effort (BE)
For service with no rate or delay requirements
Service parameters: polling time interval, excess burst

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6 BWA Concept (BreezeMax)

Committed Time (CT)


The AU polls each SU about the BW they are required, the time interval between two polls is
the CT (divided by two)
CT is the time period where the configured BW (CIR or MIR) is measured

Long Medium Short


CG* > 60 msec 40 - 60 msec 20 - 40 msec

RT 200 msec 100 msec 50 msec

NRT 200 msec 100 msec 50 msec

BE 200 msec 100 msec 50 msec

* Defined automatically when the grant interval is configured.

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7 BWA Concepts (IEEE 802.16)

Half duplex operation


DL UL

Preamble DL MAP UL MAP DCD UCD DL Bursts UL Bursts

Full duplex operation

DL Preamble DL MAP UL MAP DCD UCD DL Bursts

UL UL Bursts

X msec (5 msec in BreezeMAX)

Actual bandwidth grants to CIDs is executed by BS through the allocation of time slots for

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transmission to the selected CIDs
Network time is divided into “frames” (of several ms)
Every downlink frame opens with a “DL map” followed by a “UL map” transmitted by BS to all SS
The maps indicate the activity to be executed by BS and SS during the “frame”

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8 BWA Concepts (IEEE 802.16)

X msec (5 msec in BreezeMAX)

DL Preamble DL MAP UL MAP DCD UCD DL Bursts

DL MAP indicates:
CIDs to which BS will transmit (downlink) during the following frame
The exact moment in time when the transmission will occur

X msec (5 msec in BreezeMAX)

DL Preamble DL MAP UL MAP DCD UCD DL Bursts

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UL MAP indicates:
CIDs that have to transmit (uplink) during the next frame
The exact moment in time when the transmission has to occur
The type of information to be transmitted during the allocated interval (data, management,
requests to transmit in the next frame, etc.)

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9 BWA Concepts (IEEE 802.16)

X msec (5 msec in BreezeMAX)

DL Preamble DL MAP UL MAP DCD UCD DL Bursts

DCD (Downlink Channel Descriptor) indicates:


The physical parameters to be used by BS for each CID (modulation type, FEC coding
rate, etc.)

X msec (5 msec in BreezeMAX)

DL Preamble DL MAP UL MAP DCD UCD DL Bursts

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UCD (Uplink Channel Descriptor) indicates:
The physical parameters to be used by each CID when transmitting to BS
(modulation type, FEC coding rate, etc.)

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10 IEEE 802.16 Structure

OFDM Specific MAC


Features

Common MAC, Several PHYs

Common MAC
MAC

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11-66 GHz 2-11 GHz 2-11 GHz 2-11 GHz
SC PHY SCa PHY OFDM PHY OFDMA PHY PHY

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11 Frame Format

Data / Management

MAC PDU

Header MAC Payload CRC


Format of
the message

0 EC Type

Rsv CI EKS Rsv LEN


Length
LEN - Cont.

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CID
Connection ID
CID - Cont.

HCS

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12 Frame Format

Bandwidth Request

MAC PDU

Header
Format of
the message

1 EC Type
Amount of data
Rsv CI EKS Rsv BR
requested to Tx
BR- Cont.

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CID
Connection ID
CID - Cont.

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13 Typical Application

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