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151h AAA AW BN (SPI 1.1 Lt. Poul S. Vonture Cpl. Herbert Stoffel
Sgl. Robert C. Turner 2nd LI. Leland D. Bray Pic. Richard E. Blume
2nd LI. Jo.eph W. Weeks
Sic. Jome. T. Potterson
21.1 AAA AW BN (SPI 82nd AAA AW BN
Sic. Bu.ter W. Strosser
1st LI. Richord Y. Pork Sgl. Woodrow McKinnon Capl. Jame. H. Tyree

SOLDIER'S jlIEDALS
21s1 AAA AW BN (SPI 8651h AAA AW BN

1st LI. Robert C. Morri.on 1st LI. Jo.eph M. Solari

DISTINGUISIIED UNIT CITATION


21.1 AAA AW BN ISPI

Bottery B, 1st & 2nd Plotoon.

BRONZE STAR l\iEDAL AWARDS


3rd AAA AW BN Sic. Shirley E. Bosse (VI 78th AAA GUN BN
Sic. Rulu. M. Gib.on (V) LI. Col. John B. Parrott
Sic. Dalla. N. Norman Sic. Daniel R. Schmidl (V) Copl. Rolph R. Cocchiotti
Sgl. Fronci. W. Doyle (V) Copt. David W. Meyer
15th AAA AW BN (SPI Sgl. Arthur R. Gideon. (V) Copt. Kenneth G. Ring
Sgl. Kenneth F. Mystrom (V) 1st LI. Glennis A. Amburgey (L OlC)
Sgl. Billy G. Lewey Sgt. Dexter W. Packard (VI Sgt. Harry M. Bukky
Sgt. Roy W. Reynold. Cpl. Kenneth V. Bailey (V)
Cpl. Matthew Kuzo Cpl. Jo.eph B. Frye (VI 82nd AAA AW BN
Pvl. Gerold L. Hurles Lt. Col. Robert H. Johnston (V)
Cpl. Zeb L. Hand IV)
Cpl. Robert P. John.ton (VI Major John E. Clark IV}
21st AAA AW BN (SPI Cpl. John Walker (V) Copt. Jock L. Woltz (V)
Cpl. Roy W. Willis (VI Copt. Duncombe M. Woodbury IV)
Major David C. Miss (1 OlC) 1st Lt. Clyde B. Cobb, Jr., (V)
Cpl. George T. Woodby (V)
Copl. Thoma. R. Armstrong 11 OlC) Sic. Donald J. Eskew
Pic. William F. Chenault (V)
Copt. Richard S. Craig (V) Sgt. Martin M. Margetich (V)
Copt. Billy G. Strong (3 OLC) Pic. Anselmo J. H. Ontalon (V) Sgt. Edward J. Sypek
Capl. William E. Steinmann Pic. Felix S. Selas (V) Sgt. Carl G. Thomas (V)
1st Lt. Karl F. Bennett (V) Pvl. Jo.eph Castenguay (V) Sgl. Andrew M. Wimberly (V)
1st Lt. Homer J. Lockey (V) PIc. James D. Ketchum (V)
*'
PURPLE I-IEART AWARDS *'
3rd AAA AW BN e,,1. Wallace H. Phillips Pvl. William J. Charle.
Cpl. Jerry L. Searle. Pvl. Joseph N. Dennis
Copl. Richard Pride Cpl. Harry O. Smith
Cpl. Gerold R. Elli. Cpl. Robert Weyant
Cpl. Roy J. English 21s1 AAA AW BN (SPI
Pic. Clayton Dease
Pic. Jame. M. Frederick Sic. Jerry S. Ingram
151h AAA AW BN ISPI Pic. Raymond L. Janu"h Sic. Jock F. Thurner
Pic. Allred R. Treio Cpl. Sylvester L. Guszregen
1st LI. George E. Mitchell Pic. Wilbur H. Russell Pvl. Michael Holovoch
Cpl. Earnest Cathey Pic. Willie J. Thorpe Pvl. J. B. Thoma.
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THE UNITED STATES
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ANTIAIRCRAFT .-, ,.....,
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ASSOCIATION I
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FOUNDED in 1892
Published from 1892 until 1922 as
I

II
I
OFFICERS
THE JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES ARTILLERY
L1'. GEN. LEl'..OY LUTES Published from 1922 until 1948 as the
PRESIDENT COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL
i\IAJ. GEN. WILLAl'..D W. mVINE
"ICE-PRESIDEl'o'T VOL. LXXXXV JANUARY.FEBRUARY,1952 No.1
COL. CHAl'..LES S. HAl'..HIS
SECRETARY-TREASURER CONTENTS
ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF THE COVER: Once antiaircraft, always antiaircraft: After ten months of
EXECUTIVE COUNCIL ground combat in Korea; an unidentined plane arrests attention
of Sgt. Howard Schae/fer, Btry D, 21st AAA AW Bn.
BRIGADIER GENERAL ROBERT W. CRICHLOW, JR.
ANTIAIHCl'..Arl' Al'..TILLERY IN KOREA.
BRIGADIER GENERAL CHARLES G. SAGE By Major Gel/eral \VilliaJl/ F. Marquat 2
COLONEL THOMAS F. MULLANEY, JR. GEi\'El'..AL LUTES RETlP..ES 6
COLONEL NORMAN E. HARTMAN IN SUPPOl'..T OF TI-IE INFANTl'..Y. By Lt. Co/. Charles E. Hel/ry 9
lIEUTENANT COLONEL FRANCIS X. BRADLEY SUPPLY FOH. THE SELF Pl'..OPELLED BATTALION.
lIEUTENANT COLONEL H. GLEN WOOD By Capt. Hobert E. Eielding II
MAJOR JAMES E. CALKINS BAKEl'.. BATTEl'..Y SUPPOl'..TS THE WOLFHOUNDS.
By Capt. John Popovics 12
865TH AAA AW BATTALION (SP) 14
SELF Pl'..OPELLED BATTALION IN GROUND SUPPOl'..T.
By Capt. Ballard B. Small 15
The purpose of the AJIociation Jhall be to 24TH DIVISION AAA. By Corporal John S. Aaron 18
promote the efficiency of the A11tiaircraft
SELF Pl'..OPELLED ANTIAlP..Cl'..AFf IN KOl'..EA.
Artillery by mai,rtaining its JtandardJ and tra. By 1st Lieut. Edmund A. Krekorian 20
ditio'lJ, by diJseminating profeJIional knou'l- OPEl'..ATION Ol'..PHAN. By Captain William F. Hawcliffe 23
edge, by inJpiring greater effort tou'ard the KOl'..EAN MUD HELPS TO SAVE MAHINE FLYEH. 24
improvement of materiel and methodJ of Al'..i\lY AA COMMAND ACTIVITIES 25
training and by fOJtering mutual underHand. A THIAL SHOT FOR VT FUZES. By Co/. Arthur H. Bender 27
ing, reJpect and cooperation among all armJ, POINTS IN Pl'..EPAHING GUN FIl'..E 28
branchn and componentl of the Regular SHOOTING AT AN IDEA. By Lt. Co/. James M. Edmunds 30
Army, National Guard, Organized Reser/'el, 34TH AAA BRIGADE SPONSOl'..S YOUTH CENTEl'...
and Reserl'e Officer$' Training CorpJ. By Major Theodore Wycoff 32
BlP..DS OF MARS. By Jonathan Norton Leonard 33
HONOR ROLL 38
IMPRESSIONS OF LIFE IN THE SOVIET UNION.
Th. JOURNAL prints artidu on 8ubj •• ts of By Alan G. Kirk 39
pro(~ssional and general interest to personnel of CANAL ZONE TRAINING. By Sfc Don Hatt 42
the Antiaircraft Artillery in order to stimulate
ANTIAIHCRAFr AIHLIFf. By Sgt. William J. Tobin 43
thought and provoke discussion. However.
opinions expressed and conclusions drawn in AA AND GM CENTEH. ACTIVITIES 44
articles are in no sense official. They do not re- WITH THE 38TH AAA Bl'..IGADE. By Major Robert J. RutIJeTford .. 46
Bect the opinions or conclusions of any official COi\lBAT PAy 47
or branch of the Department of the Army. THE INVISIBLE STEEL CORE. By A. T. Lawson 48
The JOURNAL does not ...arry paid advertisinl(_ 78TH AAA GUN BATTALION IN AlP.. DEFENSE 49
Th. JOURNAL pay. for ori"inal artidu upon EDITORIAL-ECONOMY 50
publication. Manuscript should be addreRlled to
th. Editor. Th. JOURNAL i. not rupon.ibl.
BOOK l'..EVIEWS 51
for manu8cripts unarrompanied by return NE\VS & COMMENT 53
posta are. Al'..TILLEl'..Y ORDERS 55
COLONEL CHARLES S. HARRIS. Editor
PUBLICATION DATE: F.bruary I. 195% LIEUTENANT COLONEL RICHARD W. OWEN, Associate Editor
M Sgt Fred A. Baker, Business Manager I
Sgt lei Ralph No Charleston, Cir, ~lgr.
Sgt lei James E. Moore, Jr., Editorial Assistant

~~bli8hed bimonthly by the United States Antiaircraft Association. Editorial and executi'\"e offices, 631 Penn~yl'\"ania Avenue, X.'V.,
a~hington 4, D. C. Terms: $3.00 per )'ear. Foreign subscriptions. $4.00 per year. Single copies. 75c. Entered as second.class matter
at ~'~8hin"ton. D. C.; additional entr)" at Ri.hmond, Va., under the Act of ~areb 3. 18.9. Copyright. 1952. by the United States
AntiaIrcraft Association.
T HE second winter of the Korean
vVar dominates the situation as this, the
nessing conditions such as just described,
one is carried away with the firm convic-
the moment is the increased awareness of
the mounting possibility of hostile air
eighth report, is submitted to the ANTl- tion that it is divinely inspired. attack. There are evidences of far
AIHCRAFT JOURNAL. That invaluable and incomparable greater air power having been amassed
On Christmas Day the conRict entered quality of experience manifests itself in by the enemy and of feverish activity to
its nineteenth month amid the low sing- two ways on the Korean battlefields of build airhelds within striking distance of
ing of carols, field services by the ever- the 1951-52 winter. In the first place the friendly installations and forces. The
loyal chaplains featured by a special for- improved "know how" on the part of the UN Air Force is taking care of both
ward area Catholic Mass by (-(is Emi- soldier permits him to resist the sub-zero issues quite satisfactorily but in the midst
nence Francis Cardinal Spellman of temperatures and reduces their effect of extreme boredom at not having any
New York, and the usual fabulous holi- upon his activities from major obstacles live targets to shoot at, the antiaircraft-
day turkey dinner-all in an atmosphere to mere inconveniences. This, of course, men are conscious of the dangers of re-
of fervent hope that the cease fire nego- is largely possible through the develop- laxed vigilance. They are on the job and
tiations would finally break the over- ment of highly effective equipment by prepared for any eventuality.
extended impasse and result in an armis- the supply services after thorough re-
tice agreement. search and scientific development. The
After this brief emotional interlude
the combat area reverted to normalcy
five-man tent, with oil stoves, is infinitely
superior to former models and \vilI per-
W I-IILE the infantry is mostly en-
gaged in light patrolling, the Rak wagon
which may be interpreted to mean that mit comfort under the most trying con- units have less opportunity to distinguish
members of the combat and service units ditions. New types of winter clothing themselves. It is quite different from the
returned to the employment of all known enhance combat efficiency and the ever- days when our troop masses were moving
artifices to defeat the ravages of bitter present good food always can overcome forward through prepared successive de-
winter and a cunning and persistent an otherwise dismal outlook. The re- fense positions, road blocks, counterat-
-though chastened-enemy. Regardless of maining veterans of the last winter cam- tacks and similar formations or, con-
whether there has or has not been a ces- paign have "wised up" the replacements versely when divisions and corps 'were
sation in actual hostilities at the time this on methodology that they had to learn engaged in orderly large scale retire-
appears in print, it can be assumed that the hard way. ments that had to be covered by auto-
those grand fighting men of the United The second contribution of experience matic weapons through various types of
Nations Force are confidently awaiting is measured in terms of knowledge of employment. The infantry patrols of the
the next step, whether it be a permanent how to resist vastly superior numbers of present period, however, have learned
peace or a return to war, with an air of the enemy through the application of the advantage of Rak wagon support and
assurance that they are masters of the those two standbys of military tactics they call for them at all times. There is
situation and capable of overcoming all -firepower and maneuver. There was a no doubt that a single automatic weap-
odds no matter how great they may be. time when overpowering hosts of Chi- ons mobile unit adds a lot of firepower to
There is no way to explain battlefield nese Reds could control certain situations a light patrol and when integrated into
morale in finite terms, but when wit- -but that time has disappeared. ,",Vhile patrol tactics they afford a most effective
the disparity of forces may be even support.
greater than at some of the former time Perhaps the most significant tribute to
periods involved, the UN troops find no the effectiveness of the self-propelled
CoJ. Edmunds is Chief of the light AAA
Section, Department of Gunnery AA & GM
difficulty at the moment in containing units in support of surface action, is the
Br. TAS. Captain A. M. Kolesar, Project Test offensive efforts of the Reds or in retak- development by the Communists of a
Officer of AFF Board No.4, consulted and ad-
vised the author in the preparation of this
ing areas temporarily abandoned for im- special defense against their activities. Of
article. Photos by AFF Boord No.4. provement of the tactical situation. recent date our patrols, accompanied by
The antiaircraft artillery psychology of antiaircraft automatic weapons, have
2 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
been confronted with artillery and anti- several hectic skirmishes with the enemy. poral Howard T. Peters, Sergeant John
tank weapons. This poses a new prob- In one attack, to capture a hill, a B Bat- Petrak and Privates First Class Earl
I lem, but you may depend upon its tery platoon under 1st Lieut. vVilliam F. Grant and -Arthur King distinguished
I being solved promptly by the ingenious Branigan was hit by hostile artillery as themselves in the action as the automatic
ground-air artillerymen. the infantry was passing through the an- weapons units covered the advance of
Lieut. Colonel John F. Goettl's 3rd tiaircraft artillery position. The infantry friendly infantry, silenced the hostile
)~ AAA AW Battalion has been active with platoon leader was struck by shrapnel artillery, and shot out defensive positions
Ie! its infantry division in supporting limited and was evacuated by Captain Furr. Pri- strongly held by the.enemy.
:h objective attacks and in patrol action. vate Gerald Davis performed heroic feats In a similar type of operation a platoon
.s Captain James H. Furr's B Battery in removing other wounded in the area of Captain Richard D. Pride's D Battery,
1\ supported the 15th Infantry Regiment in while under heavy artillery fire. Cor- with 1st Lieut. Robert C. Steelman as
ft
This aerial photograph, taken at Taechon Airfield (YE 1319) shows two types of antiaircraft position areas used by the Com-
rejmunists in North Korea. The position near the center of the photo is an 8-gun, radar controlled heavy antiaircraft battery.
11~ The guns are Soviet 85mm AAA guns, controlled by a Soviet Puazo 3 or 4 director and a gun-laying radar. The position
in the upper right portion of the photo is a 5-gun antiaircraft automatic weapons position. The weapons are Soviet 37mm
automatic guns, aimed with an on-carriage computing antiaircraft sight.
platoon leader, co\'ered infantry attacks motion picture companies for use in
on a hill for fi\'e days. In one phase of news reels and future cut-ins for war
the action the platoon destroved fortv pictures. Lieut. Jack Vanderbleek and
bunkers, three machine gun' emplac~- Lieut. Paul S. Vanture have supported
ments and one trench mortar. Thirty RCT actions with outstanding results by
enemy were killed in this action. Ser- their respecti\'e platoons.
geants First Class i\liller F. Downey and Colonel Henry, as commander of the
Charles E. Grandy, Sergeant Page and rear area defense command, in his divi-
Corporal Andrew Kom were outstand- sion, located a group of subversive Com.
109. munists who were performing acts of
Lieutenants Joseph E. i\Iarkee and violence during the night and holing up
Lee C. Snidow of Battery A and Cor- Co!. Riley E. McGarraugh from GHQ in a small village during the daytime.
porals Howard Biller and Theodore Mil- FEC congratulates Lt. Co!. Thomas \X'. Henry led a raiding party against this
Ackert upon being awarded the Legion
ler of Battery B distinguished themselves group and captured twenty-four of the
of Merit. The presentation took place
on other occasions. The two corporals at 10th AAA Group Headquarters, 28 offenders. Guerrilla activities have Rared
were with an M39 personnel carrier October 1951. up of late but methodical search by in-
when ambushed by a squad of enemy fantry and antiaircraft troops is rapidly
armed with automatic weapons. They aircraft artillery battalion, commanded by discouraging the underground opera-
dispersed the enemy squad with ma- First Lieut. Floyd V. Lewis, established tions.
chine gun and riRe fire, evacuated the itself as a special supply unit of the com-
wounded and then proceeded on their mand and is proving remarkably effective
mission without interference. in cross-country" actions where the full AWARDS to the 21st AAA AW
During a period when the 3rd Infan- and half track vehicles can follow the in- Battalion thus far include nineteen silver
try Division was in reserve, the 3rd A\V fantry while wheel vehicles find it im- stars, forty-six bro,nze stars for valor,
Battalion reverted to an antiaircraft de- practicable. thirty bronze stars for meritorious service,
fense role in protection of command During one encounter Privates Ryan two commendation ribbons and one
posts, troop areas and air strips for liaison and Kalafian brought their single mount hundred thirty-eight purple hearts.
planes. No hostile aircraft threatened caliber .50 weapons so effectively on a First Lieut. Addison L. Lewis with the
any of the division installations; so the machine gun nest that two Communist 3rd platoon of Battery B participated in
battalion utilized this time training re- Chinese surrendered after two others had a tank-infantry-quad .50 action in which
placements, placing armor plate shields been killed in this two minute action. three enemy were killed and a machine
on its weapons, and correcting wear and In ground support of infantry the bat- gun knocked out while the platoon was
tear defects in its equipment. During talion elements have been using direct under heavy mortar fire in support of the
inactive periods the antiaircraft battalion and indirect fire with excellent effect. infantry and tank advance. The First
vehicles serve well in the capacity of sup- The antiaircraft elements have been Platoon of Battery B under First Lieut.
ply vehicles and special troop transport. drawing riRe, automatic weapons and Robert G. j'vlorrison engaged in a similar
mortar fire but the effect of enemy fire patrol action at close range" against an
has not been such as to defeat the sup- enemy using riRe fire, hand grenades and
THE 15th AAA AW Battalion, under port missions of the friendly automatic machine guns. The platoon is credited
Lieut. Colonel James VV. Moore, sup- weapons. In the current type of action, with having killed twenty-three enemy,
porting the 7th U. S. Infantry Division, where our infantry is engaged in taking shot out two machine gun nests and as-
also found the M39 personnel carrier and firmly held positions to improve the sisted the infantry group in accomplish-
crew extremely effective in evacuating friendly lines, our troops run up against ing its mission of capturing the hostile
wounded and moving supplies to troops well dug-in enemy troops behind protec- position.
under fire. Sergeant John Finnigan of tive wire and land mines. The 15th AW Light patrol action featured the most
Whitestone, Long Island, New York, Battalion is using protective Rak vests recent employment of the di,-ision. The
and his crew consisting of Private Frank- with excellent results under these condi- Second Platoon of Battery B, com-
lin R. Kuhn of Gardners, Pennsylvania, tions of exceptional exposure. manded by First Lieut. Joseph W.
Corporal Samuel A. Strangin of McKees- The 21st A W Battalion, under Lieut. Weeks, and the Third Platoon of Batter,-
port, Pennsylvania, Private Michael J. Colonel Charles E. Henry, has been B, commanded by First Lie~Jt. Joseph R.
Ryan of New York, and Private Albert active with the 25th Division task forces Pirkel, both performed in stalwart fash-
Kalanan of Philadelphia performed he- and patrols and continues to be inte- ion in combat patrol action.
roically in an action by the First Battal- grated with armor and infantry to pro- Colonel \V. H. I-lennig, veteran com-
ion, 31st U, S. Infantry Regiment. After duce excellent results. mander of the lath AAA Group, is busy
bringing up a load of reserve ammuni- A platoon of Battery C under First keeping his air defense units on the alert
tion, the crew rescued wounded under Lieut. Homer Lackey has been account- for possible air assaults by the enemy,
fire, shot out sniper positions and took a ing for enemy killed regularly in raider conducting tr~ining of replacements for
position in a nearby ravine to perform patrol action from time to time. Another his own and divisional units, and per-
handy man operations whenever and platoon under Lieut. \V. 0, Keeling, Jr. forming many other tasks essential to suc-
wherever required by the doughboys. has been similarly engaged. Some of the cess in the Korean operation. Only a few
The famous "Battery X" of this anti- combat action has been recorded by U, S. ineffective low level attacks by obsolete
4 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
hostile aircraft have been recorded in the yet no hostile planes ha\'e ventured tive rotation schedules. The enlisted men
air defense areas. The planes keep out of within striking range of the weapons. are relieved at a satisfactory rate, but the
ranoe of the defense weapons, and con- officer replacements have been slow in
o
sequently are unable to hit anything of coming, resulting in delays of officer ro-
military value. THE 78th Gun Battalion, Lt. Col. tation.
i\lajor General Paik Sun Yup of the John B. Parrott commanding, nred on Major William H. Lambert, Execu-
Republic of Korea Army presented a set nve enemy aircraft during one month. tive, Major Edward J. Hooten, S-3, and
of Korean colors to the lath AAA Group The enemy planes are careful not to Captain rrederick Johnston, Assistant
Headquarters for its service as Division enter the area of air defense antiaircraft S-2, have recently arrived in the battal-
Artillery command during the early cam- artillery fire but fly along the fringe of ion.
paigns of the South Korean Army. the effective gunfire range. It is evident The I & E enrollment in this battalion
The group project to provide shelter that they know of the defenses and avoid is extremely high. The men have time to
for Korean orphans during the coming any open challenge of the U. S. antiair- complete courses in spite of alerts, train-
winter has progressed most satisfactorily, craft gun effectiveness. ing and normal combat readiness duties.
supported by contributions from the per- Maintenance, training of replacements
sonnel of the headquarters and battalions and winterizing of housing occupy the
of the group. spare hours of this battalion. T HE 865th AAA A\\1 Battalion, com-
Command of the 50th AAA AW Bat- The 68th AAA Gun Battalion, under manded by Lt. Col. Arthur G. May,
talion has been transferred from Lt. Col. Lt. Col. George B. Webster, is likewise continues in air defense positions. No
Lawrence J. Lesperance to Lt. Col. in air defense positions. \Vebster re- firing at actual targets has been recorded
Werner L. Larson. This battalion is as- placed Lt. Col. Raymond C. Cheal who recently, although alerts are frequent.
signed to the Eighth Army, attached to commanded this battalion from the early The battalion has been engaging in
the 10th AAA Group and is under opera- days in Korea. practice ground alerts "just in case."
tional control of the Fifth Air Force. A single nuisance raid was recorded The 933rd AAA AW Battalion, under
The Presidential unit citation of the during which Battery D fired twelve Lt. Col. Charles E. Roden and the 1st
Republic of Korea was tendered to the rounds. The bursts appeared on target l\llarine Gun Battalion under Lt. Col.
50th AAA AW Battalion. Acceptance is in the scopes of two batteries and the C. \V. May, the 26th AAA AW Battal-
pending official approval. enemy plane lost altitude quickly and, ion under Lt. Col. Roy A. Tate, the 76th
The battalion is deployed to protect air disappeared. It is listed as probably de- AAA A\V Battalion under Lt. Col. For-
l strips, supply establishments and denies. stroyed. rest L. Martz and the 82nd AAA A'vV
Many alerts have been sounded but as J\!lorale has been stimulated by effec- Battalion under Major Howard A. Ged-
dis report business as usual.in their re-
spective assignments.
Since submission of the last report a
GHQ inspection team headed by Colonel
Riley E. McGarraugh, inspected units
attached to the 10th AAA Group. Be-
sides Colonel McGarraugh, the team
consisted of Colonel Clarence A. Lang-
ford and Thomas M. Met.z, Lt. Cols.
Richard H. Anderson, Niram L. Sauls
and Sidney D. Frampton, l\llajor J. M.
Turner, Captain Thomas E. Rogers, 1st
Lt. Lawson R. Hillman and \Varrant
Officers Ogd.en L. McRae, John J. King
and Edgar T. Wood. For their work the
team was divided into five groups.
The inspection reports indicate a high
standard oP operation throughout the
lath AAA Group. Everywhere the AAA
troops demonstrated their ability to im-
provise and take care of themselves un-
der unfavorable conditions.
With an eye to the future and hopes
for an early termination of the incident
that turned out to be a full scale war, the
AAA troops in Korea continue to cover
themselves with great credit whenever
called upon to meet the enemy in any of
their various capacities as air defense or
ground force supporting elements.

,L..JANUARY - FEBRUARY, 1952 5


I
GEN ERAL LUTES RETI RES
A DISTINGUISHED army career,
covering nearly 35 years, ended on Janu-
mander of the Army Service Forces. He
was rated by both General Eisenhower
pacific crossings by air. For two years h
traveled to every corner of the globe a
ary the 31st for Lieutenant General and General Somervell as the outstand- trouble-shooter, advisor, and planner t
LeRoy Lutes,.Commanding General of ing logistical officer of the Army in insure an all-out supply effort for ou
the Fourth Army since October, 1949, World War II. troops. In addition to the problem 0
and President of the United States Anti- On i\larch 9, 1942, he joined the staff transporting millions of troops, he hel
aircraft Association since January, 1945. of General Brehon Somervell as Director posts of authority and responsibility i
As a result of his annual physical exami- of Operations, Headquarters Services of an organization which handled mor
nation in October he retired for physical Supply on the recommendation of Gen- than $100 billion in supplies during th
disability. eral Eisenhower whose assistant Chief of course of the war.
During \Vorld \Var II and since, Gen- Staff, G4, he had been during the On his first flight to the British Isl
eral Lutes was the confidential assistant Louisiana maneuvers of 1940. For his in 1942, General Lutes initiated plan
and friend to many leading officials such outstanding work in the supply field dur- assuring adequate supply support fo
as Secretaries of \Var Stimson, Patterson, ing the Louisiana maneuvers, General American forces shortly to be based i
and Royall, Secretary of the Army Gor- Lutes was promoted from lieutenant colo- the United Kingdom. Later in the sam
don Gray, Secretary of Defense Forrestal, nel to brigadier general in 1941 to com- year he covered thousands of miles in th
as well as Generals Marshall, Eisen- mand the 37th AAA Brigade in Los South and Southwest Pacific, playing a
hower, and Somervell. Angeles. important part in coordinating suppl.
General Lutes is best known for his Under General Somervell, Chief of and logistical operations in support
contributions and vast knowledge in the the Army Service Forces, General Lutes Army and Navy operational plans. H
highly specialized field of general logis- dealt with all logistical problems in a was instrumental in establishing the fir.
tics and supply during \Vorld War II. total war that posed completely new and joint Army-Navy Logistical Board in th
As director of Plans and Operations, constantly changing supply difficulties. South Pacific area.
Army Service Forces, he was charged In his new position, Lutes prepared the It was on this duty tour that he an
with the tremendous task of planning Overseas Supply Plan, put it into opera- Captain Eddie Rickenbacker were guest
and supervising the system of supply dis- tion, and directed its successful con- of Lt. Gen. Delos C. Emmons at dinne
tribution to eleven million under arms in t.inuation. in Honolulu. General Lutes invite
six combat zones throughout the world. To accomplish these assignments he Rickenbacker to continue to their nex
He later became Deputy and Chief of went into the field regularly to insure stop in his plane, but the latter decide
Staff to General Somervell and suc- their execution and has a wartime record to Hy in the same plane in which he ha
ceeded General Somervell as Com- of eleven transatlantic and five trans- started his Pacific Hight. General Lute
plane reached Canton Island on sched
Lieut. Gen. and Mrs. Lutes in their quarters at Fort Sam Houston. ule. Rickenbacker's aircraft, leavin
Honolulu fifteen minutes later, crashe
at sea. \Vhen word reached the general
he ordered his plane into the air t
launch a search which continued all tha
night and the next day until ten searc~
planes took over the hunt, locating Cap!
tain Rickenbacker and his party adrift o~
life rafts days later.

IN August,' 1943, he again Hew to thj


Pacific Theater to bolster the supply prj
gram for the combat operations of Ne\l
Georgia, Buna, Salamaua, and Ne\\
. Guinea. After attending the Cairo Con
ference of Allied Governments and Al
lied Staffs in November, 1943, he in
spected the supply functions of the I
Corps Area in Italy, from front-line unij
to rear headquarters. He extended hi
personal study to the supply base at Ora
in North Africa, then flew from Oran t
headquarters of the China-Burma-Indi
Secretary of the Army, Frank Pace, Jr., and Lieut. Gen. Lutes accompanied by Maj. Gen. John T. Lewis, Brig. Gen. Frederick
L. Hayden and Brig. Gen. L. E. Simon salute as departing honors are rendered at a review at Fort Bliss.

Theater at New Delhi, India. There he with headquarters of the Allied Expedi- restal's death he was charged with all
surveyed and helped solve logistical prob- tionary Forces in the winter of 1944-45 matters pertaining to industrial mobiliza-
lems at bases from there to Assam, con- for several months to assist in logistical tion and the coordination of require-
tinued through the Ledo Road bases for operations at the front and in vital sup- ments for Army, Navy and Air Force.
U. S. Forces in Burma, then Hew the ply areas throughout France. He was as- Upon this appointment General Eisen-
"Hump" to China to coordinate supply sisting in coordinating these operations hower paid this tribute to Lutes: "Never
operations between that country and there at the time of the Battle of the has the Army produced, in the whole
India. Bulge. logistical field, an officer of greater bril-
In preparation for the invasion of Nor- In March, 1946, General Lutes ac- liance or one more outstanding than
mandy early in 1944, General Lutes was companied the Under Secretary of War yourself."
called to General Eisenhower's head- on a global Hight to examine the world-
quarters at London to review the logis- wide Army surplus-property situation.
tical plans and advise on supply and Later in the same year he made a Hight THROUGHOUT his wartime ca-
logistical support of the cross channel to Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to in- reer, General Lutes has held the esteem
assault. He was instrumental in expe- spect supply installations in the Alaskan of superiors and subordinates alike. In
diting action that delivered critical items Command. January, 1947, General Thomas T.
by air and water to meet the invasion Upon the passage of the Unification Handy, then Deputy Chief of Staff, rec-
deadline and spent two months assisting Act in 1947, he was selected by Secretary ommended him as "a general officer
in perfecting the invasion logistical sup- of Defense James V. Forrestal as the first whose broad experience and sound judg-
port. Director of the Staff of the Munitions ment, especially in the field of logistics,
General Lutes again went on duey Board where until shortly after Mr. For- are of the highest value to the service."

JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952 7
administrator. After graduation from th
Army vVar College in 1935 he was as
signed to duty with the National Guar
Bureau.
In 1937-38 General Lutes was yen
aggressive in promoting a new progra
for procuring antiaircraft weapons fo
the National Guard. At that time ther
were only a few skeleton antiaircraf
regiments in the Regular Army and the
had but few modem weapons. The Na
tional Guard had ten regiments but, i
many instances, had but one gun pe
battalion. He pointed out to the Chie
of Coast Artillery and General Staff tha
with the rate of procurement then unde
way, it would take ninety years to equi
the few regiments then in existence. A
that time, the Civil vVar was under wa,
in Spain and new antiaircraft equipme~
made in Germany was demonstratin
that moving airplanes could be sho
Lieut. Gen. Lutes and Col. Eustis L. Poland, Deputy Post Commander, break down or badly damaged by ground fire
ground for the Fort Sam Houston new elementary school. Unable to get vigorous support from th
Regular Army for an increased progra
In February, 1943, then Lt. Gen control programs in all theaters of war. of procurement, he turned to the Na
Brehon Somervell, at that time Com- General Lutes was born in Cairo, 111., tiona I Guard, and with their. support wa
manding General, Services of Supply, October 4, 1890. His first service was in able to engineer the lirst large procm
described him as "one of the most able the original Coast Artillery Regiment of ment program for antiaircraft equipment
and best qualified officers in the Army the \Vashington Guard in the Puget The budget for antiaircraft equipmen
in the field of logistics. He is a real ex- Sound area in 1906. He later attended for the first time was over $20,000,000
pert and his untiring energy, his broad the vVentworth Military Academy and and the equipment procured then wa.
knowledge and experience and his sound was the honor graduate in 1908. He was largely that which was used in the b
judgment are, to a large extent, respon- commissioned a second lieutenant in the ginning of World War II.
sible for the very satisfactory supply IlIinois National Guard in 1914 and re- Throughout his service General Lut )1
situation throughout the United States ceived a Regular Army commission as a has been an enthusiastic antiaircraft Offi~
and in our foreign theaters of operation." second lieutenant March 26, 1917. cer with a profound interest in the effi
Among the decorations awarded to the ciency and welfare of the officers an
General are: Bronze Star Medal, Janu- men. Immediately after World War II
ary, 1945; Legion of Merit, September, BETWEEN the wars he served with the antiaircraft artillery was draStiCalll~
1945; Distinguished Service Medal, Oc- the Coast Artillery in the States, Pan- reduced with resultant lowering of th
tober, 1945; Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of ama, and Hawaii, establishing himself as morale of the junior officers. As Presi
a second DSM, July, 1946; Most Excel- an artilleryman while commanding and dent of the Coast Artillery Association"
lent Order of the British Empire, degree firing in service practices, antiaircraft, General Lutes took strong action to hol~
of Honorary Commander, by His Maj- submarine mine and seacoast batteries the Association together and continu~
t
esty the King of England, August, 1946. from 3-inch up to 16-inch batteries. His to publish the ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNALaJ
He also holds the United States Typhus last battery manned both the 16-inch sea- a medium for encouraging the youngef.
Commission Medal, awarded in April, coast and the antiaircraft battery at Fort officers of the antiaircraft artillery to stall
1947, by the Typhus Commission for his Weaver, Hawaii. During the same time with their branch and work toward itt,.
services in instituting extensive typhus he was achieving reputation as a sound betterment. h

8 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURN~~
IN SUPPORT OF THE INFANTRY
By Lt. Col. Charles E. Henry
21st AAA A\.v Battalion (SP)

lery against ground attack. The place: a I hunted up Gen. Barth again at the
INTRODUCTION field artillery battalion emplaced in fir- air strip, who spoke to the division com-
Dear Henry: ing position in a frozen rice paddy across mander, who in turn spoke to Colonel
The purpose of this article is to pro- the road from Suwon Air Strip. The Kelleher and the half-tracks of C Battery
voke discussion. It is recognized that occasion: Gen Ridgway was at the air- were again on their way to the 35th
to date the 25th Division has had no strip to meet Gen. MacArthur who was Infantry. General Ridgway had spoken.
air opposition to challenge the pri-
to land there, and had observed the The other regiment of the 25th Divi-
mary role of the AAA. The Division
has had the opportunity to demon- M 16's of C Battery emplaced on the sion, the 24th Infantry, was in corps
strate the tremendous importance artillery battalion perimeter. reserve, defending the MSR, and
and assistance AAA can be in the This occurrence was reported to me at couldn't utilize half-tracks on a tactical
ground support role. It is not neces- once by the battery commander. I, in mission at that time. We set up a ground
sary here to make a citation of what
the doughboys in this division think
turn, consulted Brig. Gen. George B. defense of the air strip instead, and
about AAA support. It is apparent Barth, Divarty Commander, who was didn't attach D Battery to them until
that they are sold completely. also at the airstrip. later. Battery A joined the Turkish
Thanks for letting me comment. The result: within an hour, C Battery Brigade the same afternoon. Col. (now
BRADLEY was on its way to join the 35th Infantry; Brigadier General) "lVlike" Michaelis
MAJ GEN
(MOG B Battery was on its way to join the 27th then commanding the 27th Infantry, re-
Infantry; and I was conferring with ceived B Battery with open arms,' al-
Colonel Kelleher, the CO of the 35th though he wasn't quite sure how he
Infantry, trying to persuade him to use would use them at the time. This at first
D Battery in addition to C Battery. "Get marked the attitude of the doughboys.
~HAT's that scrap iron doing back
'em all out of here," he yelled, "I can't How are we going to use this monster?
Fr~? - That's all it is when you don't fire
use 'em, you'll block up the road and Time has changed all that.
Jt, scrap iron." "It's defending the a~til-
General MacArthur's on his way to my The next day as I was driving down
lery, Sir," was the answer. "Defending
CP." I departed posthaste, and on the the road toward the Turkish sector I
it against what?" was the next explosive
way out, I heard Colonel Kelleher say, saw a jeep with the star of a brigadier
comment "You want to kill some Chi-
"Don't go away mad, come on back general following me. After about two
:nese,don't you, Captain? Then get your
tomorrow and we'll talk this over." or three miles of this I began to feel
guns up with the infantry where they
:te1ong. Go back and tell your division
rommander to do something about this."
~ This was the conversation between
'Beneral Ridgway, then 8th Army Com-
,~
lllander, and one of my battery com-
31
anders. The date: 26 January 1951,
e day the 8th Armv started its "lim-
1 ed offensive" after' two and a half
onths of steady withdrawals. It was
~Iso the day that the 21st AAA AW Bat-
1

i?lion (SP) joined the 25th Division,


rhere according to the book and time-
lonored custom, they were assigned the
nission of defending the Division Artil-

lieut. Col. Henry trained the 21st AAA AW


Battalion at Fort Bliss and commanded it in
combat. In Korea he received a battlefield
promotion to his present grade. From January
ta September his battalion was credited with
9,007 enemy casualties, including 56 POW.
He has recently been reassigned to Fort Bliss.
General MacArthur and General Ridgway in the 25th Infantry Division area.
NUARY - FEBRUARY, 1952 9
uneasy and decided to stop on the side of ticall~' while supporting the infantry
the road and let it pass. It didn't. It he's throwing a monkey wrench into c
stopped and the assistant division com- smoothly operating machine. If an)
mander, Brig. Gen. Bradley, stepped out should fear that the infantrv commandel
and introduced himself to me. He told might needlessly expose them, it is be
me to circulate in the division and talk to cause they fail to appreciate the care anc
the infantry battalion commanders and professional skill of the infantry baualior
sell them on the capabilities of the half- commander.
tracks. After talking to me for a few It is further argued that they can't Ix
minutes, he made me feel at home and left with the infantry at night on thl
like a member of the first team. Sgts. Rufus Gibson and Antonio Garza main line of resistance, that thev woule
of the 21st pose proudly with the Quad be overrun. During darkness is ~he timt
Lightning name their battalion has when they are needed. Chinese attack,
I EXPLAINED the capabilities of the
tracks to the infantry battalion com-
earned in Korea.
nearly always occur at night and an M 1/
is an ideal weapon for mowing dom
manders in get-acquai~ted talks during in all their planning and is a part of human waves. The AI\A troops have thE
the next few davs. After thev observed every attack. \Vhat is more important, . will to fight and the means of doing it, ani
i
them in action, had the job ~f explain- our platoons work with the same tank they should be trained and indoctrinate,
ing ther limitations, as the doughboys platoons daily. \Ve have found it very for it. Certainly some of them are goin~
couldn't get enough of them. important that the tanks and half-tracks to become casualties, but we can't win
On arrival at the division my battalion work together, often for mutual protec- war without casualties. If withdram
was attached to Divarty. 1 further at- tion, always for coordination of fi~e with routes are properly reconnoitered therl
tached for operational control only, one the attacking or withdrawing infantry. should be little danger of losing a hal
battery to each regimental combat team It is apparent that a trained team of this track. This battalion lost five tracks iq
and the other battery jointly to ground type which knows exactly what the next one night but the number of lives save
defense of the division air strip and move of the other members of the team is more than compensated for this loss.
ground defense of the general support going to be, will be more effective than
battalion of Divarty. This last assignment one which doesn't work together con-
served as sort of a rest cure for the bat- stantly. ON the night of 23 April 1951 t
teries with the infantry. 1 rotated the Furthermore, the infantry either at- main effort of the first CCF spring offe
battery with the air strip and artillery tacks or defends every day and night. sive hit the 25th Division. The rigb
approximately once a month to replace \Vhy should the tremendous amount of regiment withdrew through our Dog ba
one of the batteries with the infantn., to fire'power represented by 64-M 16s sit tery which laid down withering fire. T
allow them to perform necessary mainte- back with the artillery idly awaiting at- tanks preceded us and in the ensuin
nance, train emplacements for evacuated tack. If an attack against the artillery is du~t and darkness two of our tracks Ie
wounded personnel, and rest. l11e irony to be stopped, why not stop it, or assist in the narrow road. They were under heal
of this situation was that after about a stopping it, on the l\IILR, instead of wait- enemy fire so it was impossible to recov
week of rest, the rested were restless and ing for a break-through? During the first them. Accordingly they were demilit
to a man wanted to "get back to the six months of the Korean war the lines rized and destroyed by thermite grenad
line." were not as strongly held as at the time and burning gasoline. On the same nigj
1 want to compare our method of op- of the Ridgway limited offensive in Janu- and at the same time, the left regime
eration with those of the other battalions arx, and it was possible, fqr a \vhole was hit. The unit on their Rank h
in the Korean Theater. First, we are all North Korean company tp,infiltrate.q.ur given way and allowed the CCF to ~
aware that our ground support for the lines unobserved, with the mission of them from three sides. The reserve ba
infantry would be far less effective if we destroying our artillery with suicidal talion commander immediatelv formi
were opposed by armor or direct fire artil- attacks. There have been no break- a tank-half track team which blasted
lery. It is further conceded that should throughs in this division in any strength way out for an orderly withdrawal. T~
the division be attacked from the air that since January. 1 think as this condition battalion commander afterwards remar
the AAA should be fulfilling its primary became apparent, the employment and ed, "I don't think we would have ma
mission. However, 1 feel that in the control of the AI\A should have changed it without the ack-ack." \Ve lost thr
absence of these threats the A\V batteries with the situation. additional tracks during this action b
should be attached to the infantry. In \Ve hear the argument advanced by when the yeoman service which th
this belief 1 appear to have little support I\AA commanders, "You can't turn 'em tracks rendered that night is consider
from most of the AAI\ battalion com- over to the infantry, you wouldn't have five half tracks was a small price to p
manders in .Korea. There is no doubt any control over them." \Vhy not? \Vho for it.
that batteries who operate as part of a is more capable of planning the part a That's the. tactical side; now for lac
trained team full time will be more ef- machine gun plays than the infantry bat- tics. An A\V SP battalion is not equip
fective than those who are on a part-time talion commander? The 7\116 is nothino<> to haul gasoline and ammunition at t
status and subject to call. This battalion more than a mobile base of fire. \\Then rate which a unit with the infantry u.
has the same personnel with each infan- an AAA officer higher than a platoon them. \Ve have fired over 2,000,
try battalion 24 hours a day. It is included leader attempts to control his outfit tac- rounds of caliber .50 ammunition alo

10 "ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURN
in five months in action in Korea. Yet mv function as a battalion commander signed missions. 1 must prepare them for
some battalions are attempting to supply let me emphasize that I ha\'e never been combat and keep the state of morale and
their units using only their organic trans- busier in my life, nor ha\'e I had such a discipline such that they are an effective
lportation. Instead we have attached 2 sense of having accomplished something fighting unit. For the battalion com-
12Y.!-ton trucks from our ammunition train useful in an efficient manner. The divi- mander who wants to lead his men in
to each firing battery, as well as a jeep sion commander has made it very cleM combat, let him roll up his sleeping bag
from the inactive AAAIS. The infantry that although the infantry commanders and spend some time on the line with his
regiment is responsible for the supply of will tell my 1\116 units what to do tacti- platoons. I have done it many times, and
class I, III, & V supplies and happy to do cally, it is my responsibility to train them it helps the morale of the men and en-
it. Each track carries 12,000 rounds in beforehand to do it. Remember. the bat- ables the commander to better under-
the bed and on the guns, while the in- talion is still under mv control adminis- stand their problems.
fantry regiment holds 100,000 rounds for tratively and for training. It's a full-time \Ve realize that this subject is contro-
the battery at the regimental ASP. job to check on the manner in which versial; however, this is our story and we
For those who may think I have lost these batteries are performing their as- are quite ready to hear the other side.

Supply For The Self-Propelled Battalion


By Capt. Robert E. Eichling
trammg at Fort Bliss had us tents to house the battalion. But the tents The battalion supply section furnishes
~canning the sky, but in Korea we started and stoves had to be transported, and Class II & IV support for all units, and
looking on the ground, hillsides and in that required readjustment. On the I, III, & V for headquarters and any unit
villages for our targets. Our principal three-day march overland to join our di- that is in a temporary reserve status.
target became enemy personnel. To be vision at Chonan, we learned that we Soon after we joined the division, and
able to operate efficiently with the tanks could successfully make longer trips than started in with a ground support role, we
land infantrymen we had to readjust our we had ever dreamed of with our types realized that we had far too much equip-
~'ehicle load. This meant getting rid of of vehicles. There we began to learn in ment. The T /O&E had provided us with
fome of our bulky, unused equipment, a hurry, what our new mission would be. equipment that we would never use, and
rnd making room for other equipment Three of the batteries were attached to it was taking up valuable cargo space.
peculiar to our new duty in Korea. the three ~RCT's for operational control. Our combat vehicles could not support
We left Fort Bliss with most of the The fourtn battery provided security for the infantry and pull their one-ton trail-
te.quipment as listed for a divisional type the medium artillery battalion, and the ers. The type of terrain over which we
r.W (SP) Battalion. We picked up the division air strip. operated plus the lack of room on the
st at the port, or in our staging area in When attached to an RCT (regi- ]\,ILH precluded this. So, to be able to
apan. The battalion commander, Lt. mental combat te~rn), we arranged to move with the tanks and infantry, which

f 01. Henry, consulted with the Com-


anding General, Japan Logistical Com-
rand, Major General Walter vVeible,
have our units dc;pendent on the regi-
ment for Class I, III, and V supplies.
Our ammunition section couldn't oper-
was constantly, the trailers were parked
at the battery CP's. The battery CP's
were usually located near the headquar-
fnd with ce, EUSAK. As a result we ate as a section because of the wide- ters of the supported regiment. The bat-
urned in our N1l5's and were issued spread area over which our platoons were tery CP moved as often as regiment
t hirty-two more MI6's. \\lith a total of deployed and the tremendous amount of moved, sometimes two or three times a
lixty-four M 16's we had firepower to ammunition expended. To compensate week. That left twentv trailers for the
~pare. Still, we had the same cargo capac- for this, two 2~-ton trucks, driv~rs and battery headquarters to shuttle forward
'ty. The people who figured out the assistants were sent to each battery. with about five towing vehicles. All
'/O&E for a self-propelled battalion These vehicles were used to transport equipment not needed for the mission
ust have tried out the equipment for supplies and principally ammunition, and the unused equipment mentioned
[, ize, and d~cided th~re was just enough from the regimental supply points to our before were stored in these trailers. This
, argo carrymg capaCIty. units on line. The regimental ASP's had shuttle operation proved to be a nuisance;
In Pusan we wangled enough squad to carry a much larger supply of caliber so we turned in our one-ton trailers to
.50 ammo in stock, as they were not ac- reduce the number to five per line bat-
customed to resupplying so much fire- tery. That meant that each combat ve-
Captain Robert E, Eichling entered the mili. power. Now that our AAA units are part hicle would have to carry the necessary
tory service from Arkansas in 1941. He has
served as 54 of the 21st AAA AW Battalion of the team, their resupply of Class I, III, items of equipment, clothing and equip-
for the past two years, & V is effected automatically from the ment for all crew members, and ammu-
regimental supply points. nition. \\le were mobile.
fANUARY - FEBRUARY, 1952 11
A CHANGE to the T /O&E helped
us a lot by reducing some items of equip-
on the EUSAK firing range, as did all
other AAA units in Korea.
section but we've just finished a technical
sen.iceability inspection of our vehicl
ment, but we went even further to get In early September this battalion re- and are rated at the top of the division.
down to bare fighting necessities. This ceived twelve additional M 16's. This I might add that our supply sectio
equipment was turned in to the appro- aqditional allocation was directed by has proven to have an adequate numbe
priate technical services. i\lany items CINCFE to each infantry division. I~ of personnel, as provided by curren
they were glad to get for other units; our division it has been integrated into T /0, to operate efficiently in our groun
other items they had to e\'acuate. our unit instead of the infantry regi- support role. Part of the ammunition see
Some of the items turned in were our ments, as in the other divisions, and tion was sent out to augment the addi
drafting sets for line batteries, demolition helps us meet the demand for more quad tional transportation requirements of ou
equipment sets, 3.5" rocket launchers, fifties for infantry support. line units. The remainder of the ammu
i\l63 AA 1\IG i\lounts and our small de-
The battalion commander has just nition section was used to handle Class
tachment cooking outfits.
made arrangements with the division and III supplies. All in all, we can sa)
Having operated since early May with
commander to receive an additional six the S4 section has "no sweat."
this reduced cargo space and reduced
1\116's, making a total of 82 of these Right now the winter clothing an
equipment, we feel that we could go into
an antiaircraft mission and still not suf- weapons in the battalion. \Ve have also equipment is being issued which is wel
fer from the loss. We know that we can been authorized additional personnel to ahead of last year's schedule. \Ve ar
still shoot at aerial targets as the battalion man them. This additional armament set for the winter ahead.
fired, a platoon at a time, at aerial targets puts a heavy load on our maintenance Come what may, the 21st is ready!

Baker Battery Supports The ~~W


olfhounds"
By Capt. John Popovics
said later that there was only one tr
WHEN the 21st AAA AvV Battalion on the hill (431) that the quads had n
(SP) joined the 25th Division in Korea hit. He was so impressed with the fir
in January, 1951, the 2nd Platoon of power of the quads that he used the
B Battery found itself attached to two after this at every opportunity to rend
batteries of the 8th FA Battalion in short both defilading and overhead support I
order and deployed in perimeter defense. his advancing infantrymen.
We didn't stay there long. General Ridg- During the battle when I took a trar
way, noting our position on an inspection down to get more ammo, I found that t
tour, remarked rather pointedly that we terrain was such that I couldn't get
belonged up in the front line with the back. To this day, I am unable to e
infantry. So in even shorter order we D Btry of the 21st finds rough gOing plain how we got the tracks on the to
found ourselves with the 3rd Battalion wi th half tracks. of that hill. The positions had been tak
of the 27th (Wolfhound) Infantry, then during the night and all were dum
in the vicinity of Osan. The 2nd Platoon of quads came into founded later as to how the quads ha
The infantry battalion commander their own on February 5th when the made the terrific slope to the top.
was hesitant in using the quads, as he 27th Infantry had an objective to take By 1700 hours the infantry was able 1
hadn't had any previous experience in (hill 431) but were pinned down. Air take their objective. The 2nd Platoo
using them to support his men. I-Ie and artillery came to their support but to had fired 75,000 rounds of ammo
wasn't sure of their capabilities or their no avail; the enemy remained dug-in and ranges from 1000 to 1800 yards. T
limitations; so he used them in guarding held up the advance. The quads were quads' firing was so effective that t
the rear CP and assuming rear blocking then called upon to take their position infantry captured hill 431 with fe
positions. on a hill 1000 yards from the objective. casualties. From here until the H
This was as close as the quads could get River crossing, the 2nd Platoon of Bak
and still cover the entire enemv area. I Battery was used in aiding task forces .
Captain Popovics, Infantry, entered the placed five tracks on the hill which was feeling out and probing enemy strengt
service from Proctor, Vermont in February actually a razor-backed ridge. There was a steady advance of U,
1943, and received a battlefield commission
in 1945. Serving with the 21st AAA AW Bn in At 0900 hours the "Quad Lightnings" Forces to the now historic crossing of t
Korea, he has been awarded a cluster to the began to fire at the ridge lines and at tar- Han River. This crossing gave the e
Purple Heart and the Silver Star for gallantry
in action.
gets of opportunity. Their fire was so tire Battalion an opportunity to dem
effective that the battalion commander strate the murderous fire power of t

12 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURN
~116's. The 1st Platoon, commanded by
Lt. Bob Morrison, my platoon, the Sec-
ond, and the Third Platoon, under Lt.
John Gronsky, all of Battery B, sup-
ported the operation. The briefing
showed that the infantry had to cross the
river and a wide flat beach and field.
The half tracks went into positions un-
der the cover of darkness on the bank of
the river in the opening. The quads and
artillery laid down such a barrage Of fire
that it seemed as though the very heav-
ens were raining fire on the enemy. At
H hour the artillery ceased and the in-
fantry pushed off, crossing the river with
a cover of fire of caliber .50 machine gun
bullets from the M 16's.

T HE part played by Baker Battery of


the 21st AAA A W BN CSP), com-
manded by Captain Mike Kaminski, can
best be told by the Unit Citation which
was awarded them for their participation
Stc Charles H .. Moudy, mess sergeant or U btry, receives the Bronze Star for Valor
in the battle. It reads as follows: The from Gen. Bradley. Sfc Paul McRoberts, rigbt, received the Bronze Star for the
3rd Battalion, 27th Infantry Regiment same action in which he was awarded the Purple Heart.
and Battery B, 21st AAA AW Battalion,
attached: one point slowed to a standstill when the enemy killed in action and with taking
enemy used a railroad tunnel as a road two prisoners of war.
"are cited for outstanding performance of duty and
extraordinary heroism in action against the enemy in block. Here again the quads showed Then came the action at the Imjim
spearheading an amphibious assault across the Hon their ability to adapt themselves to the River. Foot reconnaissance was carried
River in Korea on 7 March 1951. Following an in-
tense artillery bombardment by friendly forces on method of support needed. A quad was out and a plan of attack was laid on with
the enemy positions on the other side of the river, the backed up the railroad tracks toward the the Wolfhound 3rd Battalion officers.
leading elements crossed the river in assault boats
and moved rapidly and aggressively toward their as-
tunnel, firing as it came. In spite of The reconnaissance had shown newly
signed objectives. These leading elements were forced heavy counterfire, the tunnel was cleared dug-in positions of the enemy but no
ta cross an exposed beachhead of 700 yards, com-
pletely devoid of any natural cover, which was under
by the blistering death spit out by the sight of the enemy himself. However,
a devastating barrage of artillery, mortar, mochine- quad 50's. he was there, for when the quads came
gun and small-arms fire from a well-entrenched and
Just south of the Imjin River on the out of a draw and rounded the hill the
determined enemy, estimated at regimental strength.
The friendly troops pressed the attack with such zeal 3rd of April the UN forces were moving enemy opened up with small arms, auto-
and unrelenting fury that the enemy after suflering
north. Lt. Gronsky and I went on a foot matic weapons and mortar fire. During
heavy casualties fled in panic and disorder, abandon.
ing large quantities of equipment, weapons and am- reconnaissance to plot out a line of ad- the early part of this encounter Lt. Gron-
munition. Possessed of a high degree of spirit and sky was wounded and evacuated, leaving
vance for our MI6's. We found that the
audacity from this recent victory, the battalion and
attached units moved on to the next objectives. The only way we could give the necessary me in command of two provisional pla-
enemy positions were now more formidably and fa-
support to the advancing infantrymen toons of quads.
natically defended, but the hostile forces, unwillingly
and stubbornly, were forced to give ground under was to place the tracks in front of the The battle became so intense that or-
the tremendous onslaught of the battalion and at- MLR. The quads not only were in front ders couldn't be heard on the radios and
tached units. Finally, with resolute persistence and
courageous demeanor
I the friendly troops succeeded for the jump off, but also advanced with some of the radios on the tracks had been
in battering the hostile regiment until it could no the troops until their objective was se- hit by enemy fire and put out of commis-
longer muster an attock and was considered neutral.
ized. The 3d Battalion and attached units, by their cured. Here the M16's took to high sion. In order to coordinate the move-
heroic deeds, breached the Han River line and ground and stood guard in order that the ments of the vehicles and the fire support
opened an avenue for further pursuit of the enemy to
the north. The 3rd Battalion and attached units dis- flanks of the advancing infantry could for the infantry, contact had to be done
played such gallantry, determination and esprit de catch up and consolidate the lines. by personal means. This led to eleven
corps in accomplishing their missions under extremely
difficult and hazardous' conditions as to set them
Of course this wasn't done without re- more of the 21st AAA men being
aport and above other units participating in the cam- sistance from the enemy who opened up wounded.
paign. The heroism, audacity and courage exhibited
by the members of these units in denying to the
with small arms, automatic weapons and For "extraordinary bravery" during
~t enemy a vital strategic vantoge orea reflect great mortar fire. One of the M 16's was lost this battle, both lieutenants, three ser-
J credit on themselves, their organizations, and the due to an enemy mine, and during the geants, three corporals and one Pfc were
military service of the United States."
fight nine of the 21st men were wounded decorated by the Infantry.
After the break through at the Han in action. For this the enemy received On the 22nd of April the enemy ap-
I River, UN forces advanced against de- 40,000 rounds of fire from the quads. parently had had enough of being
termined enemy fire. The advance at Baker Battery was accredited with 200 pushed back, for they attacked with such

~ JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952 13
fury and in such numbers the UN forces of the rangers who rode on the tanks and 2nd platoon of Baker Battery. This hard
were forced to give ground. Baker Bat- with our platoon as a rear guard as we hitting task force kept pushing the
tery and the 3rd Battalion of the 27th withdrew to the south. The.M 16's fired enemy back until they again reached the
Infantry suddenly found themsekes in upon the enemy while on the mm'e to 38th parallel. A perimeter defense was
danger of being flanked. \Ve executed the rear and accounted for fifty to one then set up interlocking the quads, the
an orderly, planned withdrawal. To help hundred enemy KIA. By leapfrogging tanks and the infantry. The defense lines
stem the tide of battle a company of other blocking units a previously pre- were set up on the ridge lines and held
rangers was called into action to assume pared line was reached. Here the enemy for three days and three nights against
blocking positions along with a platoon gave up any idea of further attack as this enemy fire and attack. The success of
of tanks and the Second Platoon of line was too heavilv fortified. Task Force Doh'in made it possible for
Baker Batten'., This was done to 0 oiye The UN Forces dug in and waited for the 25th Division to establish their i\ILR
the infantry sufficient time to assume a approximately a month and then struck roughly along the 38th parallel.
rear blocking position. The hordes from back. The spearhead of our attack was The task force was relieved by the
the north still came on and rapidly oc- the Doh'in Task Force. This was com- British, and the 2nd Platoon of Baker
cupied UN positions as they were va- posed of the 3rd Battalion of the Wolf- Battery, ACK-ACK, went back into re-
cated. This necessitated the withdrawal hounds, the 89th Tank Battalion and our sef\'e for a well earned rest.

865th AAA AW BATTALION (SP)


T I-IE 865th AAA AW Battalion (SP)
was activated and trained in Hawaii dur-
has not actually engaged any hostile air-
craft; however, there have been several
ing the early part of \Vorld vVar II. After alerts all of which have been during
seeing action on j'v1akin and Saipan hours of darkness. The battalion oper-
Islands during the \Var, the battalion ates several AA type searchlights which
was stationed at Kimpo Air Force Base were secured from the Air Force. Battal-I
in Korea where it assumed an occupation ion headquarters is established in the old
mission from December 1946 to Septem- dependent housing area near by. The
ber 1948. During this period the battal- houses had been damaged during. the
ion was the sole AAA unit in Korea. fighting in this area, but all personnel
Occupation duties in Korea included the pitched in and repaired enough of the
furnishing of security guard personnel houses to make them habitable.
for Kimpo Air Force Base and the main- The battalion AAOC was established
tenance of a mobile reserve force for the Lt. Co!. Arthur G. May and Major
on the base near the vVing tactical C.P.
James 1. Smith, Jr.
control of civil disturbances. Later both were combined to form an air
In 1948 the battalion moved to Japan. defense C.P. The combined C.P. is very
In ] 950, after being brought up to combat with task forces within the Pusan
desirable in that it makes it possible for
strength and undergoing an intensive Perimeter. Later it advanced far to the
very close cooperation between the AAA
training program, the battalion was as- north where it was the last American
and the Air Force. Se\'eral OP's have
signed to the defense of Misawa Air unit to withdraw from Pyongyang when
been established and are tied into the
Force Base. the Chinese hordes forced United Na-
early warning system for the base. In
In July, 1950, B'attery D was detached tions troops to fall back.
several cases gun sections and OP's are
to Korea where it was one of the first In the summer of 195] the remainder attached to neighboring Air Force instal-
army units to arrive after the outbreak of of the battalion arrived and is now em- lations for rations and quarters.
hostilities. There under the command of ployed in the air defense of an important In addidon to the tactical mission the
Capt. George VV. Eiseman it was soon air strip. Batteries are actively engaged in a train-
employed in air defense and in ground Since arriving in Korea the battalion ing program.
14 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
SELF PROPELLED BATTALION
IN GROUND SUPPORT
By Captain Ballard B. Small
821ld AAA A \;\1 BattaliOIl

THE 82nd AAA A W Battalion (SP),


under command of Major Howard A.
Geddis, continues its role with the 2nd
Division. Recently both the M 19 and
M16 units have been employed often
with tank-infantry task forces in probing
attacks against the enemy on high
ground to our front. In this they have
oper~ted in forward positions where they
were subjected to all types of enemy
counterfire. However, the missions have
been executed successfully in all cases
and with minimum casualties.
Along with this activity the battalion
maintains a continual training program
slanted particularly to integrate the
newly arrived officers and men into the
combat teams, and also always to stress
the maintenance of our weapons, motor
transportation, and other equipment.
l'oCluer banallOn commander Maj. Roben H. Johnston inspects posmon of tirry. C.
The recent increase in enemy air activ-
ity has necessitated much more attention sions about the capabilities and limita- small arms fire with little damage while
to the antiaircraft defense. Although .no tions of our present weapons and some the thin armor and open fighting com-
hostile acts were committed within our ideas on proper tactical employment in partments of the 1\'116 and MI9 are
area of protective responsibility, the alerts ground support. They are set forth be- choice targets for any type of counterfire.
in the adjacent sectors provided the op- low. They are in some cases in conflict Tanks can button up and push through
portunity for the evaluation of our own with accepted doctrine, and are often grenades, small arms, mortar and light
alert system. Through practice alerts and peculiar to the conditions here in Korea. automatic fire, while the AAA vehicle is
numerous actual alerts from other sec- The comments cannot be defended by liable to serious damage from any of
tors, the battalion has been able to reference to any military documents, but these.
strengthen its own alert system to where are submitted as our sincere convictions In the case of tank-infantry operations,
it is capable of providing the required based on our own experience here. the accompanying infantry can dismount
antiaircraft protection for divisional ele- if enemy action makes this advisable.

I ments. This means not only training for


. Our own personnel, but also liaison with
adjacent sectors, cooperation with Air
PATROLLING

Often in Korea, the A\V firing units


have been used in lieu of tanks or other
The AAA crew has no choice but to re-
main in their exposed position in order
to accomplish their part of the mission.
Force warning services, and improve- armored vehicles, or they have been used In the event of enemy opposition, the
, ment in communications. with armored patrols interspersed among damage resulting usually is severe and
From our experiences during the past the tanks. AAA units have been called out of proportion to the effect accom-
year we have reached our own conclu- upon to furnish added fire support to plished by the AAA vehicle's inclusion
tank operations. In Korea, these tasks in the task force. Since most operations
have been found to be unsuitable for with tanks involve passage through
For material assistance in preparing this AAA weapons and are not recom- mined areas, the relative lightness of the
article the author is indebted to other officers
in the battalion, as follows: Major John E. mended. In placing AAA weapons in M 16 makes it very possible that complete
Clark, Executive; Major Roland D. Appleton, situations normally covered by armored destruction of vehicle and serious in-
53; and Captain Francis J. Cronin, Asst. 53,
formerly CO of Battery D. vehicles, the dispa:ity in armor usually juries to personnel result upon striking a
permits the tanks to receive mortar and mine. Usually a tank will suffer only
I
. JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952 15
light damage to tracks and suspension field artillery battery, near the head of field artillery perimeters. It is not always
system and only infrequently, injury to the column to insure that AAA and advisable to employ the AAA weapons at
personnel. If it is a leading tank that ground protection is furnished during night because of the inability to observe
strikes a mine, the column may be halted the move and during the initial phases of results and the certainty of revealing the
under enemy fire-perhaps of no impor- occupation of position, positions. Only when the disadvantage
tance to tanks, hut usually serious to the of the revelation of the position is not
1\116'sor 1\119's. PREPARATION OF DEFENSIVE LINES
detrimental to the over-all defense or is
Also, M16's do not have equal Hota- When AAA has supported field artil- outweighed by the situation threat,
tion with full-tracked tanks and are lery, the normal defensive positions dur- should they be used at night.
found to bog down where tanks can pro- ing daylight have usually included the On one occasion, a team of one 155mm
ceed unhindered. MI6's, in wet ground, consideration of AAA efficiency. The howitzer, one M16 and one engineer
are liable to be more of a hindrance to field artillery often utilizes the field mo- searchlight was used in connection with
the tanks than a help for this reason. The bility of the AAA vehicles by assigning direct fire techniques to reduce heavily
tank may perhaps be required to spend a them two primary positions-the daytime constructed bunkers. The weapons were
good part of its time pulling the half- AAA positions and the nighttime perim- drawn up to fire on bunkers located on
tracks out of mires. eter assignments. At night, AAA sections part of Hill 773 (part of "Bloody Ridge")
The fact that AAA vehi~les are so vul- or squads would normally occupy close at a range of about 2000 yards. The
nerable makes it appar~nt that they positions as strong points in the field ar- 155mm fired to destroy the bunkers and
should not be made integral to a tank or tillery perimeter, coordinated with the when the enemy ran out of their fortifi-
tank-infantry column. However, they organic field artillery weapons, the AAA cations, the M 16 was used to spray the
can be used in patrolling, either foot or weapons usually covering the open areas surrounding area. Results were reason-
armored, to set up bases of fire at secure or directions of most likely approach. ably successful, but were again depend-
points along the route and near the MLR When in support of infantry, the ent upon the peculiar operations here
to protect the patrol's advance. The AAA AAA weapon should be sited not less where the artillery cou:qterfire has not
vehicle's vulnerability and the limitations than 500 yards and not more than 1000 been of much consequence.
of its mobility on the terrain of Korea, yards from the MLR and used preferably In Korea, the front and the rear are
make their use in patrolling activities a to block long clear approaches. The AAA often implications of direction only and
command decision. Essentially, it is to weapon should always be sited in con- sometimes have no significance of safety.
decide whether the high probability of junction with a prepared defense line Thus, the occupation of an exposed rear
their loss and the injury to personnel is where it can have flank protection by in- position may be as exposed as in front.
outweighed by the possibility that the fantry forces and the support of other Therefore, in support of infantry night
desired fire power will be required. In weapons for security against infiltration. attacks, AAA weapons can deliver pre-
Korea, the answer has usually been The ground defense plan should take ad- paratory fires and prearranged fires, but
"yes." vantage of the vehicles' mobility by the lack of visibility and the vehicles' vul-
The best use for AAA vehicles is for designation and use of alternate firing nerability makes any forward displace-
them to fire from a series of strong points positions. ment questionable. If displacement is
assisting the patrol to pass out from and ordered, the AAA vehicles should not
FIELD FORTIFICATIONS
return to base rather than accompanying accompany the leading elements,. but
the patrol with the mission of assisting Static positions are not recommended should be with the main body. By ac-
by supporting the patrol in attaining its because of the AAA vehicle's sensitivity companying it the AAA fire units can
objective. to mortar and artillery fire. AAA weap- give the most useful service.
In other areas where the terrain was ons have been used in fortified positions
. INFILTRATION
suitable, M16's were used successfully on in Korea, but such use was not efficient
patrols, but because of the rugged terrain because of the size of the earthwork AA weapons have proved valuable
here, the AAA vehicle cannot be success- involved and the resulting loss of one of in .combating infiltrating patrols which
ful often. The cross country mobility of the vehicle's best characteristics-its mo- have frequently set roadblocks across di-
the vehicle is good, but there has been bility. Most defensive positions here run vision rear supply routes. When this
little cross country~only narrow, single- along the ridge lines of steep, rocky and danger is prevalent, AAA units have
road valleys and steep, rocky hills. high (500-1000 meter) hills where the been used to patrol MSR's or to accom-
rIlle blindness of tanks is widely recog- emplacement of other ~than infantry pany truck columns on the road. When
nized, but commanders in Korea have weapons is difficult. It is recommended trouble is encountered, the M16's (usu-
not always recognized the limitations and that AAA weapons be sited behind such ally dose to the front of the column) ad-
vulnerability of the AAA vehicles they lines, or to the Hanks of such lines and vance to the point and reduce the opposi-
use. It seems that their tremendous not emplaced in fixed fortifications if the tion by spraying hills on each side of the
fire power is the only well known fea- mobility and fire power of the weapons road where the blocking force is usually
ture. are to be best exploited. deployed. Since. these rear area road-
In Korea patrolling has often been blocks have usually been of small size
NIGHT ATTACKS
necessary during forward displacement and use light weapons, the column can
of field artillery units. For this, it is rec- Considering operations with field artil- continue its travel in a few minutes. Be-
ommended that one AAA section be lery, the night use of AAA weapons cause of the 1\116'5 or M19's mobility,
spaced in the column with the leading must be restricted to FPL fires within either can be rapidly dispatched to points
16 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
where infiltrators are active and quickly then not so much to. destroy the bunker, displacement and moves into new posi-
disperse them. Usually, no special organi- but to drive out the personnel inside. tions. AAA is usually the last weapons
zation was made for this type operation, The 40rnm has been used for pinpoint out in retrograde moves.
but sections or squads simply dispatched firing into bunkers for this anti-personnel vVith the infantry AAA can deliver
to the affected area when requested. effect, but even at very short ranges, the covering fires during relief and set up a
AAA units have been effectively used aperture is a very small target and the series of defensive points along the route
in the relief of cut off units before the end result is usually simply harassing or of withdrawal around which the infan-
enemy had time to get. well organized. perhaps a temporary neutralization only. try can assemble, organize and then con-
AM has also been used to interdict In this respect, the orientation of the tinue to the rear. A1\A has been used to
approach avenues used by infiltrators. machine guns of the 1\'116has been con- secure the line during relief. For exam-
Aoain, the AAA vehicle should have in- sidered to have some effect on the effec- ple, holding the edges of hill positions
ti
fantry support if follow-up and clean-up tiveness of fire at the target, and on while the infantry assembles behind the
of infiltrators is to be accomplished. several occasions where this weapon has hill; the infantry mortars covering the
been used for firing at bunkers, it has immediate front of the hill and assisting
SUPPORTING FIRES
been reoriented on the specific target in the Rank coverage. 1\1\A can also pro-
Whether with the infantry or the ar- with the hope that all fire be concen- tect assembly areas and other critical
tillery, any supporting fires must fall trated at that point. After the rough points along the infantry march.
within the range capabilities of the AAA usage that the gun~ have received here,
weapons. Field artillery positions usu- such fine orientation has not been possi- SUMMARY
ally prohibit the concurrent use of AAA ble because of the looseness and play in The reader may be interested to know
in supporting fires, principally because the mounts. Also, the fact that part of that, to date, the 82nd AAA 1\W Bn
of the terrain difficulties here in Korea. the guns must be out of action at a time (SP) has fired at only one enemy air-
With the infantry, the AAA can deliver when they might be required, has caused plane in Korea. This airplane was shot
good support' at distances of 500-1000 this to be not recommended as a usual "up" rather than "down" since it was
yards from the ol;>jectives. More targets, practice. The results have not been suffi- surprised on the ground along with 200
wider observation, and more rapid trans- ciently important to justify its continu- Chinese troops in January 1951. The
fers across the objective are available if ance. 82nd's activity has been concerned pri-
the AAA unit is sited at such ranges.
The superquick fuze of the 40mm HE marily with the ground role. Based upon
he shift from target to target is shorter this experience, the most serious de-
round causes bursts to be relatively harm-
and more rapid, and larger areas of the ficiency apparent in current AAA weap-
less to the basic bunker structure. The
objective can be covered. Firing at 500- ons, is the lack of armor protection for
40mm and quadruple .50's are nonethe-
1000 yards also gives the best dispersion the M 16 and M 19, and its relative lack
less extremely effective against the com-
at the target. munication trenches and foxholes which of Rotation in comparison to tanks and
ASSAULT OF BUNKERS are always a part of the bunker organiza- other full-tracked vehicles. The devel-
The M 16 is negatively effective tion. These can be made unusable so as opment of some type of weapon with full
against the bunkers encountered in Ko- to isolate bunkers for assault by closer tracks and bullet-proof blister turrets
; rea. Lucky shots into the embrasures are weapons. capable of the present tracking rates so
t II that can be expected. Even the M 19 arranged that visibility is not seriously
RELIEF OF FRONT LINE UNITS
t should get within 1000 yards distance affected, is the greatest advance which
- rom bunkers to get consistent hits. To vVhere artillery is being relieved AAA could be made in AAA vehicles and
1 educe a bunker with 40mm fire, it is provides sections for both AAA and mounts which are to be used in divisional
ecessary to get HE rounds inside and ground protection during withdrawal, AAA missions.

e
n AAA Association Annual Election
l-

IS With the close of balloting on December 31, the slate of officers nomi-
e nated to fill vacancies created by expiration of term of office were
I- declared elected.
n Major General Willard W. Irvine, Commanding General Army Anti-
1- aircraft Command, was elected to replace Major Gene~al Lyman L.
:1- Lemnitzer whose two-year term as Vice-President expired at the year's
end .
. The four members of the Executive Council who were elected to serve
for two-year terms were:
Brig. Gen. Robert W. Chrichlow, Jr., R&D Board, Dept. of Defense.
Colonel Norman E. Hartman, Chief AA Sec., Career Management,
In AGO.
e- Lt. Colonel Francis X. Bradley, Ass't See'y General Staff, OCSA.
y, Major James E. Calkins, Asst. G 1, 8600 ASU.
Its
ANUARY-FEBRUARY,1952 17
I.L
24th DIVISION AAA
By Corporal John S. Aaron
26th AAA AW Battalion

F OR the first hard-fought months of


the Korean campaign the 24th Infantry
ning for the frequent movements an~
maneuvers so necessary to keep tht
Division had only one Antiaircraft bat- enemy off balance. Much of it had to ht
tery and this was Battery A, 26th AAA done at night and all of it with acumet
A\V Bn (SP). Speaking now to the few to outsmart the infiltrating guerrillas ane
old timers who remain with the battery, enemy snipers.
one learns that at first they were alone
and felt alone. The battery learned
combat the hard way, but it rapidly be- ON 24 August when the battery had
came a seasoned outfit of determined completed its reorganization and ha~
lighters. It had to. been inspected by Brigadier General H
Under Captain Charles \V. Harrison D. Meyer, commanding the 24th lnfan
the battery was alerted in Japan on 30 try Division Artillery, the headquarter
] une, 1950, and landed at Pusan on 5 section was attached to the headquarter
July. On 10 July it arrived in Taejon on of Division Artillery. The 1st Plat
An enemy land mine put this track of D
Hat cars to join the division on the battle- Battery, 26th AAA A \'{T BN out of ac- was attached to the 13th FA Battalio
field. 1st Lieut. Daniel J. Garvey was tion in October. and the 2nd Platoon to the 52nd FA Ba
the executive and ~TOJG Athos W. talion. By this time the United Natio
Brannon, the unit administrator. was loaded on Hat cars enroute to i\lasan. forces had withdrawn and formed th
The 2nd Platoon, under 2nd Lieuts. During the first ten days of August the Naktong perimeter defense aroun
Frank S. Mikulski and Douglas W. Bla- batten' was in constant contact with the Pusan with the left Hank at Masan an
lock was left in Taejon to protect the enemy and suffered the loss of three the right Hank in the east coast city
division CP and installations. The 1st more half-~racks. The unit was finally Pohang. This was a critical period
Platoon under 1st Lieut. John R. Grimes, withdrawn to Kyongsang to pick up action and the 24th Infantry Divisi
with elements attached to both the 21st much needed equipment and replace- was used as a maneuver unit to close an
and 34th Infantry, met the enemy on ments. penetration made by the enemy into 0
July the 12th west of Songdong-ni. In During these early weeks, supply, ad- lines. The job of the Battery A was t
their first ground lighting they were also ministration, and maintenance of vehi- protect the field artillery from enemy i
strafed by Yak lighter planes. The men cles was a critical and difficult problem. filtrators. The battery moved from po
held up under their first baptism of fire Repair operation often had to be done tions at Taegu to Pohang to Masa
in magnificent fashion, but the going while the vehicles were in position and within a period of twelve days.
was rough and getting rougher. under enemy fire. Every man had a key The perimeter was successfully d
The Kum River defense line was job and all of them performed heroically. fended against fanatical attacks by t
started on 16 July, but the 1st platoon Supply sergeants Charles Greer and An- enemy and huge losses were inflict
had to be removed from action with three drew Shimko did an excellent job in ob- upon him. Then on 15 September, 195
half tracks and other vehicles completely taining supplies from whatever sources the 24th Division in conjunction wi
destroyed. The 2nd platoon was attached were available at the time. Platoon ser- the other U. N. forces was able to bre
to the 34th Infantry and engaged the geants, M/Sgt. Clifford Nelson and Sfc. through and begin an offensive that w
enemy on 19 July near Yusong-mya. Fred Jorgensen were constantly in the to lead part of Battery A to within sig
There they broke into ground combat thick of the fighting encouraging and of the Yalu River.
and also shot down three Yak fighter helping their men. Sgt. Richard Gunn The route north was familiar to tH
planes during the action. The enemy's proved to be a shark in maintaining com- members of battery A. Here and th
superior numerical forces cracked the munications by his alertness and deter- they spotted some of the old equipme ~
24th Division defense line, however, and mination. of their organization with bumper mar'
the division was forced to withdraw. The battery had to perform for itself ings still discernible. It was a hap
Pulling back along the route west of the normal battalion functions. Accord- move northward and morale was hig I
Taejon, the battery ran into an enemy ingly, a battalion headquarters section of Making a number of halts, setting ,
roadblock where it lost three half-tracks, six men was operating. M/Sgt. \Valter perimeter defense, and taking 19 p
three trucks, seven men wounded, and l\lorehouse was the S3, M/Sgt. George oners during the interval, the batt '
nine men missing in action. H. Trout was the S2. Thev were both made a triumphant entry into Taejon
Reorganizing at Ahwa-ni, the battery constantly busy reconnoitering and plan- 20 September, 1950.

18 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURN
i\lo\'ing on rapidly, Battery A entered A, 26th AAA became "Defender Able." manded by Bunting was Corporal Eu-
Seoul on 7 October and drove across the Shortly thereafter Battery A, 21st AAA gene C. l\'litchell. Firing his individual
38th parallel shortly thereafter. Victory A\V Battalion under Capt. Dan \\T. weapon after the quad caliber .50 turret
appeared to be in sight when the battery Williams joined the Divisional AAA. It ceased operating, he remained coolly on
entered Kusong, far to the north, on I became "Defender Baker" and was ear- the burning vehicle until told to abandon
No\'ember and saw the broad Yalu marked for redesignation as a part of the it. Pfc. Franklin D. \Vinev was cannon-
stretching before it. 26th. eer on the same track and was the third
This illusion was short-lived, how- member of the crew to receive the Bronze
J\leanwhile the battalion began to
ever, as Chinese Communist forces en- Star Award. He carried his injured com-
function with the two batteries and to
tered the war, and a new chapter of the rade to safe ground and then repulsed
participate in offensive action to the
Korean conflict began. On 26 November, the attack on his position firing his indi-
north.
1950, the U.N. troops turned their backs vidual weapon.
Defender Able moved to Sinwang-ni
to the Yalu River and the victory that Recipient of the Purple Heart during
where its platoons were attached to task
seemed so near as the Chinese Commu- the battle was Corporal John \\T. Yocum,
forces for close supporting fires. All of
nist Forces struck in overwhelming who noted that the gunner on his MI6
the old MI5 and TI9 weapons were
strength. was injured and trapped in the burning
replaced with the M 16's.
This withdrawal continued in Korea's turret. Corporal Yocum freed the in-
As rotation began in April Captain
bitter winter weather for six weeks until jured man receiving painful burns him-
John J. Harvey became the battery com- self.
the 24th Division had fallen back south
mander as the battery, moving to the
of Seoul.
north, crossed the 38th parallel for the
In the Uijongbu sector where Battery
A supported both the 5th and 19th In-
fantry Sfc Neal M. Morris, Macon,
third time.
Battery A took up a position and re-
IN June Battery C, 26th AAA AW
Battalion was activated in the battle area
Georgia, distinguished himself by ex- mained in Chipo-ri until the morning of with Capt. Thomas E. Kavanaugh in
traordinary heroism and was posthu- 23 April when it was compelled to with- command. In July the activation of Bat-
mously awarded the Distinguished Serv- draw. At this time the battery was giving tery D under Capt. Alvin P. Labsinger
ice Cross. The half-track in his command protection to the 555 FA Battalion and as brought the battalion to full strength.
was overrun by enemy infiltrators dur- the long convoy moved south and Personnel and equipment from existing
I ing the night, and with the driver of the through a very narrow pass the enemy batteries were used to form the new bat-
vehicle killed he was forced to abandon struck from ambush in regimental teries, and supplemented to equip each
the track and withdraw on foot. Reor- strength in what many have termed the with sixteen 1\1I6's.
ganizing his crew, he led them in a toughest roadblock ever encountered. With so many new replacements Colo-
counterattack against far superior num- Zeroed-in mortars knocked out some nel Tate arranged to give each battery a
I hers. Advancing with his crew members vehicles with the first round. A direct hit brief intensive training period. During
I to within a hundred yards he continued on one M 16 half track injured all of the this all gun crews got target practice both
to proceed alone when the advance was crew members except the driver, Cor- at aerial targets at Inchon and at ground
t pinned down. He gained the possession poral Thomas Wolset. Wolset sensing targets in the combat area.
of the vehicle once more only to be the situation immediately lowered him- Defender Dog received its initial com-
blown off mortally wounded as a grenade self in the gunner's turret and, directing bat experience in the IX Corps offensive
l was thrown directly on the track. nearby infantrymen to come up and act in October 1951. The newly formed bat-
as cannoneers, he opened fire on the tery fired the staggering amount of
enemy. 'nearly one million rounds of caliber .50
DURING the withdrawal the expan- During the five hour engagement each ammunition during this action in which
sion of the divisional antiaircraft to a full vehicle was under constant small arms, it gave close support to the 19th Infantry
strength 26th AAA AW Battalion began machine gun, and mortar fire. One of and protection to the 13th FA Battalion.
to take shape when Hq and Hq Battery, the lead vehicles in the column com- They made a reputation as a fighting
52nd AAA AW Battalion joined the di- manded by Sergeant Kenneth F. Bunt- outfit, but their casualties were high in
v vision in Inchon late in December under ing received two mortar hits wounding this first engagement. Many of the
~ command of Lieut. Col. Roy A. Tate. two crewmen and setting the vehicle on wounded, however, were able to return
Key members of the staff included Cap- fire. \Vhen ordered to abandon the ve- to duty within a few days.
: tains Robert E. Broomfield, executive; hicle Sergeant Bunting assisted the Defender Baker supported the 21st
elbert Baray, S3; and lvlelvin Johnson, wounded to safe ground and then re- Infantry and the 555 FA Battalion. De-
~ 4. It had been activated at Fort Lewis, turned to get the Caliber .30 machine fender Charlie gave support to the 5th
Ir\Vashington, at reduced strength with gun off its tripod, carrying it to a nearby RCT and the 52nd FA Battalion. The
J ersonnel from the II th AAA A\V Bat- hill. l\'ianually holding and operating protection of the various air strips,
g talion. Eventually this headquarters unit the light machine gun without the aid bridges, and the Division CP was left to
\'as to be redesignated as Hq and Hq of a tripod he helped repulse the enemy Defender Able.
Battery, 26th AAA A\V Battalion. attack on his position. Both Sergeant The operation once again proved the
Meanwhile it received its division code Bunting and Corporal \Volset received combat effectiveness of a self propelled
arne, "Defender," which was promptly the Bronze Star lvledal for Valor. battalion. The fire power of the MI6
dopted as the battalion motto. Battery Acting as gunner on the vehicle com- half-track kept the enemy pinned down
ANUARY-FEBRUARY,1952 19
while the Infantry attacked their posi- track vehicle, more effective fire can be paper operation, duly approved, with no
tions under the fire of the M16. The brought even closer because it is not material effect on the battle. But it did
Infantry respects the ack ack weapon and hampered so by boggy terrain or steep serve well to end the attendant confu.
crew for its fire power and its close con- ground. sion already a year old as to whether the
tact with the foot soldier. Finally on 10 November, 1951, Hq Division had three AAA battalions, three
The battalion's dream-weapon, an and Hq Battery, 52nd AAA A\V Battal- batteries, or what have you.
1'139 personnel carrier with a quad-fifty ion and "Defender Baker" of the 21st Born on the battlefield, the battalion is
1'145 turret, again showed up to great ad- were redesignated in the 26th AAA A\V now a veteran organization proudly and
vantage. The new weapon was con- Battalion (SP) making it a full strength well integrated into the operations, the
ceived by Lt. Col. Roy A. Tate, Battalion battalion and an organic part of the 24th traditions, and the esprit of the 24th In.
commander. Being mounted on a full Division. This, of course, was merely a fantry Division. "Defender" is our motto

Self Propelled Antiaircraft In Korea


By I~t Lieut. Edmund A. Krekorian
T I-lIS is a brief discussion of the ac-
tivities of the antiaircraft automatic
positions were selected on the highest
points in the vicinity; ground defense
tion. Therefore, it was necessary to mod
ify our philosophy of complete prepara
weapons self propelled platoon in Korea positions were selected which could tion and to learn rapidly that the d
and some conclusions which were ar- utilize defilade for cover and conceal- gree of success of any mission was
rived at as a result of these activities. ment. function of both preparation and ad
It is not written with any idea that the justment on the spot. Men and office
opinions should be given any form of PLATOON CoMM UNICA nONS require emotional and intellectual pre
universal application, or used as a basis aration to maintain a healthy approac
to revise present tactics. Rather it is GOOD communications was essen- to the normalcy of the abnormal in com
written for the general information and tial to the adequate control of all fire bat. To this end it is recommended tha
benefit of those who are concerned with units. To this end, the platoon wire future training include the preparatio
light antiaircraft and to describe some crew began laying wire immediately of personnel on battery and platoon leve
variations and refinements of automatic upon occupation of position, often be- to make rapid decisions in unexpecte
weapons technique which were found fore. Frequently wire crews were re- and undesirable situations, and that an
by experience to be necessary. quired to work late into the night to TFX include an organized effort to dis
An automatic weapons platoon in get in all the wire; however, the ad- organize and create as much of the a
Korea was frequently assigned to an visability of laying wire at night was de- normal as is typical to any combat situ
artillery battalion to participate in both termined by local conditions. The ex- tion. Only by such training can we d
the antiaircraft defense and perimeter istence of mines, booby traps, duds, trip velop confidence, self-reliance, and th
defense of the battalion. Each fire unit flares, and trigger-happy guards indi- ability to meet new situations.
in the platoon was assigned two po- cates wisdom in laying wire by day. Com-
sitions: one was an antiaircraft position munication during the interim was ac- \VITH THE INFANTRY
complished by means of the radio. Each
to be occupied from dawn alert until
dusk alert; the other was a position in-
cluded in the perimeter defense. The
unit checked into the platoon net every
half hour. When checks were not be-
T HE activities of an automatic wea
ons platoon assigned to an artillery ba
AAA position was located anywhere ing made, radios were turned off. This talion were not necessarily confined
from the edge of the objective to about required the use of radios only a few that battalion. Frequently the pia too
500 yards out. The perimeter defense minutes every hour. However, radios received infantry commitments, whic
position was as close in to the defended were to be turned on immediately if any had a dawn to dusk duration. It w
area as was considered practical, so as hostile action developed. In areas where found that the infantry commande
to utilize the organic weapons of the de- possibilities of enemy action were great without exception, held a profound a
fended unit. checks were made every ten or fifteen fection for the ack-ack, so much so th
The actual disposition of the indi- minutes, or radios were continuously on. often he overlooked its limitations. T
vidual fire units was as varied as the AAA platoon commander, therefore, W
terrain encountered. Generally, AAA CoMBAT ATTITUDE required to be thorough in the unde
standing of the capacities and limitatio
SELDOM, if ever, did the ideal con- of his equipment. This understandi
lieu!. Krekorion served with the 3rd AAA ditions prevail as were described in the was combined with a diplomatic fi
AW Battalion (SP) in Korea and is now as-
field manuals. \Ve found that it "vas ness in associations with supported uni
signed to the 11th AAA Group at Fort Bliss,
Texas. not always possible to anticipate every to the extent that no tragedy would
development with an adequate prepara- suIt from the misemployment of

20 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURN
trol by the platoon commander, and also
satisfied the requirements of most sup-
port missions. The displacement was
made with the )\ 116's on the flanks and
the M 19's in the center. The tentative
distance between units was approximate-
ly 25 yards. The ?v1l6's on the flanks
were in position both to deliver fire on
the target area and to discourage any at-
tempt to attack the 1\\V units from the
flanks. The )\139 when it was present,
Lt. Col. Charles E. Henry presents battle awards to the following members of the remained some 50 yards to the rear to
21st AAA A WI Battalion: (Silver Star) SFC James T. Patterson, SFC Buster \X'.
protect against attack from that direc-
Strasser, Cpl Herbert Stoffel; (Bronze Star V) SFC Douglas L. Dever, SFC Rufus'
M. Gibson, SFC Daniel R. Schmidt, Sgt Francis \Y/. Doyle, Sgt Dexter \Y/. Pack- tion.
ard, Sgt Melvin D. Straw, Sgt \Y/illiam H. Tildsley, Cpl Kenneth V. Bailey, Cpl Following the occupation of position,
Joseph B. Fye, Cpl Zeb L. Hand, Cpl Ralph R. Perkins, Cpl John Walker. the next requirement was the designation
of sectors of responsibility, the specific
platoon. However, occasions arose which identification of the target area. If time areas into which each complete AvV sec-
involved the use of automatic weapons permitted and there were a liaison officer, tion fired. These sectors could be identi-
in such a manner as to make its survival and there were defilade, units were fied in terms of prominent terrain fea-
a matter of speculation. In these situa- parked in defilade; unit commanders tures, or by bursts from 40mm shells as
tions the platoon commander and his were called to a point of concealment directed by the platoon commander.
men had to be prepared to compensate from which the target area could be Usually the designation of sectors of
for the evident shortcomings of the seen and defined to them by an officer responsibility and identification of tar-
\veapons by a judicious utilization of of the supported unit. More often such get area was done concurrently.
their obvious merits. preparation was not practicable due to Generally, the infantry expected two
One of the outstanding problems in the lack of desirable liaison, time or types of fire from A1\1\ automatic weap-
many infantry support missions was the defilade. Sometimes without adequate ons in support of any action in the of-
length of time between occupation of liaison or previous reconnaissance when fensive, preparatory fire and neutrali-
position and commencement of fire. immediate firing was required, the iden- zation fire. Preparatory fire was con-
When ideal conditions prevailed which ti~cation of the target area was done by sidered to be a large volume of con-
permitted an adequate orientation, there a careful observation of friendly artil- tinued fire delivered into a specified
were few problems. However, in many lery and mortar bursts, by observing the area, usually the sector of responsibility,
instances the reconnaissance and occupa- termination of friendly tracers or the either prior to or concurrent with the
tion of positions was accomplished within origin of enemy tracers, or by noting advance of infantry. Neutralization fire
minutes after the identification of the tar- the position of appropriate panels. This was employed in the sense of aimed fire
get area was made. Therefore, any period method was used only when the more on a particular target or on a target of
in which an AW platoon commander desirable methods were not practical or opportunity. vVhenever applicable neu-
searched for the target area, or searched possible. It was acknowledged as a dan- tralization fires were also executed dur-
for good gun positions, was usually a gerous method and could have resulted ing preparatory fire.
period in which the AW units came un- in tragic consequences if the bursts, To mass platoon fire on a specific tar-
der enemy observation. One result was tracers, and panels had been misinter- get the platoon commander declared a
that the enemy, who had a profound re- preted. general cease fire for the platoon; then
spect for AAA AW, made every effort to Once the target area was identified, he directed the fire of one M 19 into
gain cover; many Communists were ob- the next step was to occupy firing posi- the target, with the other units ordered
served running over ridges to reverse tions in relation to it. The track drivers to observe the bursts. Then, the remain-
slopes of hills when AAA A\V came into and squad leaders knew from previous ing units were directed to fire a speci-
view. A second result was that the experience the approximate displace- fied number of rounds at the bursts of
enemy gave the self propelled weapons'a ment desired. It was an easy matter for the registering piece, after which each
very high priority for artillery and mortar unit returned to its individual firing.
the platoon commander to talk the units
I fire. It was obvious, then, that any period Any displacement forward for small
into position from his command vehicle
of prolonged observation to the enemy distances was done, when possible, in
by radio. An alternate method was to
was to the disadvantage of the AAA A\V. echeloned formation, one section at a
personally direct each track into posi-
Any method or technique which de- time. The stationary units covered the
tion, instructing each crew at the time.
o creased the period of unproductive ex- advancing units. Enemy mortar, artil-
posure contributed to the increased ef- This was, at best, a lengthy process, par- lery, or heavy machine-gun fire might
fectiveness of the AAA A\V mission. ticularly when under fire. necessitate the advancing units to halt
The tactical displacement most fre- and seek cover until the incoming fire

.T HE initial problem, as the AvV units


approached the target area, was a rapid
quently employed involved two com-
plete sections and possibly an M39. This
number of units permitted good con-
ceased or decreased.
vVith the approach of darkness, the
platoon commander made every effort to
JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952 21
return his units to the comparati\'e safety was doubt as to the identit\, of these sil- 1\119 was able to pull it back on the road.
of the artillery battalion area, However. houetted indi\'iduals; howe\"er, while the Then an 1\II 6 slid off the narrow road
this action was and should be deter- doubt was being resoh-ed. all units thirty minutes was expended in effo
mined bv..the batten' commander or bat- moved off the road away from the hill to by the trailing 1\II 9 to return the 1\II
talion S3. displace and obtain a better field of fire. to the road. The main body of the pia
About 600 yards south of the second hill, toon did not halt for anv of the units i
A TYPICAL 1\ hSSlO:-; a number of individuals, about 200 or trouble. These units were instructed bl
300. were observed moving southward. radio to continue down the 1\ ISR unti
SHORTLY after the Communist The platoon began to recei\'e small Ragged down by a member of the pia
Spring Offensi\'e began in April, 1951, arms fire from the direction of the toon. Next, the trail 1\II 9 de\'e1ope
two sections of antiaircraft automatic second hill. 1\lore figures were observed engine trouble. It limped along on it
weapons plus one 1\139 were parked on a running O\'er the ridge to the reverse side one good engine and made slow bu'
side road waiting to pull into the 1\ISR of the hill. The platoon commander con- sure progress.
and join the traffic southward. All ve- cluded hastily that the large body of men
hicles were pulling heavily loaded trail- observed moving south were the pinned-
ers, and also carrying one or two 55 down infantry and that the small arms RENDEZVOUS with the batten
gallon drums of gasoline somewhere on fire being received was coming from the commander was made about 0100 the
the track. An 1\IP jeep with an iVIP offi- enemy on the second hill. \Vithout fur- next morning. The new mission for the
cer drove up to the platoon commander ther delay, all sections were assigned sec- platoon was to establish the immediate
with orders for the platoon commander tors of responsibility and ordered to open defense of a field artillery battalion. Hec
to report immediately to the assistant fire. During the firing. the 1\139 was onnoitering for positions in the darkn
division commander. This the AAA pla- ordered'to return to the regimental com- both the battery and platoon command
toon commander did. I-Ie was asked by mander and act as liaison with him. It ers got lost. However, an hour later th
the general if the ack ack had plenty of was regretted at the time, that this had positions were picked out. The batter)
ammo and were eager to shoot, to which not been done prior to departure. commander returned to his CP and th
there was only one answer. The platoon The technique of fire was to sweep the platoon began the slow process of walkin
commander was then ordered to report to ridges and downward with 50 cal i\IIC each track into position in order to avoi
a regimental commander who described fire; to fire into cracks and hples and trees running over sleeping personnel. Finall)
the situation and the ack ack mission. with 40mm fire. Any target of opportu- all the tracks checked in and were posi
The communists had pinned down about nity was to be engaged immediately upon tioned by 0400. By 0700 the platoon ha
a battalion of infantry and were prevent- observation. The enemy small arms fire moved to the battery CP where they fed
ing the withdrawal of that battalion. The increased and then ceased shortly after gassed up, and were off on a new mis
communists were somewhere down the the A\V opened fire. sion.
road and across a stream, both of which In closing I might well illustrate th~'
were indicated on a I: 50,000 map to the
platoon commander. Immediate action
by tbe ack ack was required to relieve the
T HE noise of approaching tanks came
from the direction of the j\'ISR. In a few
many unusual procedures ar~ develop
right on the spot. In one instance, a mas
quito spotter (AT6) was unable to locat
pressure on the infantry, enabling them minutes twelve US tanks rounded the a target, which was visible to personne
to continue their withdrawal. Tanks first hill. The AA Platoon commander in an AAA A \V unit. The forward con
would be sent to help the ack ack as soon briefed the tank platoon commander on troller close by offered to indicate th
as tanks were available. the situation. \i\lithin seconds, the guns target area with 40mm AvV bursts. Th~
of the tanks were added to those of the pilot agreed to watch for the bursts a
ack ack. After several minutes of firing, his next pass. About twenty rounds wer
WHEN the platoon commander re- the tank force commander notified the fired, which were spotted immediately b)
turned to his units a short briefing was AAA platoon commander that the ack the aerial observer. \Vithin seconds, fou
held prior to departure with the squad ack had been ordered to return to 1\ISR F51's were working over that area.
leaders who had gathered at the 1\139. immediately and bring up the rear of the A turn about of this procedure DC
Trailers and gasoline drums were division convovs. This was done without curred when a mosquito spotted a
dropped and all units moved out down haste, pausing only to pick up the trail- enemy force on the forward slope of
the road. As the platoon proceeded every ers. hill; however, no Rights were availabl
one was conscious of the ominous quiet. For some reason, the radio would not at the time. The forward controller r
The road circled the base of a 500 foot reach the battalion staff or the batten' quested the mosquito to indicate th
hill, passed through a Rat area of about commander. However, a platoon of an- target area with a rocket, so that AA
2000 yards, and circled the base of a sec- other battery relayed the message to the units could hre on it. This the mosquit
ond and larger hill, about 800 feet in battery commander. A return message did and the rocket burst was easily seen
height. Both hills were joined bv a nar- instructed the platoon to continue down One 1\II9 promptly hred 200 rounds t
row ridge to form sort of a ho~seshoe, the MSR until a rendezvous was made rout the communists from the area an
with the road across the open end of the with the battery commander. over the ridge to the reverse slope. A
shoe. The outlines of eight or ten indi- In the meantime, one 1\ 119 had driven this time the mosquito caught a B26
viduals were obsen'ed silhouetted against off the road and got stuck. Fortunately it which worked over the enemy on th
the skyline on the second hill. There had been the lead 1\II 9, and the trailing reverse slope.
22 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNA
OPERATION ORPHAN
By Captain William F. Rawcliffe

~1I ODERN warfare prod~ces \'arious


forms of misery. Possibly the most pa-
pleted. A local contractor has offered to
complete the job as his contribution.
thetic result of the war in Korea is the
multitude of children who are left help-
less. parent less and homeless in the wake PHASE IlL the appeal for clothing,
of advancing armies. It was to alleviate was started at the same time as Phase 1.
this situation that the 10th At\A Group, The results of this appeal have already
with its attached units, undertook Opera- started to arrive. To date over one hun-
tion Orphan. The need was evident all dred (100) packages have been received
around us-especially in \'iew of the for the orphanage and some nine hun-
coming winter. Thus it was in mid- dred (900) more are en route. In all cases
September, 1951, the call went out for the items received have been serviceable
the chaplain and special service oEllcer of and very much appreciated by the chil-
each battalion to meet with the group dren. Several newspapers have printed
executi\'e and special service oEllcer. Lt. Col. at the appeals for the orphanage-and in some
Thus the 10th Group Korean Orphans cases money has been sent as well as
Committee proceeded to plan the strategy clothing, These appeals originated 'with
by which the operation was to be carried gram in general and requesting support men of the 10th Group sending letters
out. of the operation. \Vith this letter was en- home or to the editors of their home
Prior to the meeting, the group execu- closed a bulletin which gave more de- town papers. Cpl. Ray Halliman, Head-
tive officer had investigated several local tails of the plan, and instructions to all quarters Battery, 10th AAA Group wrote
orphanages. Contact was also made with personnel on how they could help. The to the COllrier Express, Buffalo, New
the local UN Civil Assistance Commis- results of this phase were very gratifying York and his appeal was taken up by
sion. The Chang-Choen Garden (later -the total money collected was over columnist Jerry Evarts, who writes "As I
to become the AAA Children's Home) $5,000.00. See It" for that paper. Pfc Thomas Ja-
was selected to be the recipient of Group Phase II of the operation, moving the cobs, Btry A, 68th AAA Gun Battalion,
aid. This orphanage was composed of orphans under one roof, was started the has received over forty (40) packages as
almost three hundred children, ranging first week in October. A compound with a result of an appeal to his home town of
in age from one to fourteen years. They several buildings (formerly a temple) i\ladison, vVisconsin. Pvt. Thomas J.
I were all evacuees from front-line areas was procured and a temporary dispensary Schooner, Bu)' C, 78th AAA Gun Bat-
and depended on relief rations of rice established. The buildings required con- talion, has written his horne town news-
and beans for their existence. Thev were siderable rehabilitation-such things as paper, the Toledo Blade, in Toledo,
housed in three places, each plac; being windows, doors, paint, electric and Ohio. Pvt. Richard R. Burkhart, Hq
a partially destroyed private home. Their plumbing facilities, being in poor condi- Btry, 10th 1\1\A Group, has received
clothing consisted of what was on their tion or totally lacking, It was decided to over twenty (20) packages resulting
I backs, and was hardly adequate for sum- move the children in immediately and from his letter to the Evening Free
mer. Many were in dire need of medical repair the buildings as rapidly as possi- Lance, Hollister, California. Captain
attention. ble. Enlisted men of the 50th, 68th, Lincoln Hayes, Headquarters, 68th AAA
The committee made plans for four 78th and 865th Battalions all lent a hand Gun Battalion, through his sister, Mrs.
general phases of the program: (1) a in this urgent task. The 76th, 933rd, Elizabeth Line, has over 40 barrels of
fund drive, (2) assembly of the orphans and the first i\'larine Gun Battalion aided clothing coming from the Owens-Illinois
under one roof, (3) appeal to friends, by collecting and purchasing much Glass Co, The Los Angeles Examil1er
I organizations and relatives, in the United needed medical supplies, Korean foods also publicized Captain Hayes' appeal
States for winter clothing, and (4) con~ and kitchen equipment. Native labor with the result that the Black-Fox Mili-
tinued assistance consistent with require- was added-payment being made from taI:Y Academy is sending over 400 com-
1 ments and the presence of the group in the fund collected. To date over $3,000 plete woolen uniforms.
Korea. has been spent on these buildings. In- The response to this phase will be
Phase I, the fund drive, was started on cluded in this expenditure are such quite considerable and it is planned that
30 September 1951. To implement this things as mess tables, kitchen equipment, those items excess to the needs of the
drive the group commander, Colonel electric fixtures, stoves, firewood and AAA Children's Home will be distrib-
\V. H. Hennig, published a letter to all coal. uted to other orphanages through the
battalion commanders outlining the pro- The work in this phase is nearly com- Civil Assistance Commission.

II JANUARY - FEBRUARY, 1952 23


Phase IV, assistance on a continuing is amazing. Youngsters with wan and
basis, will take O\'er when Phase II and drawn faces, youngsters who were cold,
III are completed. This will consist of hungry and sick with a haunting look of
monetary aid to augment the help re- fear in their eyes, are now romping
receiyed from the Civil Assistance Com- around the orphanage grounds with
mission. The money will be used to smiles on their faces and Resh on their
purchase native foods, medicines, coal, bones. Best of all, their eyes sparkle and
school supplies and other miscellaneous the look of fear is gone. It has been
needs. A portable sewing machine has truly said, "a little child shall lead them."
been purchased and delivered to the or- These children have led us all to a
phanage. It is planned to use this as a Sfc Burnett and Pfc Bray fit clothing. greater realization of the great truths of
nucleus around which to build a sewing freedom for which America stands and
class to serve the twofold purpose of re- pers, combs and scissors were purchased. for which we fight. The results obtained
pairing and altering clothes as well as The result of these endeavors are by putting into practice the generosity
teaching the older girls the art of sewing. plainly evident. The transformation for which America is noted is a heart re-
Haircuts for the children presented a wrought in these children in the short vealing sight in more than one respect; it
problem until several sets of barber clip- time the operation has been under way makes you feel proud to be an American.

Teeter-totter is a prime Korean sport.

Korean Mud Helps To Save Marine Flyer


On the early morning of August 14, 1951 1st Lieut. Joseph M. Solari, Battery B,
865th AAA AW Battalion, slept in his tent by Airstrip K-14 in Korea, which his bat- Any contriblltions, funds, food or
tery was defending. About four thirty he was suddenly awakened by an airplane
crash nearby. He jumped up and rushed to the scene. clothing, adult or children, may be selll
In his haste and due to the fog and darkness, Lieut. Solari soon found himself
floundering in the middle of a freshly planted rice paddy as he sought the most to:
direct route to the site of the crashed plane. But still stumbling he hurried on,
emerging from the paddy plastered from head to foot with Korean mud, normally
a sad situation especially with their "honey cart" fertilizer. But this time fate made Special Service Officer,
it otherwise.
Arriving at the scene Lieut. Solari found the pilot hanging from the cockpit, 10th AAA Group,
strapped, in a dazed condition and unable to free himself from the flaming plane.
Other would-be rescuers, trying to relieve him, could not withstand the terrific heat. APO 301, c/o Postmaster,
Seizing a knife from a soldier who had just failed in the attempt, Lieu!. Solari rushed
to the pilot's aid. With the mud serving as valuable insulation he succeeded in
San Francisco, Calif.
cutting him loose and dragging him to a position of safety just as the cockpit be-
came completely enveloped in flames and before the ammunition aboard began to
explode.
The pilot thus miraculously rescued was Major Evans C. Carlstrom, USMC, son of (For the Orphanage)
Colonel Carlstrom, whose raiders bore his name with honor and distinction during
World War II.
For his "complete disregard for his own personal safety," his "quick thinking and
prompt effective action" Lieut. Solari was awarded the Soldier's Medal.

24 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAl
Western Army AA Command Inspections
By Major James E. Hurley, Jr.

f OR the units of \Vestern Army Anti-


aircraft Command, 1951 ended in a
Thatcher, \\'estern Air Defense Com-
mander; 1\laj. Gen. Grandison Gardiner,
Day was just another day in which to
make ready for their mission.
blaze of inspections involving no less chairman, Air Defense Board; Brig. Gen. \Vhen the ranking visitors arrived
than nine general officers. Clifton D. Vincent, 25th Air Di,'ision November 12, they were greeted by an
l\lajor General Willard \\T. Irvine, commander; Brig. Gen. John 1\'1. Har- honor guard of men for the 719th. Fol-
;\rmy Antiaircraft commander, began greaves, Surgeon, Air Defense Com- lowing an inspection of the guard, the
the inspection cycle in October with a mand; and Brig. Gen. Hobart Hewett, party observed gun emplacements and
three-day tour of units of Brigadier Gen- 31st AAA Brigade commander. AAt\ equipment of each of the units.
eral Robert \V. Berry's \\'estern Army On hand to fire f~r the inspecting Next on the schedule were the firing
AA Command. party were the 719th AAA Gun Battal- tests. The 719th Battalion moved to po-
General Irvine spent October 29, 30, ion and the 30th AAA Automatic \Veap- sitions as a B-26 bomber soared over-
and 31 ,'isiting AA units in San Fran- ons Battalion. Both units were at Yaki- head towing its target.
cisco, Seattle, Fort Lewis, Yakima, and ma for regularly scheduled firing. That Later the men of the 30th A\V Bat.
Camp Hanford, \Vashington. was the way the \Vestern AAA Com- talion opened fire with 40mm and M45's
Two weeks later eight of the nation's mand wanted it. This was not to be a and dropped the sleeve in seconds.
IOpranking air defense officers-headed rehearsed exhibition. The inspecting In the third phase of the demonstra-
bv United States Air Defense com- party wanted to see typical units on the tion, a radio-{:ontrolled aerial target was
mander, General Benjamin A. Chidla'w range. sent across the line. The 30th Battalion
-gathered at the Yakima Firing Center. The day before the inspection, Armi- gunners promptly shot it down, too.
to observe firing demonstrations by two stice Day, held no time for quiet medi. General Chidlaw expressed keen satis-
Western Army AA units. tation for the men of the 719th and the faction with the marksmanship dis-
Accompanying General Chid law were 30th. Preparedness understands no cal- played by the gun crews.
l\laj. Gen. lrvine; Maj. Gen. Herbert B. endars, observes no holidays. Armistice The third inspection of \Vestern AAA
Command units found the 250th AAA
Group in the San Francisco area com-
ing under the eye of Major General
Thatcher. The commander of the \Vest-
ern Air Defense Force, accompanied by
General Berry, inspected battery train-
ing locations of that unit November 20.
High praise for the group .and its
commander, Colonel Aaron M. Lazar,
was given by General Thatcher in a
letter to General Berry following the
tour: " ... The progress made is re-
l!wrkable and greatly enhances the ca-
pabilities of the Antiaircraft Command
in the problems of its mission in tllis
area. The snap and precision of the gun
crews and of all personnel observed
seemed to reflect the drive and ability
of the Group Commander .... "

ROUNDING out the inspection cy-


..- cle was a week-long tour of all "Vest
Coast artillery by Maj. Gen. Charles D.
Palmer, Inspector of Artillery, Office,
Chief of Armv Field Forces.
Air Force General Benjamin A. Chidlaw, United States Air Defense Commander,
and 2nd Lt. Hubert A. Nixon (left), 719th Bn. Honor Guard Commander, salute General Palmer flew from Fort Mon.
the colors. roe, Va., arriving at "Vestern Army AA
JANUARY-FEBRUARY,1952 25
Command headquarters December 17. Personnel are happy and anxious to have tribution to the Air Defense picture duro
Following an inspection of the 250th such high-ranking \'isitors obsen'e first- ing 1951. Howe\'er, all officers and men
Group, the Artillery Inspector and Gen- hand the conditions and difficulties with are fully and constantly aware of the
eral Berry Hew to \Vashington State to which they are continuously faced. The difficulties ahead and work under goals
obsen'e operations in the Northwest realistic field training. the high state of laid down by General Berry towards
sector. At the conclusion of the \Vash- operational readiness and the resolving constant imprO\'ement to the end that
ington tour, General Palmer departed of myriad administrative problems were all units will be prepared to perform d.
for southern California and an inspec- appreciated more vi\'idly by them on fecth-ely both air and ground missions,
tion of field artillery and antiaircraft the ground, that all individuals will be thoroughly
units in that area. Comments of these inspectors offer uained and physically and mentally pre-
These inspections ha\'e had a stimu- strong testimony of the tremendous pared in 1952 to more fully accomplish
lating effect on the entire command. progress made in this command's con- their assigned mission.

Eastern Army Antiaircraft Command


AN important element of i\tlajor Gen-
eral \Villard \\T. Irvine's Army Anti-
"1

aircraft Command is Major General


Paul \V. Rutledge's Eastern Army
Antiaircraft Command, short title
EAST ARAACOl\'l. General Rutledge
commands all army antiaircraft units
allocated to the air defense of the East-
ern Air Defense Region. This is the
area east of \Visconsin and Illinois, in-
cluding portions of those states, and
north of the border of Tennessee and
North Carolina. \\lith its many indus-
trial centers, ports and large cities, in-
cluding the seat of the federal govern-
ment at \Vashington, D. c., this area
is of extreme importance to the United
States. Air Defense of this region is the
responsibility of the Eastern Air De-
fense Force, with headquarters at
Stewart Air Force Base, New York.
EADF is commanded by Major Gen-
eral Frederic H. Smith, Jr., son of a
former Coast Artilleryman, F. H. Smith,
.Major General, USA, retired. General
Rutledge, in addition to his command
responsibilities, is the principal antiair-
craft staff advisor to General Smith.
Headquarters Eastern Army Antiair-
craft Command, which was activated at
Stewart Air Force Base on September
1, 1950, with. an initial strength of one
officer, is still a streamlined organization
with an over-all strength of slightly
more than 100 officers, enlisted and
civilian personnel. This growth, how- General Rutledge and General Smith confer informally.
ever, coupled with lack of facilities at
Stewart Air Force Base, necessitated ters, Eastern Air Defense Force, to pro- cation. GeiJeral Rutledge will leave
moving the headquarters to its present vide close staff coordination. Eastern Army Antiaircraft Command on
location at l\liddletown, N. Y., which General Smith and General Rutledge February 12 for an assignment in Ger.
is in the vicinity of Stewart AFB. An through their official and personal re- many, the Department of the Army an'
Army Antiaircraft Representative with lationships have established in the com- nounced a few days ago. His successor
a small staff is maintained at Headquar- mand genuine cooperation and unifi- has not been named as yet.

26 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
A Trial Shot Target For VT Fuzes
By Colonel Arthur H. Bender

I~ a recent report of target practice


firings, a battery commander made the
for our battery commanders at large we
can well pursue further the basic sub-
hold good when we fire at an enemy
plane, a sleeve target, or a drone air-
recommendation, "that a trial shot tar- ject. craft. Provided that all things are done
get be developed for VT fuzes." Obviously one of the first steps is carefully, and the computations are
At first glance this recommendation to select for the trial fire the most suit- carefuIly worked out and applied, the
e\'oked considerable merriment among able ammunition. Referring to Lieut. chances are that these corrections will
the officers receiving the report, because Ralph Swann's exceIlent article, "Am- hold good, if we hre with the same type
it is not very practicable to develop a munition For The 90mm Gun," in the of ammunition with which we fired the
fixed target in the sky fastened up there November-December, 1951, JOURNAL, trial shots, i.e., the same lot of ammuni-
by "sky hooks" or other imaginative de- we find that sheIl cavitized M71 fuzed tion, and the same lot of mechanical
vice. However, it is believed that back with M43A4 fuze has approximately the time fuzed projectiles.
of this recommendation the battery com- same baIlistic characteristics as the same This brings us to a point which we
mander had some sound ideas. What shell fixed with fuze VT. Accordingly, need to study carefully, as we propose
he really meant was that he would like if possible that fuze is used with the now to shift to hre for effect with the
someone to devise a method by which M71 shell for the trial shot problem to same lot 'of ammunition but with the
the results of firing problems, using obtain corrections for VT fuzed ammu- VT fuzes. The mechanical time fuze
mechanical time fuzes, could be corre- nition. has demonstrated a high degree of ac-
lated with variable time fuzes so that curacy in its timing; accordingly, in our
the corrections developed as a result of
the trial fire with MT fuzes would be
valid when VT fuzed ammunition was
How do we hre a trial shot prob-
lem? Before we hre this problem, we
trial hre solution with the M9, MlO, or
previous directors we assume that the
mechanical time fuze functions perfect-
subsequently fired. And that is worth choose a point in space at which to shoot, ly as to the time of running. We move
careful investigation. we check the orientation and sychroni- the plotted burst center (CB) to the MV
While it is rather impracticable to zation of the battery, we get the best differential line by an elevation correc-
mount a target for VT fuzed ammu- and latest meteorological data possible, tion and from that intersection we de-
nition at likely battle altitudes, it should and we try to make a good estimate of termine the muzzle velocity correction.
be practicable to mount such a target the muzzle velocity of our guns hring Now if there is an error in the fuze tim-
at a lower altitude on some of our firing the particular lot of ammunition. We ing-and there have been indications
ranges where mountain ranges exist. take these factors into account, compute that such errors have occurred-then our
Trial shot firings on such a target would the corrections, and apply them to our solution will give us an error in muzzle
probably produce valuable information computer. We lay the guns in azimuth, velocity. In that case the CB should hrst
on the muzzle velocity and over-all bal- elevation and fuze, and hre, say hve be moved by a fuze correction along
listic results. Certainly the results ob- rounds, at this point in space. We record the trajectory, or parallel to the normal
tained from VT fuzed ammunition could the deviations of the burst of the rounds trajectory to a corrected CB which is
be compared with the results obtained from this point in space by means of based on accurate timing. Then from
from the same ammunition with MT our radar and telescope. If everything that corrected CB the elevation correc-
fuzes. It should serve to give our battery has been perfect and we know the muz- tion and the muzzle velocity correction
officersmore solid information on which zle velocity of the guns, if our meteor- are determined.
to operate, and we trust it would also ological message was perfect, our com- This point is of particular importance
give them more confidence in their am- puter made no errors, and we made no when the VT fuzes are to be used since
munition. human errors in setting our corrections the VT fuze does not make a time error.
Whether such firings at a materiel and data into the computer, then the It explodes when and if it approaches
target can or cannot be made practicable, algebraic sum of the deviations should the target. Here we wish to determine
be zero and the center of burst should accurately the true muzzle velocity and
occur at the trial shot point. we wish to strip out any error that may
Colonel Bender served with antiaircraft ar- Unfortunately, in practice this seldom be due to fuze errQr.
tillery in Africa and Europe in World War II. happens. Normally, the center of burst
He has served since then as chief of staff,
There is no desire here to cultivate
7th Division in Korea; as CO, 1st Guided is not at the trial shot point; so we com- any lack of confidence in our ammuni-
Missile Group; G3, the AAA & GM Center;
and now as the deputy commander, Eastern
pute corrections to be applied to our tion, but it is desired to emphasize that
Army AA Command. equipment to take care of this deviation. if there be an error in the MT fuze
Now, we hope that this correction win timing, it will lead to unsatisfactory cor-
JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952 27
rectlons for VI' fuze £ring. The matter til confirmed h\- at least two trial-shot Hmvever, if reliable measurement shows
is well worth checking. problems. a fuze error, then the fuze error should
Another means of measurement is b\" be stripped out and corrected, as indi-
stop watches. Unfortunately, this means cated above, before determining the
Ho\v can the time of Hight of the is apt to be quite erratic. I once con- muzzle velocity correction for V1' fuze
::\11'fuzes be measured accurately? .With ducted some experiments of this nature, firings.
the latest type of fire control equipment using three sets of observers and three InCidentally, the use of such a method
an electronic means is provided to make stop watches, with instructions to the would improve the accuracy of fire with
such measurement. If available, it should observers. to start the \vatches at the the time-fuzed ammunition, as well as
be used bv all means. Hash of the gun and to stop the watches soh"e the problem of the relationship of
Other means of measurement are at the Hash of the bursts which thev firing either mechanical or variable time
available, though less reliable. With ac- obsen-ed, looking through B.C. tele- fuzed ammunition. If the same proce-
curate meteorological data and accuracy scopes. The times varied by as much as dure were followed and that part of the
throughout in computing, gun laying, two-tenths and three-tenths of a second movement of the burst due to error in
and burst observation, the plotted po- between the obsen'ers and varied bv time is applied as a fuze correction, then
sition of the CB will indicate the time about the same amount from the accu- the resulting fire with mechanical time-
error. If the CB is above the MV dif- rate time of Hight, which was obtained fuzed ammunition would also be more
ferential effect line, that indicates that with kine-theodolites. accurate.
the time of fuze running is short, and If the watches are adjusted and the If it is found that the MT fuzes often
vice versa. The amount can be measured obsen'ers carefully trained, th.e results give time errors, then it may become
parallel to the normal trajectory from may be used as a check. Unless the re- necessary to call upon the Ordnance
the plotted CB to the MV line. This sults are verified by other means of Corps to design and furnish a time-
method has been used with good results. measurement, they should be questioned. measuring device for use with the
Normally, however, the fuze. error de- Let us hope that such a check will WWII types of fire control.
termination should not be accepted un- confirm the accuracy of the MT fuze. Notify the Journal of Your Address Change

Points In Preparing Gun Fire


IN our service we appropriately lay If trial fire should develop inexpli- and in observing the bursts. To get
great stress on the preparation of AA cable errors in azimuth or elevation, the sound results every step is carefully
gun fire. There are, however, wide dif- thing to do is to go back and check the checked and each observation is verified
ferences of opinion as to the purposes level and orientation by prescribed by another. instrument operating inde-
of and practical limitations in the suc- methods. pendently.
cessive steps involved. With the hope In this connection it is well to appre-
of arousing further discussion, thought ciate that trial fire and calibration fire Calibration Fire is very instructive and
and healthy argument, we shall spot- are problems in advanced gunnery. Un- is recommended for such purposes. The
light briefly some personal views on the less they are conducted with know how results can well be used as trial fire for
main points in such preparation. and a very high degree of accuracy, the determining muzzle velocity and fuze
The most important step in the prepa- results may be worse than valueless. errors, if any. But we would make cali-
ration of fire for AAA guns involves the Actually the guns and ammunition per- bration corrections onlv when the need
emplacement, level, orientation, adjust- form with a high degree of accuracy is definitely established. So often one
ment and synchronization of the guns and consistency. To measure this per- battery commander fires his calibration
and fire-control equipment. The battery formance to any advantage it is neces- and comes up .with his corrections. A
can be leveled, oriented, and synchro- sary to achie\'e a higher degree of ac- year later another battery commander
nized accurately for firing throughout curacy in the instrumentation involved .with the same guns and equipment
the field of fire by optical and mechani- in the preparatory firings. And, we em- comes up with a different solution. The
cal methods, and no amount of magic, phasize, that is not automatic in many logical conclusion is that the guns were
sorcery, or trial firing can fully compen- gun batteries. It is easy to make errors probably more accurate than were the
sate for error in this basic preparation. in preparing firing data, in gun laying, people "\."hoconducted the firings.
28 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
There is also another angle. Of course
we \\"ant accuracy and \\"e \\"ant to elimi-
nate excessi\'e dispersion, but there is no
ad\'antage in tightening up the gun dis-
persion below the probable accuracy of
the fire control in battle. There is no
advantage in putting all the bursts in
a pickle barrel unless that barrel is big
enough to permit the fire control to
place some part of it on the target.
The better solution on calibration in
a battalion is to assign the guns to bat-
teries according to muzzle velocity. This
may give one battery commander the
most worn guns and he may not like it,
but it will be better for the battalion as ----3=
a whole.

TRIAL FIRE

Any idea that trial fire can be used


as a catchall for all unknown errors in
the battery system is fallacious and
dangerous. If there are errors in orien-
tation or synchronization the only satis-
factory correction lies in the recheck
and correction by the prescribed meth-
ods.
Likewise any idea that we can rely on
trial fire conducted just prior to battle
appears to be wishful thinking. Even if
it were practicable, conditions would
hardly be favorable for the required ac-
curacy. Should the battery commander
wish to conduct such trial fire just to
check on the meteorological conditions,
then he should at least realize that he
has a real problem on his hands to com-
"Jr? e're Backsighli1/'} Sarge.'.'
pensate for wind errors. The better solu-
tion is to get an accurate met message
on present conditions.
The purpose of trial fire is to deter- found to be functioning accurately, then Trial fire is appropriate in each bat-
mine for a gi\'en lot number of ammu- the problem resolves into one of muzzle tery to be sure. However, it should be
nition 1) the de\'eloped muzzle velocity velocity determination. realized without prejudice that some
and 2) the fuze error, if any. vVith these It is not necessary, and it may be im- batteries may not be completely pro-
data the batten' commander has some- practicable, for each battery to fire trial ficient in the matter. However, each
thing of value ;0 use in determining the fire with each lot of ammunition. The battalion will probably develop a few
daily firing corrections. results of such fire from any battery in officers who truly are experts in the prob-
To achieve that purpose, accuracy in the battalion should be usable in each lem. They could well be used to assist
the orientation, level and other matters other battery. The guns of one battery in some batteries.
of the basic preparation is essential. may not give exactly the same muzzle Battery commanders may fire burst
Likewise, sound meteorological data are \'elocity as those of another battery; problems with great freedom, but when
also essential. \Vithout these essentials however, the relative factors on this can it is desired to determine the developed
the results of trial fire will have little be and should be determined in each muzzle velocity or fuze error, then it is
value for the future. However, with ac- battalion. time to make careful preparations, and
curacy in all phases the results should Our experience has been that the to eliminate every possible error in trial
be consistent in the trial shot problems guns perform quite uniformly with few fire.
from day to day, or week to week. Ob- exceptions. In normal AAA firing they To repeat, these views are controver-
viously in determining the muzzle ve- seldom heat up much, and consequent- sial. If you should care to take them
lOCityand fuze errors all previous prob- ly, the loss of muzzle velocity is sur- apart, or to add variations, by all means
lems with that lot of ammunition should prisingly slight-probably not true at all give us a chance to publish your views.
be considered. If the lvlT fuzes are for prolonged ground firing. -C.S.H.
JANUARY-FEBRUARY,1952 29
SHOOTING AT AN IDEA
By Lieut. Col. James M. Edmunds
THE OQ 19-0 Tows A FLAG catapult. The project was referred to TARGETDESIGN
Armv Field Forces Board No.4 for in-
After testinoo several materials it was
\.estigation and development.
determined that flag targets fabricated
LIGHT antiaircraft artillery troops
THE PROBLEl\I from the plastic mesh salvaged from A6A
are shootinoo at a new idea in aerial tar-
and A6B flao o taroets were the most satis-
gets. Paced by an enthusiastic supply Basicallv the problem was that of de-
0
factory. Flags varying from 1I feet 3
economy program, personnel at Fort signing a ~tabilized flag target of a suit- inches to 14 feet in length and from 30
Bliss, Texas, ha\'e added a towline and able size which could be towed by the to 36 inches in width have been towed
flag target to the Army's latest radio con- OQ 19-0 at speeds approaching that successfully. (The OQ 19-0 is 12 feet,
trolled airplane target, the OQ 19-0. of conventional towed targets. The next 3 inches long.) \Vhenever possible,
Although the project is still in the de- step was the development of procedures strips are ripped out of the damaged A6
velopmental stage, RCAT units are sav- and techniques for launching the OQ type flags in such a manner that the
ing up to fifty per cent of the funds with the flaoo taroet in tow. A secondary
0 finished edges along the long axis of the
which were formerly spent in the cost problem was that of finding a strong, plastic mesh are left intact. This elimi-
of salvaging, repairing, and replacing liohtweioht cable which would permit
o 0 nates the necessity for hemming and
OQ's which were shot down. The Air the flag to be towed sufficiently far be- sewing. The target is constructed quite
Force is sharing in the dividends. By hind the OQ to allow for lead errors similarlv to the A6. The tow bar to
providing an effective, low-cost aerial which might place rounds in the vicinity which ~he bridle is attached has been
target for Light Antiaircraft Artillery, of the RCAT. Although Lieutenants fabricated from a variety of materials
local "radio controlled tow target squad- Fee and Pou had long since reverted to ranoino
o 0 from broom handles to 3/16
rons" are saving many hours aloft for a civilian status, they were contacted
the airplanes and personnel of the 1st inch seamless steel tubing. Any material
and proved most helpful in laying the
Tow Target Squadron of Biggs Air which is strong and light in weight will
groundwork for the current project.
Force Base. serve the purpose. The leading edge of
Rapid progress has been made since the
the flag is folded over about ten inches
Actually the idea is not a new one. first successful flights in early Septem-
and sewed in place. The tow bar is in-
As far back as 1945, Lieutenants John ber. \Vorking in coordination with the
P. Fee and Charles G. Pou and other AFF Board No.4 Project Test Officer, serted in the fold and secured in place
personnel of the Seventh and Ninth Captain A. 1\1. Kolesar, personnel of by twisted safety wire or by four clamps
Armies were towing a flag target with the Department of Gunnery and the bolted through the material and the bar.
the OQ 2-A. However, the OQ 19-0 OQ Section of the AA and GM Branch, A lead positioning weight (stabilizer) of
with a flag target in tow presented a TAS, the 47th, 52nd, and 53rd RCAT approximately ten ounces is secured to
new problem in the development of Detachments are contributing their ideas one end of the tow bar for vertical tow-
methods adapted to the rotary launcher and assisting in the development and ing and in the center of the bar for
and the jet assist take-off from the A7 testing of techniques and procedures. horizontal towing. A simple weight can

Details of bridle and target construction. The weight is in


OQ-tow cord rigging completed for JATO launching. position for vertical towing.
30 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
be produced by pouring lead into a ROTARY LAUNCHING
mould made of a two-inch length of
one-inch pipe. A hole may be made in The recommended rotary launching
the weight by placing a bar in the pipe technique for an OQ with a flag target
while the lead is being poured. The in tow grew out of an idea originated
bridle is composed of t".o single strands by Sergeant First Class George \\T. 1\ Ie-
of parachute shroud lines which are at- Daniel of the 44th RCAT Detachment
tached to the bar in four places and (AFF Board No.4). Although the meth-
secured to a ring or knotted together to od requires somewh,Jt more preparation
Details of preparing the flag and tow than catapult launching, prior planning
form a towing loop. The length of the
cord for rotary launching. and preparation of flag targets in ad-
bridle will vary from 30 to 36 inches,
depending on the width of the target. vance of requirements will eliminate de-
to the left of the flight path. The OQ lays at the launching site. Sergeant 1\ Ie-
The speed of the OQ will be decreased
19-D is placed on the catapult and the Daniel's idea provided a rotating plat-
bv fifteen to twenty miles per hour de-
running end of the tow cord secured to form from which the flag is launched.
p~nding on the size and construction of
the stem lift. (When the OQ 19-D has A metal plate thirty inches square is
the target. To reduce drag, careful at-
no stern lift, a hole is drilled in the bolted to the top of the pylon. A rec-
tention should be paid to streamlining
keel and a suitable towing ring bolted tangular-shaped target launching plat-
the bridle and the tow bar. All raw edges
thereto.) The cord is then payed out form is constructed of wood and bolted
of the target should be hemmed to pre-
to the outer edge of the lift stabilizer to the metal plate so that the center
rent fraying.
and attached thereto by means of three (length and width) is over the pylon
Tow CABLE to four six-inch strips of one-inch mask- and the long axis of the platform is
ing tape. From this point the cord is aligned with the pylon arm. \\Ting nuts
The search for a suitable towing cable
payed out and attached to a point un- reduce the time required for chang-
resulted in another use for the shroud
der the tip of and near the leading edge ing platforms. The platform must be
lines of irreparable parachutes. \\Then
of the left wing by five or six strips of smooth and free of nails and splinters.
these very strong lines were spliced to-
tape. The cord is then brought to the The side of an OQ 19-D packing crate
gether to make a single length, the
ground and laid out in several parallel has' proved to be a very satisfactory plat-
search for a tow cable was over. Test
lines running from the OQ on the cata- form expedient, although longitudinal
Rights employing up to 550 feet of tow
pult to the flag target. The end of the reinforcing is required if it is to be
cord have been most successful, and in-
cord is finally attached to the target used extensively.
dications are that up to 1,000 feet could
bridle, and the OQ is ready for launch- The platform is removed from the py-
be used without excessive drag and line
ing in the conventional manner. The lon and placed on the ground to facilitate
sag. A 500-foot tow cord is ample protec-
tion for the towing RCAT on crossing several parallel lines of cord permit thepreparations. The target is accordion-
courses. Greater lengths are required for OQ to gain considerable speed and alti-
folded tail to bridle and placed bridle
incoming courses. Splices in the tow tude before the target becomes airborne.
up on one of the platforms. The target
cord should be carefully taped to reduce The maskino tape serves to keep is secured by an elastic band or one to
the
b .

drag. cord from fouling on the catapult dur- two strips of masking tape. The tow cord
ing launching and acts somewhat in is secured to the towing ring of the
LAUNCHING TECHNIQUES bridle and the assembly brought orer to
the capacity of a shock absorber for the
At the same time that Rag targets cord as it rips through the tape and lifts the right side of the platform where it
were being developed, techniques for the target into the air. Care should be is taped in position as shown in figure 6.
launching were studied, developed, and The bridle lines should be gathered and
taken that the cord describes a smooth
tested. Pioneer work in this field was secured to the platform immediately
"U" on the ground when direction of
carried on by personnel of Army Field
payout is reversed and that the parallel
Forces Board No.4 and the attached 44th
lines of cord are spaced at least one foot
RCAT Detachment. The results of their
apart. Otherwise the cord will foul on
work are being implemented and field
itself during the launching phase. The
tested bv local RCAT Detachments.
number of parallel lines of cord and the
This co~bined effort has produced sev-
eral successful techniques, the most exact location of the flag target with
practical of which will be discussed in reference to the launcher will be dic-
detail. tated by the length of the tow cord. The
ground upon which the tow cord is
JATO LAUNCHING payed out should be level and smooth.
When the A7 catapult is employed It must be carefully checked and cleared
to launch an OQ with a flag target in of am'thino
, b which might foul or burn
tow, the target is accordion-folded tail the cord during launching. As in any
to bridle and placed on the ground, launching, the area in front of the cata- Tow cord suspended beneath target car-
bridle up, at a point 100 to 150 yards pult must be clear of trees, buildings, pylon cable. Final tie-in suspends cord
close to cable. Note launching platform
in front of the catapult and one yard personnel, and equipment. and flag target atop pylon.
JANUARY-FEBRUARY,1952
31
adjacent to the folded target. This will six to eight inches below the target car- Right path of the OQ, it may be put
prevent them from fouling the tow cord pylon cable by single strips of tape through basic manell\'ers \vithout snarl-
during launching. I-laving taped the tow- spaced at intervals of approximately thir- ing the tow cord, \\'hen the parachute
ing ring and bridle into place, the tow ty feet. The last suspension is located is opened, the flag quickly becomes sus-
cord is payed out and placed in parallel at the point where the cable joins the pended beneath the OQ and in no way
lines on the platform. Each loop must pylon arm. Here the cord is taped close interferes with normal recoven'. On the
be taped in place to pre\'ent fouling to the cable (figure 9). Elsewhere, if Light AAA ranges at Fort Bliss, these
during launching. Sufficient cord is left the cord is suspended too near the cable,
easy-to-fly money savers are rapidly grow-
free to span the distance from the plat- the two are likelv to become snarled in
ing in popularity. Except for a slightly
form to the OQ. A loop may be easily the launching process. After a final
reduced speed, they offer all the ad-
added to or subtracted from the cord check, the assembly is ready for launch-
\'antages provided by com'entional flags
on the platform to take up slack or pro- ing in the normal manner. The launch-
er chief takes a position under the plat- towed by man-<:arrying aircraft. The
vide any additional length required.
\Vith the target and tow cord thus form as close to the pylon as possible. OQ 19-D flag target combination pro-
prepared, the platform is attached to the lIe is joined at this position by the cable \'ides a variety of courses and permits a
pylon and the remainder of the cord man as soon as the OQ starts on its more realistic approach to Rag target en-
payed out. The end is secured to the course around the track. For obvious gagements by eliminating the necessity
stern lift (towing ring) on the OQ and safety reasons, the number of personnel for adhering to strict safety regulations
the cord attached to the rig/zt stabilizer in the center of the track is reduced to designed for the protection of the air-
in the same manner as for catapult the absolute minimum. The platform craft and the crew.
launching. The cord is then brought to and target assembly atop the pylon pro- Flag targets should not be considered
a point directly below the outside edge duces little or no drag, and the metal a complete substitute for OQ's in the
of the right wing where it is suspended plate can be left in place for conven- training phase. Sufficient OQ's should
from the target car-pylon cable by a tional launchings.
be allocated to provide each gun crew
strip of masking tape. The tape must be
FLYING TIlE OQ \\lITII FLAG with at least a few courses of live tar-
of sunicient length to permit the cord
TARGET IN Tow get motivation. For the remainder of
to be separated from the cable by a dis-
tance of six to eight inches. The cord Flying the OQ 19-0 with a nag tar- the time on the range, the OQ,flag com-
spanning the distance from this point get in tow requires no special technique~. bination will save a tidy sum and prove
to the platform is likewise suspended Since the nag closely adheres to the to be an idea worth shooting at.

34th AAA BRIGADE SPONSORS YOUTH CENTER


By Major Theodore Wycoff

UNDER the sponsorship of the 34th ter was built from the ground up largely
AAA Brigade Headquarters, 62nd AAA by American and German volunteers.
AW Battalion, 95th AAA Gun Battalion, Volunteers from local engineer units did
and the 504th and 505th Operation De- the clearance and evacuation. Other vol-
tachments, the German Youth Center in unteers constructed the buildings largely
Gartenstadt, 1\ lannheim was opened in from Army salvage materiels. The city
November. of i\'lannheim donated the land and utili-
The Center will serve about 600 youth ties. Necessary funds were obtained from
from kindergarten to adult age. The fa- other German Youth projects, such as
cilities include an auditorium for lec- dramatic and musical productions.
tures, meetings, ballet and orchestra 1\ lajor Roger L. Steltzner is in charge
practice and recitals, a German-American of brigade German youth activities. 1\1r.
library, showers for boys and girls, game I-Ians Berger is the Center leader. 1\lar-
room, wood and metal crafts room, sew- shall Plan funds will contribute toward
ing room, nursery, classrooms, photo lab, the maintenance. Policies of the Center
General Hendrix opens the Center. Left
and a kitchen for instruction and for will be guided by a German adult com-
is Herr TrumpfhelIer, Burgermeister of
preparing snacks. Outside facilities pro- Mannheim. Below: Lt. Co!. Everett T. mittee from the communitv, assisted b\,
vide for games and kindergarten. Renicker, officer in charge of German a youth council. .•
Cooperating with Brig. Gen. Raleigh youth activities at Heidelberg Military The auspicious' inauguration of this
R. Hendrix, brigade commander, and the Post. Youth Center and the enthusiastic re-
officers and men of the brigade, the Army sponse indicate that it will sef\'e a great
authorities in Heidelberg, Dr. Heimer- and hundreds of German citizens have purpose toward the development of a
ich, Oberburgermeister of 1\lannheim, contributed tremendous help. The cen- healthy youth in this community.
32 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
81RDS OF MARS'
By Jonathan Norton leonard

Behind a black wall of secrecy, the World \Var II. Only one of the three These keep the missile stable in flight,
U.S. is climbing slowly toward a new -radar-came to full use in combat. The like the feathers of an arrow. The con-
le\"el of warfare. In every U.S. aircraft German V-2 rocket, a scientific triumph trol surfaces are four small, triangular,
factory, every technical institute and but a military failure, was developed too movable fins one-third of the way back
every electronics laboratory, the military little; the atom bomb came too late. Both from the missile's nose. They can steer
phrase of the day is "guided missiles." were held over as unfinished business for the missile, roll it and even give it lift,
What are these missiles? \Vhat is the the next meeting of arms. like an airplane in flight. All the fins
source of their power? \Vhat can they But things have changed since then. have supersonic shapes; they are made of
do? Herewith a report on the newest Radar and its electronic relatives promise solid metal, with thin, diamond-shaped
weapons of war by Time's Science editor, exact guidance for the new missiles. The cross sections.
Jonathan Norton Leonard: atom bomb makes even the most costly of AIR-To-AIR missiles (fired by aircraft
the birds a sound military investment. against other aircraft) need not be as big
From this ancestry have sprung the four as their ground-launched relatives. They
THE desert Tularosa Basin in south- principal types of guided missiles now need carry less fuel because they do less
ern New Mexico is a valley without a under development. climbing. Surface-ta-air and air-to-air
river. Fierce winds sweep across it, and SURFACE-To-AIR missiles, designed to missiles may well spell the doom of con-
dust devils whirl in the sun. On most bring down enemy aircraft, are grace- ventional bombing tactics. Even when
days the valley is quiet, with only a scat- fully tapered objects, 10 to 15 ft. long they rise all the way from the ground,
tered coming & going of military vehicles and I ft. or less in diameter. They are the flaming birds will reach the bombers'
from \Vhite Sands Proving Ground launched from a kind of gunmount. On altitude in something like one minute.
(Army Ordnance) or Holloman Air their tails they have four fixed fins ar- They cannot be shot down and they can-
Force Base. But sometimes a screaming ranged at right angles to one another. not be dodged. They close so fast that a
roar echoes among the mountains, and a
monstrous bird with a tail of flame flies
straight into the sky. Or a slender, dart-
like object slips out of the belly of a B-29
and streaks over the horizon at several
ROCKET PROPULSION
times the speed of sound.
These "birds" (so the missilemen call
them) are the heirs presumptive of war.
They fly from New Mexico; from Point
;\Iugu, a pleasant Navy station on the
coast of Southern California; from Pat-
rick Air Force Base in Florida; from the
deck of the Navy's converted seaplane
tender Norton Sound. Few ordinary citi-
zens have ever seen them flv. Few more
have heard their roar or se~n their soar-
ing sparks of light or puffs of dust on the
Turbine drivu pump'
desert. But in closely guarded factories
Fu~l circulates ~
all over the U.S., the birds are hatching. through
cooling jacket
The head of one U.S. aircraft company
predicts that within ten years they will
dominate air warfare, and that piloted
..-'
...
TIME D~ by V. Puglid

aircraft will be used only for transport. ROCKe( ... v.vr cor gUided missiles, no larger than an ashcan, develops enormous
power (100,000 lbs. of thrust) in afraction of a second. W'hen the motor is started,
\VEAPON GENETICS small amounts of fuel (aniline, alcohol or gasoline) combine with an oxidizer
The new war birds are direct descend- (liquid oxygen or fuming nitric acid) in the small gas generator. The hot gases
produced spin a turbine to run centrifugal pumps. The bulk of the fuel is pumped
ants of the three great inventions of
- "Courtesy
1951.
of Time, copyright Time, Inc.,
first through the hollow walls of the tailpipe, serving as a cooling agent to keep
the metal from melting. \'V'hen the fuel meets the oxidizer in the main combustion
chamber, the rocket motor fires.
JANUARY-FEBRUARY,1952 33
speed-several thousand m.p.h.

RA:'I-JETS & PLA~ES


Not all missiles use rocket motors ex-
c1usivelv. Some ha\'e ram-jets, powerful
jet engines that burn fuel (gasoline or
kerosene) with the air that is crushed
into their open noses by the speed of
their flioht.
b
The boreat ad\'antaboe of
ram-jets is that they need no oxidizer
Ee.g., fuming nitric acid), which makes
up two-thirds of a rocket motor's fuel
load. Their chief weakness is that they
ha\'e no starting thrust, and are not very
ellicient until they reach supersonic
speed.
Ram-jet enthusiasts are sure that these
faults can be overcome bv rocket boosters
to get the ram-jets started, or by launch-
inob them from fast aimlanes.
'I 1\ lanv, ram-
bomber's "evasive action" is like the slow jet missiles have been tested already, and
remember it by. In its captive state-on
writhing of a caterpillar trying to shake some have vigorous admirers in the
a test stand, for example, at H.eaction
off a wasp, armed services. They will have to stay in
1\lotors, Inc. of Dover, N. J., or at Aero-
the atmosphere, say at 70,000 ft., but
AIR-To-GROUNDmissiles are the bomb- jet Engineering Corp. of Azusa, Calif.
the)' will 0oather oxyoen as they flv, and
. ers' best chance of passive defense, may -it has a frightening sort of beauty . ....
0 "
their controlling fins will always have air
allow them to stay out of reach of their vVhen cold, the motor itself is not at to act upon.
new enemies. The air-launched missiles all impressive. Sometimes it is cylindri- It is the vast power of rockets and ram-
will be "airplanes" powered by rocket cal; sometimes it has a distorted "1\ lae jets, realized in speed, that makes guided
motors that may push them up to 2,000 \Vest" shape. At one end is a Raring tail- missiles so important for war. The Ger-
m.p.h. They will not look like airplanes; pipe, at the other a complex snarl of man V-2 was as brainless as an artillery
their fixed tail fins will have respectable pumps, tubes and valves (see diagram). shell, but it plunged toward the ground
size, but their four movable wings amid- But when the motor fires, things happen at 3,000 m.p.h, Not a single V-2 was
ships will be metal triangles only a few fast. ever shot down and most were not even
feet long. The slim, sharp birds will
In a fraction of a second, a long, stiff, seen.
swing out of the bomber's belly on two
roaring flame stands out from the tailpipe. Since the V-2 days, the missiles have
stiff arms. When fired, they will shoot
\Vith some fuels the Rame is bright, and taken on even mo;e range and speed.
ahead and vanish with blinding speed.
must be observed through dark glasses. Just as important, they have acquired
Their accuracy need not be "pinpoint,"
Sometimes it is faint blue with bright brains (computers) an'd senses (guid-
for they can be made big enough to strike
oolden "leaves" (caused bv, shock waves)
b ance systems) to put them on their tar-
with atom bombs.
standinob stock-still in its core. \Vith cer- gets. These new devices, which bring
SURFACE-To-SURFACEmissiles are the tain experimental fuels the flame is bril- weapon and target together, give the new
biggest family of birds. They will range liant green with clouds of purplish missiles their devastating power to de-
from modest "artillery" rockets to vast in- smoke. The noise is beyond description: stroy.
tercontinental monsters (still in develop- a ground-shaking roar combined with a
ment) whose designers already complain high-pitched scream. On top of this rides RIDERS& SEEKERS
that they are in danger of "running out ultrasonic sound that tears at the vitals, The simplest guidance system for sur-
of earth." A typical surface-to-surface seeminob to bypass the ears entirely.,
, face-to-air missiles is radio "command
missile is about the size of a V-2 (which
The rocket motor takes an appreciable guidance." The invading bomber will
was 46 ft. long, weighed 12.5 tons), but
time to get the missile moving fast be tracked by a radar on the ground.
looks slimmer and longer. It is stabilized
enough for the tail fins to grip the air. So \\Then the missile is fired, its image will
like the V-2 by carbon vanes acting on
most surface-to-air missiles are launched appear on the radar screen. Then the
the gas blast from the rocket motor. It
bv boosters attached behind the missile's missile's radio pilot (safe on the ground)
has more power than the V-2 and pre-
t~i1. These contain a solid propellant (a will steer his destroying bird close to the
sumably much more range.
slow-burning explosive) that gives an bomber, where a proximity fuse will ex-
enormous push for a second or so, and plode its powerful warhead.
ROCKETS& BOOSTERS
starts the missile fast enough to fly Another possibility is beam riding. As
Basic to all guided missiles is the straioht
b
and true. \\Then the booster soon as the bomber is discovered b\'
rocket motor, generally liquid-fueled. burns out, it falls to earth with a whicker- radar, a narrow radio beam will be
\Vhen actually pushing a bird it vanishes ing scream. The liquid-fueled motor trained upon it. The missile will contain
in seconds, leaving only a vapor trail to takes over and brings the missile up to electronic apparatus to pick up the beam
34 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
and steer the missile toward its center. guiding information. They may seek the and missile would keep radio silence
.-\s the beam swings with the motion of target. attracted like deadly moths by the until the missile has onlY minutes to 8v.
o 0

the bomber, the missile will swing. too. heat given off by a city or industrial area. This would lea,'e time for the guiding
Coached by an automatic computer, the 1\lore likely they will watch the ground s,'stem to correct the course of the mis-
beam operator can lead the target (like a ahead with radar or television eves. The sile, It would not lea\'e time for enemy
hunter leading a duck) and set the mis- picture will pass over a microwave beam interceptors to reach and attack the
sile on a true collision course. to the mother airplane. Sitting in his bomber.
These systems have a common weak- cockpit. the bombardier can watch a
STARS & 1\ IAGNETlS:\I
ness. Their guidance is fuzziest just screen and see what the missile itself
where it should be clearest: close to the sees. If the missile is off its course (as Surface-to-surface missiles will have a
target. Seeking or homing missiles will determined by a map), he gives it radio wide choice of guidance systems. If the
be free of this disability. Ground guid- hints that point it toward the target. target is visible (from the ground or a
ance will bring them to the general \\Then the doomed city comes in sight high-Hying airplane), the missile will be
,'icinity of the target. Then they will be (at 30 miles per minute), he turns the steered to it by radio command guidance.
on their own, to search for the target missile downward. Then another radio Usually the target will not be visible, but
with their own senses and brains. signal or an automatic fuse e;..:plodes its its position willi be known on a map.
atom bomb. Then the missile will follow a radio
Passive seekers will pick up an emana-
tion (light or heat) generated by the tar- This baleful guidance system is not so beam or steer automatically toward a
oct and steer themselves toward it. Acti,'e futuristic as it sounds. Television-guided selected point in a pattern or'radio wa',.es
t>
seekers will send out radar pulses and aircraft have already Hown over U.S. marked out in space. \-Vhen it reaches
steer toward anything solid enough to cities. The remote-control pilots several that point it will curve downward. If the
bounce them back. A hybrid is the semi- hundred miles away saw rivers, bridges, target's position is not known accurately,
active seeker. In this system, a ground buildings. "We picked out the city hall," the missile willi search for it with tele-
transmitter will illuminate the target said one pilot. "\Ve could have Hown vision or radar eyes, reporting its findings
with powerful radio waves. These, re- that plane right into the mayor's office." to a screen at a faraway control point.
Hected from the target, will be picked up The television or radar-picture guid- An operator watching the screen will
by the oncoming missile and will guide ance system is good only for some 500 steer the missile to the burst point.
it in for the kill. miles. At greater distances, the micro- Beyond the range of line-of-sight radio
wave beam between missile and mother (a few hundred miles) the guidance
TELEVISION STEERING
plane will hit the curving earth. But less problem gets tougher. The missile is on
For air-launched missiles directed range than 500 miles is plenty for many its own, and it must steer itself by some
against invisible targets many miles from vital missions. Keeping safely out of "frame of reference" that reaches all the
the mother plane, the problem is more reach of enemy radar, the bomber could way to the target. Several systems are in
difficult. They must gather their own launch its attack. Presumably both plane development, two of them familiar in
principle: magnetic (compass) naviga-
tion and navigation by the stars.
Magnetically guided missiles steer,
like ships, by following automatically the
pattern of the earth's magnetic field.
When a long-range missile is guided by
"automatic astro-navigation," it Hies by
night and has wise little telescopes to
pick up certain stars. Photo-sensitive
tubes note the position of the stars. This
information, processed by a complicated
electronic brain, tells the missile the
course it is following over the surface
of the earth. It corrects its own course if
necessary; it knows when it reaches the
target and when to explode its bomb,

TEST FLIGHT

Developing a missile is astonishingly


difficult. It demands new metals, new
chemicals, new electronics, even new
kinds of thinking that only computing
machines can do fast enough. There is,
in addition, a very special headache. A
Shaking off ice formed during fueling operation, a Viking rocket leaves the deck missile cannot be flight-tested by a hu-
of the U.S.S. Nortoll Sotmd. man pilot who lives to make his report.

JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952 35
Once the missile is hred, it is gone for- rors that can photograph the missile like control hns struggle to keep the missile
ever. It turns into junk on the desert or a planet in space. straight. Vibration builds up with the
sinks under the sea. So the missilemen Among these stations run 8,000 miles speed and makes a quavering growl.
have developed other methods of testing of wire, and through the web throbs a When the missile rolls, it sends out a
their single-Bight birds. pulse: an accurate time signal from a long, often-repeated groan. All the
The missile's hrst Bights are generally central station. The missile stands grace- sounds blend together, like modernistic
made on a calculating machine, such as ful and alone in the center of this great discords on top of the tinkling melody.
the REAC (Reeves Instrument Corp.) assembly like a sacrihcial vicitm eyed bv At last the missile rises above the
analogue computer used by GaIT ech at a thou~nd priests. The time sign~l beats earth's atmosphere, and the discords die
the Army's Jet Propulsion Laboratory the seconds over a chain of loudspeakers, away. While the missile Bies its vacuum
near Pasadena. The performance char- and a grave voice counts the minutes be- course, there is no air to make it roll or
acteristics of the missile's components go fore the moment of sacrihce. "Zero minus vibrate. The fins no longer move. The
into this brainy machine in the form of ten," chants the voice. "Zero minus nine, bird is at peace in space, serene as an
dial settings; the results come out as zero minus eight ... " asteroid, and its instruments sing the
curves drawn on paper. A simulated In the peak-roofed concrete block- cheerful song of a happy child.
Bight takes only a few seconds and costs house near the launching point, red When the missile curves back to the
almost nothing. Between Bights, adjust- lights on a control panel are turning to atmosphere, trouble starts again. The hns
ments can be made to see if the missile green. All of them must be green before renew their struggle. Vibration and roll
can be improved by altered tail surfaces the missile is hred. If one light remains build up. Louder & louder rises their
or controls. To test such details by actual red, it means that some instrument or clamor, drowning the melody. Then
Bights would cost a whole missile each safety precaution is not in operation. comes a crackle of jumbled noise. The
time. Since 1947, when White Sands tossed a missile has reached the end of its flight
Real Bame-and-metal tests are done at V-2 into an uninhabited hillside at and the singing instruments are dead.
ranges equipped with elaborate instru- Juarez, Mexico, some 50 miles away, the
ments to catch and record every shred of base has been preoccupied with safety. If BRAIN PROBLEM
information. The Army, whose domain a missile becomes "errant" (threatens to
is ground-launched missiles, does its test- By off the range), a safety officer "de- Missilemen feel that the propulsion
ing at White Sands Proving Ground in structs" it by exploding it in the air. question is now near its solution. Mod-
New Mexico. The Navy uses White At "zero" the bird Bies off, trailing a ern rocket motors are already powerful
Sands too and also conducts tests at Point shattering roar that echoes from the Or- enough for most practical purposes and
Mugu, between Los Angeles and Santa gan Mountains. It disappears quickly in ram-jets are coming along. Guidance is a
Barbara, or from the Norton Sound. The the deep blue sky. For human eyes the deeper problem. It is comparatively easy
purpose of both Point Mugu and the Bight is over, but instrument eyes are to design electronic senses and brains
Norton Sound is to support the Beet in still watching. The antennas of the that will enable a missile to do almost
its introduction of the new weapons. radars crane to follow the missile. The anything, but building them so they will
The Air Force tests a great variety of telescopes and cameras turn. When the work dependably is another matter.
missiles at Holloman near White Sands. missile starts falling they follow it down Many a missile has misbehaved because
Its Patrick Air Force Base at Banana to its death far off on the desert. of the failure of a 50~ electric relay.
River in Florida (150 miles south of "That bird cost $100,000," the missile-
Jacksonville) will be the testing ground MELODY FROM SPACE
men say. "It should have cost $100,000.-
for missiles of all the services that have 05."
Sometimes the reports from the mis- An additional hazard is enemy coun-
ranges too long for safe testing elsewhere.
sile's instruments are recorded on mag- termeasures. Whenever a bird is in
Patrick's advantage is that it can By its
netic tape in the form of audible tones Bight, it is possible, at least theoretically,
birds over the thinly inhabited Bahamas,
that make a strange sort of music. The to interfere with the forces that guide it.
where a chain of instrument stations is
hrst thing heard when the tape is played The enemy can confuse the poor bird by
now being built.
back is the sound of the missile at rest. It
jamming its radio frequencies. He can
is standing on the launching platform
SACRIFICE ON THE DESERT make it seek electronic mirages to lure it
and is still at peace with the world. Some
to destruction. He may even seduce it by
A "shot" at White Sands Proving of its instruments make continuous tones,
false instructions and make it destroy its
Ground or Holloman Air Force Base is deep or shrill, like the drones of a bag-
friends.
solemn with ritual. The dusty desert to pipe. Others report only at given inter-
the east of the Organ Mountains is sown vals. These play a weird little tinkling Much work has been done on gadgets
with nonhuman eyes: radars, telescopic tune, over & over, like a schoolboy proud to prevent such misfortunes, but the bat-
cameras, instruments to measure the mis- of mastering his hrst piano exercise. tle of countermeasures will never be
sile's enormous speed. Housed in small When the missile is fired, some instru- over. New tricks and countertricks will
concrete buildings or perched on plat- ments change their pitch as the tempera- always be possible. This eerie electronic
forms, they cover the whole range, which ture rises in the combustion chamber or warfare is the job of special groups in all
is roughly 40 miles wide and 100 miles the pressure increases. The tinkling mel- the services. When countermeasure offi-
long. Roosting on high mountains are ody plays on, but as the missile gathers cers visit White Sands, the missilemen
astronomical telescopes with 16-inch mir- speed, unpleasant sounds obscure it. The "treat them like Russians."
36 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
DROPPL"C THE PILOT

When military soothsayers try to look


intO the future, they confess to consider-
able bewilderment. None can now pre-
dict how the new weapons will react
upon one another and upon older weap-
ons. Another unknown quantity is their
cost, which is sure to be high. But many
ad,'antages are gained by dispensing with
the human crewmen, who need space,
,'isibility, heating and cooling. o":ygen
and pressurizing apparatus. And the
crew of the modern bomber is an expen-
si,'e item itself; it takes money and time
to train its members.
Since the missile makes only one
Hight, it needs no fuel for a return trip.
It has no landing gear or defensive arma-
ment. All these savings cut its cost while
improving its performance. Probably the
biggest saving will come from reduction
of running life. A missile must be de-
Pfc Chester Kase of the 22nd AAA Un. demonstrates the Calil>cr ..
N ... "~li.ne
pendable, but it does not have to be built gun to General Ridgway.
(like an airplane engine) so well that it
will last for thousands of hours. In most GENERAL RIDGWAY VISITS OKINAWA
cases a few minutes or hours is all the life General Matthew B. Ridgway, accompanied by Major General Robert S.
it needs. vVhen designers and manu- Beightler of the Ryukyus Command and Colonel Joy T. Wrean of the 97th AAA
facturers adjust their thinking to take ad- Group, inspected AAA Installations on Okinawa on October 27.
,'antage of this fact, great savings will Firing practice of the Group was witnessed by General Ridgway, prior to meet-
ing with General Collins who was touring Army installations in the For East.
result. One authority believes that if all Units of the 97th Group visited were: 65th AAA Gun Battalion (120mm), Lt. Colo-
possible savings are realized, a guided nel Harry A. Brown, commanding; 22nd AAA AW Battalion (mbl), Lt. Colonel
missile will cost only one-tenth as much Harold P. Willis, commanding.
as an airplane built for comparable duty.

ment should shut down the television in- undoubtedly have missiles, too. They
THE ACE OF MISSILES
dustry to free electronic men for guided- captured thousands of German V-2 men
All the experts agree that guided mis- missile work. and put them to work at once.
siles make the most difficult problem that No one thinks that the age of missile The missilemen seem to love their
military scientists have tackled so far warfare will come all at once. It will de- roaring, destructive birds. They admire
-more difficult even than atomic bombs. velop gradually, painfully and expen- their naked grace and praise the Rash-
The program has already drained the sively, with many costly mistakes. There quick cleverness of their electronic
country dry of specially qualified scien- will never be a golden age of push-button brains. Bllt in their more reRective mo-
tists. Every missile plant and laboratory war, with the U.S. getting all the vic- ments, they are likely to quote or para-
has a welcome for the dewiest young tories and the enemy getting all the grief. phrase an aphorism which they attribute
technician. \Vhen large-scale production The older weapons, including the small to Einstein: "If World War III is fought
begins, the pinch will be even tighter. arms of the infantry, will still be needed, with atom-armed missiles, then \Vorld
Some missilemen think that the Govern- and must not be neglected. The Russians War IV will be fought with clubs."

"Recently I visited our Antiaircraft Center at Fort Bliss, Texas, and our Guided
Missile proving ground at White Sands, New Mexico, and I can assure you that
genuine progress is being made. We have under development an antiaircraft
rocket which we believe will effectively combat high speed aircraft at altitudes
and ranges which lie beyond the capabilities of antiaircraft guns, and an anti-
aircraft guided missile, which gives promise of providing the even greater
accuracy and lethality we seek."-Gen. J. Lawton Collins.

JANUARY.FEBRUARY,1952 37
* * * * ****** ************
HONOR ROLL 204th AAA Group 65th AAA Gun Bn 707th AAA Gun Bn.
Original Honor Roll
Col. F. C. Grevemberg, La. Lt. Col. R. F. Moore Lt. Col. F. Fulton, Jr., Po.
88th AAA Airbome Bn 68th AAA Gun Bn 709th AAA Gun Bn
205th AAA Group
Lt. CoL R. B. Barry, lr.
Maj. N. Cook, Adj., Wash. Lt. Col. R. C. Cheal Lt. Col. L A. Long, Po.
228th AAA Group 207th AAA Group 7lst AAA Gun Bn 710th AAA Gun Bn.
CoL D. W. Bethea, lr., S. C. Lt. Cal. C. C. Berkeley, Vo,
Col. G. T. Stillman, N. Y. Lt. Col. A. J. Montrone
107th AAA AW Bn IMI 208th AAA Group 75th AAA Gun Bn 711 th AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. T. H. Pope, lr., S. C. Lt. Col. N. J. Walton, Ala.
Col. H. S. Ives, Conn. Lt. Col. A. A. Koscielniak
2091h AAA Group 781h AAA Gun Bn 712th AAA Gun Bn
Separate Commands Col. E. J. Welle, N. Y. Lt. Col. H. H. Taylor, Jr., Fla.
Lt. Col. J. B. Parroll
Army AAA Command 2111h AAA Group 791h AAA Gun Bn 713th AAA Gun Bn
Moj. Gen. W. W. Irvine Col. G. F. Lineham, Jr., Mass. Lt. Col. F. E. Prall Lt. Col. B. N. Singleton, S. C.
Third Army Training Center 214th AAA Group 80th AAA Airborne Bn 715th AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. C. H. Armstrong Col. J. G. Johnson, Ga. Lt. Col. L. W. Linderer Maj. J. Y. Woodruff, N. Y.
East AAA Command 2161h AAA Group 82nd AAA AW Bn 716th AAA Gun Bn
Maj. Gen. P. W. Rutledge Col. W. E. lahnson, Minn. Maj. H. A. Geddis Lt. Col. 10e R. Stewart, N. Mex.
Central AAA Command 218th AAA Group 95th AAA Gun Bn 717th AAA Gun Bn
Col. D. J. Bailey Cal. V. P. Lupinacci, Po. . Lt. Col. L. S. Daugherty Lt. Col. E. D. Pelzer, N. Mex.
West AAA Command 220lh AAA Group 10lst AAA Gun Bn 71 81h AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. R. W. Berry Col. R. H. Hopkins, Mass. Maj. L. D. Collins, Ga. Lt. Col. J. J. Loughran
Guided Missile Dept. 2241h AAA Group 102nd AAA Gun Bn 720lh AAA Gun Bn.
Col. E. W. Thompson, Va. Lt. Col. M. H. Roesser, N. Y. Lt. Col. G. A. Duke, Calif.
AA & GM School 726th AAA Gun Bn
2261h AAA Group 11 5th AAA Gun Bn.
Col. F. M. McGoldrick Lt. Col. John T. Watson, N. Mex.
Col. John D. Sides, Ala. Lt. Col. W. D. McCain, Miss.
2271h AAA Group 120lh AAA Gun Bn 728th AAA Gun Bn.
Brigades Maj. G. C. Moore, Calif.
Col. P. L. Wall, Fla. Lt. Col. H. C. Gray, N. Mex.
32nd AAA Brigade 25151 AAA Group 126th AAA AW Bn 730lh AAA Gun Bn
Cal. M. W. May, Jr. Col. A. M. Lazar, Calif. Lt. Col. R. C. Carrera, Mass. Lt. Cal. C. D. Holliday, Calif.
34th AAA Brigade 302nd AAA Group 127th AAA AW Bn ISPI 7361h AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. R. R. Hendrix Cal. John M. Welch, Ohio Lt. Col. H. G. White, N. Y. Lt. Cal. F. T. Lynch, Dela.
35th AAA Brigade 3131h AAA Group 142nd AAA AW Bn 745th AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. Hamer Case Cal. A. F. Hoehle, Po. Lt. Col. C. Beckman, N. Y. Lt. Col. Gea. B. Webster, Conn.
38th AAA Brigade 3261h AAA Group 150th AAA Gun Bn 747th AAA Gun Bn
Col. J. D. Sides Col. M. D. Meyers, Po. Lt. Col. L. O. Ellis, Jr., N. C. Lt. Col. J. F. Kane, Moss.
40th AAA Brigade 3741h AAA Group 238th AAA Gun Bn. 753rd AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. James G. Devine Col. T. F. Mullaney, Jr., Illinois Maj. T. P. O'Keefe, Conn. Lt. Col. W. H. Nicolson
47th AAA Brigade 51 51h AAA Group 243rd AAA AW Bn. 7641h AAA Gun Bn
Col. G. C. Gibbs Col. F. G. Rowell, N. Mex. Lt. Col. E. E. McMillan, R. I. Lt. Cal. Wm. J. Bennell
56th AAA Brigade
Brig. Gen. H. F. Meyers
104th AAA Brigade
Battalions
245th AAA Gun Sn
Lt. Col. C. M. Brown, N. Y.
250th AAA Gun Bn
768th AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. T. H. Kuyper, Illinois
*
*
3rd AAA AW Bn 772nd AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. V. P. Coyne, Mass. Lt. Col. A. J. Twiggs, Ga.
Lt. Col. J. B. Goettl Cal. F. S. Grant, Moss.
105th AAA Brigade 2S6th AAA AW Bn
Brig. Gen. A. H. Doud, N. Y. 3rd AAA Tng. Bn. 773rd AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. R. W. Haag, Minn.
107th AAA Brigade Lt. Col. E. E. Twining Lt. Col. G. F. Slavin
260th AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. J. W. Squire, Va. 41h AAA AW Bn 11011 804th AAA AW Bn IMI
Lt. Col. R. H. Stephens, D. C.
111 th AAA Brigade Lt. Col. R. J. Connelly Maj. S. N. Caudill, N. Mex.
337th AAA Gun Bn.
Brig. Gen. Chas. G. Sage, N. Mex. 91h AAA Gun Bn Lt. Col. J. W. Dry, Po. 8671h AAA AW Bn
112th AAA Brigade L!. Col. H. D. Johnson 340th AAA Gun Bn Maj. S. M. Arnold
Brig. Gen. J. W. Cook, Calif. 151h AAA AW Bn ISPI Lt. Col. G. V. Selwyn, D. C. 903rd AAA AW Sn
114th AAA Brigade Lt. Col. Jas. M. Moore 369th AAA Gun Bn. Lt. Col. J. D. Shearouse
Brig. Gen. G. W. Fisher 21st AAA AW Bn ISPI Lt. Col. C. S. Heming, N. Y.
Lt. Col. Chas. E. Henry 385th AAA AW Bn Operations Detachments
Groups 35th AAA Gun Bn. Maj. D. K. Scoll, Illinois 102nd AAA Opns. Del.
1st AAA Training Group Lt. Col. J. E. Burrows 398th AAA AW Bn Capt. G. J. Lahey, N. Y.
Col. E. W. Heathcote 39th AAA AW Bn 11011 Lt. Col. L. B. Dean 115th AAA Opns. Del.
2nd AAA Group Lt. Col. P. J. Lacey, Jr. 420th AAA Gun Bn. Maj. E. F. DeLeon, Wash.
Col. C. G. Patterson 46th AAA AW Bn ISPI Lt. Col. G. S. Green, Wash.
177th AAA Opns. Del.
10th AAA Group Lt. Col. Wm. M. Vann 443rd AAA AW Bn ISPI Maj. W. F. Hale, Va.
Col. W. H. Hennig 48th AAA AW Bn. Lt. Cal. J. F. Reagan
16th AAA Group 181s1 AAA Opns. Det.
Lt. Col. O. K. Marshall 489th AAA AW Bn
Col. F. J. Woods Maj. R. H. Moser, N. Mex.
Capt. J. E. Cornish, Illinois
50th AAA AW Bn ISPI 186th AAA Opns. Del.
19th AAA Group 502nd AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Cal. W. L. Larson Maj. Wm. S. Wall, Calif.
Col. H. P. Gard Lt. Col. P. G. Brown
65th AAA Group 60lh AAA AW Bn 507th AAA AW Bn 286th AAA Opns. Det.
Col. S. J. Goodman Lt. Col. R. T. Cassidy Lt. Col. S. J. Paciorek Capt. C. W. Carpenter, Dela.
97th AAA Group 62nd AAA AW Bn ISPI 685th AAA Gun Bn 50lst AAA Opns. Det.
Col. J. T. Wrean Lt. Col. C. E. Meadows Lt. Col. C. A. Fraser, Mass. Maj. E. F. DeLeon
197th AAA Group 63rd AAA Gun Bn 697th AAA AW Bn 503rd AAA Opns. Det.
Col. A. S. Baker, N. H. Lt. Col. B. I. Greenberg Maj. W. C. Thompson, N. Mex. Cap!. L. Koenitsberg
200th AAA Group 64th AAA Gun Bn. 6981h AAA Gun Bn 510lh AAA Opns. Del.
Col. C. M. Woodbury, N. Mex. Lt. Col. R. A. Lanpher LI. Col. F. Monico, Illinois Capt. F. R. Kane

JOURNAL HONOR ROll CRITERIA


1. To qualify or to requalify for a listing on the Journal Honor Roll, 3. Brigades and groups with 90% or mare subscribers among the officers
units must submit the names of subscribers and a raster of officers assigned to the unit are eligible for listing, provided that the unit
assigned to the unit on date of application. consists of not less than seven officers..
2. Battalions with 8010 or more subscribers among the officers assigned
to the unit are eligible for listing, provided that the unit consists of 4. Units will remain on the Honor Roll for one year after qualification
not less than twenty officers. or requalifkafion.

38 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
Impressions Of Life In The Soviet Union*
S0l7iet Citizens Are Not Allowed to Visit, to Entertain or to Know Foreigners

Not Just Americans Are Taboo-But ALL Foreigners

By Alan G. Kirk
United States Ambassador to the SOl'iet Union

AFTER living over two years in 1\1os- tisans of Peace, or Trade Union delega- included authorized trips to places such
cow, perhaps the most striking impres- tions or medical groups, coming from as Stalingrad, Leningrad, Lake Baikal,
sion of the Soviet Union one carries various western countries, such as Great Tiflis, and several towns close to Mos-
awav is that of its mass. This huge land Britain, France, and even the United cow. To me the trip to Lake Baikal was
are; with its mighty rivers, its wide States, who are allowed to see, in fact are the most interesting although I did have
plains, its mountains, its deserts, its great taken to see, many of the places denied some difficulty in persuading the authori-
inland seas and lakes, its many swamps, accredited diplomatic missions. Among ties to let me make this trip. First of all
is so enormous that one easily compre- places thus visited are Tashkent and it was asked: Why do you want to go?
hends that it comprises a vast amount of Alma Ata in Central Asia, or a city like There are no hotels. The little town is
the land area of the earth-one sixth, in Kiev in the Ukraine. inadequately equipped for visitors, and
fact. Naturally all foreigners, including We have been forced to conclude that so on. However, my reply was that the
the diplomats, are intrigued by its size these special groups given this special lake was the most interesting fresh water
and want to visit and see it, but unfortu- treatment consist of people selected for lake in the land-mass of Asia, 300 miles
nately there are restrictions placed on their sympathy with the Communist long and the deepest indentation of the
foreign diplomats which prevent the free- cause, and whose reactions will be along earth's crust outside of the sea, has seals,
dom of movement we Westerners are anticipated lines. These groups go on sturgeon, and of course is completely
accustomed to, at horne and abroad. planned tours; they are hurried from frozen over in winter. Well, an approval
In 1941, after the war began, the So- place to place; they are generally pretty finally was given and we left-a parry of
viet Government issued a decree restrict- exhausted at the end of the day; and, as three plus the four Soviet secret service
ing access by foreigners to large areas. they are not experienced observers, the men who always accompany the Ameri-
This decree was reaffirmed in September, comments they make when they return can Ambassador even on trips.
1948. In general, the areas thus restricted to their own countries should be treated
are: the western frontiers, the Black Sea with reserve.
coast lines, the Baltic Sea coast, Central
LEAVING Moscow at 8 P.M. on a
Asia, Northern Siberia, Eastern Siberia,
and many towns on certain rivers and
railwav lines. Those of us who live in
IN another way also the diplomatic
personnel are discriminated against; that
Thursday, we arrived at our destination
at 9 A.M. the following Friday week. The
train was composed of 13 cars, one a Pull-
:\losc~w are restricted to a distance of 50 is, by the exasperating obstructions and man of 1906 vintage, one a restaurant
kilometers and that only on certain roads. delays in trips to authorized areas. They car, and the engine. It was interesting to
But a curious exception has been made are often told that unfortunately there note that the train traveled all the way
bv the Soviet Government for selected will be no hotel accommodations, or that to Novosibirsk with only one engine,
viSitors. There have been groups of Par- there is no space on the train or the which meant the crossing of the Urals
*Reprinted from November 1951 issue of
plane, and they may arrive at a given was over grades sufficiently low for a
U. S. Air Services. destination to find there are no rooms. single engine to pull the train. \Ve had
Tickets for trips in the Soviet Union are dinner every night in the restaurant car
generally delivered but a few hours be- where the menu included caviar, borsch,
On the evening of October 18 was held a
fore the time of departure of the train or shashlik, beef Stroganov, vegetables,
memorial dinner for Alfred E. Smith, in the
Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York. Among plane, so that the traveler is left in un- compote of fruit; and for beverages we
those present was Governor Dewey. The prin- certainty until the last moment as to
cipal speaker was The Honorable Alan G. had beer, Russian wine or tea. Most of
Kirk, United States Ambassador to the Soviet whethe; he will make the trip or not. the distance the track was single ~i:th
Union. When thanking the Chairman for his
warm intraduction, he said, "You all under-
Placin'g obstacles in the way of travel- long sidings for passing. This railroad
stand, certainly, that I am still United States ers is a highly developed art in the Soviet has a 5-foot gauge and the train rode quite
Ambassador to the Soviet Union. Further, as
my speech tonight will necessarily be short, it
Union, and this skill in dragging the feet comfortably. We saw many track gangs,
may contain certain categoric statements for is one which must be weighed in several composed usually of girls plus One man,
which I ask your indulgence, as there is not
other connections. working to keep the roadbed in repair.
the time to explain in detail."
My own travels in the Soviet Union They were laying the rails, or the ties,
JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952 39
and shifting ballast. They seemed quite The return the following day was by call them, "the other people;' are gone,
happy to do so. At all the stations the train as far west as Novosibirsk, where and gone forever.
station clock kept the hour of Moscow we took a plane, flying in the night in the Certain major points of difference in
e\'en though we were several hours east rain, and stopping at Omsk, Sverdlovsk, the historical background of these people
and Radio Moscow blared out the Party and Kharkov. The pilot was competent, around Moscow may be of interest. We
line at each stop, and in the train itself. brought us down on grass runways, and know that the Great Russians centered
At each station also there was the office of landed us safely at l\loscow airport in the around Moscow were subjected to many
the Security Police, the MVD. On most early morning. invasions from the East. There need only
station platforms there would be for sale be mentioned, in passing, the Golden
chicken, eggs, fruit, sometimes bread.
In Central Siberia the land is rolling, A TRIP of this kind is very instruc-
tive, giving an indication of the size of
Horde or the invasions of the Tartars;
but in the end Moscow prevailed and the
Slavs clung to their land and beat off the
like our western prairies, and has been
brought under rather extensive cultiva- the country, the wide spacing between invaders. It was Ivan the Terrible who
tion. We saw some fields which we esti- towns, the lack of a road-net paralleling stormed the stronghold of the Tartars at
mated to be 5 miles in length and stretch- the railway, and an atmosphere of hustle, Kazan and, to commemorate this victory,
ing over the horizon. They had ob- bustle as of frontier towns. There is had the Crescent placed under the cross,
viously been plowed and sown by mecha- imagination and driving force at work in where it remains to this day.
nized agricultural machinery and we this part of Siberia, which is being When Christianity came to the old
passed a number of Machine Tractor brought under intensive modem cultiva- Russia it came from Byzantium and is
Stations. tion and with new towns and industrial therefore that of the Greek Orthodox
plants springing up at many places. Church. But the Russians did not par-
Let us ask now, who are these people
ON arrival at our destination, the lit- that inhabit the Soviet Union?
tle town of Sludyanka, we were met by Here I am obliged to state that, except
ticipate in the Crusades, nor was there
experienced the great Renaissance, in
our terms, when art, architecture, litera-
the local security representatives who for certain officials of the Ministry of For- ture, and music underwent that tremen-
took us to a small house where we were eign Affairs and certain Soviet employees dous revival which profoundly affected
to spend the night. This was the cus- of my Embassy, I know no Russians. So- our western civilization. There was no
tomary Russian log hut, one story high, viet citizens are not allowed to visit, to Reformation as we knew it, and liberal-
with three small rooms and kitchen. It entertain or to know foreigners. It is not ism in thought was delayed and sluggish.
had been prepared for our reception. A just Americans who are taboo-it is all It is true Catherine the Great was influ-
radio was installed, also a telephone, We foreigners. This may seem extraordinary, enced by the writings of Voltaire, and
were protected by the local militia and at but it is a fact. Can you imagine living some liberal thought did spread from
night the wooden shutters were closed, two years in Rome and knowing no Ital- France prior to the French Revolution;
ostensibly because of an impending hur- ians? Or two years in Paris and knowing but, when that Revolution occurred,
ricane, Our hostess was a fair cook and no Frenchmen? Yet such is the case in Russia closed her doors to all except the
was as hospitable as she could be under the Soviet Union-we Westerners know emigre royalists, and the effect the
the circumstances. Cars were provided no Russians. French Revolution had on western Eu-
for a short trip along the shores of the Therefore, when answering the ques- rope was not duplicated in Russia. You
lake and we were able to hire a dory for a tion, "Who are these people who inhabit will note, therefore, that the historical
row on the lake. the Soviet Union?" my reply has to be background of the Russian people varies
Our principal guide was a Mr. Smir- based on information other than that de- greatly from our own. We Westerners
nov, who was carefully coached to give rived from personal contact with the peo- inherit certain traditions which the Rus-
the most noncommittal of answers to all ple themselves. There are 200 million of sians do not understand, and things we
our simple questions. For example, when them, as we estimate, since no trust- take for granted in the historical sense
we spoke of the lake water being very worthy figures on population have been mean nothing to them.
cold, he said, "Yes, sometimes it was cold issued since 1939; a people of mixed
but sometimes it was warm." We asked races and tribes with the Slavic, or Great
if it were frozen over in winter. He said, Russian type predominating. Even in the N OW the Russia of today, or the So-
viet Union, or the Union of Soviet So-
"Yes, sometimes it was frozen and some- Associated Soviet Socialist Republics it
times it was not." Was there good fish- cialist Republics, is a totalitarian state,
would seem that by translation of popu-
ing? Yes, in some spots, other places, no. based primarily on the theories of Marx,
lation the Slavic strain is now over 50
Did they have violent storms on the lake? Lenin and Stalin, and governed by the
per cent. As it is the policy of the Com- Bolshevik Patty, some 6 million strong
Sometimes they did, sometimes they
munist Party to keep Slavs in control in who rule the remaining 190-odd millions.
didn't. Was it a fact that seals existed
all these areas, the change in populations It is a one-party system with control
in the lake? This he was rather vague in
answering, not having been briefed as has been enormous. For instance, Mos- vested in the Central Committee of the
to that particular question. As a matter cow itself has a population of 5 to 6 Communist Party-and this is a fact, un-
of fact there are, for at some point in the million souls, composed of persons most palatable though it may be to us. Fur-
past, seals swam from the Atlantic Ocean of whom never lived in Moscow before thermore, it is a fact accepted by the
up the Yenisei River, up the Angara, and the Revolution. Needless to say, those masses of the Russian people, too. It is
got into the lake-where they still exist. of the other regime, or as the Russians government by coercion and persuasion.

40 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
It is a nation governed by a new set of educate small groups in face-ta-face con- Kremlin and those of the Historical Mu-
rulers who gained power by force, and tact by explaining a single idea very care- seum one sees on the latter a plaque
the fonner ruling groups have been elim- fully and thoroughly-to the Party's which reads: "Religion is the opium of
inated and are. gone. There are new advantage. It is a form of personal in- the masses." This, on the site of the
people in government, in industry, in doctrination which is most important. famous church of the Iberian Virgin, is.
agriculture, in the arts. They have made Naturally the regime must protect "the highly symbolic of the Communist Par-
technological advances which we must masses" of the people from Western ideas ty's attitude.
not overlook, even though it has often so that thinking may continue along lines Another interesting sidelight-guides.
been by pirating the inventions of other of "truth"-as seen by the Politburo. in museums or galleries when referring
nations. Whereas, in our country we welcome the to dates of past events never use our sys-
This is a young nation with an aver- exchange of ideas with other nations, we tem; that is to say, by A.D. or B.c., but
age age probably between 30 and 35- read their newspapers and books, we always use the term "our era." Thusr
200 million strong and working. There view their plays, we listen to their music, they say "the 5th century of our era," or
are not many old people in Russia but we receive their travelers, in the Soviet "the 3rd century before our era," rather
there are lots of young. In some ways Union that is not true, except for some than the 5th century A.D., or the 3rd
the present situation in the Soviet Union classical works of music, certain classical century Before Christ.
can be compared to that of the United writings, because nothing like this is al- Nevertheless, there is some toleration
States in the early 1800s. They too, are a lowed to take place. of religious practices and customs. There
young race, virile and vigorous, with For current events, only items of for- are regular church services, and the feast
imagination and inspiration. They are eign origin which are critical of the capi- days, such as Easter, are days of great
governed and controlled by an elite Com- talistic world are allowed to be circulated. solemnity and ceremony. The Orthodox
munist Party which works constantly to And news of the outer world is always Church remains a force but not a force
maintain the power of the Party. They colored and distorted to the detriment of against the State; rather is it tolerated by
are likewise an educated people, for the truth. So most citizens of the Soviet the Communist Party because it rein-
schooling is compulsory. There is an Union live in considerable ignorance of forces passivity among the people, and,
urge to learn. They feel that knowledge us as we really are. Their picture of us, in fact, supports the State.
is power. There is competition for ad- and especially of the United States, is
vancement to the higher schools of learn- one of poverty, deprivation, slums, end-
ing. Literacy is widespread, perhaps less toil, low standard of living. This HERE arise other great and grave
reaching even 85 per cent. All want to picture is served to them by the Commu- questions. Can the religious instincts of
learn, all want to know, all want to un- nist Party daily, and to some extent is man, if never nourished, be obliterated
derstand. accepted. Is there any skepticism among by the passage of time? Is it possible that,
bnds little sign of human kindness, com- the people? Most likely, but concealed. after several generations of repression,
this instinct in man will disappear? Can

IN this competitive atmosphere one


. passion, courtesies, aiding the weak. It is
BUT does the Soviet citizen not long
for freedom, for liberty? Is such an urge
materialism satisfy the human soul?
What will be the effect of education on
the religious instincts of these people?
each one for himself. They are a serious inherent in man? Is it self-generating? I myself would rather think that man is
people, their sense of humor is very lim- We wrote in our Declaration of Inde- inherently and instinctively aware of and
ited and blunt. One rarely sees smiles on pendence: "We hold these truths to be recognizes a Higher Power; that broader
facesof people in the streets. self-evident, that all men are created intellectual capacity will of itself gener-
The Communist Party direction ex- equal, that they are endowed by their ate doubts concerning the atheistic atti-
tends everywhere. It is designed to pre- Creator with certain inalienable Rights, tude of the Communist Party; that man's
serve the Communist regime in power. that among these are Life, Liberty and innate humility will bring him to realize
There is a constant stream of propaganda the pursuit of Happiness." there is a Higher Order than pure ma-
and agitation to "the masses" through the These are pregnant words to us, but I terialism.
press, through the radio, movies, tele- should hesitate to attempt to denne the Of course our own immediate con-
vision. The Government has no Depart- Soviet citizen's reaction to a similar state- cern is not with the masses of the Soviet
ment or Ministrv of Public Information, ment in his own language. Union but with its Government; that is
hut the Central' Committee of the Com- So one is forced to ask: Is the concept to say the Politburo of the Central Com-
munist Party has a Department of Propa- of liberty, or of freedom, inspired by tra- mittee. We should realize, I feel, that
ganda and Agitation which controls all dition, or is it instinctive? Is it self-gen- these are men, humans, not supermen
media of mass communication. From erating? Can Soviet thought parallel, or nor superhumans. They have made mis-
Prawla, the organ of the Central Com- be in consonance with our own concept? takes but those mistakes ate concealed
mittee, to the smallest town newspaper, The answer to this would be important. from "the masses," from the people.
e\'erything that is printed is prepared and Similarly, in religious matters you will For this Politburo is responsible nei-
calculated to produce a desired effect on recall that when the Communist Party ther to any Parliament, nor to any Con-
the Russian people. But the spoken word seized power it abolished religion; and gress, nor to the People. There are no
is also employed in face-ta-face contact that every member of the Communist questions, no investigations, no airing of
Withthe masses, when selected workers Party is ipso facto an atheist. Entering abuses for all people to see.
of the Party, better known as "agitators," Red Square between the walls of the We must also recognize that this gov-

JANUARY-FEBRUARY,1952 41
ernment has large forces at its disposal.
In the military sphere their strength ap-
pears formidable, although there is cer-
So a menace to our peaceful existence
does exist, whether by subversive meth-
To do this, we of the \ Vestern \ Vorle
must make the necessary sacrifices, and
it may be that our way of life will ha\'t
tainly a lack of industrial capacity for its ods or otherwise, and to compose our to be modified. \Vecannot negotiate
support. Nevertheless, we should remem- differences by negotiation is difficult. with the SO\'iets when we are weak. We
ber that in 34 years the Communist Part" Under the tenets of the Politburo. they must have strength, and our rearmamen:
and the Soviet Government have r~- are always right. . ,
is designed for the purpose of makin,
stored the boundaries of Peter the Great. \ Vhat then is our dut,,?
our voice listened to in negotiations-and
They ha\'e added the satellite states on It seems to me we ~ust refresh our
for that alone.
the \Vest. They have oained the ad- moral and physical strength, keep our
, '"
hesion of China to their doctrine, own ideals bright, and show by our ex-
But our strength must be actual, in I

being, not potential. In our dealin~


\Ve should recall, I suggest, the fate of ample what real democracy means. \Ve
Europe in the Seventh Century when must be calm, cool, and cold-blooded. with the Soviet Government we must be
the Saracens overran the Mediterranean \Ve must keep our physical strength at a strong, we must be firm, and we must be
Basin and in 60 years conquered nearly proper level. \Ve must accept the fact consistent.
all its shores, plus the Iberian Peninsula, that a challenge to our way of life does But most of all we, as Christians, mus:
The rapidity with which that avalanche exist, that it is serious, that it must be keep our faith in God and, as free men
took place, should give us pause. met squarely. be prepared to defend our liberty.

CANAL ZONE TRAINING


By SFC Don Hatt
WITH the increment of several hun-
dred newly inducted troops from Puerto
Rico, the 65th AAA Group has launched
into a training program that included
instruction in artillery as well as English
for those whose knowledge of the lan-
guage was inadequate for purposes of
military instruction.
Two training detachments were estab-
lished on either side of the Canal Zone,
staffed with experienced officers and non-
coms, to undertake the integration of
these new arrivals to the antiaircraft de-
fenses of Panama.
During a six-month training cycle, the
new soldiers learn many things. The
education centers at Forts Gulick and
"Ready, HEX-ercise," says the training sergeant.
Clayton ha\'e them for two months when
the men are taught basic English. This
is followed by a concentrated period of the following members of the 65th includes members of 65th Group. Amon
four months when the Trainees study Group: First Lieutenant L. L. Cockerell them are: First Lieutenants Henry A
such subjects as basic artillery, drilling. (recently replaced by First Lieutenant I-Iertwig and Robert J. Carroll, Secon
aircraft identification, signal communica- J. R. Emery), First Sergeant Bert Combs, Lieutenant James R. Thompson, Fir.
tions, censorship, map reading, individ- Sergeant First Class Miguel Nieto, Field Sergeant Joseph Wieland, Field Fir>
ual weapons and equipment, military First Sergeant Elroy Nesbit, Sergeants Sergeant Bruno Caballero, Sergeant
justice, and antiaircraft technique. Sam Jones and Robert Reed, Corporals Benjamin Pierce and Carmelo Porr<J'
The technical program includes peri- Juan Maisonet, Jose Diaz, Archie Sand- Sergeants First .Class Vergil Daniels.
ods devoted to individual welfare and ers, Gerald Walton, \Villiam Ostradick, Rusell 1\ lann and Angel Santiago-l\ lOll
morale, conducted by local chaplains and Juan Colon Cristobal, l-Ieber Crosbv and tez.
responsible officers.. Donald Roth. ' \Vhen thoroughly grounded in En_
The 903d Antiairc.rah Artillerv Battal- The staff of the 764th Antircraft Artil- lish, these soldiers from Puerto Riel
ion Training Detachment is operated by lery Battalion Training Detachment also develop into splendid troops.

42 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNA
ANTI AI RCRAFT AI RLIFT
By Sgt. William J. Tobin
FOUR C-46 transport planes of the Army AAA Training Center at Camp moved to the range and began to em-
Tactical Air Command, circling down Stewart. place the equipment which the Train-
from 5.000 feet, landed at Liberty Field. Colonel Lmch led a four-man ad- ing Center had lined up on the firing
Camp Stewart, Ga., one sunny day last vance detail to Camp Stewart fi\'e days line. The guns, directors and radar were
;\lovember, and delivered more than 100 before the main body. This liaison group emplaced and oriented by 4: 30 o'clock,
antiaircraft men to the spacious artillery made arrangements for messing and less than seven hours after the batten'
brina ranaes forty miles from Savannah. billeting of the battery, in addition to had left its home station.
'" '" .
The men who stepped down from the requisitioning necessary ammunition and Seven practice courses were fired the
planes were regarded as among the best completing plans for use of the Camp next day. Rain on the third day delayed
90mm AAt\ gunners in the country- Stewart firing ranges. firing. but three record courses were
and it was their job to provide proof The 107 man main body, including fired during the afternoon. The remain-
in a new training experiment for the Capt. Chidester and two battery officers, der of the record courses were fired on
Armv Antiaircraft Command. loaded onto Four buses at Fort Meade on Thursday, and the equipment cleaned
This flight to the sprawling tent city the morning of November 5 and were and march ordered. Thus the prime mis-
of Camp Stewart was the first airlift of moved to Bolling Air Force Base, vVash- sion of the airlift was accomplished in
a 90mm outfit in the nation's history. ington, D. C. There the four C-46 trans- four days. On Friday, the last day be-
The men who made it were from Bat- ports awaited them, and a short time fore the return flight, the battery cun-
ten' C, 736th AAA Gun Battalion, a iater were airborne with the men and ducted anti-mechanized range firing. On
for'mer Delaware National Guard unit baggage aboard. Each man carried his Saturday morning the men again board-
which had trained at Camp Stewart be- own duffie bag onto the plane on which ed the C-46 transports at Liberty Field,
fore assuming a tactical mission in the he rode. Brig. Gen. Homer Case, com- and were back at Fort Meade in time
Eastern Army Antiaircraft Command. manding general of the 35th AM Bri- for lunch and a week-end pass. General
They were to spend no more than six gade, was on hand to see the airlift un- Armstrong personally wi tnessed the
days, including travel time, in firing a der way. take-off.
regular service practice and completing A little over three hours later the men This first airlift, accomplished with
the return to their home station. were on the ground at Camp Stewart, expected speed, none the less brought
It was the mission of this airlift opera- being welcomed by Maj. Willard Jones to light a number of problems which
tion to determine the practical prob- of the Camp G3 section, personal repre- the experiment was expected to reveal.
lems involved in transporting the per- sentative of Brig. Gen. Claire Armstrong, It demonstrated that it is difficult for
sonnel of an antiaircraft gun battery to commanding general of the Third Army men to take over equipment of another
a distant firing range by airlift, firing AAA Training Center. After a quick unit and fire on a par with past stand-
service practices, and returning to sta- change from their Class "A" traveling ards, without having time to become
tion promptly. That, generally, was the uniform into work fatigues, the men fa.miliar with the idiosyncrasies of the
meat of the matter as conceived by the
Army Antiaircraft Command. Needed
to test the plan was a battery now on
tactical dut\., whose mission actuallv is
affected by the time which must be spent
on the firing range each year.
The assignment fell to the 736th, sta-
tioned at Fort George G. 1\lea de, 1\-ld.,
under the command of Lt. Co\. Frank
T. Lynch. He selected as his firing bat-
ten' one commanded bv a veteran arti]-
ler~' officer who has s~rved 12 \'ears-
both as an enlisted man and offi~er-in
the same Batten. C of the 736th. The
battery comma~der, Capt. Austin C.
Chidester, J r., picked the men to make
he Right for his battery. The only equip-
em the men were to take were uni-
Orms and personal gear-all supplies,
ns, equipment and motor transpor-
Arrival at Camp Stewart. (Left to rigbt): Maj. W'illard Jones, Lieut. Co!. Frank
ation were to come from the Third
Lynch, Capt. A. C. Chidester and men of Btry C, 736th AAA Gun Bn.
ANUARY-FEBRUARY,1952
43
individual pieces of equipment. The However, Colonel Lynch reported, a definite step forward in AAA training.
airlift showed that equipment failure, and the others agreed: "\Ve regard the The officers and men of Battery C en.
particularly the SCR 584 radar, could airlifting of an antiaircraft battery to a joyed the test thoroughly, with a marke(j
hamper the tight firing schedule. firing range for sen'ice practice firing as increase in morale and esprit.

FORT BLISS ACTIVITI ES


IN KEEPING with the "Cost Con- ducted a three-day session beginning completed at the same time were: Offi.
sciousness" program recently intensified November 12, that included visits to the cers' Electronic Course No. 13, Hadar
throughout the Army, Fort Bliss units Fort Bliss ranges and \Vhite Sands to 1\laintenance No. 29, Light AA 1\Ie.
have had the urgency of conserving the witness firing demonstrations. The inter- chanics' No. 13, and 1\ledium and
U. S. taxpayer's dollar forcefully brought national board alternates its meetings be- Heavv AAA l\lechanics' No. 14.
home by a series of price tags on AAA tween Canada and the United States. In all, 283 graduates received di.
equipment. This was a part of the Earlier in November, representatives plomas from the various courses at the
Service-wide program to eliminate waste of the six Army commands, including AA and G1\ I School.
and to impress upon all military per- Puerto Rico, attended a five-day con-
FORT BLISS ANNIVERSARY
sonnel the importance of conserving ference on HOTC affairs. PMS&T offi-
supplies and equipment at all levels cers on duty with AAA ROTC units Celebrating its 103rd anniversary, the
within the Armed Forces. considered training problems relating Post held ceremonies on November i
to HOTe. at the Replica of Old Fort Bliss which
GUIDED lVhsSILES GROUP Brig. Gen. F. L. I-Iayden conferred was erected by the city of EI Paso in
Now in its sixth year of operations, with the visitors on the November 5th 1948 in connection with the Centen°
the Guided Missiles organization cele- opening of the meeting. nial Celebration commemorating the
brated its first anniversary on October General J. Lawton Collins visited the \Var Department General Order which
II. The Gl\il unit has expanded since Post on November 26-27 and witnessed established the Post in 1848. Civilian
its activation as a battalion to group firing of AAA weapons at the Dona and militarv visitors were taken on a
size and its field of activity has increased Ana and Hueco ranges and on Decem- tour of the exhibits maintained by the
proportionately. ber II, Col. J. F. Steenmetser, Inspector school.
Colonel Ovid T. Forman commands of Artillery for the Royal Netherlands
the l3oo-man unit whose present mis- Army, arrived for a three-day tour of DECORATIONS

sion includes: testing and developing the area. Two posthumous decorations were
GM artillery, organization and training presented on December I by Major Gen
SCHOOL NOTES
doctrine, tactics, technique and logis- eral John T. Lewis, Commanding Gen
tics; to train cadres and replacements During the fall, classes of the Senior eral, Fort Bliss, to families of men killeJ
for GM units; assist in the conduct of Officers' Guided Missiles Orientation in action in Korea.
engineering and other tests of guided continued with instruction on tactical Mrs. Maria S. Burgess received the
missiles. In addition to the individual,
unit and combined arms training in the
employment of missiles, the group also
employment of surface-to-surface and
surface-to-air missiles, their power plants
and guidance and control systems.
The three-day courses include prac-
Bronze Star with V, in behalf of her
husband, Pfc. Earl J. Burgess. Ignacio
Perez, father of Pfc. Manuel G. Perez
l
provides trained personnel for radio con- received the Purple Heart in a ceremon)
trolled airplane target detachments. tical demonstrations at White Sands and at the American Consulate in Juarez
Units of the group are spread between AAA firing on the ranges. i\lexico.
such widely separated development Major Generals e. D. Palmer, In- Others to receive decorations inciudeJ
centers as Fort Bliss and \Vhite Sands spector of Artillery; A. G. Paxton, com- Sfc. Archie G. Shingledeker who w35
Proving Ground, New Mexico, to Chino manding the 31st Infantry Division, and awarded the Bronze Star for his servict
Lake and Point l\lugu, California. Small T. F. Hickev of the 82nd Airborne Di- in Germany in 1\lay, 1945.
detachments of personnel are frequently vision, were among the ranking mem- Bronze Stars were awarded to the fo!
sent on temporary duty with manufac- bers of the class held December 5-8. lowing for service in Korea: Captait
turing contractors of guided missiles. On December 10, the second OCS Gerald F. Huschmeyer, 2nd OLC; Is:
Recent firing was conducted with the class of 194 students started the 2I-week Lieut. Jose E. Olivares; Spl. Lowell B
Lark and Loon missiles on the Fort course leading to commissions as AAA Anderson; \VOJG George B. Harrell
Bliss range. officers. Gen. Hayden, with Col. R. H. MjSgt. Daniel e. Campbell; Sgt. Jame
Krueger, school commander, welcomed L. Cox, 2nd oLc, and Cpl. Elbert
1\IEETINGS AND VISITORS the new class. Lange.
1\leeting for the first time at Fort During the same week, 137 officers Cpl. James \V. Ballard received til
Bliss, the Permanent Joint Board on graduated from the Associate Battery first OLC to the Purple Heart. T
Defense, Canada-United States, con- Officers' Course No. 35. Other classes awards were made bv, General Havden ,

44 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNA
~RAINING
LITERATURE Army Extension Course Program
Having learned so well that our wars Gunnery. The captain gets in the 40
are largely fought by a citizen army series advanced courses which also in-
By Maj. B. G. Oberlin and also that the effectiveness of this clude tactics and staff functions.
citizen army depends so much upon the The courses are designed primarily for
training and efficiency of its officers, the the ci\'ilian component officer on in-
Ai'HIAlRCRAFf artillerymen will Army has now in full swing its Army active dutv. However, manv officers and
be interested in a book by Colonel \Vil- Extension Course Program. This pro- men on 'active duty are' taking the
liam J. \Vuest, History of Heavy AA Fire gram takes the school to the officer, of- courses on their own volition.
CO/llral alld Materiel, recently published fering in each branch a specific series Completion of these courses affects as-
b\' the AA & G~I Br, TAS. Collecting of practical courses for each grade from signment and promotion and also counts
a~d coordinating the material has been a second lieutenant (20 series) to lieuten- towards retirement credits. However,
hobby with Colonel \\luest for more ant colonel (60 series). perhaps the greatest reward to the indi-
than twent)' years, and many of the Enlisted men also may enroll in the vidual comes from the pleasure in pur-
sources have long been out of print. The ten series to assist them in qualifying suing the course and the satisfaction he
book traces the development of AA guns for commissions. \Varrant officers, too, derives in knowing that he is better
and fire control devices from \Vorld \Var can take this series as well as other qualified practically to perform his du-
I to the end of World War Il in 272 courses applicable to their work.
ties.
pages with 175 illustrations. It is for sale Trojan work has been accomplished For enrollment the procedure is pre-
through the Book Department, AA & at Fort Sill and Fort Bliss in the past scribed in AR 350-300 and SR 350-
G~ I Br, l'AS, Fort Bliss, Texas, at $1.25
few years to bring the Artillery and 300-1. The application is submitted
per copy. Antiaircraft courses up to date to parallel through channels to the Artillery School.
The next six months of the fiscal year the current resident instruction at both Fort Sill, Oklahoma. \Vhen approved
should see a volume of new training lit- schools. As a result of this improvement l'AS sends directly to the studen t texts,
erature on antiaircraft artillery subjects the enrollments have increased at a tre- instructions and the first lesson. There-
including manuals on new materiel, re- mendous rate. \"hile the antiaircraft after the contact is direct. Completed les-
\'isions of existing manuals, changes, and courses are prepared by the AA and GM sons are graded and returned promptly,
new special texts. Some already in prep- School, the extension course programs and so long as the student keeps the
aration are described below. for all artillery officers is administered pace he can progress through the entire
FIELD MANUALS by the Artillery School at Fort Sill. series in a logical sequence without fur-
As an example of the scope, the Anti- ther red tape.
FM 44-33, Service of the AA Fire
aircraft second lieutenant gets in the For further information see your unit
Control System 1'33, was prepared as a
20 series such courses as Map and Aerial instructor or post school officer or direct
training circular but due to its length
Photograph Reading, Military Law, inquiry to the Director, Department of
will be published in manual form. This
Motor Vehicle Operation and Main- Non-Resident Instruction, TAS, Fort
manual will include illustrations of this
tenance, Communications, and AAA Sill, Oklahoma.
new equipment and many schematic dia-
grams.
HI 44-69, Service of the 75mm Gun ing of the materiel, its function, and its Fi\'1 44-38, Service of AA Directors
;"Iount 1'69 (Skysweeper), was also pre- operation. M9, ~19f\1, M9A2, and MIO, is in final
pared as a training circular but will be FM 44-57, Multiple Machine Gun stages of preparation at AA & Gi\1 Br,
published as a field manual. The ma- ~ lounts, is in' the hands of the printer. l'AS. This large, well-illustrated manual
teriel is described in detail and well il- This manual covers the multiple caliber will explain in detail the tests and adjust-
lustrated. This manual, along with the .50 machine-gun mount M45 on the ments for these directors. It will not be
manual on the 1'33, is already in the motor carriage 1\1 16 and the mount ready for distribution before fall, 1952.
hands of the printer. 1\145C on trailer i\120. This combination
SPECIAL TEXTS
F~1 44-19, Examination for AA Artil- is known as the 1\155. The manual illus-
lel)'man, has been printed and is in dis- trates the materiel and describes service ST 44-152, Defense of AAA against
tribution. This manual approaches the of the piece. Distribution is expected by Enemy Ground Attack, is being printed
problem of training and selecting per- February 1952. arid will be distributed this spring. It
sonnel to be known as second class, first FM 44-1, Antiaircraft Artillery Em- will include the ktest techniques in pe-
class, and expert antiaircraft artilleryman ployment has been approved and should rimeter defense developed in Korea.
by outlining the subjects to be covered be printed and in distribution by early 51' 44-153, Service of AA Fire Con-
but leaving the actual preparation of summer. trol System 1'33, is. also stocked at the
questions to an examining board. The F~I 44-60, Service of the 40mm Gun Book Department and may be bought for
Department of the Army thus a\'Oids a and Associated Fire Control Equipment, 75 cents a copy. Until publication of
series of stock questions which put a will be rewritten to permit inclusion of Fi\ I 44-33, this text is used in instruction
premium on a soldier's memory, but may materiel on the improved 40mm gun but at AA & Gi\ I Br, l'AS. It has 220 pages
not bring out his thorough understand- should be printed by late summer, 1952. and 97 illustrations of this new materiel.

JANUARY-FEBRUARY,1952 45
TECH:-;'ICAL ~ I.-\.,",UALS
WITH THE
Ti\ I -H-22.5, Orientation for Artillerv,
is in the hands of the printer and will 38th AAA BRIGADE
be in distribution bv ~Iarch. It contains
up-to-date information on the theor\' and
use of grid reference systems ...
TJ\! 20-300, Use of Radio-Controlled
Airplane Targets, and Ti\1 44-234, AAA
Service Practice. are both in final stages
of preparation. Distribution is expected
by summer 1952.

TRAINIl'\G CmcuLARs

TC 28, The Antiaircraft Operations


Center and Antiaircraft Artillerv Infor-
mation Service, has been printed and is
in distribution. This circular sets forth
the principles of organization and op-
eration and the functions of the AAOC
and AAAIS. The relationship between
these and other agencies is discussed, and THE 38th AAA Brigade was reacti- of 521 wheeled and tracked vehicles in
a number of terms are defined. vated at Fort Bliss on 14 i\ larch 1951 the brigade, with a score well above the
with General Frederick L. Hayden com- standard requirements.
TRAINING FILMS
manding. Cadre and filler training was The Brigade participated in its Army
Training films on Light AAA with the initiated II June 1951 and the unit en- Training Test from II through 19th Oc-
Infantry and Armored Division and tered Basic Unit Training phase of ATP tober 1951. Two Groups, two A1\AOOs,
Light AAA in Close Support of the In- on 25 June 1951. All enlisted men and Five Gun Battalions, 3 SRi\IUs, a Signal
fantry have been finished at Fort Hood, most of the officer positions were filled Construction Company, an MP Escort
Texas. Final preparation is under way at from sources at Fort Bliss. Guard Company and a Transportation
Army Signal Corps Photographic Cen- General Hayden left the Brigade 30 Truck Company made up the list of par-
ter, and distribution is expected this July to becomc the Assistant Comman- ticipating units. In addition to thcse
spring. dant, AAA and GIM Branch, The Artil- "livc" units 2 Groups and 5 A\\1 Bns
Scenarios for training films on AAOC, lery School. On the same date the Bri- were played on Paper. Named "Opera-
Skysweeper, and 1\AFCS T33 are in gade Headquarters became operational, tion Full I-louse" the exercise was both
preparation. taking on the Administrative and Train- comprehensive and successful. Numeri-
ing requirements of three groups, eleven cal score attained by the Brigade was
battalions, five AAAODs, an Army 97.4%. Umpire and Control Group were
Band, an RCAT, a Transportation provided by AAA and GIM Branch,
Guided Missile Truck Company and several SRi\IUs. The Artillerv School.
At this time Colonel John D. Sides, who In the 20' weeks of its operational ex-
Pamphlet
brought the 226th AAA Group to active istence the 38th Brigade has spent 9
Third Printing of Federal Service at Fort Bliss from the weeks in the field in close contact with
Alabama National Guard became Bri- attached organizations in advanced fire
THE JOURNAL'S and field exercises. Physical condition-
gade Commander. The Headquarters
authentic and factual compila- and Headquarters Battery entered Ad- ing, vigorous training, and emphasis on
tion of Guided Missile articles vanced Unit Training on 27 August responsibilities of command and leader-
published in the Journal 1951. ship have maintained morale and esprit
Initially the brigade was busily en- at high levels.
NOW AVAILABLE gaged in three major endea\'ors: super- At this time the three Groups, seven
vision and support for all attached troop Battalions, and miscellaneous units at-
Price
units, completion of its own ATP and tached to the 38th have all completed
$1.00-Paper-bound
the establishment of the Command, to the ATP and are engaged in Post Cycle
$2 .OO-Perm an ent- bou nd
include formulation and publication of Training.
Order From Brigade SOPs and other directives on Key members of the Brigade staff in-
training. clude: Col. Kenneth R. Kenerick, Exec.;
Antiaircraft In September the brigade took its first Lt. Col. A. i\1. Ahrens, S3; Capt. H. N.
JOURNAL annual Fourth Army 100% Ordnance in- Cline, 51; i\lajor Robert D. Rutherford,
spection. Over-all results were excellent. 52; i\lajor Eugene V. Joyce, 54; i\lajor
631 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W'.
Indicative of the emphasis placed on John J. i\laykovich, Radar; Capt. Wil-
W'ashington 4, D. C.
maintenance and quality of performance fred J. Lescarbeau, communications; and
is reHected in that Army inspected a total Capt. Marvin L. 5inderman, B.C.

46 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
COMBAT PAY
Statemellt by Gelleral J. LawtOIl Collills, before tIle Sellate Armed Services
Committee, Thursday, April 5, 1951

~Ir. Chairman and ~Iembers of the for extending hazardous duty pay to the tion would evidence would be more im-
Committee: combat soldier in Korea is logical and portant than the pay itself to them and
There is a time-honored principle of compelling. For not only would it re- to their loved ones.
our democracy that those who in their move an inequity that has existed in It would be fundamental in the estab-
work brave extra hazards shall receive our pay system for the servicemen in lishment of combat duty pay for combat
extra recompense. Korea, but it would also have a very personnel that it should go to those who
This principle has in the past been salutary effect upon the morale-and actually incur that hazard. As far as the
carried over into the military field by consequently upon the combat effective- Army is concerned, only approximately
the Congress when it enacted legislation ness-of the fighting men in Korea. 60 per cent of its personnel in Korea
to provide the present scales of pay for would receive this pay; the bulk of it
servicemen. Consequently, Army para-
chutists, Navy submariners, Air Force,
Navy and ~Iarine Hying personnel, and
T HE provision ~f combat duty pay
for the front-line soldier would afford
would go to front-line units which are
composed of infantry and the support-
ing elements such as artillery, engineer,
others, are currently receiving extra com- him some measure of recognition for his medical and others. I believe this is as
pensation for those periods of their serv- vital role in the defense of our Nation. it should be, and assure the members
ice during which they incur extra haz- Such recognition has been long overdue. of the Committee that in the Army this
ards. It seems that we must learn and re- principle would be strictly adhered to.
learn with every war that the ultimate

THE proposal of the Department of


Defense that you are considering to-
decision in war-and the greatest amount
of risk-rests upon the foot soldier, who DURING the various trips I have
must meet the enemy face to face on made to Korea, I have talked to our
day would merely extend this princi- the ground and contest him for that soldiers there of all grades. One of their
ple-according to already established ground. greatest preoccupations is the thought
rates for hazardous duty-to the Ameri- I cannot emphasize too strongly the that the people back home do not realize
can fighting men who are today incur- need for recognition of the role of the and do not care what they are under-
ring very real hazards in Korea. It would ground soldier. I-lis is an extremely haz- going. The passage of this bill would
not, therefore, inject into our pay sys- ardous business. In \-Vorld \Var II, the show them that we do know that they
tem a new principle, but would simply Army sustained almost 7~ per cent of are making sacrifices, that we do care,
remove an inequity that has existed in the total battle casualties of the U. S. and do want to give concrete evidence
that pay system and which has been Armed Forces and in Korea, the Army of our recognition.
made more poignant by the fact that is bearing 83 per cent of the total U. S. I am very proud of what the American
others in our Armed Forces are today casualties. Added to this is the fact that soldier has done, and is doing. in Korea.
receiving extra pay for duties which our front-line combat soldiers in Korea They have done a marvelous job under
surely are no more hazardous than those have been living and fighting under al- the most adverse conditions imaginable.
of the front-line fighting man. most incredibly severe conditions of I believe that hazardous duty pay for
Although this proposed legislation weather, filth, and emotional strain. In the combat man in Korea should be
makes no distinctions as to Service or addition to the highest casualty rate, provided simply in terms of equity, in
branch among the Armed Forces who they must endure sleeping out-of-doors terms of consonance with established
may be eligible for its special provisions, in mud, in cold, often without warm civilian and military practice, and to
and certainly there are marines, sailors, food, dry clothing, or bathing facilities. give due recognition to the men who
and airmen, as well as soldiers, incur- There is no measure that could ade- in ever~' war that this nation has fought
ring hazards in Korea, still the great quately compensate in terms of money ha\'e borne the greatest burden of hazard
majoritv of Americans actuallv in the for the hardships that our ground sol- -the ground combat soldiers.
front li'nes in Korea are soldie~s of the diers are enduring in Korea, and that is I therefore recommend your urgent
Armv. Because of this fact. and because why I place such high value upon the and favorable consideration of the De-
1. a; Chief of Staff of the Army, am importance of the recognition that spe- partment of Defense proposal to provide
more familiar with their particular prob- cial pay would give these brave men. additional compensation for members of
lems, I would like to discuss the ques- And although I do not wish to mini- the Armed Forces during periods of
tion of combat pay as it would affect mize the importance of the pa~' that they actual combat dut\' in Korea,
the Armv. would recei\'e, I believe that the recog-
It is my earnest opinion that the case nition of their sacrifice which \'our ac-
Notify the Journal of Your Address Change
JANUARY. FEBRUARY, 1952
47
The I:lvisibie Steel Core
By 7\. T. lawson

I F you take a look at a cartridge of fixed


ammunition for machine guns you won't
They are twelve feet long. Bundles are
stacked near the screw machines where
they are dried with a blast of hot air.
Now they are heat treated in a gas heated
see the Armor Piercing steel core en- oil is poured over them to prevent rust. spiral type furnace where a constant heat
closed in its brass jacket which has been These bars, or rods, are trucked to the of more than 1,500 degrees F. is main-
fitted into the case or shell. You may machines as needed. Six bars are placed tained. If there are any impurities in the
have fired many thousands of rounds of in a twelve-foot spindle attached to the metal the core couldn't stand up under
this ammunition without giving that machine for automatic operation. There the sudden shock of impact against steel
little piece of steel more than a passing are six separate movements completing armor and still have enough toughness
thought. Yet, on the core, more than any four distinct operations. These four op- to penetrate. This heat either corrects
other part of the cartridge, depends erations are (I) indexing; (2) forming; any small blemish or makes the rejects
whether or not your fire is accurate and (3) shaving; (4) cutting off. more prominent.
effective. No other part of fixed ammu- Each operation is done under a con- Now they are dropped automatically
nition is given as much expert attention tinuous Row of oil which is sprayed from into an oil quench. This quench aids in
for proper balance as is the core. the top of the spindle. The oil runs down giving the core proper temper and pre-
There are more than twenty opera- to the bottom and is pumped again to pares them to resist rust.
tions, tests and inspections before the the sprayer.
From the oil quench they are placed
core is housed in its brass jacket. These
As the indexing tool finishes its job in a spin type cleaner where all oil is
tests are necessary to make sure the bul-
the spindle turns automatically and the spun from the outside surface. Each
let will b00 where vour £un is aimed. If
,~ indexed bar stops under the forming operation is done with several hundred
the core was just cut off the steel rod as tool, then to the shaving tool and last to cores, or a batch called drums.
it comes from the steel mills and then the cut-off tool. The entire cycle is
tapered and put into the shell it would The drums are handled by electric
completed in four seconds, which means
be unfit for the rapid fire guns of today, hoist. A small fraction of them are taken
that fifteen cores are shaped and cut off
and it wouldn't be tough enough to be from the drum and checked by machine
every minute from a machine.
named Armor Piercing. to test their toughness. This test check
One man attends to a battery of sev- must be C-62 to G65 which is com-
Let's follow the caliber .50 core
eral machines. If one machine begins to parable to the hardness of a drill used in
through the plant and see how it is made
produce visible rejects it is because that cutting steel. If they are not perfect they
ready for accurate firing. The caliber .50
machine is out of adjustment. The are thrown out as rejects.
core is about two inches long (caliber .30
machine is stopped and the man taking They are now placed in another fur-
is about one inch long). It has a cylin-
care of it corrects the adjustment im- nace for reheating to draw them, thus
drical body with an ogive (pronounced
mediately. giving them more toughness. From here
Hojiv") head. The part that fits in the
mouth of the cartridge case is called After the cores are cut off they are car- they are moved to a centerless grinder
"boattail." This boattail shape gives the ried to a near-by computing scale having and ground to a set dimension. During
bullet a streamlined effect in its Right a ratio of 50 to I, to be counted. this grinding process the cores are kept
and increases accuracy over the old time From here on out until the core is fin- cool by a continuous spray of oil and
bullets of several years ago. ished, the men handling them are care- water mixed with a cleaning powder
In the receiving room we find bundles fully trained to use extra precaution to made for that purpose. After this opera-
of rods or bars made from the best make sure every operation is correctly tion they are again oiled to prevent rust.
grade of steel. There are about fifteen executed. They are constantly reminded Now they are sent to tables for a 100
rods to the bundle of the caliber .50 size. by pressure of training and inspections per cent visual inspection. Those with
that machine guns must be fed with per- the slightest defect are thrown out. After
fectly balanced bullets if they are to have this inspection they are again machine
the effect intended for them. checked for toughness. Now the final
Mr. A. T. Lawson, on ex-service artil-
leryman, is now a management engineer The next step, the bullets are placed check for size and proper balance is
with the St. louis Ordnonce Plont.
in a spiral type washing machine in a given them, after which they are ready
solution mostly of hot water, after which for the brass jacket.

48 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
"Sth AAA GU.1 Batta~ion The New Revision

In Air Defense
IS

Available

NOW,

AITER partIcIpation In the rugged JOHN GUNTHER'S


combat as division and corps artillery last

Inside U.S.A.
rear all over Korea, the 78th AAA Gun
Battalion is now deployed in air defense.
It provides antiaircraft protection for a
has been completely revised and brought
front and other important installations in
up to date, so that it reflects the many
support of the Eighth Army and Air important changes that have taken place
Force and Naval facilities. in this country since the book's original
All of the batteries have organized publication. The additional material in-
cludes:
strong positions. Some are dug in with
• The Kefauver investigation
a rather familiar pattern; others have
GOR 78th AAA Gun Bn (90mm). Plot- • The d,alt Eisenhower movement
found it necessary to build up the posi- Communist infiltration in Hollywood
ters seated and stalldillg at operatiollS
tions. Atomic bomb experiments in Nevada
table: L. to R.: Pfc Fisher, Pfc Petcovic,
• End of the Pendergast machine in Kan-
\Vhile the enemy air activity over its Sfc Jensen. At tbe pbolles: L. to R.: sas City
area has been entirely negligible, and Capt. Yamaki, Capt. Cachiotti, M Sgt • The firing of MacArthur
spasmodic at that, the battalion has had Nagy, M Sgt Miller (n~w WOJG), • The Alger Hiss conviction
• The execution of Willie McGee
thirteen firing engagements with enemy Maj. Harris. Stall ding at rear: Lt. Co!.
• The birth control flght in Massachusetts
aircraft and claims two probable kills . Parrott. • The election of Impellitteri in New York
Lt. Col. John B. Parrott assumed com- City

mand of the Battalion in August, 1951,


relieving Lt. Col. Thomas W. Ackert, Dog Battery, commanded by Arthur
INSIDE U.S.A., the fourth volume in
the spectacular "Inside" series, continues
who was transferred to the 10th AAA C. Brooks, Jr., has excellent installations, Me. Gunther's bold and unique attempt
Group. to include an outstanding command post. to map the known political world of
Battery Able, commanded by Captain It is underground and has a fire direction today, As [midI.' EllrOpl.' was, in its way,
a study of nationalism, and [midI.' AJia
Michael J. Malone, has a particularly center for field artillery set up in addition
of imperialism, so [nJidl.' U.S.A, is a
well camouflaged position. Equipment to the normal AA command post set up. study of democracy in action, an explora-
has been dug in and buildings painted to The battalion, while remaining in a tion of the many and complex forces at
blend with the surrounding terrain. play in the United States today.
state of combat readiness to carry out its
Battery Baker, Captain David W. assigned mission, has been undergoing "IF ANY SINGLE BOOK CAN TELL US
WHAT IT lIIEANS TO BE AN AlIIERICAN.
J\leyer, commanding, recently completed extensive training, 90mm AAA gun fir- THIS IS ITI"-CLIFTON FADIMAN
experiments using a diesel generator as ing, automatic weapons firing, small arms
power supply for the firing element of firing, field artillery practice firing and
the battery. Captain Meyer and M.sgt. of course the necessary basic subjects.
Robert E. Nichols, Range Platoon Ser- M.Sgt. Lincoln Hayes was recalled to
geant, state that the diesel generator is active duty in the grade of Captain, and
far superior to the gasoline driven gen- the following noncommissioned officers
erator presently furnished gun battalions. have received appointments as Warrant
1st Lt. Glennis A. Amburgey assumed Officers Junior Grade: IV1.Sgt. Raymond
command of Charlie Battery in August, A. Gard; l'V1.Sgt.Harry D. Truax; M:Sgt.
1951, relieving Captain Alvin Ash, who Elmer D. Weppner; iV1.Sgt. Harmon G. Order from
returned to the ZIon rotation. Due to Sprinkle; M.sgt. Arthur J. Miller; M.
the sea level location of Charlie Battery Sgt. William EttingofF; M.Sgt. Freddie
it was necessary for the battery to build
ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
O. Sconce; Sfc. Angus M. Bush; Sfc.
631 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
up emplacements rather than dig in. Al- James I. Blair; M.Sgt. Daniel D. Elliott;
mOSt200,000 sand bags were used in the M.Sgt. Walter T. Lideen and M.sgt. Washington 4, D. C.
operation. James N. Brookfield.
JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952
ECONOMY
From an editorial, Cost Unconscious!, in the eot spendthrift scene is that a few people are slowly
January-February, 1952 issue of Ordll(lllce, we becoming aware of the fact that we cannot achieve
quote: world security at the price of American insolvency."
In initiating the Army economy program Sec-
"All the defense efforts of the free world, what-
retary of the Army Frank Pace, Jr., put the matter
ever immediate purpose they serve, are focused
in a nutshell:
upon one dominant objective-the prevention of
war without the surrender of the liberties that are "Every. effort must be made by' all concerned to
dearer to free men than their lives or any material obtain the ultimate value from our appropriated
thing they possess. dollar."
These efforts are directed toward creating and It is refreshing and reassuring to note that Sec-
maintaining so much defensive strength-moral, retary Pace has initiated the economy program in
military, and economic-that the aggressor must be a far-reaching manner. The word has reached the
persuaded of the hopelessnesss of his scheme of troops. The captains, lieutenants and sergeants are
world conquest and the ccrtainty of his own evcn- stressing the care of government property to assure
tual destruction if he attempts to win by force maintenance and to prevent loss and waste. They
what he cannot otherwise obtain. No patriotic and are also countinoo noses to assure the maximum
loyal American can have any quarrcl with these number in combat traininoo and the minimum num-
noble objectives of freedom and peace. ber on overhead and housekeeping duties.

It can also be said with equal certitude that very \Ve trust that the word is also reaching the over-
few people have any doubt about the design of head installations and the higher staffs with equal
Soviet Hussia. It mav be recalled that within the effectiveness.
last eleven years Soviet Hussia has been increas- The purpose is clear and worthy of our deter-
ing its tributary territory at the astounding rate of mined effort: to build, equip, and maintain more
forty-four square miles an hour. If we should per- combat strength with the funds and manpower
mit the strength of the other nations of the free available. l'vlore combat strength means more com-
world to continue to be added to the strength of bat battalions and more combat supporting units.
the Communists, then surely our own freedom ]\/Ianpower economy in all other activities offers
would ultimately be destroyed. \Ve therefore find one key to the solution.
ourselves in what ought to be a genuine partner- Much of the secondary activity is essential, but
ship with the other free nations for the security in all of it there is the eternal tendency toward
of all. empire building and the elaboration of fringe pro-
The underlying philosophy of our national-pre- grams. One great handicap to manpower economy
paredness program makes considerable sense. But is the oversized staff with its tendency to hedge, re-
we do take very serious objection to the extrava- strict, hamper and tax the subordinate commander.
gant means that are currently being employed to It is a task which the Army must do for itself.
strengthen the ramparts of free institutions every- \Ve cannot rely on management engineers and
where. efficiency experts to do the job for us. It is a com-
vVe have been, and are continuing to be extraor- mand responsibility. And it is frequently necessary
dinarily wasteful and prodigal in practically every to wield the axe to achieve results.
phase and aspect of the national-defense program." One swallow does not make a summer. One
drive will not finish the problem. This we have
'The only faltering ray of sunshine on the pres- with us always.

so ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
BOOK REVIEWS
RED CHINA'S FIGHTING HORDES. By WHAT OF THE NIGHT. By Ernest l. indicated in the folIowing quotation:
Lieut. Colonel Robert B. Rigg. Military Klein. Farrar, Straus and Young. New "If the war, with all of its disastrous
Service Publishing Company. 378 York. 268 Pages; $3.00.
consequences, is to be a\'oided, both na-
PageS. $3.75.
Dr. Klein planned first to write this tions must cease the further development
The rapid rise from the ragged Com- book as a diary of his tour of the \Vorld of that unreasoning mutual hatred, be-
munist guerrilla army that existed in in 1946 and experiences as a special as- gotten of fear, which has sprung up
194-1to a relatively well-equipped and sistant to Ambassador Edwin \V. Paule\' since the war; they must sacrifice a meas-
formidable ground army currently en- on the Heparations Commission. As actu- ure of their assumed self-righteousness,
gaged in Korea and presently a serious ally published it is primarily a study of and must learn to talk calmly and in an
threat to Indo-China, offers a fascinat- the present world conRict, enlivened open-minded manner about topics on
ing study in modern military achieve- with an interesting narrative of his ex- which they are in disagreement, and they
ment. periences. must cease their perpetual vilifications;
Colonel Higg served as assistant mili- He moves to the crux of the matter on they must take the determination of fu-
tan' attache in China in 1945-48 and page I: "The United States and Hussia, ture policies out of the hands of the mili-
had a splendid opportunity to observe the only surviving titans, confront one tary; and they must learn to practice
at firsthand the action of the Chinese another with hostile eyes. Between them- some of the democracy they both preach."
~ationalist Forces against the victorious selves they divide the world." After all, Henry \Vallace and others
Communists. I-Ie outlines in all clarity Born in Chicago, but reared and edu- have entertained like hopes in the past.
the ruthless and relentless methods used cated in Germany, Austria, Switzerland But can we now find much further basis
to build this impressive fighting force and France, Dr. Klein has an insight into for wishful thinking?
in a nation that has long been regarded European and Asiatic history which Dr. Klein's report of what the Hussians
as among the vVorld's most backward. many of us lack. With this insight he did with industrial plants in 1\Ianchuria
The initial chapters of the book de- writes two outstanding chapters, The and Korea is very illuminating.
scribe the PLA CPeaple's Liberation ConRict of Empire and TIle ConRict of Many of our readers wilI find particu-
Army) high command. The Hed lead- Ideologies. Here he develops the conRict lar interest in that Dr. Klein is a brother
ers. their background and experience in between the East and the \Vest and that of Brig. Gen. Julius Klein, former com-
the long civil war in China and the our present conRict is not just one against mander of the 109th AAA Brigade in the
war against the Japanese invader give communism but rather against Stalinism, IlIinois National Guard. -CSH.
a comprehensive picture of their indi- a combination of communism, oriental
ridual make-up and methods of opera- despotism, Pan-Slavic nationalism, and AMERICAN CAMPAIGNS. By Matthew
tion. Hussian imperialism. Forney Steele. Combat Forces Press,
Washington, D. C., 1951. 2 Volumes.
Training, equipment, size and char- In his study of the problems of Ger-
acter of the various armv commands of many the author evinces strong feeling. A new edition of Steele's Campaigns is
the PLA are dealt with ~xtensively and The Nazis are Germans and the Ger- a recognition of the fact that it still
the author's description of the Chinese mans are Nazis, and he bitterly opposes stands among the best contributions in
Red soldier is a most absorbing account any idea of permitting the development the field of military history made by an
of this individual segment of mass can- of any war potential there ever. On the American. First published in 1909 as a
non fodder that is so ruthlessly expend- contrary, his treatment of Hussia is en- vVar Department document, it quickly
ed by the Hussian-trained and indoctri- tirely dispassionate. \Vhile this contrib- became a standard textbook in our mili-
nated leaders. utes to the readability of the study, we tary schools and has remained one ever
General 1\lao Tse-tung, the Hed dic- find ourselves in disagreement with since. The sections dealing with military
tator, is said not to fear Atom-bombs many of the author's conclusions. operations in the Civil \Var campaigns
a.ndhis whole philosophy of war as out- Dr. Klein's study is not one in support have established it as a classic in schol-
hned by Colonel Rigg, should make of our present international policies. His arly historical research and writing.
important reading to alI military person- conclusion that we should "put our own As in earlier editions, this one appears
nel who may face the Chinese Com- house in more satisfactory and more in two volumes, the first containing the
munists in Korea or elsewhere in the durable order before we attempt, Atlas- narrative, the second maps. It is in the
Waragainst Soviet terror. like, to shoulder the world" will strike a latter volume that decided changes have
!he book is well and interestingly big response. And likewise his sugges- been made. Thanks to larger sized pages
Wnllen and will contribute to the knowl- tion that we need to cultivate "true allies, and the cooperation of the Department
edge of those whose business it should not merely mercenaries." of 1\lilitary Art and Engineering at the
be to "Know Your Enemy." -H\VO. However, the author's main theme is United States Military Academy headed
JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952 51
by Co!. Thomas Stamps which supplied old (young would be a more appropriate
accurate and detailed maps based on word), can turn out two as amusing
fuller information than that which origi- books as these, it must be a good Army,
nall~' was a,'ailable to the author, the after all. The fact that one is a retired
map volume is a distinct impro\'ement enlisted man, and the other is the widow History of the
over those in former editions. An inno- of 1'laj. Gen. Fox Conner, may appear to
vation of questionable value however is make the matter more remarkable, but
the double column spread in the text. anyone who has known the Army at all
Since the author first prepared his fa- well in the last fifty years will know that
mous lectures for publication nearly a it would be hard to decide whether
half century ago, much new evidence Mart\. 1'laher or 1'lrs. Conner had more
has been found by Freeman, \Villiams friends among the "brass."
and others which has shed additional General Eisenhower is a case in point.
Antiaircraft
light on contrO\'ersial points and forced From 1921 on, he was closely associated
scholars to differ with some of Steele's with General Conner, serving for several
conclusions. The work as a whole how- years on his staff. For Sergeant Maher Command
ever has borne up remarkably welL a he breaks "a long-standing and inflexible
tribute to the thorough and objective policy" by writing a foreword for his
manner in which it was originally pre- book. He records that "1'larty first be-
pared. Its weakness is that of most writ- came my particular friend in 1912," and
ing on military matters in the past. The savs that his foreword is "a testament of
Complete and authentically com-
emphasis is entirely on combat. Admin- th~ admiration and affection one soldier
istrative, organizational, and logistical feels for an old friend, associate and piled World War II History of the
problems of war are almost completely helper." AAA in the Pacific.
ignored. \Vhile battle must rightly be MAJ. GEN. H. \V. BLAKELEY,
viewed as "the pay-off," all factors bear- USA (Ret.) Armed Force.
ing on the outcome must be considered ---0---
DANGER SPOT OF EUROPE. By Alan
and evaluated by the historian. Victory,
Houghton Broderick. Philosophical li-
especially since the industrial revolution, brary. 192 Pages; $3.75. Complete data on all units at-
has gone almost without exception to the
\Vest Germany, most exposed region tached, from activation until end
belligerent who has brought the greater
in \\'estern Europe, is the tinderbox
strength in men and sinews of war to the of war.
which could set off \Vorld vVar III if
battlefield.
the Soviet rulers should so decide.
The value of Steele's contribution to
Mr. Broderick has paid this country
historical writing is not to be found so
another visit to revive memories for him-
much in doctrines he expounds or tactics
self and to find how they are living
he describes as in his objective approach
now. \Vhat thev think of the Ameri- • Illustrations
and his recognition of basic principles,
cans, British, French, Russians. He loves
many of which are as old as man's organ-
the scenery, the vineyards, the wine and
• Locations and dates t,
ized efforts to protect himself or do \'io- • Decorations
the people of the Rhine valleys. And
lence to a neighboring group. In these
he understands something of their in- • Statistical data
times of great scientific ad\'ance and
dustrial problems, too.
rapid economic and social change, it is
An unconventional, stimulating, read-
easy to become confused and lose sight of ---0---
able travel book, written from the British
the things that have permanence. For
viewpoint.
the military man interested in advancing
himself professionally, Steele's classic $2.00 Limited Edition $2.00
should serve as a stabilizing influence. OFFICIAL ARMY HISTORIES
COL. L. J. 1'lEYER WORLD WAR II
Cross-Channel Attack $ 5.25 Order 'rom
BRINGING UP THE BRASS: My 55 Guadacanal: The First Offen-
Years at West Point, By Sergeant sive . 4.00 ANTIAIRCRAFT
Marty Maher (with Nardi Reeder Okinawa: The Last Battle . 7.50
Campion!. David McKay Co. 237 The Lorraine Campaign . 10.00 JOURNAL
Pages; $3.00. The Organization of Ground
Combat Troops .. , . 3.25 631 Pennsylvania Ave., N,W.
WHAT FATHER FORBADE. By Virginia
The Procurement and Training
Conner. Dorrance & Co. 219 Pages;
of Ground Combat Troops .. 4.50 Washington, D. C.
$3.00.
Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans
vVhen two authors, both of whom and Preparations .... , ... 3.75
have spent most of their lives on army Washington Command Post:
posts and are close to seventy-five years The Operations Division ... 3.25

52 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
The upper age limit for original en-
listment in National Guard di\;sions
remains at 35.
Need More Indians!
To THE EDITOR:
One of the problems encountered in
modem line units is the de\'elopment
General Lemnitzer In Korea .AAA Display Draws Thousands of leadership in junior noncommissioned
~Iajor General Lyman L. Lemnitzer, On November II, 1951, Battery 0, officers. \Ve hear comments about the
formerly commander of the II th Air- 41st AAA Gun Battalion C90mm) fur- lack of it. Let us examine to see if there
borne Division at Fort Campbell, Ken- nished a detachment of three officers and are reasons for this prevalent problem
lUch, arrived in T okvo earl\' in Decem- 101 enlisted men to demonstrate antiair- other than the too common phrase,
ber !w air to take co~mand of the 7th craft guns, radar and fire control equip- "Iack of leadership."
Infan'try Division in Korea. ment in l\liddletown, N. Y. In the reduced strength of a 120mm
During the past four years as Vice Major General Paul W. Rutledge, AAA gun battery, TO&E 44-117, there
President of the Coast Artillery Associa- Commanding General, Eastern Army are three officers, one warrant officer
tion and the Antiaircraft Association, AA Command, arranged for the display and 108 enlisted men. In the enlisted
General Lemnitzer has been active in which attracted wide interest among the strength there are 3 E-7, 9 E-6, 22 E-5
promoting and directing the publication civilian population. and 30 E-4, a total of 64 NCO's, leav-
of this JOURNAL. Similar displays of equipment were ing 40 EM below the NCO grade.
given by the unit at Stewart AF Base and Could it be these junior noncommis-
2nd AAA Group \Vest Point, N. Y. First Lieutenant sioned officers are lacking in leadership
The 2nd AAA Group at Camp Ed- Lloyd E. Webb is battery commander. simply because they do not have the op-
wards completed in December Exercise The 41st is commanded by Lt. Colo- portunity to practice those qualities that
"Helpful," carried out in con junction nel Carl F. Chirico; it is a part of the make leaders? Are the proportions cor-
with the I5Ist AC and \V Group, 16th AAA Group, Fort Hancock, under rect?
U.s.A.F. Colonel Charles G. Patterson, Colonel Fred J. Woods.
\Ve realize of course that the battery
Group Commander, and Colonel Con- operates and maintains expensive and
Co!. McGarraugh Returns
nelly of the Air Force arranged this inter- complicated equipment in its guns, ra-
esting exercise and staged it in prepara- Colonel Riley E. l\1cGarraugh, for-
dar, director, power plants and electronic
tion for Exercise "Snowfall," which merly the Executive of the AAA Section
equipment. And that requires person-
begins in January. We plan to publish FEC in Tokyo, returned to the States in
nel with high degree skills. However,
an article in the l\larch-April JOURNAL January for duty in \Vashington, D. C. I am still old-fashioned and it seems to
outlining the highlights of the exercise. During the past year as the Far East rep-
me the old concept of a private first
resentative of the JOURNAL,Colonel Mc-
class plus a specialist rating was good.
Former AAA Officers in Civil Garraugh has rendered invaluable serv-
ice in promoting and submitting articles There is also another matter. Con-
Defense
and photographs on the action in Korea. stantly in our organization and opera-
j\lajor General John L. Homer, Chi- tions it is pertinent to give the NCO a
cago, lIIinois; Brig. General \VilIiam Colonel Aloysius J. Lepping has re-
placed Colonel McGarraugh as Major definite job and pin the responsibility
Hesketh, Bridgeport, Connecticut; and on him. Take the I and E NCO. His
Gen. Marquat's Executive and as our
Colonel Donald L. Dutton, Newark, importance is rightly stressed, so let's
represen tative.
Delaware, were prominent in the Na- add on school applications, all educa-
tional Conference of State Directors of Gen. McConnell To FECom. tion activities, keeping required charts
Ci\'il Defense held in Washington, Jan-
Brig. Gen. Frank C. McConnell, for- up-ta-date and make it a full duty as-
uarv 8th to II tho Thev were received bv signment. He would certainly have
merly Commanding General, Camp
the' President at the' \Vhite House ;t
Gordon, Georgia, has recently been trans- leadership opportunities galore in such
nOOnon January the 11th.
ferred to FEC. His new assignment in a setup.
FEC has not been announced. Another question also arises, are too
Colonel Foote Retires
rigid l\10S boundaries a barrier to lead-
Colonel \Villiam Cooper Foote retires National Guard Raises Enlistment ership development? In each MOS I
for age in \Vashington, D. C., on Jan- Age For AAA Units would designate a group of related
uary the 31st, having completed almost l\lajor General Raymond H. flem- schools to be flexible but consistent in
43 years of service. Colonel Foote's last ing, Chief of the National Guard Bureau, constructing such a group. For instance,
assignment was in the office of the Sec- has announced that qualified individuals a Mechanic, 4014, wants to further his
retary of the Army where he has served through the age 17 to 55 will be ac- schooling. You decide to send him to
for the past two years as President of cepted for re-enlistment in National Automotive Fuel and Electrical System
the Army Discharge Review Board. Guard nondivisional AAA units if they Repair which trains him for MOS 3912.
Colonel and Mrs. Foote will reside in have at least one year of previous honor- This MOS is unauthorized, but is con-
their Washington home at 3408 Lowell able service in the Armed Forces of the sistent with the automotive repair and
Street, N.\V. United States. maintenance field and also with bat-
JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1952 53
tery requirements for long field service. which exist in our branch and your ef- cal support. More detailed discussions o!
If such schooling could be provided, forts to solve these problems are appre- this important matter will be forthcom.
it would give personnel an incentive to ciated. We are always available to you ing at a later date.
improve their skills. Improyed skill for development of any of your new 15th AAA AW Bn. JAMES M. MOORl;
brings confidence. Lack of confidence ideas to improve the accuracy of anti- Korea. Lt CoI, Arty
is a major failing among young soldiers aircraft artillerv fire, and I think yOU
who suddenly find themseh.es super- are courageous' to put out these arti~les To the Editor
yisors. Secure in their knowledge of their to stimulate the thought of others. If a Many of your readers will regret to ..
field, they can move more confidently. decent opportunity presents, I will sub- hear that Antonio Sarubbo, 69, died in
Our y~ung soldiers still have the in- mit some articles on AM in the Far the Dixie Hospital on January the 10th.
herent ability if we develop it properly. East Command. Tony the Barber was a fine man, an
JOHN1. HANCOCK Best regards, artist of sorts, and a mine of informatiOll
WOJG on the whereabouts, status and activities
40th AM Brigade JAMESG. DEVINE
APO 713 Brig. Gen., USA of Coast Artillerymen. He must have
75th AAA Gun Battalion
worked here, first at the Sherwood Inn
To The Editor To the Editor: and later at the Chamberlin, for more
than forty years and hundreds of service
Received your copy of "Better Wind The JOURNALis getting ever better.
men will remember him with affection.
Data" for comment. My staff and the How General Marquat finds time for
An impressive turnout of military men
faculty members of the Far East Anti- his invaluable contributions only he can
headed by Gen. Clark and six other
aircraft Artillery School have conducted tell, but they contain a treasure house
general officers, active and retired, at.
a study and commented on your article. of AAA in its broadened and deepened
tended the funeral services.
A series of tests were performed to de- role.
Old Point Comfort, PAULB. KELLY
termine the difference in wind data ob- I welcome Colonel Hatch's reply to
Va. Brig. Gen. (Ret.:
tained using the plotting method and what seemed to me a most inexplicable
the simplified method outlined in your attack on military justice by Prof. Keeffe. Four New AAA Groups At Stewan
article. The simplified tables in TM My experiences check with Colonel Group commanders have been as.
20-241 were used in lieu of your wind Hatch's capable and thorough rebuttal signed to the four new groups to be
speed computer. of the charges. Well done! activated at Camp Stewart, Ga.
Results of these tests indicated that RUSSELLK. HAVIGHORST Colonel Murry J. Martin has been or.
the wind azimuth differed by approxi- Miami, Fla. Col. Arty., USAR dered from Chicago to the 7th AAA
mately 100 mils and the wind speed by Group; Colonel William A. Cauthen.
two (2) miles per hour. Since wind To the Editor Washington, Ga., to the 14th AAA
azimuth can be set in the computer only Enclosed you will find a roster of the Group; Colonel William J. Wuest from
to the nearest 100 mils and wind speed officers assigned to the battalion, together Fort Bliss to command the 6th AAA
to the nearest four (4) miles per hour, with a Post Office Money Order for sub- Group and Colonel Walter J. Rude, San
it is considered an unnecessary require- scriptions from all who do not presently Francisco to head the 13th AM Group.
ment to compute wind data more ac- subscribe. Thus, the 15th AM will re-
curately than the capabilities of the tain its status on the Honor Roll. 208th AAA Group To Meade
equipment. Weare now engaged in drawing up The 208th AAA Group, commanded
Your method is, however, a sound some additional articles for the JOURNAL, by Colonel Howard S. Ives, has recentl~
workable solution to the problem, but and they should reach your office early moved from Camp Stewart, Ga. to For.
it appears you have offered quicker wind next year. For the past month we have Meade, Md., where it becomes a part 01
data and not better wind data. Accurate been firing M16s in support of infantry, the 35th AAA Brigade under Brig. Gen
wind data is obtained using rawin. using indirect fire on observed and har- Homer Case.
Your method and methods outlined assing and interdiction fire missions. We
in TM 20-241, properly employed pro- have fired more than 1,500,000 rounds;
vide data sufficiently accurate for AM and while we've learned a lot, we still
purposes. Extremely accurate wind data have much to learn. I hope to incorpo-
THE HARD WAY HOME
is not the single solution to AAA diffi- rate our experience and conclusions in an
culties. The major difficulty in obtain- article for the JOURNALafter we have By Col. William C. Braley
ing accurate trial fire results can gen- completed this mission and digested its
erally be attributed to lack of proper results. The infantry loves it. From Corregidor to Manchuria-
pre-firing checks of materiel, failure to vVe are looking forward to Colonel the author describes life and condi-
properly check cable systems, careless Henry's article on attachment of batteries
tions in eight Japanese prison camps
orientation procedure, and inadequate to RCTs in close support. Our view is
supervision of personnel in performance that any advantages gained relative to op- during World War II.
of the "routine" but necessary prepara- erational control are more than offset by
tion for, and then the actual conduct difficulties encountered in improper tac- NOW-$1.98
of, fire. tical utilization of M16s and M19s by
Your interest in the many problems the infantry, administration and logisti-

54 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURN.Al
. ~.. d l
-
ARTILLERY ORDERS
DA Special Orders Covering Noyember 1, 1951 through December 31,1951.
Promotions and Demotions not included.

COLONElS Stephens, Richard H., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Daugherty, Temple J., to Fort Bli~s, Texas .
.~dams. Edward F., to USA Alaska. Ft. Richard- hama. Japan. Davis. Joseph A .. to Stu Det AAA & GM BR
son. Swain. Oren, to Army War College, Carlisle Arty Sch, Ft Bliss, Tex .•
Bowers. Alvin 1'., to Far East Comd., Yoko- Bks. Penna. Deming, Philip L., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
hama, Japan. Tall, Charles H., Jr., to Far East Comd, Yoko- hama, Japan.
Brill. Albert S., to EUCOM, Bremerhaven. hama, Japan. Donahue, Theodore R., to Far East Comd,
Bush, Ernest L., to Hq 4th Army, Fl. Sam Van SI)'ke, Thomas G., to Far East Comd, Yo- Yokohama, Japan.
Houston, Texas. kohama, Japan. Eckert. Thomas A., to Stu Det ASA TC 862nd
urer. George P., FEC, Yokohama, Japan. Wrinstead, Elton D., to USA Caribbean, Ft AAU Ft Devens, Mass.
Dixon, Fred, to Army Sec Joint Air Def Bd Amador, CZ. Ellis, Allan R., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
S621st AAU Ent AFB, Colorado Springs, Wright, Wm. P., Jr., to 3rd Army 77th AAA Japan.
Colorado. Gun Bn, Cp Stewart, Ga. Fuller, Edgar D., Jr., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
Eliery. Frederick W., to Army War College, MAJORS hama, Japan.
Carlisle Bks., Penna. Homer K., Jr., to Far East Comd,
Ames, Harold Wr., to USA Forces Antilles, San Gardner,
Follansbee, Conrad G., to 4th Army 430Sth Juan, PRo Yokohama, Japan.
ASU Texas ORC Instr Gp., w/sta., Dallas, Bull. Frederick G., to Ps)'war Det., Ft Riley, Gillespie, Berkele)' S.. to Far East Comd, Yo-
Texas. Kansas. kohama, Japan.
Hall. Francis G .. to Stu Det Armed Forces Staff Carr, Emmert R., to 4th Army 40S4th ASU Gordon, Walter A., Jr., to Far East Comd, Yo-
College, Norfolk, Virginia. AAA & GM BR, Art)' Sch, Ft Sill, Okla. kohama, Japan.
Kopcsak, Peter )., to US Naval Forces Ea & Conlyn, Andrew G., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Hall, Earle c., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Med, Naples, Italy. hama, Japan. Japan.
Martin. D. D., 19th AAA Group, Ft. Meade, Crowe. Francis J., to Far East Comd, Yoko. Hampton, John W., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
:-ld. hama, Japan. hama, Japan.
Raymond, Charles W., to Stu Det Armr Lang Deluce. Louis F., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Hoppe, Woodrow c., to Far East Comd, Yoko.
Sch.. Monterey, Calif. Japan. hama, Japan.
Wahle. Carl B., to 2nd Army 230Sth ASU Wr Garcia. Obaldo, to 3rd Army 47th AAA Brig, Irish, Seymour 1.., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
Va NG Instr Gp, Charleston, \X'. Va. Cp Stewart, Ga. hama, Japan.
LIEUTENANT COLONElS Glover, Francis H., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Kotick, John F., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Best. George W., Jr., to 71st AAA GUN Bn, hama, Japan. Japan.
Ft Belvoir, Va. Grabove, Maxwell, to 3rd Army 47th AAA McGilton, Howard J., to Stu Det AAA & GM
Brunzell. Robert L., to European Comd, Bremer- Brig, Cp Stewart, Ga. BR, Arty Sch, Ft Bliss, Tex.
haven, German)'. Kusserow, Oliver A., to 6th Army 2S0th AAA McGinn, Bo)'d, to 2S0th AAA Gp, Ft Baker,
Clark, Howard K., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Gp., Ft Baker, Calif. Calif.
hama, Japan. Maldeis, Albert F., Jr., to USA Alaska, Ft. McMullin, George W., to 1st Army 16th AAA
Cuthbert, Clarence 1'., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Richardson. Gp, Ft Hancock, NJ.
hama, Japan. Maris, John G., to IOSth AAA Opns Det Miller, Robert E., to Far East Comd, Yokohama.
Ferre. Nevin F., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Indiantown Gap Mil Res, Indiantown Gap, Japan.
Japan. Penna. Mitchell, Robert Jr., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
Gibbons, Ulrich G., to Stu Det Armed Forces Meehan, Robert L., to Far East Comd, Yoko- hama, Japan.
Staff College, Norfolk, Virginia. hama, Japan. Parks, David H., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Harper, William E., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Mock, Alfred )., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Japan.
hama, Japan. Japan. Patton, Roy c., to 40S2nd ASU AAA & GM
Harve)', Albert W., to 4th Army 40S2nd ASU Peterson, Oscar K., to European Comd, Bremer- BR, Arty Sch, Ft Bliss, Texas.
AAA & GM Center, Fort Bliss. Texas. haven, Germany. Sarmiento, Ignacio M., to 9th AAA Gun Bn,
Hennessy, James 1'., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Robotkay, Henr)' J., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Ft Winfield Scott, Calif.
hama, Japan. hama, Japan. Shaver, George E., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
Heyenga, Lawrence E., to Far East Comd, Scruggs, William R., Jr., to Far East Comd, hama, Japan.
Yokohama, Japan. Yokohama, Japan. Shine, Dudley S., III., to USA Caribbean, Ft
Hines, Carol c., to 4th Army 40S2nd ASU Strunk, Charles E., to 4th Army 6016th ASU Amador, CZ.
AAA & GM BR., Arty Sch, Fort Bliss, Texas. Yuma Test Sta., Yuma, Arizona. Stafford, Nicholas 1'., Jr., to Far East Comd,
Hood, Ralph E., to U S Army Alaska, Ft. Rich- Wantuck, Louis R., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Yokohama, Japan.
ardson. hama, Japan. Trebilcock, Charles H., to Far East Comd, Yo-
Husse)', William J. A., to Stu Det Armed CAPTAINS kohama, Japan.
Forces Staff College, Norfolk, Virginia. Alarcon, Arthur E., to Far East Comd, Y oko- Troska, Adam, to European Comd, Bremer-
Isbell, William H., Jr., to Far East Comd, hama, Japan. haven, Germay.
Yokohama, Japan. Barrett, Joseph W., to 1st Army 16th AAA '\(reber, John A., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Keller, Stanley R., to 1st Army 38th AAA Gun Gp, Ft Hancock, N). Japan.
Bn, Cp Ed wards, Mass. Barrie, William, to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Williams, Ralph c., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
Lancey, William S., to USA Caribbean, Fort Japan. hama, Japan.
Amador CZ Barrow, Harry W., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Wolz, Russell, to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Lessard, Wilfr~d E., Jr., to Far East Comd, hama, Japan. Japan.
Yokohama, Japan. Buckley, John L., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Wright, Jack W., to Hq Army AA Comd
McDonald, Robert B., to Far East Comd, Y oko- Japan. 8S77th AAU Ent AFB., Colorado Springs,
hama, Japan. Colo. 4
Bullington, '\(rinston E., to Far East Comd,
Millett, Edward B., to U S Army Alaska, Fl. Yokohama, Japan. FIRST LIEUTENANTS
Richardson. Calcote, Robert M., to Stu Det AA & GM BR,
Montrone, Alfred, to Armed Forces Staff Col- Arty Sch., Ft Bliss, Texas. Atchinson, Thomas E., to 40S2d ASU AA &
lege, Norfolk, Va. GM Br Arty Sch, Fl. Bliss, Tex.
Cameron, Howard S., to Far East Comd, Y oko-
Morse, Henry P., to 4th Army 40S4th ASU hama, Japan. Baldwin, Elmer F., to 2S0th AAA Gp, Ft Baker,
to; AAA & GM Br., Arty Sch., Ft. Sill, Okla. Cantwell, Robert c., to U 5 Army Alaska, Ft Calif.
• aylor, Arthur 5., to 4th Army 4OS2nd ASU Richardson. Bexk, Ralph A., to Far East Command, Yoko-
c.t'AA & GM Center, Fort Bliss, Texas. Cornelios, Lee c., to 4th Army 40S2nd ASU hama, Japan.
"Uluelke, Ernst R., to USA Caribbean, Ft AAA & GM Center, Fort Bliss, Texas. Boyles, \X'illiam W., to Eastern Army AA
Amador CZ Crawford, John c., Jr., to 4th Arm)' 40S2nd Comd, Stewart AFB, New York.
Selsor, M~rk A., Jr., to 3rd Army S6th AAA ASU AAA & GM BR, Arty Sch., Fort Bliss, Brenneman, Curvin E., Jr., to Far East Com-
Gun Bn, Cp Stewart, Ga. Texas. mand, Yokohama, Japan.
JANUARY - FEBRUARY, 1952 5S
Byrnes, George J., to Far East Command, Yo- Everly, Jack C, to Far East Command, Yoko-
kohama. Japan. hama, Japan.
Canter. Earl W., to Far East Command, Yoko-
hama. Japan.
Felvey, Jones, 2nd., to 4052d ASU AAA and
GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex.
THE
Cantrell,
Yokohama,
Warren
Japan.
G., to Far East Command, Fitz,l;erald, Paul E., to 726th AAA Gun Bn,
Sandia Base, N Mex.
OFFICERS' GUIDE
Chambers. Robert Wl., to Far East Command, Foster, Dante F.. to Far East Command, Yoko-
Yokohama, Japan. hama. Japan.
1951 Edition
Chaplesky, Marion P., to 47th AAA Brig, Cp Greene, Dorsey B., Jr., to 4052d ASU AAA
Stewart, Ga. and GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. _
Etzold, David E .. to 4052d ASU AAA and Hampton, David R., to 4052d ASU AAA and
GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. GM Cen. Ft Bliss. Tex.
Ford. William W .. to 4052d ASU AAA and Hares. Chester K.. to US Army Alaska, Ft
GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. Richardson, Alaska.
Fort, Daniel M .. to Far East Command, Yoko- Hayes. Robert 1., to Stu Det AA & GM Br
hama, Japan. , Arty Sch. Ft Bliss, Tex.
Garvey, George F., to Far East Command, Yo- Haynes, Francis J .. to US Army Alaska, Ft
kohama. Japan. Richardson, Alaska.
Garlor, \X'alter K., Jr., to Far East Command, Hedgepath, William T., Jr., to Far East Com-
Yokohama, Japan. mand. Yokohama. Japan.
Havrilla, Frank, to Far East Command, Yoko- Hemmin,l;, Norbert G., to 3444th ASU Cp
hama, Japan. Stewart, Ga.
Kratch, Harold F., to Stu Det AA & GM Br Hudlow, Harold E., to Far East Command, Yo-
Arty Sch, Ft Bliss, Tex. kohama, Japan.
Larson, John I., to Far East Command, Y oko- jones, William C, to Far East Command, Yo-
hama, Japan. kohama, Japan.
Lawrence, Dou,l;las M., to Far East Command, joseph, Leroy, to 719th AAA Gun Bn, Ft
Yokohama, Japan. Lewis. \X'ash.
Lindsley, Lawrence G., to Far East Command, Kirpatrick, Arthur Jr., to Far East Command,
Yokohama, Japan. Yokohama, japan.
McClung, Nelson D .. to Far East Command, Lafayette, John E., to 4052d ASU AAA and
Yokohama, Japan. GM Cen. Ft Bliss, Tex.
McCluskey, Alfred H .. to 4052d ASU AAA and The turn-to book for every Army
Liff, Earl R., to Far East Command, Yokohama,
GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. Japan. officer-from the first day he reports
McPherson, Robert G., to Far East Command, Livingston, Gilbert H., to Far East Command,
Yokohama, Japan. for duty until he retires.
Yokohama, Japan.
Matthiessen, Clarence ).. to 44th AAA Gun Losak, George, to Far East Command, Yoko-
Bn, Cp Stewart, Ga. hama, Japan. A veritable encyclopedia
Osborn, Claud D., to Far East Command, Yo- McNally, Kenneth E., to 82d Abn Div, Ft
kohama, Japan. Bragg, NC
Pellegrino, James M., to 47th Inf Div, Cp Monkhouse, Carl., to US Army Alaska, Ft PARTIAL CONTENTS
Rucker, Ala. Richardson, Alaska.
Pendleton, Frederick C, to 336th AAA Gun Murley, Ellsworth M., Jr., to 4052d ASU and Customs and courtesies
Bn, Cp Edwards, Mass. GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex.
Ryan, Martin V., to 8579th AAU, Ft Holabird, Murray, Lynn 0., to Far East Command, Yo- The Code of the Army
Md. kohama, japan.
Stewart, Bradley A., to Far East Command, Nelson, Johnnie 1., to Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft
Leadership techniques
Yokohama, Japan. Sill, Okla.
Shanks, Fred 0., to Far East Command, Yoko-
Arrival at a new station
Newman, Richard 1., to Far East Command,
hama, japan. Yokohama, Japan. Efficiency reports
Sherkow, Vernon A., to Far East Command, Nilson, Lawrence A., to 82d Abn Div, Ft
Yokohama, Japan. Bragg, NC Uniforms, insignia, medals
.Simmons, Eugene H., to 80th AAA Gp, Ft O'Rahilly, Patrick J., to US Army Alaska, Ft
Totten, NY. Richardson, Alaska.
Schools-Army, Joint
.sparks, Ernest T., to Far East Command, Yo- Paxton, David 0., to Far East Command, Yo-
kohama, Japan.
Duty (and living) overseas
kohama, japan.
.spivey, Ray V., to Far East Command, Yoko- Posen, Robert S., to Far East Command, Y oko- Pay and allowances
hama, japan. hama, Japan.
.Standridge, Acy W., to 4052d ASU AAA and Prince, John R., Jr., to Far East Command, New travel regulations
GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. Yokohama, Japan.
.stillwagon, Charles E., Jr., to Far East Com- Queen, William 1., to 4052d ASU AAA and
Career planning
mand, Yokohama, Japan. GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. Your personal affairs
.swann, Ralph J., to Far East Command, Yoko- Reilly, Frank A., to Far East Command, Yoko-
hama, Japan. hama, Japan. Rights and restrictions
Thayer, George E., Jr., to Hq 2d Army, Ft Riddle, John J., to Far East Command, Yoko-
Meade, Md. hama, Japan. Army posts-facilities
Watkins, Edwin C, to 8801st TSU PMG Cen, Roberts, Russell M., to Far East Command,
Cp Gordon, Ga. Practical public speaking
Yokohama, Japan.
Wilson, Allen F., to AS Army Alaska, Ft Rothwell, James A., to US Army Alaska, Ft
Richardson, Alaska. Richardson, Alaska. More than 560,000 Army officers
Yates, Francis B., to Far East Command, Yoko- Scott, Ralph., to Far East Command, Yokohama,
hama, Japan. Japan. have found the OFFICER'S GUIDE
Silverman, Robert 1., to Far East Command, Yo- helpful in their careers.
SECOND LIEUTENANTS kohama, Japan.
Ashford, Johnny 1., to 3444th ASU, Cp Sizer, Robert F., to Far East Command, Yoko-
Stewart, Ga. hama, Japan. 17th Edition 592 pages
.Baker, Horace 8., to 250th AAA Gp, Ft Baker, Stewart, James B., to 4054th ASU AAA and
Calif. GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. $3.50
Barco, Irvine 1., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Stoddard, Harry 0., to Far East Command, Yo-
Japan. kohama, Japan.
Bowden, Hollis A., to 47th AAA Brig, Cp Swift, Roland, B., to Far East Command, Yoko-
Stewart, Ga. hama, Japan.
Cain, Joseph A., Jr., to Far East Command, Tharp, Charles B., to Far East Command, Yo-
Yokohama, Japan. kohama, Japan.
Cephas, Opher J., to Far East Command, Yoko- Wheeler, Herbert W., to 4054th ASU AAA and
hama, Japan. GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex.
Cushman, Harold G., Jr., to Far East Command, Wilson, Perkins, to Far East Command, Y oko-
Yokohama, Japan. hama, Japan.
Dubbert, Louis F., to 4052d ASU AAA and Zolper, John T., to 80th AAA Gp, Ft Totten,
GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. NY.
56 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAl
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ORDER FROM

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RED CHINA'S FIGHTING HORDES
By Lt. Col. ROBERT B. RIGG

4' 350 PAGES

PHOTOGRAPHS
~
,Itt CHARTS

f- PEN 'SKETCHES
By The Author

R[D CHINAS
IGHTIN6 HORDES LIFE says, "RED CHINA'S FIGHTING
HORDES is the most definitive exposi-
LIEUT. C.O~OIolEL ROBERT B.RIGG
tion of the PLA (People's Liberation
Army) yet to appear."

Written by an experienced American Army officer, RED CHINA'S


FIGHTING HORDES is the first full-length marshalling of the facts about
the Communist Chinese Army to appear in print. Rigg tells all there is to
know about the Chinese Red Army: Organization, training, tactics, supply
-even their women. He deals not only with the "practical" but has also
enlivened his work with a dash of salty soldier humor.
Rigg describes the pitiless brutality that has been an essential part of
the remarkable development of this army, and the violent, sustained
propaganda that has inflamed both leaders and men. He tells of the
China Civil War, the "phony" invasion of Tibet, the training now in prog-
ress to invade Formosa.
The reader will find this book a straightforward, realistic description
of the army's strengths and weaknesses, the character of its men and com-
manders, its weapons, its tactics and "shoestring" supply, its organi- CHU TEH,
Commonder-in-chief
zation, training indoctrination, and future development. Colonel Rigg be-
Chinese Red Army
lieves this army, even though it is willing to lose a million "expendable"
soldiers a year, can be defeated-and suggests how.

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