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Chapter 9

Statistical Inference:

Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

The main objective of Chapter 9 is to help you to learn how to test hypotheses on single

populations, thereby enabling you to:

1. Understand the logic of hypothesis testing and know how to establish null and

alternate hypotheses.

2. Understand Type I and Type II errors and know how to solve for Type II errors.

For some instructors, this chapter is the cornerstone of the first statistics course.

Hypothesis testing presents the logic in which ideas, theories, etc., are scientifically

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 2

examined. The student can be made aware that much of the development of concepts to

this point including sampling, level of data measurement, descriptive tools such as mean

and standard deviation, probability, and distributions pave the way for testing hypotheses.

Often students (and instructors) will say "Why do we need to test this hypothesis when

we can make a decision by examining the data?" Sometimes it is true that examining the

data could allow hypothesis decisions to be made. However, by using the methodology

and structure of hypothesis testing even in "obvious" situations, the researcher has added

credibility and rigor to his/her findings. Some statisticians actually report findings in a

court of law as an expert witness. Others report their findings in a journal, to the public,

to the corporate board, to a client, or to their manager. In each case, by using the

hypothesis testing method rather than a "seat of the pants" judgment, the researcher

stands on a much firmer foundation by using the principles of hypothesis testing and

random sampling. Chapter 9 brings together many of the tools developed to this point

and formalizes a procedure for testing hypotheses.

The statistical hypotheses are set up as to contain all possible decisions. The

two-tailed test always has = and ≠ in the null and alternative hypothesis. One-tailed

tests are presented with = in the null hypothesis and either > or < in the alternative

hypothesis. If in doubt, the researcher should use a two-tailed test. Chapter 9 begins

with a two-tailed test example. Usually, that which the researcher wants to demonstrate

true or prove true is usually set up as an alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis is

that the new theory or idea is not true, the status quo is still true, or that there is no

difference. The null hypothesis is assumed to be true before the process begins. Some

researchers liken this procedure to a court of law where the defendant is presumed

innocent (assume null is true - nothing has happened). Evidence is brought before the

judge or jury. If enough evidence is presented, the null hypothesis (defendant innocent)

can no longer be accepted or assume true. The null hypothesis is rejected as not true and

the alternate hypothesis is accepted as true by default. Emphasize that the researcher

needs to make a decision after examining the observed statistic.

Some of the key concepts in this chapter are one-tailed and two-tailed test and

Type I and Type II error. In order for a one-tailed test to be conducted, the problem must

include some suggestion of a direction to be tested. If the student sees such words as

greater, less than, more than, higher, younger, etc., then he/she knows to use a one-tail

test. If no direction is given (test to determine if there is a "difference"), then a two-tailed

test is called for. Ultimately, students will see that the only effect of using a one-tailed

test versus a two-tailed test is on the critical table value. A one-tailed test uses all of the

value of alpha in one tail. A two-tailed test splits alpha and uses alpha/2 in each tail thus

creating a critical value that is further out in the distribution. The result is that (all things

being the same) it is more difficult to reject the null hypothesis with a two-tailed test.

Many computer packages such as MINITAB include in the results a p-value. If you

designate that the hypothesis test is a two-tailed test, the computer will double the p-value

so that it can be compared directly to alpha.

In discussing Type I and Type II errors, there are a few things to consider. Once

a decision is made regarding the null hypothesis, there is a possibility that the decision is

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 3

correct or that an error has been made. Since the researcher virtually never knows for

certain whether the null hypothesis was actually true or not, a probability of committing

one of these errors can be computed. Emphasize with the students that a researcher can

never commit a Type I error and a Type II error at the same time. This is so because a

Type I error can only be committed when the null hypothesis is rejected and a Type II

error can only be committed when the decision is to not reject the null hypothesis. Type I

and Type II errors are important concepts for managerial students to understand even

beyond the realm of statistical hypothesis testing. For example, if a manager decides to

fire or not fire an employee based on some evidence collected, he/she could be

committing a Type I or a Type II error depending on the decision. If the production

manager decides to stop the production line because of evidence of faulty raw materials,

he/she might be committing a Type I error. On the other hand, if the manager fails to

shut the production line down even when faced with evidence of faulty raw materials,

he/she might be committing a Type II error.

The student can be told that there are some widely accepted values for alpha

(probability of committing a Type I error) in the research world and that a value is

usually selected before the research begins. On the other hand, since the value of Beta

(probability of committing a Type II error) varies with every possible alternate value of

the parameter being tested, Beta is usually examined and computed over a range of

possible values of that parameter. As you can see, the concepts of hypothesis testing are

difficult and represent higher levels of learning (logic, transfer, etc.). Student

understanding of these concepts will improve as you work your way through the

techniques in this chapter and in chapter 10.

CHAPTER OUTLINE

Types of Hypotheses

Research Hypotheses

Statistical Hypotheses

Substantive Hypotheses

Using the HTAB System to Test Hypotheses

Rejection and Non-rejection Regions

Type I and Type II errors

9.2 Testing Hypotheses About a Population Mean Using the z Statistic

Using a Sample Standard Deviation

Testing the Mean with a Finite Population

Using the p-Value Method to Test Hypotheses

Using the Critical Value Method to Test Hypotheses

Using the Computer to Test Hypotheses about a Population Mean Using

the z Test

9.3 Testing Hypotheses About a Population Mean Using the t Statistic

Using the Computer to Test Hypotheses about a Population Mean Using

the t Test

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 4

Using the Computer to Test Hypotheses about a Population Proportion

Some Observations About Type II Errors

Operating Characteristic and Power Curves

Effect of Increasing Sample Size on the Rejection Limits

KEY TERMS

Alternative Hypothesis Operating-Characteristic Curve (OC)

Beta(β ) p-Value Method

Critical Value Power

Critical Value Method Power Curve

Hypothesis Testing Rejection Region

Level of Significance Research Hypothesis

Nonrejection Region Statistical Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis Substantive Result

Observed Significance Level Two-Tailed Test

Observed Value Type I Error

Type II Error

9.1 a) Ho: µ = 25

Ha: µ ≠ 25

x − µ 28 .1 − 25

=

z= s 8.46 = 2.77

n 57

b) from Table A.5, inside area between z = 0 and z = 2.77 is .4972

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 5

α

Since the p-value of .0028 is less than = .005, the decision is to:

2

Reject the null hypothesis

xc − µ

zc = s

n

x c − 25

± 2.575 = 8.46

57

x c = 25 ± 2.885

Ha: µ < 7.48

x − µ 6.91 − 7.48

=

z = s 1.21 = -4.62

n 96

Ha: µ > 1,200

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 6

x − µ 1,215 −1,200

=

z = s 100 = 1.59

n 113

Reject the null hypothesis.

xc − µ

zc = s

n

x c −1,200

1.28 = 100

113

x c = 1,200 + 12.04

Since calculated x = 1,215 which is greater than the critical x = 1212.04, reject

the null hypothesis.

9.4 Ho: µ = 82

Ha: µ < 82

z.01 = -2.33

x − µ 78 .125 − 82

=

z= s 9.184 = -2.39

n 32

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 7

Statistically, we can conclude that urban air soot is significantly lower. From a

business and community point-of-view, assuming that the sample result is

representative of how the air actually is now, is a reduction of suspended particles

from 82 to 78.125 really an important reduction in air pollution? Certainly it

marks an important first step and perhaps a significant start. Whether or not it

would really make a difference in the quality of life for people in the city of St.

Louis remains to be seen. Most likely, politicians and city chamber of commerce

folks would jump on such results as indications of improvement in city

conditions.

Ha: µ ≠ $424.20

=

z = s 33 .90 = 1.84

n 54

Since the observed z = 1.85 < z.025 = 1.96, the decision is to fail to reject the

null hypothesis.

Ha: µ > $62,600

x − µ 64 ,820 − 62 ,600

=

z = s 7,810 = 1.97

n 48

Since the observed z = 1.97 < z.01 = 2.33, the decision is to fail to reject the

null hypothesis.

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 8

0

9.7 H : µ = 5

Ha: µ ≠ 5

x − µ 5.0611 − 5

=

z = s 0.2803 = 1.41

n 42

Since the observed z = 1.41 < z.05 = 1.645, the decision is to fail to reject the

null hypothesis.

Ha: µ < 18.2

x − µ 15 .6 −18 .2

=

z = s 2.3 = -6.39

n 32

Reject the null hypothesis

Ha: µ < $4,292

x − µ $4,008 − $4,292

=

z = s $386 = -5.46

n 55

Reject the null hypothesis

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 9

The CEO could use this information as a way of discrediting the Runzheimer

study and using her own figures in recruiting people and in discussing relocation

options. In such a case, this could be a substantive finding. However, one must

ask if the difference between $4,292 and $4,008 is really an important difference

in monthly rental expense. Certainly, Paris is expensive either way. However, an

almost $300 difference in monthly rental cost is a non trivial amount for most

people and therefore might be considered substantive.

Ha: µ > 123

x = 132.36 s = 27.68

reject the null hypothesis at α = .05.

The average water usage per person is greater than 123 gallons.

Ho: µ = 16

Ha: µ ≠ 16

x − µ 16 .45 −16

=

t = s 3.59 = 0.56

n 20

Ho: µ = 60

Ha: µ < 60

x − µ 58 .42 − 60

=

t = s 25 .68 = -0.88

n 8

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 10

Ho: µ = 1,160

Ha: µ > 1,160

=

t = s 103 .81 = 2.44

n 11

Ho: µ = 8.3

Ha: µ ≠ 8.3

For two-tail test, α /2 = .005 critical t.005,19 = ±2.861

x − µ 8.37 − 8.3

=

t = s .189 = 1.66

n 20

H0: µ = 1.84

Ha: µ ≠ 1.84

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 11

x − µ 1.85083 −1.84

=

t = s .02353 = 1.59

n 12

The decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Ho: µ = $1.16

Ha: µ > $1.16

x − µ 1.1948 −1.16

=

t = s .0889 = 1.96

n 25

The decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

05

H0: µ = $32.28

Ha: µ ≠ $32.28

x − µ 31 .67 − 32 .28

=

t = s 1.29 = -2.06

n 19

The decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis

H0: µ = 19

Ha: µ ≠ 19

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 12

Since the Excel p-value = .256 > α /2 = .025 and MINITAB p-value =.513 > .05,

the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

She would not conclude that her city is any different from the ones in the

national survey.

Ha: p > .45

pˆ − p .465 − .45

=

z = p⋅q (. 45 )(. 55 ) = 0.53

n 310

Ha: p < 0.63

x 55

n = 100 x = 55 pˆ = = = .55

n 100

pˆ − p .465 − .45

=

z = p⋅q (. 45 )(. 55 ) = -1.66

n 310

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 13

Ha: p ≠ .29

x 207

n = 740 x = 207 pˆ = = = .28 α = .05

n 740

pˆ − p .28 − .29

=

z = p ⋅q (. 29 )(. 71) = -0.60

n 740

p-Value Method:

z = -0.60

pˆ c − p

z = p ⋅q

n

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 14

pˆ c − .29

±1.96 = (. 29 )(. 71)

740

p̂c

= .29 ± .033

Ha: p ≠ .48

x 164

pˆ = = = .4316

n 380

pˆ − p .4316 − .48

=

z = p⋅q (. 48 )(. 52 ) = -1.89

n 380

Since the observed z = -1.89 is greater than z.005= -2.575, The decision is to fail to

reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to declare that the

proportion is any different than .48.

Ha: p < .79

x 303

pˆ = = = .7301

n 415

pˆ − p 7301 − .79

=

z = p ⋅q (. 79 )(. 21) = -3.00

n 415

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 15

Since the observed z = -3.00 is less than z.01= -2.33, The decision is to reject the

null hypothesis.

Ha: p ≠ .31

x 200

pˆ = = = .3333

n 600

pˆ − p .3333 − .31

=

z = p ⋅q (. 31)(. 69 ) = 1.23

n 600

Since the observed z = 1.23 is less than z.005= 1.645, The decision is to fail to

reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to declare that the

proportion is any different than .48.

Ho: p = .24

Ha: p < .24

x 130

pˆ = = = .2167

n 600

pˆ − p .2167 − .24

=

z = p ⋅q (.24 )(. 76 ) = -1.34

n 600

Since the observed z = -1.34 is greater than z.05= -1.645, The decision is to fail to

reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to declare that the

proportion is less than .24.

Ha: p > .18

pˆ − p .22 − .18

=

z = p⋅q (. 18 )(. 82 ) = 2.02

n 376

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 16

Since the observed z = 2.02 is less than z.01= 2.33, The decision is to fail to reject

the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to declare that the proportion

is greater than .18.

Ha: p < .32

x 22

n = 118 x = 22 pˆ = = = .186 α = .01

n 118

pˆ − p .186 − .32

=

z = p ⋅q (. 32 )(. 68 ) = -3.12

n 118

Since the observed z = -3.12 is less than z.05= -1.645, The decision is to reject the

null hypothesis.

Ha: p ≠ .47

n = 67 x = 40 α = .05 α /2 = .025

x 40

pˆ = = = .597

n 67

pˆ − p .597 − .47

=

z = p⋅q (. 47 )(. 53 ) = 2.08

n 67

Since the observed z = 2.08 is greater than z.025= 1.96, The decision is to reject the

null hypothesis.

Ha: σ 2 > 20

χ 2

.05,14 = 23.6848

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 17

(15 −1)( 32 )

χ 2

= = 22.4

20

.05,14 = 23.6848, the decision is to fail to reject the null

hypothesis.

Ha: σ 2 ≠ 8.5

χ 2

.05,21 = 32.6705

(22 −1)(17 )

χ 2

= = 42

8 .5

Since χ 2 = 42 > χ 2

.05,21 = 32.6705, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis.

Ha: σ 2 < 45

χ 2

.01,7 = 18.4753

(8 −1)( 4.12 ) 2

χ 2

= = 2.64

45

.01,7 = 18.4753, the decision is to fail to reject the null

hypothesis.

Ha: σ 2 ≠ 5

χ 2

.025,10 = 20.4831 χ 2

.975,10 = 3.24697

(11 −1)(1.2)

χ 2

= = 2.4

5

Since χ 2

= 2.4 < χ 2

.975,10 = 3.24697, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 18

30.0833

Ha: σ 2 ≠ 14

χ 2

.025,11 = 21.92 χ 2

.975,11 = 3.81575

χ 2

= = 23.64

14

.025,11 = 21.92, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

Ha: σ 2 > .001

χ 2

.01,15 = 30.5779

χ 2

= = 21.7

.001

.01,15 = 30.5779, the decision is to fail to reject the null

hypothesis.

Ha: σ 2 ≠ 199,996,164 2

s = 832,089,743.7

χ 2

.05,12 = 21.0261 χ 2

.95,12 = 5.22603

χ 2

= 199 ,996 ,164

= 49.93

Since χ 2 = 49.93 > χ 2.05,12 = 21.0261, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis. The variance has changed.

Ha: σ 2 > .04

χ 2

.01,6 = 16.8119

(7 −1)(. 1156 )

χ 2

= = 17.34

.04

.01,6 = 16.8119, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 19

Ha: µ < 100

n = 48 µ = 99 s = 14

xc − µ

zc = s

n

x c −100

-1.28 = 14

48

x c = 97.4

xc − µ 97 .4 − 99

z = s = 14 = -0.79

n 48

xc − µ

zc = s

n

x c −100

-1.645 = 14

48

x c = 96.68

xc − µ 96 .68 − 99

z = s = 14 = -1.15

n 48

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 20

xc − µ

zc = s

n

x c −100

-2.33 = 14

48

x c = 95.29

xc − µ 95 .29 − 99

z = s = 14 = -1.84

n 48

Decreasing the probability of committing a Type I error increases the probability

of committing a Type II error if other variables are held constant.

a) µa = 98.5 zc = -1.645

xc − µ

zc = s

n

x c −100

-1.645 = 14

48

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 21

x c = 96.68

xc − µ 96 .68 − 99

z = s = 14 = -0.90

n 48

b) µa = 98 zc = -1.645

x c = 96.68

xc − µ 96 .68 − 98

zc = s = 14 = -0.65

n 48

c) µa = 97 z.05 = -1.645

x c = 96.68

xc − µ 96 .68 − 97

z = s = 14 = -0.16

n 48

d) µa = 96 z.05 = -1.645

x c = 97.4

xc − µ 96 .68 − 96

z = s = 14 = 0.34

n 48

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 22

e) As the alternative value get farther from the null hypothesized value, the

probability of committing a Type II error reduces. (All other variables being held

constant).

9.35 Ho: µ = 50

Ha: µ ≠ 50

µa = 53 n = 35 s=7 α = .01

xc − µ

zc = s

n

x c − 50

±2.575 = 7

35

x c = 50 ± 3.05

xc − µ 53 .05 − 53

z = s = 7 = 0.04

n 35

Other end:

xc − µ 46 .9 − 53

z = s = 7 = -5.11

n 35

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 23

Ha: p < .65

pˆ c − p

zc = p ⋅q

n

pˆ c − .65

-1.645 = (. 65 )(. 35 )

360

pˆ c − p .609 −.60

z = p ⋅q = (. 60 )(. 40 ) = -0.35

n 360

p̂ c = .609

pˆ c − P .609 −.55

z = P ⋅Q = (. 55 )(. 45 ) = -2.25

n 360

p̂ c = .609

pˆ c − p .609 −.50

z = p ⋅q = (. 50 )(. 50 ) = -4.14

n 360

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 24

H0: µ = 44

Ha: µ ≠ 44 z.025 = ± 1.96

45 .1 − 44

z = 8.7 = 0.96

58

Since z = 0.96 < zc = 1.96, the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

x c − 44

+ 1.96 = 8. 7

58

± 2.239 = x c - 44

For 45 years:

46 .29 − 45

z = 8.7 = 1.08

58

For 46 years:

46 .239 − 46

z = 8.7 = 0.21

58

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 25

For 47 years:

46 .9 − 47

z = 8.7 = -0.67

58

For 48 years:

46 .248 − 48

z = 8 .7 = 1.54

58

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 26

Ha: p < .71

324

n = 463 x = 324 p̂ = = .6998 α = .10

463

z.10 = -1.28

pˆ − p .6998 − .71

=

z = p ⋅q (. 71)(. 29 ) = -0.48

n 463

Since the observed z = -0.48 > z.10 = -1.28, the decision is to fail to reject the null

hypothesis.

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 27

Type II error:

pˆ c − p

zc = p ⋅q

n

pˆ c − .71

-1.28 = (. 71)(. 29 )

463

p̂ = .683

For pa = .69

.683 −.69

z = (. 69 )(. 31) = -0.33

463

For pa = .66

.683 −.66

z = (. 66 )(. 34 ) = 1.04

463

For pa = .60

.683 −.60

z = (. 60 )(. 40 ) = 4.61

493

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 28

9.39

1) Ho: µ = 36

Ha: µ ≠ 36

x −µ

2) z = s

n

3) α = .01

If the observed value of z is greater than 2.575 or less than -2.575, the decision

will be to reject the null hypothesis.

x −µ 38 .4 − 36

6) z = s = 5.93 = 3.21

n 63

7) Since the observed value of z = 3.21 is greater than z.005 = 2.575, the decision is

to reject the null hypothesis.

Ha: µ < 7.82

x −µ

t = s

n

3) α = .05

4) df = n - 1 = 16, t.05,16 = -1.746. If the observed value of t is less than -1.746, then

the decision will be to reject the null hypothesis.

5) n = 17 x = 7.01 s = 1.69

x −µ 7.01 − 7.82

6) t = s = 1.69 = -1.98

n 17

7) Since the observed t = -1.98 is less than the table value of t = -1.746, the decision

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 29

9.41

a. 1) Ho: p = .28

Ha: p > .28

pˆ − p

2) z = p ⋅q

n

3) α = .10

4) This is a one-tailed test, z.10 = 1.28. If the observed value of z is greater than

1.28, the decision will be to reject the null hypothesis.

5) n = 783 x = 230

230

pˆ = = .2937

783

.2937 −.28

6) z = (. 28 )(. 72 ) = 0.85

783

7) Since z = 0.85 is less than z.10 = 1.28, the decision is to fail to reject the null

hypothesis.

b. 1) Ho: p = .61

Ha: p ≠ .61

pˆ − p

2) z = p ⋅q

n

3) α = .05

4) This is a two-tailed test, z.025 = + 1.96. If the observed value of z is greater than

1.96 or less than -1.96, then the decision will be to reject the null hypothesis.

5) n = 401 p̂ = .56

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 30

.56 −.61

6) z = (. 61 )(. 39 ) = -2.05

401

7) Since z = -2.05 is less than z.025 = -1.96, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

Ha: σ 2 > 15.4

( n −1) s 2

2) χ 2

=

σ2

3) α = .01

χ 2

.01,17 = 33.4087

5) s2 = 29.6

6) χ 2

= = = 32.675

σ 2

15 .4

7) Since the observed χ 2 = 32.675 is less than 33.4087, the decision is to fail to

reject the null hypothesis.

Ha: µ > 130

Solving for x :

c

xc − µ

z =

c σ

n

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 31

x c −130

2.33 = 12

75

x c = 133.23

z = 12 = -1.28

75

b) H0: p = .44

Ha: p < .44

pˆ c − p

zc = p ⋅q

n

pˆ c − .44

-1.645 = (. 44 )(. 56 )

1095

p̂c = .4153

.4153 −.42

z = (. 42 )(. 58 ) = -0.32

1095

β = .5000 + .1255 = .6255

Ha: p > .32

n = 80 α = .01 p̂ = .39

z.01 = 2.33

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 32

pˆ − p .39 − .32

=

z = p ⋅q (. 32 )(. 68 ) = 1.34

n 80

Since the observed z = 1.34 < z.01 = 2.33, the decision is to fail to reject the null

hypothesis.

Ho: µ = 3.3

Ha: µ ≠ 3.3

x −µ 3.45 −3.3

z = σ = 1.31 = 1.05

n 64

Since the observed z = 1.05 < zc = 1.96, the decision is to Fail to reject the null

hypothesis.

x 93

9.46 n = 210 x = 93 α = .10 pˆ = = = .443

n 210

Ho: p = .57

Ha: p< .57

pˆ − p .443 − .57

=

z = p⋅q (. 57 )(. 43) = -3.72

n 210

Since the observed z = -3.72 < zc = -1.28, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 33

Ha: σ 2 > 16

χ 2

.05,11 = 19.6751

χ 2

= = 24.63

16

.05,11 = 19.6751, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

1.3

Ha: µ ≠ 8.4

5.6 −8.4

t = 1.3 = -5.70

7

Since the observed t = - 5.70 < t.005,6 = -3.707, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

a) Ho: µ = $25,000

Ha: µ > $25,000 α = .05

x −µ 26 ,650 − 25 ,000

z = s = 12 ,000 = 1.38

n 100

Since the observed z = 1.38 < z.05 = 1.645, the decision is to fail to reject the null

hypothesis.

b) µa = $30,000 zc = 1.645

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 34

Solving for x :

c

xc − µ

zc = s

n

( x c − 25 ,000 )

1.645 = 12 ,000

100

26 ,974 − 30 ,000

z = 12 ,000 = -2.52

100

Ha: σ 2 > 4

χ 2

.10,7 = 12.017

(8 −1)( 7.80 ) 2

χ 2

= = 106.47

4

.10,7 = 12.017, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

Ha: p > .46

x 66

n = 125 x = 66 α = .05 pˆ = = = .528

n 125

pˆ − p .528 − .46

=

z = p ⋅q (. 46 )(. 54 ) = 1.53

n 125

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 35

Since the observed value of z = 1.53 < z.05 = 1.645, the decision is to fail to reject

the null hypothesis.

pˆ c − p

zc = p ⋅q

n

pˆ c − .46

1.645 = (. 46 )(. 54 )

125

p̂c = .533

pˆ c − p a .533 − .50

=

z = pa ⋅ qa (.50)(.50) = 0.74

n 125

H0: µ = 185

Ha: µ < 185

t.05,15 = - 1.753

x −µ 175 −185

t = s = 14 .28286 = -2.80

n 16

Since observed t = - 2.80 < t.05,15 = - 1.753, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

9.53 H0: p = .16

Ha: p > .16

x 84

n = 428 x = 84 α = .01 pˆ = = = .1963

n 428

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 36

pˆ − p .1963 − .16

=

z = p ⋅q (. 16 )(. 84 ) = 2.05

n 428

Since the observed z = 2.05 < z.01 = 2.33, the decision is to fail to reject the null

hypothesis.

pˆ c − p

zc = p ⋅q

n

. pˆ c − .16

2.33 = (. 16 )(. 84 )

428

p̂c = .2013

pˆ c − p a .2013 − .21

=

z = pa ⋅ qa (.21)(.79) = -0.44

n 428

Ha: µ > $15

x −µ 19 .34 −15

z = s = 4.52 = 5.68

n 35

Since the observed z = 5.68 > zc = 1.28, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 37

Ha: σ 2 > 16

χ 2

.05,21 = 32.6705

(22 −1)( 6) 2

χ 2

= = 47.25

16

.05,21 = 32.6705, the decision is to reject the

null hypothesis.

Ha: µ > 2.5

t.01,8 = 2.896

x −µ 3.4 − 2.5

t = s = 0.6 = 4.50

n 9

Since the observed t = 4.50 > t.01,8 = 2.896, the decision is to reject the null

hypothesis.

Ha: µ ≠ 23.58

x −µ 22 .83 − 23 .58

z = s = 5.11 = -1.43

n 95

Since the observed z = -1.43 > z.025 = -1.96, the decision is to fail to reject the

null hypothesis.

xc − µ

b) zc = s

n

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 38

x c − 23 .58

+ 1.96 = 5.11

95

xc = 23.58 + 1.03

xc = 22.55, 24.61

x c − µa 22 .55 − 22 .30

z = s = 5.11 = 0.48

n 95

x c − µa 24 .61 − 22 .30

z = s = 5.11 = 4.41

n 95

from Table A.5, the areas for z = 0.48 and z = 4.41 are .1844 and .5000

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 39

H0: σ 2 = 2.5

Ha: σ 2 ≠ 2.5

χ 2

.025,11 = 21.92

χ 2

..975,11 = 3.81575

If the observed χ 2 is greater than 21.92 or less than 3.81575, the decision is to

reject the null hypothesis.

χ 2

= = = 45.866

σ 2

2.5

Since the observed χ 2 = 45.866 is greater than χ 2.025,11 = 21.92, the decision is to

reject the null hypothesis. The population variance is significantly more than

2.5.

x −µ

t = s

n

Ha: p ≠ .25

Since the p-value = .045 < α = .05, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis.

The sample proportion, p̂ = .205729 which is less than the hypothesized p = .25.

One conclusion is that the population proportion is lower than .25.

Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 40

Ha: µ > 2.51

This is a one-tailed test. The sample mean is 2.555 which is more than the

hypothesized value. The observed t value is 1.51 with an associated

p-value of .072 for a one-tailed test. Because the p-value is greater than

α = .05, the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

There is not enough evidence to conclude that beef prices are higher.

Ha: µ < 2747

The sample average amount spent on home-improvement projects was 2,349.

Since z = -2.09 < z.05 = -1.645, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis at

α = .05. This is underscored by the p-value of .018 which is less than α = .05.

However, the p-value of .018 also indicates that we would not reject the null

hypothesis at α = .01.

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