0 Stimmen dafür0 Stimmen dagegen

44 Aufrufe18 SeitenMay 16, 2011

3.5-CHAPTER5

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

44 Aufrufe

3.5-CHAPTER5

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Viscous Incompressible Flow
- Vertical Channel Flow Problem
- 18 - PanelMethods
- BladeTip Vortex Control 22 Oct 2010
- Mixed Convection Flow and Heat Transfer of Micropolar Fluid in a Vertical Channel with Symmetric and Asymmetric Wall Heating Conditions
- Pressure Transient
- Em 1110-2-1601_hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels
- H.K. Moffatt- Formation and disruption of concentrated vortices in turbulence
- D. I. Pullin and T. S. Lundgren- Axial motion and scalar transport in stretched spiral vortices
- InTech-Bed Forms and Flow Mechanisms Associated With Dunes
- 2011_Simplified analysis of Sloshing phenomenon.pdf
- Estudio de Flujo
- The Wing Grid
- CFD Large-Eddy Simulation of a Round Jet in Crossflow.pdf
- Numerical Simulation of 'Wind Turbine Blade-Tower Interaction
- Diffusion Flame in a Two-dimensional, Accelerating Mixing Layer
- Lecture 1
- 211
- vortex
- STUDY ON COOLING OF AUTOMOBILES USING AIRJET IMPINGEMENT.

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

5.1 Background

Driven cavity flows are industrially important because these flows and the

structures that they exhibit play an important role in industry. For example, Aidun et al.

(1991) pointed out the direct relevance of cavity flows to coaters, and in melt spinning

driven cavity flows give insight into the behavior of such structures in applications as

diverse as drag-reducing riblets and mixing cavities used to synthesize fine polymeric

composites (Zumbrunnen et al. 1995). However, in our view the greatest importance of

these flows is in the basic study of fluid mechanics. In no other class of flows are the

framework in which meaningful and detailed comparisons can be made between results

*

The works in this chapter have been published by:

1. C. Shu, X. D. Niu and Y. T. Chew, “Taylor series expansion- and least square-

based lattice Boltzmann method: two-dimensional formulation and its applications”, Physical

Review E., vol. 65, 036708, p1-13, 2002, The American Physical Society.

2. Y. T. Chew, C. Shu and X. D. Niu, “Simulation of Unsteady Incompressible Flows by Using Taylor

Series Expansion- and Least Square-Based Lattice Boltzmann Method”, International Journal of

Modern Physics C, vol.13, No. 6, p719-738, 2002, World Scientific Publishing Company.

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 86

attest, the driven cavity problem is one of the standards used to test new computational

schemes. We here mention only Benjamin & Denny (1979), Ghia et al. (1982), Fuchs

& Tillmark (1985), Soh et al. (1988), Zang et al. (1993) and Ku et al. (1987). Another

great advantage of this class of flows is that the flow domain is unchanged when the

Reynolds number is increased. This greatly facilitates investigations over the whole

between the experimental results obtained in a turbulent flow (Prasad & Koseff 1989)

and the corresponding direct numerical simulations (DNS) (Deshpande & Shankar

1994a, b; Verstappen & Veldman 1994) have been made for a driven cubical cavity.

Furthermore, driven cavity flows exhibit almost all phenomena that can possibly occur

in such flows that Bogatyrev & Gorin (1978) and Koseff & Street (1984b) showed,

contrary to intuition, that the flow was essentially 3D, even when the aspect ratio was

large. In this sense, cavity flows are almost canonical and will continue to be

LBM (TLLBM) is applied to simulate the lid-driven cavity flows including 2D steady

polar and square cavity flows, and 2D unsteady square cavity flow. The numerical

work of Ghia et al. (1982), numerical and experimental work of Fuchs & Tillmark

(1985) and numerical work of Zang et al. (1994) are used as benchmarks to evaluate

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 87

In this case, the top lid moves from left to right with a constant velocity U.

Non-uniform meshes of 49×49 for Re = 100 and 400, 97×97 for Re = 1000, 145×145

for Re = 5000 and 10000 were used respectively for the calculation. The Reynolds

number was defined as Re = UL/υ (based on the lid velocity and the length of the

square cavity). The use of non-uniform mesh is desirable, especially for the cases of

high Reynolds number. This is because the thin boundary layer is attached to the solid

boundaries. So, to capture the thin boundary layer, the mesh spacing near the wall

should be very small. Apart from the solid wall, relatively large mesh spacing was

used. In this way, we can correctly simulate the thin boundary layer, and at the same

Initially a constant density, ρ =1, was prescribed for the whole cavity field, and

the velocities in the interior of the cavity were set to zero. On the top, the x-component

velocity is U, which was set to 0.15, and the y-component velocity is zero. At the end

of each time step, the density distribution function fα at the top was set to the

equilibrium state. The whole halfway wall bounce back boundary conditions were used

on the other three solid walls. For the upper two corners between the stationary wall

and the moving wall, which are singular points, it was found that treatment with the

moving wall or the stationary wall points had little difference in our simulations.

Fig. 5.1 showed the streamlines for different Reynolds numbers. The effects of

the Reynolds number on the flow pattern and the structure of the steady recirculating

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 88

vortices were clearly seen in this figure. Initially, the center of the primary vortex,

which is located 0.24 below the lid in the mid-plane, moved a little lower and to the

right when Re = 100 (Fig. 5.1(a)). But it was found that, for Re = 400 (Fig. 5.1 (b)), the

center of the primary vortex moves lower and back towards the center plane; and, as

Fig. 5.1 showed, as Re increases further, there is uniform tendency for the vortex

bottom right, bottom left, and top left; they were simplified as BR1, BR2, ..., BL1, BL2,

..., TL, where the subscripts indicated, except for TL, the member in a presumably

infinite sequence. As Re increases, although both BR1 and BL1 grew in size, BR1's

growth is greater, as are their strength (as can be seen from Fig. 5.1). The trajectory of

the vortice centers is complex, with the distance above the cavity bottom of the center

of BL1 being actually greater than that of BR1 for Re = 5000. Fig. 5.1(e) also showed

the growth of BR2 and BL2, which are small and weak at Re = 5000.

The emergence of the upper upstream vortex (TL1) represents a genuine change

in flow topology. Hints of its imminent appearance can be seen in the streamline

patterns at Re = 1000 (Fig. 5.1 (c)). Having emerged at a Reynolds number of around

1200 (Benjamin & Denny 1979), it grew in size and strength at least until Re = 10,000

(Fig. 5.1(e)). One must note that this secondary vortex, attached to a plane wall, is

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 89

It should be clear from the above that even the two-dimensional flow in a cavity

predict the changes that are likely to take place as the Reynolds number increases. The

vorticity contours of Fig. 5.2 provide insight into some general features of the flow

field as the Reynolds number increases. As Re→∞, one would expect thin boundary

layers to develop along the solid walls, with the central core in almost inviscid motion.

This was indeed seen in the figure. As Re increases, there is a clearly visible tendency

for the core fluid to move as a solid body with uniform vorticity. Apparently, the flow

Table 5.1 gave the detailed comparison for locations of the vortex center

obtained by the present method and Ghia et al. (1982). The relative errors between the

two solutions were less than 4%. In this table, we also gave the CPU time (seconds)

spent in the present computation on the personal computer with Pentium III 866 and

364M memory. Although other information about this aspect is lacking, we still

believe, from our numerical simulations, that the computational efficiency of present

method was as good as that of the traditional CFD tools. The U and V velocities along

their respective central line were displayed in Fig. 5.3 for different Reynolds numbers.

Obviously, our simulation results are in good agreement with those of Ghia et al.

(1982).

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 90

The polar cavity case was used to show the capability of the present method in

treating the flow problem with complex geometry. The geometry with a non-uniform

mesh was given in Fig. 5.4. The Reynolds number (based on the lid velocity and the

radius of the inner circle) was 350. Initially a clockwise velocity of U = 0.15 was set

on the inner lid and other conditions were the same as those in the square cavity case.

Fig. 5.5 showed the steady state azimuthal and radial velocity profiles along the line of

θ = 0. Results, which were obtained on 49×49, 65×65 and 81×81 non-uniform meshes,

together with the experimental and numerical results of Fuchs and Tillmark (1985) are

included in the figure for comparison. The results obtained by the present method

agreed well with those of Fuchs and Tillmark’s numerical simulation. The present

solutions also compared well with the experimental data and the discrepancy between

three-dimensional flow structures are observed. In Fig. 5.6, the streamlines obtained by

the present method on the mesh size of 81×81 were compared with those obtained

from the solution of Navier-Stokes equations (Zang et al. 1994). Again, good

agreement was achieved in the size of the vortices and location of the separation and

reattachment points.

researchers in fluid mechanics. In this case, a periodic velocity waveform was imposed

on the cavity lid and the time evolution observed in the flow was compared with the

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 91

numerical results of Soh et al. (1988) using the N-S equations. The periodic lid

u(t)=Ucos(ωt) (5.1)

where U is the maximum lid velocity during the cycle, ω is the frequency of the

oscillation and t is the time. The period of oscillation, T, is related to the frequency by

T=2π/ω. (5.2)

The simulation was performed with Re = 400 (Re = UL/ν, where L is the

characteristic length set as the length of top wall), frequency of ω = 1 and U = 0.15. A

non-uniform grid of 97×97 with denser distribution near the boundaries was used, and

the time step was set as, in the unit of L/U, 4.5×10-4. The oscillatory flow was assumed

to reach the periodic steady state when the differences of the velocity components u

and v of each point in the domain at two subsequent flow cycles are within a small

tolerance of ε=10-5.

The flow reached steady state after 7 cycles. Fig. 5.7 showed the time evolution

of the viscous drag on the lid, which was estimated using the same formula as given by

Soh et al. (1988). It can be seen that the drag settles down to be periodic very quickly,

more quickly than the entire flow field. The maximum drag occurs approximately at

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 92

al. at t = χT where χ = 0.2, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, 0.5, 0.7, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9, 0.95 and 1.0

were shown in Fig. 5.8-1 and Fig. 5.8-2, respectively. As time advances, the direction

of the lid movement and the center of the vortex changes. The lid velocity passes

counter rotating vorticity is formed in the flow field at the left corner of the cavity. As

the magnitude of the velocity increases in the negative x direction, the size of the

second vortex created in the upper left corner of the cavity also increases. At the same

time, the primary vortex continuously shrinks until t = T/2. At this point, the velocity

reaches its maximum in the negative x direction and the second vortex, which has

formed in the left corner of the cavity, attains its maximum size and occupies the entire

domain.

After this point, the streamlines at each time step are the mirror images of the

streamlines at time from t = 0 to T/2. This conclusion can be made by comparing Fig.

5.8-1 and Fig. 5.8-2. The results are in good agreement with those of Soh et al. (1988).

numbers were first investigated by the new TLLBM. The present numerical

computation confirmed the flow features in the cavity domain obtained in numerical

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 93

TLLBM can be applied to the problems with complicated geometrical boundary which

should be able to simulate the unsteady problems and this has been confirmed by

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 94

Table 5.1 Comparison for locations of primary vortex center of the lid-driven

square cavity at different Reynolds numbers

Ghia

(0.61,0.73) (0.56,0.61) (0.54,0.56) (0.52,0.54) (0.51,0.51)

Vortex et al.

Center Present

(0.61,0.73) (0.56,0.60) (0.54,0.56) (0.53,0.56) (0.51,0.52)

method

CPU (seconds) by

present method 195.521 600.3833 3567.650 20443.85 64401.57

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 95

Figure 5.1 Streamlines of the lid-driven square cavity flows at different Reynolds

numbers

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 96

Figure 5.2 Vorticity contours of the lid-driven square cavity flows at different

Reynolds numbers

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 97

1 0.6

Ghia's data

0.8 0.4

Present

0.2 result

0.6

0

0.4 Ghia's data

-0.2

Present

0.2 result -0.4

0 -0.6

-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

U-Y X-V

1 0.6

Ghia's data

0.8 0.4

Present

0.2 result

0.6

0

0.4 Ghia's data

-0.2

Present

0.2

result

-0.4

0

-0.6

-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

U-Y X-V

1 0.6

Ghia's data

0.4

0.8 Present

0.2 result

0.6

0

0.4 Ghia's data

-0.2

Present

0.2 -0.4

result

0 -0.6

-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

X-V

U-Y

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 98

1 0.6

Ghia's data

0.4

0.8 Present

0.2 result

0.6

0

0.4 Ghia's data

-0.2

Present

0.2 -0.4

result

-0.6

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

X-V

U-Y

1 0.6

Ghia's result

0.8 0.4

Present Result

0.2

0.6 Ghia's

result 0

0.4 Present

-0.2

result

0.2

-0.4

0 -0.6

-0.5 0 0.5 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

U-Y X-V

Figure 5.3 U (left) and V (right) velocity profiles along vertical and horizontal

central lines of the square cavity at different Reynolds numbers

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 99

Figure 5.4 Geometry and a typical non-uniform mesh for the flow in a polar lid-

driven cavity

0.75

ur / U 0.5

uθ / U

0.25

-0.25

-0.5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

( r − r0 ) / r0

the line of θ = 0 0 in the polar cavity at Re = 350 ( numerical data by Fuchs &

Tillmark; experimental data by Fuchs & Tillmark; — Present result of 49×49; – – –

Present result of 65×65; — – — Present result of 81×81)

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 100

(a) Present result (81×81) (b) N-S solution of Zang et al. (1994)

Figure 5.6 Comparison of streamlines in the polar cavity between the present

method and the N-S Solver

40 40

30 30

20 20

10 10

Drag

Drag

0 0

-10 -10

-20 -20

-30 -30

-40 -40

0 0.5 1 t/T 1.5 2 5 5.5 6 t/T 6.5 7

Figure 5.7 Time evolution of drag on the cavity lid for oscillatory flow

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 101

Figure 5.8-1 Instantaneous streamlines in the first half period for the oscillatory lid-

driven cavity flow (1st and 3rd rows) and Soh et al. (2nd and 4th rows)

Chapter 5 Numerical Applications of TLLBM Part I: Flow in 2D Lid-Driven Cavity 102

Figure 5.8-2 Instantaneous streamlines in the second half period for the oscillatory

lid-driven cavity flow (1st and 3rd rows) and Soh et al. (2nd and 4th rows)

- Viscous Incompressible FlowHochgeladen vonEduardo Lalo
- Vertical Channel Flow ProblemHochgeladen vonsack2003
- 18 - PanelMethodsHochgeladen vonSainath Satish
- BladeTip Vortex Control 22 Oct 2010Hochgeladen vonaleroux64
- Mixed Convection Flow and Heat Transfer of Micropolar Fluid in a Vertical Channel with Symmetric and Asymmetric Wall Heating ConditionsHochgeladen vonAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Pressure TransientHochgeladen vonraguerre
- Em 1110-2-1601_hydraulic Design of Flood Control ChannelsHochgeladen vonssheafi
- H.K. Moffatt- Formation and disruption of concentrated vortices in turbulenceHochgeladen vonVortices3443
- D. I. Pullin and T. S. Lundgren- Axial motion and scalar transport in stretched spiral vorticesHochgeladen vonPlamcfe
- InTech-Bed Forms and Flow Mechanisms Associated With DunesHochgeladen vonprashanthreddyh
- 2011_Simplified analysis of Sloshing phenomenon.pdfHochgeladen vonAmar Prakash
- Estudio de FlujoHochgeladen vonRoberto Caceres
- The Wing GridHochgeladen vonJan Scar
- CFD Large-Eddy Simulation of a Round Jet in Crossflow.pdfHochgeladen vonmojicap
- Numerical Simulation of 'Wind Turbine Blade-Tower InteractionHochgeladen vonamirsagharichi
- Diffusion Flame in a Two-dimensional, Accelerating Mixing LayerHochgeladen vonricljr
- Lecture 1Hochgeladen vonAjit Dubey
- 211Hochgeladen vonDriss Miral Achemlal
- vortexHochgeladen vonNiraj Panthi
- STUDY ON COOLING OF AUTOMOBILES USING AIRJET IMPINGEMENT.Hochgeladen vonIJAR Journal
- adiabatic film cooling flat plateHochgeladen vonaeroarpit iisc
- Sample 7528Hochgeladen vondeepak patidar
- Lipscomb.xlsHochgeladen vonAryaSniper
- Agard Cp 164Hochgeladen vonaryamesa
- t1Hochgeladen vonAziful Aieman
- Cyclone ClassificationHochgeladen vonJuanFelipeTorres
- Pumps Introduction & SpesificationHochgeladen vonfarid
- zxxxxHochgeladen vonMikael Markov
- AppendicesHochgeladen vonAdelaida Cruz
- PRESSURE DROP IN PIPES.docxHochgeladen vonAnonymous S3x8Snn

- Energy Optimization of a Network of Exchangers-reaHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- id290amel.pdfHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- 1-s2.0-S0017931006004650-main.pdfHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- 1-s2.0-0017931078901382-main.pdfHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- Numerical Investigation of Horizontal.pdfHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- 1-s2.0-S0011916407006509-mainHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- 1-s2.0-0890433294900191-mainHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- 1-s2.0-S1658077X13000416-mainHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- 376_ftpHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- 3dmwtucfdHochgeladen vonDaniel Castilla Puello
- 3DCT Powerpoint ExampleHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- Call for Members on Editorial Advisory BoardHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- 2003-DAI-Case Study of Solar Chimney Power Plants in Northwestern Regions of ChinaHochgeladen vonAmoul Dhahri
- 2DNavierStokesCavityFlowHochgeladen vonTushar Kant Swain

- Vacuum SymbolsHochgeladen vonbaba
- Technical Handbook Version 11_5Hochgeladen vonRodrigo
- Introduction Allura & FDXD_0403Hochgeladen vonAnonymous mqsR6k1q6
- 2EFC280Fd01Hochgeladen vonnazar750
- Determination of heavy metals in soil Moor Etal 01Hochgeladen vonFranco Hidalgo
- 6. WST - Perforation Part 1Hochgeladen vonNor
- Delphi MAP SensorsHochgeladen vongkarthikeyan
- 10_optimization of Milling Machining Process Parameters a ReviewHochgeladen vondimas
- Fluids ProblemsHochgeladen vonYogendraJadav
- Test Help StatHochgeladen vonthenderson22603
- S AA GEN CDF (Civ Design Fundamental) (Rev.0 2009)Hochgeladen vonMohammad Al Jedy
- Electrochemical Nucleation and Growth of Co and CoFe AlloyHochgeladen vonmomenzi
- Adv Trans StabilityHochgeladen vontommagne
- s Domain AnalysisHochgeladen vonfaisal140
- Bio H Basic Chemistry NotesHochgeladen vonAndrew S Heng
- Alcohols PDFHochgeladen vonSuji Mudiraj
- Is 456 Slab DesignHochgeladen vonSiddhanatha Boobathi
- A Phenomenological Model for an Industrial Flash Flotation Cell (1)Hochgeladen vonCarlos Castillo Rojas
- Subgrade Enhancement Geotextile Guide2Hochgeladen vonHarika Yadav
- pH and Buffering Capacity Problems Involved in the Determination of Ammonia in Saline Water Using the In Do Phenol Blue Spectrophotometric MethodHochgeladen vonDiễn Đàn Hóa Học
- 2016 11 Sample Paper Chemistry 03Hochgeladen vonSarthak
- 8.Numerical Investigation of Vertical Helically Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers Thermal PerformanceHochgeladen vonLeidy Pedraza
- 1 Electrostatics PacketHochgeladen vonshamjaggernauth
- Instruments Used to Measure PrecipitationHochgeladen vonMark Jed Dela Cruz
- Metal Matrix CompositesHochgeladen vongrimfiend
- TYCO Thermal - SEET SYSTEM - Unpriced OfferHochgeladen vonNaim Trabelsi
- 1-s2.0-S1405888X15000170-mainHochgeladen vonRenato AN
- 2016 Existing Powerplants Luzon as of Dec31Hochgeladen vonCyril Ann Llavores
- Unax InternalsHochgeladen vonMohamed Shehata
- Crankshaft Position SensorHochgeladen vonKeyboardMan1960

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.