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Informative Speech

Diabetes Mellitus

Thesis Statement: To Inform my Audience about Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction: In 2009, Fox News reports from El Reno, Ok that a man was stopped by
the police for suspicion of Drunk Driving. When the police officer told the man to step
out of the vehicle, he did not comply. The police officer then proceeded to drag the man
out of the vehicle and taser him. The man was not under the influence; his blood sugar
levels were extremely low. Lower than the normal range of 70- 120mg. This man like
24 Million other Americans according to the Center for Disease Control suffers with

Tonight I will inform you about the main types of Diabetes, the risk factors, and

I. What is Diabetes Mellitus?

A. Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder that affects the way your body uses food for energy.
Normally, the sugar you take in is digested and broken down to a simple sugar, known as
glucose. The glucose then circulates in your blood where it waits to enter cells to be used
as fuel. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps move the glucose into cells.
A healthy pancreas adjusts the amount of insulin based on the level of glucose. But, if
you have diabetes, the glucose backs up into your blood and the blood sugar levels
become too high.

II. Types of Diabetes –

A. Although no age group is exempt from diabetes, the American Diabetes
Association (2002) indicates that 90% to 95% affected persons acquire the disease as
adults, there are two major types of Diabetes.

1. Type 1 also known as Juvenile Diabetes because it normally occurs before age 30,
and affects adolescents and children. With type 1 Diabetes the pancreas makes very
little or no insulin at all. So the person with type 1 must take insulin injections, and
are commonly called insulin dependent diabetics. Without insulin, the blood glucose
level rises beyond it normal range (70-120 mg)
a. Various factors may contribute to type 1 diabetes, which include genetics and
exposures to certain virus
b. The exact causes of type 1 diabetes is unknown, although it known that
people with type one diabetes, their body immune system which normally fight of
harmful bacteria and viruses, mistakenly destroy the insulin producing islet cells
in the pancreas.
B. Type 2 Diabetes also known as Adult onset diabetes. The National Institute
of Health state that 95% of all Diabetes is Type 2. Type II diabetes runs in
families, although one specific diabetic gene has not been isolated.
1. Type II Diabetics the person has adequate insulin but the cells have
become resistant to it.
a. Type 2 is more common in people that are 55 years or older, it is also
being detected in obese children, there is no cure, but it can be

b. Millions of Americans have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and

many more are unaware they are at high risk. Some groups have a higher
risk for developing type 2 diabetes than others. Type 2 diabetes is more
common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans and Asian
Americans, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.

C. Gestational Diabetes (GD) affects about 4 percent of all pregnant women. It usually
appears during the second trimester and disappears after the birth of the baby. Just like
Type 1 and Type 2, your body can't use glucose effectively and blood glucose levels get
too high. When GD is not controlled, complications can affect both you and your baby.
Having GD increases your risk for developing it again during future pregnancies and also
raises your risk of Type 2 diabetes later in life.

I. Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

A. Although diabetes mellitus is highly complex disease, screening for its

detection is relatively simple, urine or blood test normal blood sugar or glucose

If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, no matter what type, it means that too
much glucose is in your blood. Here are a few common symptoms of DM.

A. Common symptoms of diabetes include:

• Excessive thirst and appetite

• Increased urination (sometimes as often as every hour)
• Unusual weight loss or gain
• Fatigue
• Nausea, perhaps vomiting
• Blurred vision
• In women, frequent vaginal infections
• In men and women, yeast infections
• Dry mouth
• Slow-healing sores or cuts
• Itching skin, especially in the groin or vaginal area
In Conclusion

Diabetes can affect people of all ages, there are 2 major types and the risk factors vary. .
There is no Cure for Diabetes but it can be managed. Start by seeing a Health Care
professional, eating healthy foods, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight.