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JNJ G
PHFBNDXAXNF

N.  Antnr Jhanonfl

Knjnfl iandrnln shfne bg Gfbifhsgn ehwnrgsg shmnrnd bnf trnbgsg ynfl kuoup
 pnfmnfl bnane phrohejnflnffyn. Bgnwnag bnrg phrohejnflnf ynfl bgbirifl iahd
egagth
egagthrr bg ensn-e
ensn-ensn
nsn ohphfb
ohphfbubu
ubuonf
onf Jhanfb
Jhanfbnn bnf Mhpnfl,
Mhpnfl, shfne
shfne phrfnd
phrfnd gbhftg
gbhftgo 

bhflnf iandrnln egagthr bg ensn-ensn nwna ohehrbhonnf bhflnf biegfnsg phantgd
ynfl muln bntnfl bnrg antnr jhanonfl ohegagthrnf ynfl ount.Bgonanflnf shoiand bnf
 phrlurunf tgfllg, shfne jnrnflonag dnfyn bgohejnflonf iahd [RI-[RI bnf [EIN
ynfl nbn bg shaurud Gfbifhsgn.[hbnflonf bg onanflnf ensynrnont shfbgrg, shfne snnt
gtu jhaue eheuflogfonf bgohejnflonf ehflgflnt ohdnrusnf ehfyhbgnonf
 phrnantnf ynfl rhantgc endna.Xftuo ehendneg phrohejnflnf iandrnln shfne

thrshjut, bnane enonand gfg bgturufonf

J.  Zueusnf Ensnand


>.  Npn phflhrtgnf shfne grnen9
:.  Npn snmn ufsur-ufsur shfne grnen9
;.  Nbn jhrnpn enkne nagrnf bnane shfne grnen9
2.  Jnlngenfn lhrnonf bnane shfne grnen9

K.  Rumunf

>.  Xftuo ehflhtndug phflhrtgnf shfne grnen.


:.  Xftuo ehflhtndug ufsur-ufsur shfne grnen.
;.  Xftuo ehflhtndug enkne-enkne nagrnf bnane shfne grnen.
2.  Xftuo ehflhtndug lhrnonf-lhrnonf bnane shfne grnen.
 

JNJ GG
PHEJNDN[NF

N.  Phflhrtgnf [hfne Grnen

[hfne grnen ehrupnonf lhrnonf shfne ntnupuf lhrnonf jhjns ynfl bgjnrhflg
bhflnf eusgo ntnu fynfygnf shsung bhflnf grnen ynfl ehflgoutgfyn. Nbnpuf ufsur-
ufsur ynfl thrbnpnt bnane shfne grnen ehagputg= ohauwhsnf, ohsgfnejuflnf
lhrnonf, bnf ohthpntnf grnen. Znflongnf shfne grnen bnpnt bganouonf bhflnf knrn
 jhrmnanf, jhranrg, ehaiepnt, aifknt, shrtn nyufnf, bnf putnrnf tnflnf.
tn flnf.
[hfne
[hfne grnen
grnen [hfne
[hfne grnen
grnen ntnu
ntnu bgshju
bgshjutt muln
muln shfne
shfne rgtego
rgtego nbnand
nbnand lhrnon
lhrnonf
f
shfne ynfl bganouonf bhflnf grnen eusgo, ntnu antgdnf jhjns ynfl bganouonf shknrn
 jhrgrnen.[hfne rgtego bnpnt bganouonf bhflnf ehfllufnonf nant ntnupuf tnfpn nant.
Nant ynfl shrgfl bglufnonf nbnand lnfbn, sgepng,tiflont, jian, pgtn bnf tipg.

J.  Xfsur ‛ Xfsur [hfne Grnen

Xfsur-ufsur ynfl bgphrauonf bnane shfne grnen nbnand =


>.  Ohahftuonf
 

:.  Ohshgejnflnf
;.  Ohauwhsnf
2.  Cahosgjgagtns
8.  Oiftgfugtns
3.  Ohthpntnf

Bhflnf grnen
Bhflnf grnen ogtn
ogtn phrau
phrau ehflun
ehflunsng
sng thofgo
thofgo lhrnon
lhrnonf
f pnbn
pnbn shfne
shfne grnen
grnen nlnr 
nlnr 
ehfknpng lhrnonf ynfl shrnsg bnf jhrenfcnnt jnlg mnsenfg bnf ridnfg.Dna gfg shsung
bhflnf tumunf shfne yngtu ehejhftuo ohgfbndnf tujud, ohjulnrnf bnf ohountnf.
Nbn tgln dna ynfl dnrus bgthonfonf pnbn shfne grnen, yngtu=
n.  Ohthpntnf eusgo/grnen
 j.  Ohahftuonf (cahosgjgagtns)
k.  Oiftgfugtns lhrnonf

K.  Enkne Enkne Nagrnf [hfne Grnen

>.  [hfne grnen ynfl jhrnsna bnrg shfg snfbgwnrn, bgphaipirg iahd Bhasnrth tnduf
>4>> ‛ >4<>, shirnfl sutrnbnrn. Gn ehfldhfbnog nlnr lhrnonf bnane snfbgwnrn ynfl
bgjunt-junt gtu bnpnt bganouonf bhflnf lhrnonf ynfl wnmnr. Rhtnpg gn jhaue jhrdnsga,
onrhfn sgcnt ohsnfbgwnrnnf ensgd thragdnt bnane nagrnf gfg. Bgnand ynfl phrtnen-tnen
ehfkgptnonf systhe shfne grnen.
:.  [hfne grnen ynfl jhrnsna bnrg shfg eusgk gfg bgphaipirg iahd Mnkquhs Bnakrizh,
shirnfl luru eusgk ynfl gflgf ehfyntnonf anlu-anlu bnane jhftuo lhrnonf. Bnane
sgsthefyn subnd thftu ahjgd ehehftgflonf eusgk bnrg pnbn lhrnonf. Eurgb Bnakrizh,
Jibh, jhrphfbnpnt jndwn lhrnonf gtu dnrus bglhrnoonf bnrg bnane oh chrg-chrg. Enon

shfnefyn throhfna bhflnf fnen ‑Nusbruo Lyefnstgho― nrtgfyn shfne ynfl


bgmnanfonf bhflnf phfud phrnsnnf. Eurgb Jibh nbnand ynfl snflnt shfnfl
ehejhrgonf antgdnf bhflnf nant shphrtg jian, lnbn bnf sgepng.
;.  [hfne grnen ynfl jhrnsna bnrg shfg tnrg, bgphaipirg iahd ZubiacjAnjnf tnduf
>4<7 ‛ >784. Gn jhrphfbnpnt jndwn shfne grnen ehflnfbufl=
  - Brhssur 
  - Prhstnsg iandrnln

B.  Lhrnonf Bnsnr [hfne Grnen


 

>.  Lhrnonf Anflond Onog


Lhrnonf anflond onog ehagputg shjnlng jhrgout.
n.  Anflond jgnsn (aiippns)
Jhrbgrg bhflnf sgonp thlno.Anflondonf onog ogrg bnf ohbun ahflnf bg snepgfl
 jnbnf.Ehanflondonf onog onfnf bnf mntudonf pnbn tuegt, bganfmutonf ehanflond
bhflnf onog ogrg shknrnjhrlnftgnf.Pnbn lhrnonf ehanflond jgnsn dnrus bgphrdntgonf
cnotir-cnotir shjnlng jhrgout.
>)  Onog ehflhphr pnbn shfbg autut.
:)  Lhrnonf bganouonf bhflnf rgahos.
;)  Lhrnonf bgshsungonf bhflnf grnen.

Lufnonf grnen :/2 (bb), ;/2 (bbb), 2/2 (bbbb) bgnejga sgonp thlno, anflond onog
ogrg, ohbun ahflnf ahpns bg snepgfl jnbnf. Pnbn jganflnf ‑sntu― anflondonf onog
onfnf oh bhpnf bhflnf ehahtnoonf tuegt bg bhpnf thanpno onog ogrg anau jnru umufl
 mnrg onog ynfl thrnodgr. Jganflnf ‑bun― lnftg anflond onog ogrg.Gflnt, bg bnane
ehanflond autut dnrus ehflhphr, tuegt dnrus bgmntudonf.
 j.  Anflond rnpnt
Jhrbgrg bhflnf sgonp thlno. Anflondonf onog onfnf bg bhpnf onog ogrg.
Oheubgnf, ehanflondonf onog ogrg bg bhpnf onog onfnf, bganfmutonf ohbun onog rnpnt.
Anflond onog rnpnt bganouonf bhflnf dgtuflnf > onfnf, dgtuflnf : ogrg, bnf dgtuflnf

; rnpnt.
[hknrn prgfsgp, sgonp anflond mntud pnbn tuegt bhflnf ohthftunf shjnlng jhrgout.
 

>)  Lhrnonf onog ehflhphr pnbn autut.


:)  Bganouonf bhflnf rgahos bnf auwhs.
;)  Lhrnonf bgshsungonf bhflnf grnen.
k.  Anflond ohshgejnflnf (jnaanfspns)
Jhrbgrg bhflnf sgonp thlno. Dgtuflnf sntu, ehanflondonf onog ogrg oh bhpnf.

Dgtuflnf
Dgtuflnf bun,
bun, onog
onog onfnf
onfnf ehfyus
ehfyusuaua ehanfl
ehanflond
ond oh bhpnf.
bhpnf. [hjhau
[hjhaue
e onog
onog onfnf
onfnf
ehfnpn
ehf npno
o (tuegt
(tuegt ensgd
ensgd thrnfl
thrnflont
ont)) onog
onog ogrg
ogrg eufbur
eufbur bggout
bggoutgg onog
onog onfnf
onfnf eufbur 
eufbur 
ehrnpnt.
[hknrn prgfsgp, anflond gfg bganouonf shjnlng jhrgout=
>)  Rgbno nbn snnt jhrdhftg?
:)  Bganouonf bhflnf lhrnonf onog ehflhphr?
;)  Ahjgd thpnt lufnonf grnen ;/2 ntnu 2/2.
b.  Anflond bhpnf (lnaippns)
[gonp thlno nfmur ogrg.Pnbn dgtuflnf >, sganflonf onog ogrg bgeuon onog

onfnf.Orngssprifl
onfnf.Orngssprifl bnpnt puan bganouonf
bganouonf ohjhanonfl
ohjhanonfl.Anfl
.Anflond
ond sganfl gfg bganouonf
bganouonf
bhflnf grnen :/2.
 
:.  Lhrnonf Nyufnf Rnflnf

n.  Nyufnf sntu ahflnf bhpnf jhanonfl.


 j.  Nyufnf sntu ahflnf oh snepgfl jhrsnennf bhflnf ehegfbndonf jhrnt jnbnf.
k.  Snrgnsg nyufnf sntu ahflnf oh snepgfl jhrsnennf bhflnf ehegfbndonf jhrnt
 jnbnf.
b.  Nyufnf bun ahflnf bhpnf jhanonfl.
h.  Nyufnf bun ahflnf sganfl bhpnf bg euon jnbnf.
;.  Jhftuo-Jhftuo Lhrnonf Snrgnsg
n.  Snrgnsg anflond oh bhpnf bnf lhrnonf tnflnf oh ntns.
 j.  Snrgnsg anflond oh snepgfl bhflnf lhrnonf tnflnf eheutnr.
 

H.  [hfne Grnen Bhflnf Nant

[hsungg bhflnf
[hsun bhflnf anmu bnf phrohejnfl
phrohejnflnf
nf knjnfl-knjnf
knjnfl-knjnfl
l iandrnln,
iandrnln, jhlgtu
jhlgtu puan
bhflnf
bhflnf knjnfl
knjnfl iandrn
iandrnln
ln shfne
shfne grnen,
grnen, buau
buau bgshju
bgshjutt Zdyteg
Zdytegkk Lyefnst
Lyefnstgks
gks (shfne
(shfne
grnen) pnbn ensn shonrnfl bgshjut eibhrf Zdytegk Lyefnstgks. Pnbn shfne grnen
eibhrf
eibhrf gfg shangf
shangf ehephr
ehephrtnf
tnfbgf
bgflon
lonf
f rnflon
rnflongnf
gnf [hfne
[hfne Grnen
Grnen Eibhrf
Eibhrf tnfpn
tnfpn nant
nant
tnflnf, nant agen nant ynfl bgphrtnfbgflonf jngo shknrn phrirnflnf enupuf shknrn
 jhrhlu. Nant thrshjut thrbgrg ntns= jian (jnaas), tnag (riphs), sgepng (diips), pgtn

(rgjjifs) bnf lnbn (kaujs).


Ohagen
Oha gen phreng
phrengfnf
fnf gtu jiahd
jiahd bgengf
bgengfonf
onf shknrn
shknrn phrirn
phrirnfln
flnf
f bnf jiahd
jiahd shknrn
shknrn
 jhrhlu.[htgnp nant ehepufyng onrnothrgstgo ensgfl-ensgfl.
  Jian (jnaas)
Xournf jian tgbno thranau jhsnr muln tgbno thranau ohkga, nsna bnpnt bgphlnfl iahd mnrg-
 mnrg tnflnf bnf bnpnt bgounsng nlnr tgbno eubnd mntud.Jian jiahd thrjunt bnrg onrht
ntnu panstgo. Oiephtgsg jhrnt
 jian 200lr, agflonrnffyn >4-:0 ke.
Knrn ehengfonffyn=

Jian jiahd bgahepnr oh ntns oheubgnf bgtnflonp anlg, jiahd bglhaufbuflonf jngo bg
anftng enupuf pnbn tujud sg phshfne shfbgrg.
  Rnag (riphs)
Rnag shaurudfyn thrjunt bnrg jndnf ynfl dnaus, tgbno nbn thepnt ehehlnfl ynfl
odusus.Pnfmnfl tnag bgshsungonf bhflnf tgfllg phshfne gtu shfbgrg. Knrn
ehfluourfyn, thflnd-thflnd tnag bggfmno iahd snand sntu onog sg phshfne ohbun umufl
tnag
tnag bgph
bgphln
lnfl
fl iahd
iahd tnfln
tnflnf
f ogrg
ogrg bn
bnf
f on
onfn
fnf
f oh
oheu
eubg
bgnf
nf um
umuf
ufl
l tn
tnag
ag yn
ynfl
fl bg
bgph
phln
lnfl
fl
bgahtnoonf bg bhpnf jndu.
Knrn ehengfonffyn=
 

Rnag bgphlnfl umuflfyn jngo sntu tnflnf enupuf iahd ohbun tnflnf. Rnag jhjns uftuo 
bgengfonf, jiahd bgahwntonf oh ntns ohpnan ntnu oh jnwnd thanpno onog snejga aifknt,
 jiahd bg ahepnr oh ntns, ynfl
 phftgfl tnag gtu thtnp bgounsng bnf bgengfonf shanen wnotu rnflongnf ynfl subnd
bgthftuonf.

  [gepng(diips)
Jiahd bgjunt bnrg onyu ntnu panstgo ntnupuf bnrg jndnf angffyn.Jhrnt shjund sgepng
tgbno ahjgd bnrg ;00 lrne, wnrfnfyn jhjns jiahd putgd, oufgfl ntnu wnrfn knepurnf
(jhanfl-jhanfl). . tgbno threnosub tiflont uftuo irnfl bhwnsn bgnehthr ntnu lnrgs
thflndfyn. 40-70 ke bguour bnrg shjhand bnane.
Knrn ehengfonffyn=
Bnane
Bnane phfnep
phfnepganf
ganf sgepng
sgepng jiahd
jiahd bgphln
bgphlnfl
fl iahd
iahd sntu tnflnf
tnflnf ntnupuf
ntnupuf bun tnflnf
tnflnf..
[hjhaue bnpnt ehengfonf sgepng bhflnf jngo dnrus bgounsng enkne-enkne knrn
 phlnflfyn. Egsnafyn= Zhluahr lrgp,

Zhshrvh lrgp, Gfsgbh lrgp, Iutsgth lrgp bnf egxhb lrgp. [gepng jiahd bgahepnr, jiahd
bglhaufbuflonf, ehfurut thofgo bnf phrnturnf-phrnturnf ynfl jhranou.
  Pgtn (rgjjifs)
Rhrj
Rhrjun
untt bn
bnrg
rg jn
jndn
dnf
f yn
ynfl
fl dn
dnau
auss shphr
shphrtg
tg on
ongf
gf sn
snthf
thf.. Pn
Pnfm
fmnf
nfl
l pg
pgtn
tn 3 ehth
ehthrr tgbn
tgbno 

threnosub tiflont (stgko) uftuo phlnflnf.Jhrnt pgtn threnosub tiflont (stgko) uftuo 
 phlnflnf ;8 lrne.Riflont uftuo phlnflnf thrjunt bnrg onyu, jnejii ntnu jndnf
angf, egsnafyn cgjhr lanss. Pnfmnfl stgko 80-30 ke. Bgnehthr stgko > ke.Ehflnyuf,
eheutn
eheutnr,
r, ehepun
ehepuntt nflon
nflon bhanpn
bhanpnf,
f, jhrjha
jhrjhagt-j
gt-jhag
hagtt shphrtg
shphrtg uanr,
uanr, spgrna
spgrna bnf enkne-
enkne-
enkne ahepnrnf.

  Lnbn (kaujs)
Rhrjunt bnrg onyu ntnu jndnf panstgo, jhftuo lnbn dnepgr snen bhflnf jitia. Pnfmnfl
lnbn 20-80 ke. Jhrnt lnbn >80 lrne.
Antgdnf bhflnf lnbn=
- Ehflnyuf, eheutnr, eheuoua, ehahepnr bnf ehfnflonp.
Bnrgg ohagen
Bnr ohagen nant ensgfl
ensgfl-ens
-ensgfl
gfl bg bnane
bnane ehanou
ehanouonf
onf rnflon
rnflongnf
gnf bggrgf
bggrgflg
lg eusgk.
eusgk.
Anpnflnf ynfl
bgphrl
bgphrlufn
ufnonf
onf uftuo
uftuo suntu
suntu rnflon
rnflongnf
gnf shfne
shfne grnen
grnen gna
gnand
nd anftng
anftng ynfl
ynfl bgtutu
bgtutup
p iahd
iahd
entrns ynfl jhruournf >: T >: ke.

C.  Enfcnnt [hfne Grnen


 

>.  Enfcnnt Cgsgo 


Irnfl ynfl ehanouonf shfne grnen shknrn rutgf nonf ehflhejnflonf
ohenepunf bnyn tndnf, itit, ohountnf, thfnln, ohahftuonf, oiirbgfnsg, ohagfkndnf
bnf ohshgejnflnf.
:.  Enfcnnt Ehftna

Irnfl ynfl rutgf ehanouonf shfne grnen enepu ehfllufnonf ohenepunf


 jhrcgogrfyn shknrn notgc bnf orhntgc ehanaug phehkndnf ensnand lhrno.
;.  Enfcnnt [isgna
Ohlgnt
Ohlgntnf
nf shfne
shfne bganou
bganouonf
onf shknrn
shknrn jhrsne
jhrsnen-sn
n-snen
en bnane
bnane dna gfg enon
enon nonf
nonf
thrwumub gfthrnosg sisgna.
 

JNJ GGG
PHFXRXP

N.  Ohsgepuanf
[hfne nbnand antgdnf mnsenfg/iandrnln ynfl jhftuo-jhftuo lhrnonffyn bgpgagd
bnf bgsusu
bgsusuf
f shknrn
shknrn sgsthen
sgsthentgs
tgs jhrbns
jhrbnsnro
nronf
nf prgfsg
prgfsgp-p
p-prgf
rgfsgp
sgp thrthft
thrthftu
u shsung
shsung bhflnf
bhflnf
ohjutu
ohjutudnf
dnf ntnu
ntnu tumunf
tumunf sg phfyus
phfyusuf.
uf.[hf
[hfne
ne bnpnt
bnpnt bgnrtg
bgnrtgonf
onf shjnln
shjnlngg jhftuo
jhftuo antgdnf
antgdnf
tujud pnbn anftng ntnu pnbn nant ynfl bgrnfknfl uftuo ehfgflontonf bnyn tndnf,
ohountnf, ohahftuonf, ohagfkndnf, oiirbgfnsg, shrtn oiftria tujud.
[hfne grnen nbnand shfne ynfl jhrmnanf dnrus ehfyhsungonf bhflnf suntu
grnen ynfl jgnsnfyn grnen eusgo, thtnpg bnpnt muln bhflnf grnend gtuflnf ynfl
thrntur.Grnen nbnand grgflnf jngo jhrupn eusgo ntnupuf dgtuflnf ynfl jhrnturnf.

J. Orgtgo bnf [nrnf


Ensynrnont ntnu endnsgswn dhfbnofyn ehegagog ohsnbnrnf uftuo jhriandrnln
ehanaug ehbgn ynfl ehfyhfnflonf shphrtg shfne grnen.
 

BNCRNZ PX[RNON

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