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Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 1

Chapter 9
Statistical Inference:
Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

The main objective of Chapter 9 is to help you to learn how to test hypotheses on single
populations, thereby enabling you to:

1. Understand the logic of hypothesis testing and know how to establish null and
alternate hypotheses.

2. Understand Type I and Type II errors and know how to solve for Type II errors.

3. Know how to implement the HTAB system to test hypotheses.

4. Test hypotheses about a single population mean when σ is known.

5. Test hypotheses about a single population mean when σ is unknown.

6. Test hypotheses about a single population proportion.

7. Test hypotheses about a single population variance.

CHAPTER TEACHING STRATEGY

For some instructors, this chapter is the cornerstone of the first statistics course.
Hypothesis testing presents the logic in which ideas, theories, etc., are scientifically
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 2

examined. The student can be made aware that much of the development of concepts to
this point including sampling, level of data measurement, descriptive tools such as mean
and standard deviation, probability, and distributions pave the way for testing hypotheses.
Often students (and instructors) will say "Why do we need to test this hypothesis when
we can make a decision by examining the data?" Sometimes it is true that examining the
data could allow hypothesis decisions to be made. However, by using the methodology
and structure of hypothesis testing even in "obvious" situations, the researcher has added
credibility and rigor to his/her findings. Some statisticians actually report findings in a
court of law as an expert witness. Others report their findings in a journal, to the public,
to the corporate board, to a client, or to their manager. In each case, by using the
hypothesis testing method rather than a "seat of the pants" judgment, the researcher
stands on a much firmer foundation by using the principles of hypothesis testing and
random sampling. Chapter 9 brings together many of the tools developed to this point
and formalizes a procedure for testing hypotheses.

The statistical hypotheses are set up as to contain all possible decisions. The
two-tailed test always has = and ≠ in the null and alternative hypothesis. One-tailed
tests are presented with = in the null hypothesis and either > or < in the alternative
hypothesis. If in doubt, the researcher should use a two-tailed test. Chapter 9 begins
with a two-tailed test example. Usually, that which the researcher wants to demonstrate
true or prove true is usually set up as an alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis is
that the new theory or idea is not true, the status quo is still true, or that there is no
difference. The null hypothesis is assumed to be true before the process begins. Some
researchers liken this procedure to a court of law where the defendant is presumed
innocent (assume null is true - nothing has happened). Evidence is brought before the
judge or jury. If enough evidence is presented, the null hypothesis (defendant innocent)
can no longer be accepted or assume true. The null hypothesis is rejected as not true and
the alternate hypothesis is accepted as true by default. Emphasize that the researcher
needs to make a decision after examining the observed statistic.

Some of the key concepts in this chapter are one-tailed and two-tailed test and
Type I and Type II error. In order for a one-tailed test to be conducted, the problem must
include some suggestion of a direction to be tested. If the student sees such words as
greater, less than, more than, higher, younger, etc., then he/she knows to use a one-tail
test. If no direction is given (test to determine if there is a "difference"), then a two-tailed
test is called for. Ultimately, students will see that the only effect of using a one-tailed
test versus a two-tailed test is on the critical table value. A one-tailed test uses all of the
value of alpha in one tail. A two-tailed test splits alpha and uses alpha/2 in each tail thus
creating a critical value that is further out in the distribution. The result is that (all things
being the same) it is more difficult to reject the null hypothesis with a two-tailed test.
Many computer packages such as MINITAB include in the results a p-value. If you
designate that the hypothesis test is a two-tailed test, the computer will double the p-value
so that it can be compared directly to alpha.

In discussing Type I and Type II errors, there are a few things to consider. Once
a decision is made regarding the null hypothesis, there is a possibility that the decision is
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 3

correct or that an error has been made. Since the researcher virtually never knows for
certain whether the null hypothesis was actually true or not, a probability of committing
one of these errors can be computed. Emphasize with the students that a researcher can
never commit a Type I error and a Type II error at the same time. This is so because a
Type I error can only be committed when the null hypothesis is rejected and a Type II
error can only be committed when the decision is to not reject the null hypothesis. Type I
and Type II errors are important concepts for managerial students to understand even
beyond the realm of statistical hypothesis testing. For example, if a manager decides to
fire or not fire an employee based on some evidence collected, he/she could be
committing a Type I or a Type II error depending on the decision. If the production
manager decides to stop the production line because of evidence of faulty raw materials,
he/she might be committing a Type I error. On the other hand, if the manager fails to
shut the production line down even when faced with evidence of faulty raw materials,
he/she might be committing a Type II error.

The student can be told that there are some widely accepted values for alpha
(probability of committing a Type I error) in the research world and that a value is
usually selected before the research begins. On the other hand, since the value of Beta
(probability of committing a Type II error) varies with every possible alternate value of
the parameter being tested, Beta is usually examined and computed over a range of
possible values of that parameter. As you can see, the concepts of hypothesis testing are
difficult and represent higher levels of learning (logic, transfer, etc.). Student
understanding of these concepts will improve as you work your way through the
techniques in this chapter and in chapter 10.

CHAPTER OUTLINE

9.1 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing


Types of Hypotheses
Research Hypotheses
Statistical Hypotheses
Substantive Hypotheses
Using the HTAB System to Test Hypotheses
Rejection and Non-rejection Regions
Type I and Type II errors
9.2 Testing Hypotheses About a Population Mean Using the z Statistic
Using a Sample Standard Deviation
Testing the Mean with a Finite Population
Using the p-Value Method to Test Hypotheses
Using the Critical Value Method to Test Hypotheses
Using the Computer to Test Hypotheses about a Population Mean Using
the z Test
9.3 Testing Hypotheses About a Population Mean Using the t Statistic
Using the Computer to Test Hypotheses about a Population Mean Using
the t Test
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 4

9.4 Testing Hypotheses About a Proportion


Using the Computer to Test Hypotheses about a Population Proportion

9.5 Testing Hypotheses About a Variance

9.6 Solving for Type II Errors


Some Observations About Type II Errors
Operating Characteristic and Power Curves
Effect of Increasing Sample Size on the Rejection Limits

KEY TERMS

Alpha(α ) One-tailed Test


Alternative Hypothesis Operating-Characteristic Curve (OC)
Beta(β ) p-Value Method
Critical Value Power
Critical Value Method Power Curve
Hypothesis Testing Rejection Region
Level of Significance Research Hypothesis
Nonrejection Region Statistical Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis Substantive Result
Observed Significance Level Two-Tailed Test
Observed Value Type I Error
Type II Error

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS IN CHAPTER 9

9.1 a) Ho: µ = 25
Ha: µ ≠ 25

x = 28.1 n = 57 s = 8.46 α = .01

For two-tail, α /2 = .005 zc = 2.575

x − µ 28 .1 − 25
=
z= s 8.46 = 2.77
n 57

observed z = 2.77 > zc = 2.575

Reject the null hypothesis


b) from Table A.5, inside area between z = 0 and z = 2.77 is .4972
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 5

p-value = .5000 - .4972 = .0028

α
Since the p-value of .0028 is less than = .005, the decision is to:
2
Reject the null hypothesis

c) critical mean values:

xc − µ
zc = s
n

x c − 25
± 2.575 = 8.46
57

x c = 25 ± 2.885

x c = 27.885 (upper value)

x c = 22.115 (lower value)

9.2 Ho: µ = 7.48


Ha: µ < 7.48

x = 6.91 n = 96 s = 1.21 α =.01

For one-tail, α = .01 zc = -2.33

x − µ 6.91 − 7.48
=
z = s 1.21 = -4.62
n 96

observed z = -4.62 < zc = -2.33

Reject the null hypothesis

9.3 a) Ho: µ = 1,200


Ha: µ > 1,200

x = 1,215 n = 113 s = 100 α = .10


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 6

For one-tail, α = .10 zc = 1.28

x − µ 1,215 −1,200
=
z = s 100 = 1.59
n 113

observed z = 1.59 > zc = 1.28

Reject the null hypothesis

b) Probability > observed z = 1.59 is .0559 which is less than α = .10.


Reject the null hypothesis.

c) Critical mean value:

xc − µ
zc = s
n

x c −1,200
1.28 = 100
113

x c = 1,200 + 12.04

Since calculated x = 1,215 which is greater than the critical x = 1212.04, reject
the null hypothesis.

9.4 Ho: µ = 82
Ha: µ < 82

x = 78.125 n = 32 s = 9.184 α = .01

z.01 = -2.33

x − µ 78 .125 − 82
=
z= s 9.184 = -2.39
n 32

Since observed z = -2.39 < z.01 = -2.33

Reject the null hypothesis


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 7

Statistically, we can conclude that urban air soot is significantly lower. From a
business and community point-of-view, assuming that the sample result is
representative of how the air actually is now, is a reduction of suspended particles
from 82 to 78.125 really an important reduction in air pollution? Certainly it
marks an important first step and perhaps a significant start. Whether or not it
would really make a difference in the quality of life for people in the city of St.
Louis remains to be seen. Most likely, politicians and city chamber of commerce
folks would jump on such results as indications of improvement in city
conditions.

9.5 H0: µ = $424.20


Ha: µ ≠ $424.20

x = $432.69 n = 54 s = $33.90 α = .05

2-tailed test, α /2 = .025 z.025 = + 1.96

x − µ 432 .69 − 424 .20


=
z = s 33 .90 = 1.84
n 54

Since the observed z = 1.85 < z.025 = 1.96, the decision is to fail to reject the
null hypothesis.

9.6 H0: µ = $62,600


Ha: µ > $62,600

x = $64,820 n = 48 s = $7,810 α = .01

1-tailed test, α = .01 z.01 = 2.33

x − µ 64 ,820 − 62 ,600
=
z = s 7,810 = 1.97
n 48

Since the observed z = 1.97 < z.01 = 2.33, the decision is to fail to reject the
null hypothesis.
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 8

0
9.7 H : µ = 5
Ha: µ ≠ 5

x = 5.0611 n = 42 s = 0.2803 α = .10

2-tailed test, α /2 = .05 z.05 = + 1.645

x − µ 5.0611 − 5
=
z = s 0.2803 = 1.41
n 42

Since the observed z = 1.41 < z.05 = 1.645, the decision is to fail to reject the
null hypothesis.

9.8 Ho: µ = 18.2


Ha: µ < 18.2

x = 15.6 n = 32 s = 2.3 α = .10

For one-tail, α = .10, z.10 = -1.28

x − µ 15 .6 −18 .2
=
z = s 2.3 = -6.39
n 32

Since the observed z = -6.39 < z.10 = -1.28, the decision is to


Reject the null hypothesis

9.9 Ho: µ = $4,292


Ha: µ < $4,292

x = $4,008 n = 55 s = $386 α = .01

For one-tailed test, α = .01, z.01 = -2.33

x − µ $4,008 − $4,292
=
z = s $386 = -5.46
n 55

Since the observed z = -5.46 < z.01 = -2.33, the decision is to


Reject the null hypothesis
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 9

The CEO could use this information as a way of discrediting the Runzheimer
study and using her own figures in recruiting people and in discussing relocation
options. In such a case, this could be a substantive finding. However, one must
ask if the difference between $4,292 and $4,008 is really an important difference
in monthly rental expense. Certainly, Paris is expensive either way. However, an
almost $300 difference in monthly rental cost is a non trivial amount for most
people and therefore might be considered substantive.

9.10 Ho: µ = 123


Ha: µ > 123

α = .05 n = 40 40 people were sampled

x = 132.36 s = 27.68

This is a one-tailed test. Since the p-value = .016, we


reject the null hypothesis at α = .05.
The average water usage per person is greater than 123 gallons.

9.11 n = 20 x = 16.45 s = 3.59 df = 20 - 1 = 19 α = .05

Ho: µ = 16
Ha: µ ≠ 16

For two-tail test, α /2 = .025, critical t.025,19 = ±2.093

x − µ 16 .45 −16
=
t = s 3.59 = 0.56
n 20

Observed t = 0.56 < t.025,19 = 2.093

The decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

9.12 n=8 x = 58.42 s2 = 25.68 df = 8 - 1 = 7 α = .01

Ho: µ = 60
Ha: µ < 60

For one-tail test, α = .01 critical t.01,7 = -2.998

x − µ 58 .42 − 60
=
t = s 25 .68 = -0.88
n 8
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 10

Observed t = -0.88 > t.01,7 = -2.998

The decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

9.13 n = 11 x = 1,235.36 s = 103.81 df = 11 - 1 = 10 α = .05

Ho: µ = 1,160
Ha: µ > 1,160

For one-tail test, α = .05 critical t.05,10 = 1.812

x − µ 1,236 .36 −1,160


=
t = s 103 .81 = 2.44
n 11

Observed t = 2.44 > t.05,10 = 1.812

The decision is to Reject the null hypothesis

9.14 n = 20 x = 8.37 s = .189 df = 20-1 = 19 α = .01

Ho: µ = 8.3
Ha: µ ≠ 8.3
For two-tail test, α /2 = .005 critical t.005,19 = ±2.861

x − µ 8.37 − 8.3
=
t = s .189 = 1.66
n 20

Observed t = 1.66 < t.005,19 = 2.861

The decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

9.15 n = 12 x = 1.85083 s = .02353 df = 12 - 1 = 11 α = .10

H0: µ = 1.84
Ha: µ ≠ 1.84
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 11

For a two-tailed test, α /2 = .05 critical t.05,11 = 1.796

x − µ 1.85083 −1.84
=
t = s .02353 = 1.59
n 12

Since t = 1.59 < t11,.05 = 1.796,


The decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

9.16 n = 25 x = 1.1948 s = .0889 df = 25 - 1 = 24 α = .01

Ho: µ = $1.16
Ha: µ > $1.16

For one-tail test, = .01 Critical t.01,24 = 2.492

x − µ 1.1948 −1.16
=
t = s .0889 = 1.96
n 25

Observed t = 1.96 < t.01,24 = 2.492


The decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

9.17 n = 19 x = $31.67 s = $1.29 df = 19 – 1 = 18 α =.


05

H0: µ = $32.28
Ha: µ ≠ $32.28

Two-tailed test, α /2 = .025 t.025,18 = + 2.101

x − µ 31 .67 − 32 .28
=
t = s 1.29 = -2.06
n 19

The observed t = -2.06 > t.025,18 = -2.101,


The decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis

9.18 n = 26 x = 19.534 minutes s = 4.100 minutes α = .05

H0: µ = 19
Ha: µ ≠ 19
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 12

Two-tailed test, α /2 = .025, critical t value = + 2.06

Observed t value = 0.66

Since the observed t = 0.66 < critical t value = 2.06,

The decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

Since the Excel p-value = .256 > α /2 = .025 and MINITAB p-value =.513 > .05,
the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

She would not conclude that her city is any different from the ones in the
national survey.

9.19 Ho: p = .45


Ha: p > .45

n = 310 p̂ = .465 α = .05

For one-tail, α = .05 z.05 = 1.645

pˆ − p .465 − .45
=
z = p⋅q (. 45 )(. 55 ) = 0.53
n 310

observed z = 0.53 < z.05 = 1.645

The decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

9.20 Ho: p = 0.63


Ha: p < 0.63

x 55
n = 100 x = 55 pˆ = = = .55
n 100

For one-tail, α = .01 z.01 = -2.33

pˆ − p .465 − .45
=
z = p⋅q (. 45 )(. 55 ) = -1.66
n 310

observed z = -1.66 > zc = -2.33


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 13

The decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

9.21 Ho: p = .29


Ha: p ≠ .29

x 207
n = 740 x = 207 pˆ = = = .28 α = .05
n 740

For two-tail, α /2 = .025 z.025 = ±1.96

pˆ − p .28 − .29
=
z = p ⋅q (. 29 )(. 71) = -0.60
n 740

observed z = -0.60 > zc = -1.96

The decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

p-Value Method:

z = -0.60

from Table A.5, area = .2257

Area in tail = .5000 - .2257 = .2743

.2743 > .025

Again, the decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

Solving for critical values:

pˆ c − p
z = p ⋅q
n
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 14

pˆ c − .29
±1.96 = (. 29 )(. 71)
740

p̂c
= .29 ± .033

.257 and .323

Sample p = p̂ = .28 not outside critical values in tails

Again, the decision is to Fail to reject the null hypothesis

9.22 Ho: p = .48


Ha: p ≠ .48

n = 380 x = 164 α = .01 α /2 = .005 z.005 = +2.575

x 164
pˆ = = = .4316
n 380

pˆ − p .4316 − .48
=
z = p⋅q (. 48 )(. 52 ) = -1.89
n 380

Since the observed z = -1.89 is greater than z.005= -2.575, The decision is to fail to
reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to declare that the
proportion is any different than .48.

9.23 Ho: p = .79


Ha: p < .79

n = 415 x = 303 α = .01 z.01 = -2.33

x 303
pˆ = = = .7301
n 415

pˆ − p 7301 − .79
=
z = p ⋅q (. 79 )(. 21) = -3.00
n 415
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 15

Since the observed z = -3.00 is less than z.01= -2.33, The decision is to reject the
null hypothesis.

9.24 Ho: p = .31


Ha: p ≠ .31

n = 600 x = 200 α = .10 α /2 = .05 z.005 = +1.645

x 200
pˆ = = = .3333
n 600

pˆ − p .3333 − .31
=
z = p ⋅q (. 31)(. 69 ) = 1.23
n 600

Since the observed z = 1.23 is less than z.005= 1.645, The decision is to fail to
reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to declare that the
proportion is any different than .48.

Ho: p = .24
Ha: p < .24

n = 600 x = 130 α = .05 z.05 = -1.645

x 130
pˆ = = = .2167
n 600

pˆ − p .2167 − .24
=
z = p ⋅q (.24 )(. 76 ) = -1.34
n 600

Since the observed z = -1.34 is greater than z.05= -1.645, The decision is to fail to
reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to declare that the
proportion is less than .24.

9.25 Ho: p = .18


Ha: p > .18

n = 376 p̂ = .22 α = .01

one-tailed test, z.01 = 2.33

pˆ − p .22 − .18
=
z = p⋅q (. 18 )(. 82 ) = 2.02
n 376
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 16

Since the observed z = 2.02 is less than z.01= 2.33, The decision is to fail to reject
the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to declare that the proportion
is greater than .18.

9.26 Ho: p = .32


Ha: p < .32

x 22
n = 118 x = 22 pˆ = = = .186 α = .01
n 118

For one-tailed test, z.05 = -1.645

pˆ − p .186 − .32
=
z = p ⋅q (. 32 )(. 68 ) = -3.12
n 118

Observed z = -3.12 < z.05 –1.645

Since the observed z = -3.12 is less than z.05= -1.645, The decision is to reject the
null hypothesis.

9.27 Ho: p = .47


Ha: p ≠ .47

n = 67 x = 40 α = .05 α /2 = .025

For a two-tailed test, z.025 = +1.96

x 40
pˆ = = = .597
n 67

pˆ − p .597 − .47
=
z = p⋅q (. 47 )(. 53 ) = 2.08
n 67

Since the observed z = 2.08 is greater than z.025= 1.96, The decision is to reject the
null hypothesis.

9.28 a) H0: σ 2 = 20 α = .05 n = 15 df = 15 – 1 = 14 s2 = 32


Ha: σ 2 > 20

χ 2
.05,14 = 23.6848
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 17

(15 −1)( 32 )
χ 2
= = 22.4
20

Since χ 2 = 22.4 < χ 2


.05,14 = 23.6848, the decision is to fail to reject the null
hypothesis.

b) H0: σ 2 = 8.5 α = .10 α /2 = .05 n = 22 df = n-1 = 21 s2 = 17


Ha: σ 2 ≠ 8.5

χ 2
.05,21 = 32.6705

(22 −1)(17 )
χ 2
= = 42
8 .5

Since χ 2 = 42 > χ 2
.05,21 = 32.6705, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis.

c) H0: σ 2 = 45 α = .01 n=8 df = n – 1 = 7 s = 4.12


Ha: σ 2 < 45

χ 2
.01,7 = 18.4753

(8 −1)( 4.12 ) 2
χ 2
= = 2.64
45

Since χ 2 = 2.64 < χ 2


.01,7 = 18.4753, the decision is to fail to reject the null
hypothesis.

d) H0: σ 2 = 5 α = .05 α /2 = .025 n = 11 df = 11 – 1 = 10 s2 = 1.2


Ha: σ 2 ≠ 5

χ 2
.025,10 = 20.4831 χ 2
.975,10 = 3.24697

(11 −1)(1.2)
χ 2
= = 2.4
5
Since χ 2
= 2.4 < χ 2
.975,10 = 3.24697, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 18

9.29 H0: σ 2 = 14 α = .05 α /2 = .025 n = 12 df = 12 – 1 = 11 s2 =


30.0833
Ha: σ 2 ≠ 14

χ 2
.025,11 = 21.92 χ 2
.975,11 = 3.81575

(12 −1)( 30 .0833 )


χ 2
= = 23.64
14

Since χ 2 = 23.64 < χ 2


.025,11 = 21.92, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.

9.30 H0: σ 2 = .001 α = .01 n = 16 df = 16 – 1 = 15 s2 = .00144667


Ha: σ 2 > .001

χ 2
.01,15 = 30.5779

(16 −1)(. 00144667 )


χ 2
= = 21.7
.001

Since χ 2 = 21.7 < χ 2


.01,15 = 30.5779, the decision is to fail to reject the null
hypothesis.

9.31 H0: σ 2 = 199,996,164 α = .10 α /2 = .05 n = 13 df =13 - 1 = 12


Ha: σ 2 ≠ 199,996,164 2
s = 832,089,743.7

χ 2
.05,12 = 21.0261 χ 2
.95,12 = 5.22603

(13 −1)( 832 ,089 ,743 .7)


χ 2
= 199 ,996 ,164
= 49.93

Since χ 2 = 49.93 > χ 2.05,12 = 21.0261, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis. The variance has changed.

9.32 H0: σ 2 = .04 α = .01 n=7 df = 7 – 1 = 6 s = .34 s2 = .1156


Ha: σ 2 > .04

χ 2
.01,6 = 16.8119

(7 −1)(. 1156 )
χ 2
= = 17.34
.04

Since χ 2 = 17.34 > χ 2


.01,6 = 16.8119, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 19

9.33 Ho: µ = 100


Ha: µ < 100
n = 48 µ = 99 s = 14

a) α = .10 z.10 = -1.28

xc − µ
zc = s
n

x c −100
-1.28 = 14
48

x c = 97.4

xc − µ 97 .4 − 99
z = s = 14 = -0.79
n 48

from Table A.5, area for z = -0.79 is .2852

β = .2852 + .5000 = .7852

b) α = .05 z.05 = -1.645

xc − µ
zc = s
n

x c −100
-1.645 = 14
48

x c = 96.68

xc − µ 96 .68 − 99
z = s = 14 = -1.15
n 48
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 20

from Table A.5, area for z = -1.15 is .3749

β = .3749 + .5000 = .8749

c) α = .01 z.01 = -2.33

xc − µ
zc = s
n

x c −100
-2.33 = 14
48

x c = 95.29

xc − µ 95 .29 − 99
z = s = 14 = -1.84
n 48

from Table A.5, area for z = -1.84 is .4671

β = .4671 + .5000 = .9671

d) As gets smaller (other variables remaining constant), beta gets larger.


Decreasing the probability of committing a Type I error increases the probability
of committing a Type II error if other variables are held constant.

9.34 α = .05 µ = 100 n = 48 s = 14

a) µa = 98.5 zc = -1.645

xc − µ
zc = s
n

x c −100
-1.645 = 14
48
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 21

x c = 96.68

xc − µ 96 .68 − 99
z = s = 14 = -0.90
n 48

from Table A.5, area for z = -0.90 is .3159

β = .3159 + .5000 = .8159

b) µa = 98 zc = -1.645

x c = 96.68

xc − µ 96 .68 − 98
zc = s = 14 = -0.65
n 48

from Table A.5, area for z = -0.65 is .2422

β = .2422 + .5000 = .7422

c) µa = 97 z.05 = -1.645

x c = 96.68

xc − µ 96 .68 − 97
z = s = 14 = -0.16
n 48

from Table A.5, area for z = -0.16 is .0636

β = .0636 + .5000 = .5636

d) µa = 96 z.05 = -1.645

x c = 97.4

xc − µ 96 .68 − 96
z = s = 14 = 0.34
n 48

from Table A.5, area for z = 0.34 is .1331


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 22

β = .5000 - .1331 = .3669

e) As the alternative value get farther from the null hypothesized value, the
probability of committing a Type II error reduces. (All other variables being held
constant).

9.35 Ho: µ = 50
Ha: µ ≠ 50

µa = 53 n = 35 s=7 α = .01

Since this is two-tailed, α /2 = .005 z.005 = ±2.575

xc − µ
zc = s
n

x c − 50
±2.575 = 7
35

x c = 50 ± 3.05

46.95 and 53.05

xc − µ 53 .05 − 53
z = s = 7 = 0.04
n 35

from Table A.5 for z = 0.04, area = .0160

Other end:

xc − µ 46 .9 − 53
z = s = 7 = -5.11
n 35

Area associated with z = -5.11 is .5000

β = .5000 + .0160 = .5160


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 23

9.36 a) Ho: p = .65


Ha: p < .65

n = 360 α = .05 pa = .60 z.05 = -1.645

pˆ c − p
zc = p ⋅q
n
pˆ c − .65
-1.645 = (. 65 )(. 35 )
360

p̂ c = .65 - .041 = .609

pˆ c − p .609 −.60
z = p ⋅q = (. 60 )(. 40 ) = -0.35
n 360

from Table A.5, area for z = -0.35 is .1368

β = .5000 - .1368 = .3632

b) pa = .55 z.05 = -1.645

p̂ c = .609

pˆ c − P .609 −.55
z = P ⋅Q = (. 55 )(. 45 ) = -2.25
n 360

from Table A.5, area for z = -2.25 is .4878

β = .5000 - .4878 = .0122

c) pa = .50 z.05 = -1.645

p̂ c = .609

pˆ c − p .609 −.50
z = p ⋅q = (. 50 )(. 50 ) = -4.14
n 360

from Table A.5, the area for z = -4.14 is .5000


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 24

β = .5000 - .5000 = .0000

9.37 n = 58 x = 45.1 s = 8.7 α = .05 α /2 = .025

H0: µ = 44
Ha: µ ≠ 44 z.025 = ± 1.96

45 .1 − 44
z = 8.7 = 0.96
58

Since z = 0.96 < zc = 1.96, the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.

x c − 44
+ 1.96 = 8. 7
58

± 2.239 = x c - 44

x c = 46.239 and 41.761

For 45 years:

46 .29 − 45
z = 8.7 = 1.08
58

from Table A.5, the area for z = 1.08 is .3599

β = .5000 + .3599 = .8599

Power = 1 - β = 1 - .8599 = .1401

For 46 years:

46 .239 − 46
z = 8.7 = 0.21
58

From Table A.5, the area for z = 0.21 is .0832

β = .5000 + .0832 = .5832


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 25

Power = 1 - β = 1 - .5832 = .4168

For 47 years:

46 .9 − 47
z = 8.7 = -0.67
58

From Table A.5, the area for z = -0.67 is .2486

β = .5000 - .2486 = .2514

Power = 1 - β = 1 - .2514 = .7486

For 48 years:

46 .248 − 48
z = 8 .7 = 1.54
58

From Table A.5, the area for z = 1.54 is .4382

β = .5000 - .4382 = .0618

Power = 1 - β = 1 - .0618 = .9382


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 26

9.38 H0: p= .71


Ha: p < .71

324
n = 463 x = 324 p̂ = = .6998 α = .10
463

z.10 = -1.28

pˆ − p .6998 − .71
=
z = p ⋅q (. 71)(. 29 ) = -0.48
n 463

Since the observed z = -0.48 > z.10 = -1.28, the decision is to fail to reject the null
hypothesis.
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 27

Type II error:

Solving for the critical proportion, p̂ c:

pˆ c − p
zc = p ⋅q
n

pˆ c − .71
-1.28 = (. 71)(. 29 )
463

p̂ = .683

For pa = .69

.683 −.69
z = (. 69 )(. 31) = -0.33
463

From Table A.5, the area for z = -0.33 is .1293

The probability of committing a Type II error = .1293 + .5000 = .6293

For pa = .66

.683 −.66
z = (. 66 )(. 34 ) = 1.04
463

From Table A.5, the area for z = 1.04 is .3508

The probability of committing a Type II error = .5000 - .3508 = .1492

For pa = .60

.683 −.60
z = (. 60 )(. 40 ) = 4.61
493

From Table A.5, the area for z = 4.61 is .5000

The probability of committing a Type II error = .5000 - .5000 = .0000


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 28

9.39
1) Ho: µ = 36
Ha: µ ≠ 36

x −µ
2) z = s
n
3) α = .01

4) two-tailed test, α /2 = .005, z.005 = + 2.575


If the observed value of z is greater than 2.575 or less than -2.575, the decision
will be to reject the null hypothesis.

5) n = 63, x = 38.4, s = 5.93

x −µ 38 .4 − 36
6) z = s = 5.93 = 3.21
n 63

7) Since the observed value of z = 3.21 is greater than z.005 = 2.575, the decision is
to reject the null hypothesis.

8) The mean is likely to be greater than 36.

9.40 1) Ho: µ = 7.82


Ha: µ < 7.82

2) The test statistic is

x −µ
t = s
n

3) α = .05

4) df = n - 1 = 16, t.05,16 = -1.746. If the observed value of t is less than -1.746, then
the decision will be to reject the null hypothesis.

5) n = 17 x = 7.01 s = 1.69

x −µ 7.01 − 7.82
6) t = s = 1.69 = -1.98
n 17

7) Since the observed t = -1.98 is less than the table value of t = -1.746, the decision
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 29

is to reject the null hypothesis.

8) The population mean is significantly less than 7.82.

9.41

a. 1) Ho: p = .28
Ha: p > .28

pˆ − p
2) z = p ⋅q
n
3) α = .10

4) This is a one-tailed test, z.10 = 1.28. If the observed value of z is greater than
1.28, the decision will be to reject the null hypothesis.

5) n = 783 x = 230

230
pˆ = = .2937
783

.2937 −.28
6) z = (. 28 )(. 72 ) = 0.85
783

7) Since z = 0.85 is less than z.10 = 1.28, the decision is to fail to reject the null
hypothesis.

8) There is not enough evidence to declare that p is not .28.

b. 1) Ho: p = .61
Ha: p ≠ .61

pˆ − p
2) z = p ⋅q
n

3) α = .05

4) This is a two-tailed test, z.025 = + 1.96. If the observed value of z is greater than
1.96 or less than -1.96, then the decision will be to reject the null hypothesis.

5) n = 401 p̂ = .56
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 30

.56 −.61
6) z = (. 61 )(. 39 ) = -2.05
401

7) Since z = -2.05 is less than z.025 = -1.96, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.

8) The population proportion is not likely to be .61.

9.42 1) H0: σ 2 = 15.4


Ha: σ 2 > 15.4

( n −1) s 2
2) χ 2
=
σ2

3) α = .01

4) n = 18, df = 17, one-tailed test

χ 2
.01,17 = 33.4087

5) s2 = 29.6

( n −1) s 2 (17 )( 29 .6)


6) χ 2
= = = 32.675
σ 2
15 .4

7) Since the observed χ 2 = 32.675 is less than 33.4087, the decision is to fail to
reject the null hypothesis.

8) The population variance is not significantly more than 15.4.

9.43 a) H0: µ = 130


Ha: µ > 130

n = 75 σ = 12 α = .01 z.01 = 2.33 µa = 135

Solving for x :
c

xc − µ
z =
c σ
n
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 31

x c −130
2.33 = 12
75

x c = 133.23

133 .23 −135


z = 12 = -1.28
75

from table A.5, area for z = -1.28 is .3997

β = .5000 - .3997 = .1003

b) H0: p = .44
Ha: p < .44

n = 1095 α = .05 pa = .42 z.05 = -1.645

pˆ c − p
zc = p ⋅q
n

pˆ c − .44
-1.645 = (. 44 )(. 56 )
1095

p̂c = .4153

.4153 −.42
z = (. 42 )(. 58 ) = -0.32
1095

from table A.5, area for z = -0.32 is .1255


β = .5000 + .1255 = .6255

9.44 H0: p = .32


Ha: p > .32

n = 80 α = .01 p̂ = .39

z.01 = 2.33
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 32

pˆ − p .39 − .32
=
z = p ⋅q (. 32 )(. 68 ) = 1.34
n 80

Since the observed z = 1.34 < z.01 = 2.33, the decision is to fail to reject the null
hypothesis.

9.45 x = 3.45 n = 64 σ 2 = 1.31 α = .05

Ho: µ = 3.3
Ha: µ ≠ 3.3

For two-tail, α /2 = .025 zc = ±1.96

x −µ 3.45 −3.3
z = σ = 1.31 = 1.05
n 64

Since the observed z = 1.05 < zc = 1.96, the decision is to Fail to reject the null
hypothesis.

x 93
9.46 n = 210 x = 93 α = .10 pˆ = = = .443
n 210

Ho: p = .57
Ha: p< .57

For one-tail, α = .10 zc = -1.28

pˆ − p .443 − .57
=
z = p⋅q (. 57 )(. 43) = -3.72
n 210

Since the observed z = -3.72 < zc = -1.28, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 33

9.47 H0: σ 2 = 16 n = 12 σ = .05 df = 12 - 1 = 11


Ha: σ 2 > 16

s = 0.4987864 ft. = 5.98544 in.

χ 2
.05,11 = 19.6751

(12 −1)( 5.98544 ) 2


χ 2
= = 24.63
16

Since χ 2 = 24.63 > χ 2


.05,11 = 19.6751, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.

9.48 H0: µ = 8.4 α = .01 α /2 = .005 n=7 df = 7 – 1 = 6 s=


1.3
Ha: µ ≠ 8.4

x = 5.6 t.005,6 = + 3.707

5.6 −8.4
t = 1.3 = -5.70
7

Since the observed t = - 5.70 < t.005,6 = -3.707, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.

9.49 x = $26,650 n = 100 s = $12,000

a) Ho: µ = $25,000
Ha: µ > $25,000 α = .05

For one-tail, α = .05 z.05 = 1.645

x −µ 26 ,650 − 25 ,000
z = s = 12 ,000 = 1.38
n 100

Since the observed z = 1.38 < z.05 = 1.645, the decision is to fail to reject the null
hypothesis.

b) µa = $30,000 zc = 1.645
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 34

Solving for x :
c

xc − µ
zc = s
n

( x c − 25 ,000 )
1.645 = 12 ,000
100

x c = 25,000 + 1,974 = 26,974

26 ,974 − 30 ,000
z = 12 ,000 = -2.52
100

from Table A.5, the area for z = -2.52 is .4941

β = .5000 - .4941 = .0059

9.50 H0: σ 2 = 4 n=8 s = 7.80 α = .10 df = 8 – 1 = 7


Ha: σ 2 > 4

χ 2
.10,7 = 12.017

(8 −1)( 7.80 ) 2
χ 2
= = 106.47
4

Since observed χ 2 = 106.47 > χ 2


.10,7 = 12.017, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.

9.51 H0: p = .46


Ha: p > .46

x 66
n = 125 x = 66 α = .05 pˆ = = = .528
n 125

Using a one-tailed test, z.05 = 1.645

pˆ − p .528 − .46
=
z = p ⋅q (. 46 )(. 54 ) = 1.53
n 125
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 35

Since the observed value of z = 1.53 < z.05 = 1.645, the decision is to fail to reject
the null hypothesis.

Solving for p̂c :

pˆ c − p
zc = p ⋅q
n

pˆ c − .46
1.645 = (. 46 )(. 54 )
125

p̂c = .533

pˆ c − p a .533 − .50
=
z = pa ⋅ qa (.50)(.50) = 0.74
n 125

from Table A.5, the area for z = 0.74 is .2704

β = .5000 + .2704 = .7704

9.52 n = 16 x = 175 s = 14.28286 df = 16 - 1 = 15 α = .05

H0: µ = 185
Ha: µ < 185

t.05,15 = - 1.753

x −µ 175 −185
t = s = 14 .28286 = -2.80
n 16

Since observed t = - 2.80 < t.05,15 = - 1.753, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.
9.53 H0: p = .16
Ha: p > .16

x 84
n = 428 x = 84 α = .01 pˆ = = = .1963
n 428

For a one-tailed test, z.01 = 2.33


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 36

pˆ − p .1963 − .16
=
z = p ⋅q (. 16 )(. 84 ) = 2.05
n 428

Since the observed z = 2.05 < z.01 = 2.33, the decision is to fail to reject the null
hypothesis.

The probability of committing a Type I error is .01.

Solving for p̂c :

pˆ c − p
zc = p ⋅q
n

. pˆ c − .16
2.33 = (. 16 )(. 84 )
428

p̂c = .2013

pˆ c − p a .2013 − .21
=
z = pa ⋅ qa (.21)(.79) = -0.44
n 428

from Table A.5, the area for z = -0.44 is .1700

β = .5000 - .1700 = .3300

9.54 Ho: µ = $15


Ha: µ > $15

x = $19.34 n = 35 s= $4.52 α = .10

For one-tail and α = .10 zc = 1.28

x −µ 19 .34 −15
z = s = 4.52 = 5.68
n 35

Since the observed z = 5.68 > zc = 1.28, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 37

9.55 H0: σ 2 = 16 n = 22 df = 22 –1 = 21 s=6 α = .05


Ha: σ 2 > 16

χ 2
.05,21 = 32.6705

(22 −1)( 6) 2
χ 2
= = 47.25
16

Since the observed χ 2 = 47.25 > χ 2


.05,21 = 32.6705, the decision is to reject the
null hypothesis.

9.56 H0: µ = 2.5 x = 3.4 s = 0.6 α = .01 n=9 df = 9 – 1 = 8


Ha: µ > 2.5

t.01,8 = 2.896

x −µ 3.4 − 2.5
t = s = 0.6 = 4.50
n 9

Since the observed t = 4.50 > t.01,8 = 2.896, the decision is to reject the null
hypothesis.

9.57 a) Ho: µ = 23.58


Ha: µ ≠ 23.58

n = 95 x = 22.83 s = 5.11 α = .05

Since this is a two-tailed test and using α /2 = .025: z.025 = + 1.96

x −µ 22 .83 − 23 .58
z = s = 5.11 = -1.43
n 95

Since the observed z = -1.43 > z.025 = -1.96, the decision is to fail to reject the
null hypothesis.

xc − µ
b) zc = s
n
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 38

x c − 23 .58
+ 1.96 = 5.11
95

xc = 23.58 + 1.03

xc = 22.55, 24.61

for Ha: µ = 22.30

x c − µa 22 .55 − 22 .30
z = s = 5.11 = 0.48
n 95

x c − µa 24 .61 − 22 .30
z = s = 5.11 = 4.41
n 95

from Table A.5, the areas for z = 0.48 and z = 4.41 are .1844 and .5000

β = .5000 - .1844 = .3156

The upper tail has no effect on β .


Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 39

9.58 n = 12 x = 12.333 s2 = 10.424

H0: σ 2 = 2.5
Ha: σ 2 ≠ 2.5

α = .05 df = 11 two-tailed test, α /2 = .025

χ 2
.025,11 = 21.92

χ 2
..975,11 = 3.81575

If the observed χ 2 is greater than 21.92 or less than 3.81575, the decision is to
reject the null hypothesis.

( n −1) s 2 11 (10 .424 )


χ 2
= = = 45.866
σ 2
2.5

Since the observed χ 2 = 45.866 is greater than χ 2.025,11 = 21.92, the decision is to
reject the null hypothesis. The population variance is significantly more than
2.5.

9.59 The sample size is 22. x is 3.967 s = 0.866 df = 21

The test statistic is:

x −µ
t = s
n

The observed t = -2.34. The p-value is .015.

The results are statistical significant at α = .05.

The decision is to reject the null hypothesis.

9.60 H0: p = .25


Ha: p ≠ .25

This is a two-tailed test with α = .05. n = 384.

Since the p-value = .045 < α = .05, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis.

The sample proportion, p̂ = .205729 which is less than the hypothesized p = .25.
One conclusion is that the population proportion is lower than .25.
Chapter 9: Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing for Single Populations 40

9.61 H0: µ = 2.51


Ha: µ > 2.51

This is a one-tailed test. The sample mean is 2.555 which is more than the
hypothesized value. The observed t value is 1.51 with an associated
p-value of .072 for a one-tailed test. Because the p-value is greater than
α = .05, the decision is to fail to reject the null hypothesis.
There is not enough evidence to conclude that beef prices are higher.

9.62 H0: µ = 2747


Ha: µ < 2747

This is a one-tailed test. Sixty-seven households were included in this study.


The sample average amount spent on home-improvement projects was 2,349.
Since z = -2.09 < z.05 = -1.645, the decision is to reject the null hypothesis at
α = .05. This is underscored by the p-value of .018 which is less than α = .05.
However, the p-value of .018 also indicates that we would not reject the null
hypothesis at α = .01.