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14th AAA Group Captain William O. Norris (Chap)
Captain Charles H. Bland
iC Major Robert E. Braamfoeld
1st ll. Matthew Oadich
Captain Albert A. Boray
ic Sic. Richard S. Benjamin *
ic 15th AAA AW Battalion (SPl
Sic. Wayne M. Robison

Sic. Jose ph O. leanhart *

Captain Henri F. Wrobleski

Captain George W. Eddy

Captain Cesere R. Freda
Sg!. Calvin E. Pressley
Sg!. John E. Johnson
Cpl. lannie Summerford
iC *
iC *"
iC *"
14th AAA Group 15th AAA AW Battalion (SP)

ic Sic. Richard E. McClanahan Cpl. Harald P. Martinell *

Cpl. Maurice O. Knallhaff
ic *
ic *
iC 14th AAA Group Pic. Anthony

Pic. Walter Gurley

P. OiBrita
ic Captain Harald F. Nenninger
Pic. Jay T. Hicks
Pic. Allen Shepard
15th AAA AW Battalion ISPl
Pic. Amos H. Tallent
Captain Harry Postal
Pic. Hiram S. Wilson

Pvt. Dominic J. Faiella

ic M-Sg!. Alvin B. Aubert Pvl. William l. Curlis *"
Cpl. Jerry l. Searles
Pic. John R. Anderson
Pvt. lean M. Fitzpatrick
Pvt. Fred J. Sawyer
Pic. Andy H. Colbert Pvl. Joseph E. Solarz
ic *"
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FOUNDED in 1892
Published from 1892 until 1922 as
HONORARY PRESIDENT Published from 1922 until 1948 as the
COVER: ~Iaj. t\. H. Becbe, Jr., Senior Team Instructor, B Battery, affixes
red streamers to battery guidons. Red streamer symbolizes senior class status.
ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF THE L to R: George Francis Chandler, James Blaine Gillen, Jr., Fred l\lsley
EXECUTIVE COUNCIL Baker, Jr., James Vincent Creder, Bryant \Vesley Smith.
SUPPLY: WORLD WAR II. By Lt. Gen. LeRoy Lutes 2
COLONEL NORMAN E. HARTMAN SAVINGS. By Brig. Cen. TllOmas It Phillips 9
MAJOR JAMES E. CALKINS By Capt. Patrick \V. Powers 12
By Lt. Col. John B. B. Twssell, Jr 15
The purpose of the AHociation shall be to THE PORTO BEL i\IACHINE GUN TRAINER.
promote the efficiency of the Antiaircraft By Major Theodore Wyckoff and 1st Lt. Reuben J. Rllt/edge .. 18
Artil/ery by maintaining in Jlandards and tra- SAAA, i\IANORBIER. By lvlajor M. It McCarthy 19
ditions, by diHeminating profeHional knowl- AAA OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL.
edge, by inspiring greater effort toward the By Captain Joseph E. Melanson, Jr 22
improvement of materiel and methods of
By Lt. Col. William H. Nico/son 24
traini,rg and by fostering mutual understand-
DIESEL GENERATORS. By Captain Frank J. Jansen 26
ing, respect and cooperation among all arms,
TRACER EXPEDIENT. By Capt. Frank J. Romano 27
branches and components of the Regular YOU AND YOUR FIELD TELEPHONE EE-EIGHT.
Army, National Guard, Organized Reserves, By Capt. V/illiam F. Brown 28
and Reserve Officers' Training Corps. RCAr'S IN JAPAN. By 1st Lt. Leland V. Ham/in 30
Th. JOURNAL prinb .rtld .. on subj.ct. of TRAINING LITERATURE. By Major B. C. Oberlin 33
professional and Kener.1 interest to personnel of 35TH BRIGADE IN FIELD POSITIONS 34
th. Anti.lrcraft Artill.ry in ord.r to stimul.t.
thoul'ht and proToke discus.ion. HoweTer,
opinion. expressed and conelulions drawn in
ARTILLERY. By Col. William J. WlIest 35
articles are in no aenle official. The,. do not re- AAA RTC 37
fleet the opinions or conclusions of any official HONOR ROLL 38
or branch of the D.partm.nt of the Arm".
Th. JOURNAL do•• net carry p.ld .dnrtl.lnlr. By Lt. Col. Richard W. Owen 39
Th. JOURNAL p.". for orhrln.1 .rtlcl •• upon
publlc.tlon. JIf.nuocrlpt .hould b•• ddr .... d to
the Editor. Th. JOURNAL Is not r .. pon.lbl. GF.NERAL OFFICER ASSIGNMENTS 43
for manulcrlpb unaccompanied by return NEWS AND COi\IMENT 44


1\1 Sgt Fred A. Baker, Business Manager
Sgt leI Ralph N. Charleston, Cir. Mgr.
Sgt leI James E. Moore, Jr., Editorial Assistant

PWublilbedblmonthl" by the United States Antiaircraft Alloci.tion. Editori.1 and executive offices, 631 Penns"lvania Av.nue, N.W.•

aobingtou', D. O. T.rUll; '3.00 per year. For.ign lubseriptiono, $'.00 per year. Single eopieo, 75e. Entered as seeond.eJ... matter
ot W.shiugton, D. 0.; additional entry at Richmou~. Va .• und.r the Act of March 3, 1879. Cop:rright, 1952, b" the United Stat.s
Antiaircraft Anociation.
THE shipping situation was getting locate shipping to each area of the world the world unless we were aggressive in
more and more critical-a matter of in consonance with the relative impor- checking up and demanding efficient
primary concern to General Somervell, tance of the operation. Although the operations.
the Chief of Transportation i\lajor Gen- actual loading and movements of ships On his first Right to the Southwest
eral Charlie Gross, and myself. Not only were the function of the Chief of Trans- Pacific, General "Hap" Arnold, in 1942.
were we required to maintain the large portation, it was my responsibility to see noticed a huge congestion of allied ship-
forces in North Africa, in the South and that the proper supplies and equipment ping in the harbor of Noumea, New
Southwest Pacific, but we were using were moved to the ports and overseas in Caledonia. As an air officer. he con-
considerable tonnage for lend-lease sup- accordance with priorities and within sidered this group of ships a fine bomb-
plies to Russia (through Persia); for time limits; in other words, to coordinate ing target for the enemy, and on his
construction materials, airplanes, bombs and supervise the general operations of return to \Vashington growled to Gen-
to the United Kingdom for General the Army Service Forces. eral Somervell about it. \Vhereas "Hap"
Spaatz' bombing operations against Ger- The tight situation in ship tonnage was interested in this matter because of
many; and also all types of supplies and capacity made it mandatory that through- the danger from air bombing, we seized
equipment to the United Kingdom for out the world our overseas commanders the information with alacrity because we
the build-up against the day when we unload their ships promptly and return needed those ships to carry cargoes. \Ve
could invade the Continent from the them to the United States. had been complaining to the South
United Kingdom Base. Lend-lease sup- There was always the temptation of Pacific Commander of Army Ground
plies for China and military supplies overseas commanders to hold the ships, and Air Forces (General Harmon) about
for our forces in China and Burma were either for storage purposes or to further the slow return of his ships. However,
being shipped to and through India. their own immediate military operations. the area was under supreme command
These huge, far-flung operations This was natural. Each of them con- of Admiral Nimitz and local command
strained our shipping to the breaking sidered his own operation of primary im- of Admiral Ghormley. General Somer.
point. \Ve had to weigh the priorities portance, and was not too concerned veil directed me to go to the South Paci-
of all these operations carefully and al- about the situation in the other parts of fic at once to ascertain the reason for
this shipping congestion and to take such
action as I believed necessary to straight-
en it out. As an additional mission, 1
was to proceed on to Australia and con-
fer with General i\hcArthur on his pres-
ent and future plans and requirements.
This later was to prove to be a very
interesting conference.
General Arnold advised me that a
new special plane (a C-8?) would be
provided for me at Hamilton Field near
San Francisco and advised me to keep
in touch with the commander of that
field concerning its readiness and time
of Right.
On obtaining the probable date of
readiness, 1 proceeded to San Francisco,
taking with me j\lajor Richard D. Myer
of the Transportation Corps. We arrived
at Hamilton Field about 9:00 p.m. for
~~ a departure at 10:00 p.m. All flights
Elephant power moves supplies over the Bengal and Assam RR in IndIa. across the Pacific were then made at

for two reasons. First, because the the night we mm'ed into a sleet storm turned me o\'er to his staff for the neces-
navigators plotted the course by observa- at high altitude. I slept through it. but sary conferences on problems concerning
tions of the stars; and secondly, because it had worried the crew. the support of Hawaii and the use of
if the na\'igator failed in accuracy for An uneven motion of the plane awak- Hawaii as a partial base to support the
any reason, the daylight would be avail- ened me after daylight and looking out South Pacific. The entire afternoon was
able at the last of the trip to permit a porthole I saw that we were close to spent in going over shortages, le\'els of
searching for the island destinations. It the water-too close for comfort-and requirements and construction require-
should be remembered that in 1942 radio that we had one dead motor. The plane ments. \Ve had determined in \Vash-
"beams" were not available for our Hiers. was laboring and dipping on one side. ington that time and money could be
and orders, were to Hy with silenced A crew member told me we were going sa\'ed by shipping directly from the
radio in order that the Japs could not to try for an emergency landing at Bel- United States to the South and South-
easily locate our planes or bases. lows Field, a new airfield under con- west Pacific when possible, but we real-
On arrival at the huge airplane, we struction on the eastern shore of Oahu, ized that there were times that Hawaii
found the crew trying to close a valve in But in spite of our difficulties, we had could be of great help in emergency
the gasoline tanks on the right wing. to delay long enough to give identifica- shipments, particularly air shipments of
Gasoline was running freely and the tion signals so that our own antiaircraft spare parts for airplanes and weapons.
crew were mumbling against the pl,ane. artillery would not fire upon us. This I also called at the office of Brigadier
Thev did not like this model plane and signal consisted of making a small circle General Green (later ;\ lajor General
thou'ght it had not been thoroughly twice off a promontory of the island. and Judge Advocate General of the
tested. It was a good crew. The Cap- The working men at Bellows Field Army), who had the problem of supply-
tain of the ship was \Villiam McCray, leaned on their shovels in excited antici- ing the civilian population. I went m'er
the Navigators Captain Ball and Lieu- pation as we limped and wobbled on to his problems of labor, materials. and
tenant Hansman, all ex-American Air- the new runway and taxied by them. supply levels. The Hawaiian Islands
line men. The Assistant Pilots were Then we learned, too, that we were out had never raised sufficient foodstuffs for
Captains Barrow, Allen and \Vickland. of gas, and took on enough to carry us its population, its principal crops being
After an hour's tinkering, the leak was over the mountains to our first destina- pineapples and sugar cane for export.
stopped. Several passengers for Hawaii tion, Hickam Field. There we landed It was becoming a problem to supply
arrived, we got our luggage aboard, were at II: 15 a.m., completing the first leg the islands in view of the ship tonnage
briefed on how to wear the "J\lae \Vest" of our journey in 14 hours and 35 min- we needed for military supplies. \Ve
life preserver in water-should we meet utes Hying time. were having trouble coordil}ating the
disaster. Also we had to carry side arms I was met by an old friend, Brigadier military, naval and civilian tonnage re-
and, of all things ridiculous, gas masks. General Henry Holmes, who had just quirements, J\loreover. it was difficult to
\Ve then roared down the runway and been assigned to command the Services stop military personnel from purchasing
out m'er San Francisco Bay. of Supply in the Hawaiian Theater of from local merchants that which had
Although I had Hown the Atlantic Operations. He escorted me to the quar-' been shipped in primarily for the civil
twice at night, I still had mixed feelings ters of the Commanding General of the population. I recommended that drastic
as we headed out into the inky blackness Hawaiian Theater and J\lilitary Gover- action be taken to stop this and sent
ol'er the Pacific Ocean. Our first leg of nor, Lieutenant General Delos Emmons, back to the vVashington office requests
the journey would be to Hawaii, the a pleasant, handsome and shrewd Air for assistance to Hawaii in coordinating
longest of the series of hops that we Force General whom I had known be- the requirements of the military and
would make-2200 miles. Since then, fore. He was ill with inHuenza and civilian populations.
Hying has made great strides. Flying
now, either by day or night, with naviga-
tion by radio beams seems very simple
-but being out over the ocean with
silenced radio, navigating entirely by
stars or the sun, with an island for a
destination, was something different.
The outline of the Golden Gate Bridge
and the twinkling lights of San Francisco
Bay soon faded away and we settled
down for the long Hight of over 14 hours.
~ot knowing what kind of weather we
would encounter, I strapped myself in
the seat before going to sleep. Because
the gasoline had to .be moved from one
tank to another about each two-hour
period to equalize the distribution and
because the values and pipes were along
high voltage wires, the portholes wen~
left open to insure fresh air. During Ancient and modern: Oxcarts In Burma China.
During my brief stay, I noticed that
the Nan' was building one or two build-
ings of 'permanent construction and it
To my surprise, Admiral Calhoun,
who was to join me in my Right south,
had gone on ahead of me. I was to learn
Tho "oop' "'0" bu,~'digging "eneh",
and emplacing guns and barbed wire to
defend our airstrip there. \Ve found ex-
occurred to me that since the Army also with some amusement later why he had cess stores here and Holmes arranged
had maintained garrisons and a head- done so. to have the next ship remove them.
quarters on Oahu for many years, that The day before the departure South, Otherwise, we found no serious problems
the old wooden headquarters building Captain Eddie Rickenbacker arrived en at Christmas Island and left at 11: 15
might well be replaced by a permanent route to Australia as a special emissary a.m. for Canton Island, a more impor-
modern building. I sent a message to of the Secretary of \Var to General i\lac- tant air base that we were building up
my chief General Someryell, according- Arthur. He ~vas accompanied by his as a stopping point for Rights south. We
ly; but h~ slapped me down with a short publicity man. That night, General arrived at 4.15 p.m. to find that Eddie
terse reply that permanent construction Emmons had a small dinner for Ricken- Rickenbacker, his party and crew had
during the emergency was prohibited by backer, his party, Holmes and myself, called for help early in the afternoon
Act of Congress and to send no more but at the last minute the host regret- stating that they were lost, out of gaso-
recommendations for such construction. fully gave up with the inRuenza and line and about to take to life rafts. r. h.
I thought of the fine concrete steel depot could not attend. Before midnight we crew searched for' him all night, and
being constructed dockside at San Fran- wh~le I checked on the logistic installa.
cisco and the cold storage plant at Pearl tions of Canton the next day they Con.
Harbor and wondered how the Navy tinued to search with no avail.
did it-I still wonder. I could well understand how Rieken.
General Delos Emmons accompanied backer had missed Canton Island. \Vhen
me on a call on Admiral Nimitz, over-all my pilot tried to point it out to me it
commander of Central and South Pacific blended so perfectly into the sea, that
areas. Admiral Nimitz' headquarters re- I could not see it until we Rew in toward
minded me of a large battleship conning it to land. The island is but a coral
tower and was run ship style. Admiral reef, standing a few feet above tide
Nimitz, handsome, rugged, pink-i:heeked, water. vVith no trees on it, except one
gray-haired, calm, looked every inch an or two at one end of the island, it is
admiral. He was very gracious to us lost to the human eye on a slightly O\-er.
and invited me to sit through his morn- cast day. On sunny days it is blistering
ing staff conference, after which we dis- hot, and the coral sheds and dust are
cussed my journey through his area. blinding white. Since it is a British
possession, a British resident agent lived
I outlined to him the views of Gen-
alone there before our troops arrived.
eral Somervell. and myself concerning
Just what the British could ever hope
some method of effecting closer joint
to get out of this bare roosting place
operations in order to insure more eco- all moved out to the airport to take off. for sea gu lis was hard to understand,
nomical use of shipping. He readily The airport was blacked out and quiet. but it had certainly come in handy as
agreed that the idea should be explored, After some difficultv, we found our a refueling base for our planes in their
showing a particular interest in the estab- planes. Eddie's plan~ started out to the Rights between Hawaii and the South
lishment of new bases in the South Pacif- runwav for the first take-{)ff, but finally Pacific.
ic. I-Ie asked me to be sure to see the taxied' back with motor trouble. vVe The hospital and ammunition maga-
"roads" which afforded shipping protec- offered to take him in our plane, but zines at Canton had been placed par-
tion from weather at Espiritu Santo, and he wanted to go straight to Canton tially underground, but the hard white
to take a look at the island for base Island, whereas I had some checking to coral made blasting and digging difficult.
purposes. This I agreed to do and ad- do at Christmas Island before going to General Holmes and I agreed that levels
vised him that I would call on him on Canton. I-Ie asked for another plane of supplies at Canton were too high and
my return trip. and Rew away into the night. The next arranged that shipments of surplus be
\Vhile Admiral Nimitz was open- day I was to learn he was lost and down made out to others places. Notes on
minded on our logistics suggestions, his in the sea. shortages, particularly of spare parts for
staff officers were somewhat suspicious. \.Ve sighted Christmas Island at 7: 15 weapons, signal equipment and ordnance
Particularly were they concerned and a.m. 21 October. It stood out like a tools, were made and sent back to my
rightfully so, about controlling their own painted picture in green in an ocean \Vashington office and we prepared to
tankers for fueling the Reet. I assured of blue. Oval in shape, the surf break- move on south.
them that there was no intention of ing on the white beaches, its coconut The men at Canton had worked hard
hamstringing the Reet but that petro- trees swaying in the breeze, it was a in the blinding glare of coral and heat.
leum, like all other supplies common to picture of peace instead of war. We The combat troops had to do the work
all services, would be needed by the were met by the commander and driven of service troops as well as their own.
Air, and Army Ground Forces; that we to his CP in the heart of the coconut I visited the hospital to find most of the
would have to work out a system of grove where we washed, shaved and men well but being treated for minor
priorities and combined deliveries. ate outdoors under the trees. accidents incident to their work.
Since the next hop would be to Fiji, and staff there. One of the Japanese was covered bv a storm. The base could
only about 1276 miles, and these were fleets was on the loose at the time and not be seen. Not a single member of
islartds on which we could keep bear- it was not knO\i\iD whether thev were my crew had ever landed there, but they
ings, we decided to travel in daylight headed for New Caledonia or Fiji. This were willing to try it. Mter a few circles
and continue our search for Rickenback- fact caused me to study what would they had to open up their radio for short
er. We flew low and crossed back and happen to the support of American terse advice from the ground (something
farth over the water areas south of Can- forces at Guadalcanal if the New Cale- we were forbidden to do except in emer-
tan. I became canvinced from that search dania base were captured or seriously gencies) and started down through the
that trying to' find a life raft in the vast damaged, it being the principal base clauds. Now and then when the clouds
blue ocean was like hunting the pro- supporting Guadalcanal. I came to the cleared for a few seconds, we could see
verbial needle in a haystack. At times conclusion that we Slhauldhave sufficient a boulder jutting just off the wings,
we would spot an autline on the water reserve stocks in Fiji to support the South but we made it and found it raining
that strangly resembled a raft, but an Pacific until we knew definitely that and muddy on the ground. Later, when
gaing dawn to examine it found it to New Caledonia wauld remain safe in the weather cleared and I saw the jagged
be a cluster of seaweed ar merely the our hands. That wauld mean duplica- mountains sitting in a crescent around
shadaw af a claud an the blue water. tion af stocks, but it meant flexibility of the field, I wondered how my boys had
Several times we passed over sman supply. The Japs could not undertake done such a good job. Lieutenant Gen-
islands used as cocanut plantatians and campaigns against both New Caledania eral Harmon, Air Force, our commander
circled them, but saw no signs af life. and Fiji simultaneously, and if they hit in the south, felt the same way about it.
We gave up sadly but with some com- but one, we shauld and could have the At the Tontouta Airport I noted a
fort and hope in the thaught that sev- other stocked to' continue to suppart aur large number of Navy planes and in-
eral planes from Palmyra Island had operations. I sent my recommendations quired why these would be on an Army
been put on the search. back to' General Somervell who accepted Air Force Base. The fliers replied with
After seven haurs of flight, we arrived them and acted promptly to start addi- a grin, "Oh, they bring' em ashore when
off Fiji in a black thunderstorm, ane tional tonnage to Fiji. Fortunately, the they can for fear the carrier might be
of the flying hazards we had in those Japs were later stopped by Admiral sunk." A good idea, I thought, but as
days. A considerable number of fliers "Bull" Halsey's fine fighting fleet, and some Air Force wag had said, "In this
and planes were lost in the early days Guadalcanal became the last J ap attempt war the Navy has came ashore."
in the South Pacific flying intO'"thunder- to' push East. We arrived at the Army headquarters
heads" as the flying men caned them. On returning to' Nandi Airport in the in a drizzling rain at 6:00 p.m. The
Regardless of the storm, we had to' northwest area af the Island of Fiji, I Sauth Pacific area was a joint command
fly in taward land on a specified route, found that we would have to remain with the seniar officer in the area, Ad-
making the proper circles and wing dips overnight before proceeding onward to' miral "Bull" Halsey, in cammand. Un-
to identify ourselves as a friendly and the south. That night we slept in a der him were the Fleet and Army
not an enemy plane. Otherwise we large, airy, caal, thatched hut. Several commands. Since the Air Farces were
might have been fired upon. On landing of these large thatched roof "bunga- then part af the Army, an Air Force
at Nandi Air Field, we were met by lows" were under canstruction for the officer, Lieutenant General Harmon, was
Brigadier General Upshur of the Air air force personnel of the station. It was in command of all Army and Air Force
Forces, who invited us to' his headquar- interesting to watch the muscu"Iarbrown- units in the area. Admi;al Halsey made
ters to' await a lun in the rainstorm. skinned Fiji Islanders erect these houses his headquarters aboard his flagship
withaut nails, tying the cane rafters, while Harmon was ensconced in an ald-
\Vhen it lifted, I took a.Iocal plane
to Suva, flown by a New Zealander. It beams and uprights by thangs and climb- fashioned mid-Victarian style building
was a small windjammer that tossed ing quickly and gracefully using only in Noumea. Noumea was a typical
around in the air like a chip, but we their feet and hands. French type rolanial town with twa-
made it over mountains covered by Brigadier General Holmes left my story frame buildings with outside stair-
black clouds to' Suva, the capital af Fiji. party at Fiji and awaited a chance to ways, reminding me of some of those on
Here I was met by Major General return to his station at Hawaii; and since the side streets in the Old French Quar-
Beightler, who took me past his new time was pressing, I pushed on to the Is- ters of New Orleans.
ammunition magazines dug into the lands of Efate and Epiritu Santo. A pa- At this headquarters I found Harmon
sides of the mountains and on to his trol plane returned fram the vicinity with in conference with his staff and wor-
headquarters in an old mid-Victorian the report that the islands were covered ried. He had, of course, received the
house located an top af a high hill. The with heavy storms moving eastward to- same report that I had heard in Fiji, i.e.,
house in its day had been the best in its ward Fiji. The air weathermen at Nandi that the Japanese fleet was maving east-
area. I inquired what happened to its said I might make it to New Caledonia ward screening transports filled with
o\vner and was told that he went broke if I flew at once and tried to' skirt around troops. Whether they would strike Fiji
and returned to a small island to' raise east of the storm. This we decided to or New Caledania or Espiritu Santa was
cocanuts. do. When we approached New Cale- the questian. But the fleet had a new
Here I went aver the levels af supply donia nearly four hours later and I Admiral-Halsey-who had just relieved
af the variaus critical categories and dis- wanted to land at T ontouta Air Base Admiral Gharmley. Halsey wasted no
cussed the future with the cammander near Noumea, the entire tip of the island time in the newly develaped situation.
He tersely ordered his fleet to proceed tain Carter, the senior :\"a\'al officer the docks. The Army Engineers agreed
to sea, find the Jap fleet and destroy it. ashore, and Captain i\liller, commanding to construct two additional berths, but
His orders, dehered a few minutes be- the 1'\a\'y Advance Supply Base. as well saw no chance of constructing more in
fore I arrived at Harmon"s, had electri- as Captain Bowman, the Fleet Supply the near future. As it required one
fied the whole community as well as the Officer, were present. I was very happy week to unload one cargo ,'esse!. it
military staffs. \ Vithin a matter of hours, to see a representative of the Navy would take two or three months to un-
the American Beet was to settle the ques- Operations office in \Vashington, Cap- load the ships that were in the harbor.
tion concerning the destination of the tain Doughty. I e:-.-plained to these of- As a solution, I proposed that the
Jap fleet by badly defeating it. ficers the critical shortages of shipping Army and Navy form a joint board or
Harmon's personal quarters were in facing us in our world-wide operations. committee ashore to work together and
a modern stone and stucco bungalow the effect of the submarine warfare on to prepare a combined single list of the
turned over to him bv the French man- our Atlantic operations, and the dire items needed by both in order of priority
ager of the local nickel mines. I mm'ed necessity of utilizing all available ship- for shipment; and that on my return to
in with him temporarily. Living with ping efficiently, in order to increase the San Francisco, I would arrange there to
him were i\lajor General "Sandy" Patch, number of troops overseas and to main- ha\"e the Army and Nm'y coordinate in
Commander of the Americal Division: tain them, The advantages of the Army filling these requisitions for shipment.
his Chief of Staff, Brigadier General and Navy working closely together to i\ loreover, I suggested that ships should
Edward Sebree; and Harmon's Chief of eliminate duplication and overlapping not be routed into the South Pacific at
Staff, Brigadier General Nathan Twin- in their operations were explained; and, a faster rate than they could be un-
ing. AF (now General). After outlining in addition, I explained the Army's m'er- loaded, I was sure all of these matters
the purpose of my visit. I-Iarmon ar- seas supply system whereby the Army could be straightened out if the two
ranged a conference of the Army and presented its requisitions and priorities staffs would work together. I hopefully
Navy staff officers concerned for the fol- to the Port of San Francisco for the pointed out that items needed by the
lowing afternoon. supply of the South and Southwest Army and Navy could be procured and
The following morning I spent with Pacific. I next outlined an observation supplied by one service and that service
"Sandy" Patch, looking over the harbor I had made in the morning check of the troops, particularly those involved in con-
facilities and discussing with him his port, indicating that there were too many struction activities, could perform con-
motor maintenance and warehousing ships in the harbor of Noumea due to struction and other services for both the
problems in Noumea, and with General lack of port facilities for unloading these Army and Navy, thereby reducing the
Breene the organization of the New troops and storing or distributing the numbers involved in these activities.
Caledonia Base Command. It was ob- cargoes. A considerable number of ships Tentatively, they agreed and Cap-
vious that changes should be made in had been unloaded in a confused scram- tain Doughty from the \Vashington of-
the Engineer and Ordnance setup and ble to obtain from the cargoes high fice agreed to a unified port command,
that additional Quartermaster truck bat- priority items for the support of combat with the port staff consisting of Army
talions, service battalions and port troops operations on the sea, in the air, and at and Navy representation. In fact, Cap-
were needed in order to clear the vicinitv Guadalcanal. All agreed that this was tain Doughty accepted all recommenda-
of the harbor. ' a \'ery uneconomical operation. The tions except the one concerning common
After lunch at Harmon's quarters we Navy's solution was to have additional construction and procurement of com-
assembled in his office with members of piers constructed to permit the additional mon items in the United States.
the fleet afloat and ashore, as well as ships to be unloaded. At the time of The question of refrigerator ship ton.
some of General Harmon's staff. Cap- my visit there were only five berths at nage was discussed, since the Army had

---' ...-
Natural camouflage for a South Pacific Ammo Depot. Ship to shore shuttle in New Guinea.
been complaining that they were unable and started pacing the Hoor, which is Japanese bases; that I felt that if we
to get fresh ,'egetables and meats due one his habits when he starts thinking could look behind their far Hung forces
to the fact that the Na,.y had all the and talking. It was easy to see that he we would find an almost hollow shell.
refrigerator ships. The Na,'y agreed to was quite worried about the strategic I explained how difficult we were find-
share some of its refrigerator ship ton- situation in the Pacific, but also that, ing it in the United States-a great coun-
nage with the Army, but the problem in the back of his mind, he was try with huge production potential-to
here was to arrange refrigerator storage continuously of the general situation keep our logistical operations working
ashore for the ground troops. world-wide, because he would pause in smoothly throughout the world; that I
I then prepared to fly to Australia to his comments to ask me questions con- was sure the Japanese must be having
see General r.lacArthur, and left word cerning the \Vashington plans for Eu- just as much, is fact more difficulty, along
with General Harmon and Admiral ropean operations. To me he seemed the same lines.
Halsev's staff that I would return for still somewhat shaken by his bitter ex- In discussing the command logistical
furth~r discussions after the trip to Aus- periences in the Philippines. He out- organization in the Pacific, General ~ lac-
tralia. It had been raining for three lined rapidly his fears that the Japanese Arthur stated that he believed that one
days, with heav\. rains and low ceiling. could and would take the eastern shore of theater of operations should be estab-
There had been' no planes between Aus- Australia, thereby preventing the Ameri- lished with separate army and navy
tralia and New Caledonia for five ,,;eeks, can forces from using the Australian commanders. In such an organization
and no one knew what the flying cities for bases and procurement centers. he said we should return to the concepts
conditions would be. But we pushed It was his opinion that, if the Japanese that we were alwa,'s tauoht in our staff
. 0
off for Brisbane at 8: 22 a.m. on the captured Brisbane, Sydney, and Mel- schools; i.e., that in joint operations the
morning of October 27, 1942. The en- bourne, they would obviously have a navy supported the army in landing oper-
tire trip was made in the rain, and as great advantage for the operation of their ations, that the navy s.hould command
we approached the shore line of Aus- Navy. These cities would gi,.e them on the water and the army definitely
tralia, it was easy to see that were headed bases for naval operations and also huge command on the land, that the na\'y
into a heavy thunderstorm. \Ve made resources, supplies, and equipment to control in a joint amphibious operation
contact with Amberly Field and had help bolster the Pacific operations of the should end at the shore line.
sufficient visibility to make a landing at Japanese Heet and army. General 1\'13c-
Also, during these conversations, Gen-
4:30 p.m. Arthur outlined his pitifully small force
eral MacArthur expressed his belief that
I decided to drive directly to General and urged that I press upon the \Var
the Japanese should be defeated first
~lacArthur's headquarters before clean- Department his strategic concept of the
before we engaged in major European
ing up or changing clothes. The rain future. I told General MacArthur that
operations to defeat Germany. \Vhen I
was coming down in torrents and I was I would not pose as a strategist, par-
ticularly in comparison with him, but informed him that General Eisenhower
soaking wet. I arrived at General Mac-
that I could not feel so pessimistic about would be the European Commander, he
Arthur's headquarters at approximately
the capabilities of the Japanese. shook his head slowly and made a few
5:00 p.m. and was ushered into his of-
I pointed out that there were 2,000 remarks that I shall not record. I have
hce immediately by General Sutherland,
his Chief of Staff. dead Japs on the barbed wire in Guadal- no doubt that General 1\-IacArthur had
canal, where the Americans at that time probably received this word through of-
I had known General MacArthur for
had lost only 200 men; that our soldiers ficial channels and also no doubt that
some 13 years and was very glad to reo
were averaging 10 dead Japanese for the strategy of the war had been ex-
new our acquaintance. One of myoId
commanders, jor General Robert E. each dead American soldier; and that plained to him by secret messages from
Callan, had been General i\'13cArthur's the same percentage could almost be \Vashington. However, we engaged in
mathematics teacher at \Vest Point, and applied to air casualties in the Japanese polite conversation on the subject. I
we had met at General Callan's several air force; that the Japanese method of explained as tactfully as I could that the
times before. As usual, General Mac- fighting in Guadalcanal, both in the air Joint and Combined Chiefs of Staff had
Arthur was very gracious. Immediately and on the land, had been dumb. I concurred on giving first priority to the
leaving his desk, he came forward to pointed out in the first place that it European Theater and that therefore
greet me, and we sat down together on seemed senseless to me for the Japanese only sufficient troops and supplies would
a divan to discuss the general situatiori. to settle down and slug it out on Guadal-
be sent to the Pacific to en:.lble General
I outlined to him quickly the purpose of canal; that it would have been far better
MacArthur to prevent further advance
my visit over in the South Pacific area, for them if they had made a bold stroke
of the Japanese until Germany had been
the shipping situation, and the purpose beyond at Espiritu Santo which would
disposed of.
of my visit to Australia. On conclusion have gi,.en them a good naval and land
of my briefing, he immediately arose base and prevented our occupancy of
that base; that in my opinion the island.
to-island slugging match would be ex- General Lutes will conclude
his series of articles in the Sep-
pensi,'e to the Japanese; also that when
Your change of address is vital to tember-October issue with the
us .... We want you to receive and if we ever took the offensive we continuance of his flight to the
I your Journal!! should not engage in such piecemeal South Pacific.-Ed.
attacks but should boldly go around the

l JULY-AUGUST, 1952 7
* **** * ***** * ** * * * ** **
Antiaircraft Association ROTC Medal *
Award Winners *
The Citadel
University of Cincinnati
iC *
iC *
• *
iC *
• *
• *
• *
• *

Cadet Brevard B. Kendall, Jr., receives
Col. John M. \X'elch awards medal to
W'ilIiam R. Cowell. *
• *

Harold Eugene Adams
David Andrew Berry
Hampton Institute
University of New Hampshire *

James A. Carbonetti
John L. Chapman
University of Delaware
University of Minnesota *

Edward T. Coleman
\Villiam Raymond Cowell
University of Alabama
University of Cincinnati
Stephen J. Dukkony Texas Western College

• Douglass E. Fell
Eric W. Fonkalsrud
Kansas State College
University of \Vashington


Jorge Gautier-Colon University of Puerto Rico
H. Ronald Gilliland Northwestern State College of Louisiana

Herbert Francis Hardy, Jr
Sam H. Harper, Jr.
University of Maine
A&MCOllegeofTexas *

Joseph Hrecz
Frank J. Kane
Brevard D. Kendall, Jr
Youngstown College
University of San Francisco
The Citadel
George V. Kmiotek
\Villiam J. Lawrence
University of Illinois
University of California *

Pierce M. Moore
Richard Dixon Neal
1\lichigan State College
Georgia Institute of Technology *
Edwin M. Osborne
Alexander Fairly Ransay, Jr.
\Vashington University
Mississippi State College *
John H. Reeve Utah State Agricultural College
• Eugene Patrick Souther
George T. Swisher
Fordham University
Virginia Polytechnic Institute

James Emanuel \Vyatt Florida A & 1\1 College

~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Unification Disappointing, Short in Unity, Saoings
,Hi/itar)' Allalyst of the St. LOllis Post-Dispatch

THERE is widespread feeling in Con- "It is a structural error in organization the German navy adequate support in
oress that unification of the Armed which can only grow in seriousness as it building submarines, it is not unlikeh'
Forces is not accomplishing what was continues to function-one which wiII that Great Britian would have bee~
expected of it, either in unit~, or in sav- cost the countf\' needless billions of dol- stan'ed out. In the Soviet Union, where
ings through elimination of duplicate lars." the army had over-all control, the air
or Q\'erlapping facilities. There is an important and funda- was as completely subordinated to the
A suocommittee of the Committee on mental difference beth'een the recom- armv as the artillerv.
Executive Expenditures in the Executi,'e mendation of the Bonner committee and Going to sea is 'a way of life. The
Departments, under the chairmanship that of Symington. The Bonner commit- Navy, for centuries forced to act for
of Representative Herbert C. Bonner tee would increase the authority of the long periods completely out of touch
(Oem.) of North Carolina, made an Secretary of Defense, while Symington with higher authority, was accustomed
extensive survey of the overseas supply would increase the authoritv of the num- to independence of action. Consequent-
operation of the Armed Forces and found ber one military man. The philosophy ly, its reasons for dislike of unification
that, far from eliminating duplication behind this difference will be discussed were deeply ingrained in its tradition
and overlapping. the Air Force was busy further on. as well as being based on fear of emascu-
setting up its o\vn supply system to pro- lation bv a centralized authoritv without
Two Opposite Theories underst;nding of its functions~
"ide common-use items which had been
supplied to it by the Army. In the long discussions and investiga-
tions which preceded the unification act Conflicting Opinions
The committee came to the conclusion
that "five years of disappointing experi- -the National Securitv Act of 1947- The conflicting opinions resulted in
ence under so-called unification legisla- two opposed philosophi~s develGped, one an act which attempted to provide for
tion are strongly persuasive that the which would have established a national co-ordination, but which gave neither
Secretary of Defense needs a stronger defense chief of staff and general staff, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, nor the Secre-
and clearer mandate for military uni- as well as a Secretary of Defense, and tarv of Defense, sullicient authoritv to
fication." the other which attempted to provide in;ure that the purpose of the act w~lIld
co-ordination through a Secretary of De- be carried out.
Symington's Proposal fense and a joint chiefs of staff assisted The basic policy laid down in the Na-
\\T. Stuart Symington, whose experi- by a small staff. The first plan would tional Security Act was contradiclOf\'.
ence as Secretary of the Air Force and have provided centralized authority over It provided for the "integration (of the
as chairman of the National Security the three armed services. The second Armed Forces) into an efficient team of
Resources qualifies him as well as any- plan left the three services practically land, naval and air forces" ... but not
one in the country to pass judgment. independent. The Joint Chiefs had no to "merge them," "for operation under
belie,'es that it would be a great organiza- authority over them when wearing the unified control." The three military de-
tional improvement to create a chief of Joint Chiefs hat and could only make partments are "separately administered"
staff to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. recommendations to the Secretary of De- by their secretaries under the "direction,
He pointed out, in his March 31. fense. authority and control" of the Secretarv
1951, report as chairman of the Na- The objections to the first plan were of Defense, who was given rather weak
tional Security Resources Board. that the of two types. Some feared giving so authority to end "duplication and over-
chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff much authority to the top military man lapping" in procurement, supply, trans-
has no authoritv and no vote. "Accord- might bring forth a man on horseback portation, storage, health and research.
ingly, the number one military man in and hinder civilian control of the mili- A chairman for the Joint Chiefs of
the Government is left with no statutorv tary. The other type of objection came Stall', without vote or command authori-
power of decision whatever." principally from naval protagonists who ty over the three services, was provided
I 'This is the reverse of standard Ameri- feared that any form of centralized con- in 1949 by amendment to the act. The
original Joint Staff was limited to ]00
I can business practice," he continued,
"namely, to give authority to the best
trol might fail to regard the peculiar
problems of the Navy and, through lack members and later increased to 210. A
I man available in order that he can direct of understanding, make it impossible for national defense Chief of Staff or general
agreed policy. If it had not been for the the Navy to perform its missions. staff was expressly forbidden.

I great personal prestige of Gen. Omar :\:.

Bradley, the problem resulting from this
laCkof co-ordinated direction would have
The Navy had good historical ex-
amples for these fears. If Corp. Hitler,
with only an army background and with
This halfhearted measure has not
functioned too well. Unified commands
have been established all over the world

l become far more serious."

an arm~' supreme commander, had given where our forces serve, but for some

strange reason none has been established his other hat as a member of the Joint It is apparent that such a system can
for the defense of the United States, The Chiefs of Staff and is supposed to reach ne\'er function effecti\'elv.
... The military
Bonner committee noted that "to the ex- an objecti\'e finding as a member of the functions now being performed in the
tem that unified commands ha\'e been Joint Chiefs. Secretary's office should be performed
established in several theaters of opera- It is hardly credible that the system under the militarv. But this would re-
tion, there has been lacking the equi\'a- works at all. That it does is due princi- quire strenotheni~o the chairman of the
to to
lent unification in logistical support." pally to patience, fairness and integrity Joint Chiefs of Staff, as Symington rec-
of the chairman. Gen. Bradley. \Ve may ommended, and the development of a
Joint Staff Procedure not alwavs be so fortunate in the chair- militarv national defense staff. This will
The Joint Staff is organized into man. ha\'e to come about by evolution.
groups dealing with strategic plans, logis- The other development arising from Gen. Bradlev will not recommend it
tic plans and intelligence. Problems are the National Security Act is a mushroom althouoh he beiieves in it. I-Ie has heard
referred to the Joint Staff bv any of the growth of the office of the Secretary of too much about civilian control and
three services. The staff gro~p c~mes up Defense. Including the Joint Staff. the power hungry militarists. But he told
with a study and recommendations. This i'\unitions Board and the Research and the I-louse Armed Services Committee
is referred to a committee composed of Development Bdard, the Secretary's of- when amendments to the National Se-
senior members of the three services so hce has more than 2300 civilian person- curitv Act were under consideration in
that each department can give its "slant" nel and more than 700 militan'. \949: "\Vith reference to this arri\'ing
to the proposal. If it is complicated it eventually at a Chief of Staff, I have
is referred to an ad hoc committee for Civilian Staff Growth said at v~rious times that I believe you
further study. \Vhen this process has Since the military heads acting as a will demand a single Chief of Staff some
been gone through, and it is lengthy, joint agency are held impotent by law, day. It may be 20 years from now. But
and each service has presented its ob- it has been necessary to build up a staff it will come-not necessarily from the
jections, the study, toooes to the Joint under the Secretary of Defense. So what military but from you people who are in-
Chiefs of Staff. has in fact resulted is the development terested in cconomy aild efficiency. I
Here is another anomaly. The Joint of a national defense staff of bright think it will never come until you do
Chiefs, except for the chairman, are each young civilians who are trying, not very want It."
the chief of his own service. He has successfully, to carry out military func- The rcport of the Bonner committee
approved his service's "slant" as chief tions which require years of training and indicates that they are beginning to
of staff of the service. Then he puts on background to perform effectively. want it.

Military Analyst of tile SI. LOllis Post-Dispatch

THE danger of war is still very real. would have given them a chance to awaltmg the capitalist failure which
\Ve have passed through some grave revolt. would allow them to take over.
periods since the Berlin blockade, but vVe were very close to general war
even graver risks must be faced in the Weight of the Atomic Bomb over the Berlin blockade and over the
next two or three \'ears. Such is the The threat of our retaliation by atomic Communist aggression in Korea. Since
opinion of responsible civil and military bomb may have provided a measure of the Russians backe.d down in each of
officials in the State and Defense de- restraint, although some of our best these cases, it is a reasonable assumption
partments. informed Russian experts do not believe that they did not consider either occasion
Two years ago, or evcn one year past, that this was a major factor. They be- of suffi~ient moment to warrant the
Soviet forces could have marched to the lieve that if the die were cast for war, friohtful risks of war. Thev, were not
Atlantic and the western powers would the Kremlin would consider it a good willing or ready to engage in war de-
have been unable to stop them, If this bargain to gain "'estern Europe at the liberatek
was the case whv didn't the Russians cost of considerable atomic destruction.
march? ' Of more influence, the experts con- Peril of Miscalculation
The answers can only be speculative. sider, was the Soviet belief that the \,y est But war could have broken out
The satellite states were and still are would fall to them in any event by rev- through miscalculation. The Berlin
of uncertain lovaltv and their rearma- olution or depression. The big Com- blockade was based on the miscalculation
ment has not 'be:n completed. \Var munist parties in France and Italy were that we would allow ourselves to be
driven out of Berlin. The aggression in transport through Berlin. East Germany the Defense Department, is starting de-
Korea was based on the miscalculation suffered severely from the counter-block- mobilization before our partial mobiliza-
that we would not fight to preserve the ade. T odav new rail lines and canals tion is complete, just as we are approach-
Republic of Korea. have been completed around the western ing the period of maximum danger.
Fresh application of Soviet pressure sectors of Berlin and we shall not be able The time of "neither peace nor war"
tactics can bring more miscalculation. to impose a counter-blockade. is a period of armed truce. War is not
'''estern response can lead to additional inevitable because nations are armed.
Soviet moves, \\,hich we will counter in May Mean Fighting on Ground Strength is our only hope, and weakness
return. War can generate itself with the If there is a new blockade, there is will get us nowhere. Germany and
inevitability of tragedy once the train of no reason to believe the pattern will be France faced each other under arms for
events has started. the same. To break it, we may have to 44 years from 1870 to 1914 with Ger-
The most critical matters now facing fight our way through on the ground many gradually becoming much the
us, more serious than the pitfalls that and in the air. Will this lead to war? stronger power. The arms were a deter-
have been avoided, are the entry of Ger- Eastern Germany is better organized rent to war and not a cause,
many into the Western coalition and now for the Communists and prob-
German rearmament. ably will contribute to the campaign Practical Aspect of War
Germany alone almost defeated West- of harassment. Will this cause an East-
Marxist ideology does not consider war
ern Europe and the Soviet Union at the \Vest German war in Berlin? And if
evil. War is one of many methods to'
same time. The Kremlin can only look so. then what?
gain Communist ends. In Communist
upon German rearmament and German Every divided state-Germany, Austria
double-talk, Soviet war is a just war, a
alliance with the West as a major threat and Korea-is a potential cause of war.
war of liberation of the proletariat, a:
which will not only stop further Com- They have been kept divided with su-
war for democracv. The only evil war in
munist expansion in the West, but which preme effrontery by the Soviet Union,
the Soviet basis, is the one the capitalist-
ultimately will endanger the conquests in violation of all agreements, purely to
fascist beasts fight. Since the Soviets do
in Eastern Europe and the very existence further Russian imperialism. There is
not regard war as evil, it is approached
of the Soviet state. always danger of war while these states
practically. It should not be risked with-
remain divided.
Issue May Be Crucial One out the assurance-never sure-of win-
Gen. Omar N. Bradley, chairman of
ning. The benefits to be expected should
German rearmament has been con- the Joint Chiefs of Staff, basing his be worth the cost.
sidered by many Russian experts as the opinion purely on military and not on
one matter to prevent which the Kremlin Such is the approach of the adversary
political considerations, believes that
we face. Without willing it, the United
would deliberately go to war. 1954 will be the critical year.
The stirrings of Soviet moves to pre- States has been forced to take the leader-
He points out that by 1954 the Soviets
ship of the free world which is resisting
vent the German alliance with the West may have an atomic capacity equal to
the Soviet drive for world domination.
are already in evidence. The attack on ours today. Their stupendous stocks of
the French air liner in its corridor on We could repond by accepting the strug-
ammunition and armaments will deterio-
gle as one for world domination by us,
the way to Berlin is one sign of warning; rate or become obsolete bv 1954 and
but instead we are trying to build a
interference with American highway pa- 1955. A sizable part of the Soviet in-
trols on the Berlin-Helmstadt road is an- strong Europe which by itself can be-
dustrial capacity has been relocated in
other. come an effective counterpoise to Soviet
the Urals relatively safe from our bomb-
How seriously the Russians regard the ing attacks. Modernization of the Soviet
German alliance with the West can be air force and of the satellite armies win Europe was ravaged by religious wars
deduced from their offer last March of have been completed by 1954. between 1419 and 1648. Neither Catho-
a united, rearmed and neutralized Ger- lic nor Protestant spiritual ideology
many. They are less fearful of a rearmed Merely Short-Term Crisis thought it could live in the same world
Germany than they are of a divided Ger- These are all short-term considera- with the other faith. T odav the con-
many allied to the West. This change tions. If we get through this period of flict between material ideologies is just
in policy is considered by many to be grave risks, if we continue to gain in as deadly, but it need not last for two
as important a step in Soviet foreign strength, we still are faced with an indef- hundred years. Here in the United
policy as the decision in August, 1939, inite period of resistance to Russian ex- States we have the capacity to make the
to align the nation with Hitler's Ger- pansion. Trotsky, asked once whether it free world so strong that the practical
many. was to be peace or war, replied, "~either ~larxists will not choose to fight.
It is not unlikely that Berlin again peace nor war." :;.\;e,-er before has the decision of
will become the critical point. The Rus- The "cold war" is a Sodet tactic of world peace or world war rested so fully
sians are much better prepared to block- pressure. \Ve have to learn to live with in the hands of one nation. War can
ade Berlin than they were on the first it, but not to disregard it. It is hard for be avoided, if we are not already too
tn'. On that occasion the Allies were us. Already the House of Representa- late, if we become strong and r~main
able to block East German rail and canal tives, by cuts in spending authority of strong.

JULY-AUGUST, 1952 11
Soldier's guide to

The Aerodynamics
of Guided Missiles
Captain Patrick W. Powers


I T has been officiallv announced

the Army is already producing
two This is the first of three articles
kinds of guided missiles and is now or- on the basic principles of guided
ganizing units to use them. Lieutenant missiles. The second will cover
General Thomas B. Larkin says that the propulsion of missiles and
within five years Army use of -guided the third guidance.
missiles will probably be SOP.
For quite a while to come, the number
of soldiers, oflicer or enlisted. who will
ha\'e much to do with guided missiles we need to know about them are how
will probably be limited. But guided they fly, how they are propelled, and
missiles will be just as much an Army how they arc guided.
weapon as 60mm mortars or 155mm Guided missiles arc highly technical;
rifles. So every soldier ought to know no question about that. But they can be
something about them. The main facts described without using too many diffi-
cult technical terms. That is what I am
going to try to do in this series. Not
much can be said about any specific mis-
CAPTAIN PATRICK \V. POWERS, Artillery, siles because those facts are well classi-
is an instructor in the Guided i\lissile fied, as the\" should be. But if we ex-
Department of the Antiaircraft and
amine the g~neral principles of operation
Guided J\lissiles Branch of The Artillerv
School, Fort Bliss, Texas. He is a 1945 we can get a good idea of what guided
graduate of the J\lilitary Academy. Dur- missiles can do, and what they can't.
ing 1949-50 he earned a J\[aster of Sci- And that should tear away som~ of the
ence degree at the University of South- m\'sterv that now enshrouds them.
ern California studying aerodynamics
and guided missiles. 'In theory, the Hight and control of air-

Reprinted from the Combat Forces 10urno/ June

1952 issue.

craft and guided missiles are identical. wa\'e front moves at a certain speed until the speed of sound in the air. A missile
But the design and the flight techniques it reaches all sides of the pool. If a ship traveling at less than the speed of sound
of the two are \'erv different. In this first steamed across the pond at certain always has a 1\ lach number less than
article we shall se~ how and whv missiles speeds, we would see a wave move out one. At the same speed as sound, the
A\'.• from the bow and we would notice that l\lach number is one: at faster than
the ship ne\'er actually caught up with sound it is larger than one. The German
it. The distance between the bow and
the wave would depend on the speed of
the ship. This wave couldn't possibly
get out ahead of the ship unless it moved
out from the ship at a faster velocity than
the ship was traveling. "--- ......
--'-- .....
But if the ship increased its speed
enough, it would catch up with the --- ..
- .... - ....
~_.__ .....
wave, and the wave would stav• riO'htb
Figure 1, Components 01 F'igh, the bow and never have a chance to
mO\'e out.
The same thing occurs when an object Figure 3. Speed

disturbs the air. \Vhen you snap your

Theory of Flight fingers together, a sound wave moves out
through the air and in a closed room V-2 rocket traveled at a peak Mach num-
any missile flies through the
stone, a golf ball, a plane or a everybody would hear the sound. This ber of five, which in miles per hour was
close to 3,750!
guided missile-the airflow around it ex- sound wave moves fast, verv much faster
erts certain forces upon it. Around dif- than the water wave .. Thus, when a missile moves at the
ferent parts of the missile the air is It has been found that a sound wave is speed of sound and faster, shock waves
traveling at different velocities. Hence the smallest disturbance that can exist form in front of it, and, in addition, on
the pressures on these different parts are in the air, and so we naturally compare, some of the steering surfaces where the
not the same. These differences of pres- all other disturbances to it. From this airflow has a high velocity. And these
sure tend to force the missile up or down, we get the terms "subsonic" (less than waves create large pressure changes
backwards or forwards. the speed of sound in air), "sonic" which often adversely affect the perform-
Figure I names the result of these (equal to the speed of sound), "trans- ance of the missile.
pressure forces as lift and drag. It also sonic" (from just below to just above The occurrence of shock waves on a
shows the forward force or "thrust" the speed of sound) and "supersonic" missile as it nears the speed of sound has
caused by the missile's jet engine and the (greater than the speed of sound). Now led to the description "breakinO'b throuO'h
down force caused by its weight. an object flying through the air makes a the sonic barrier" or "cracking the sonic
A familiar theorem of physics (Ber- large disturbance in it. A guided mis- wall." Actually there is no such barrier.
noulli's) tells us: pressure decreases sile sets up waves in the atmosphere' There is only the greater difficulty in
when velocitv increases. If we want the something like the water wave on the steering and in keeping stability of flight
missile to fly: we must have a pressure, a bow of the ship. When the missile is at the transsonic speeds. Besides, the
force, up. Figure 2 shows how, by mak- subsonic the "bow" wave moves wav out missile never really "breaks through,"
ing the top of the wing surface sharply in front of the missile, and is actu~llv a because the shock waves alwavs remain
curved, the air travels faster there than series of weak pressure waves. As ihe with the missile in superso~ic flight.
on the bottom of the wing. Thus, there missile goes faster and nears the speed of Thev never fall behind it.
is more pressure force in the up direction sound, these weak pressure waves begin Tile exact effects at transsonic speeds
than down. to pile up just in front of the "nose" are still largely unsolved; we are not cer-
and they get stronger. Right after the tain what happens.
speed of sound is reached, a verv definite
but very thin pressure wa;'e forms
around the point of the nose much like ~"I ~
half of a giant soap bubble. As the mis-
sile moves still faster, the pressure wave
attaches itself to the nose and bends back
streamlining away from the direction of
.. < ~
oo..&..E "'£OG£

flight. This pressure wave is called a

"shock" wave because there are sudden
< oa>I'OW"""'-<

Figure 2. Theory 01 Fligh'

large changes in the properties of the ai;
Howing across it, even though this wave
mav onlv be one ten-thousandth of an
4. Airloils
(IIAC.A.AIt .,11(

inch thic'k!
These sudden, large changes are in
In high speed flight, the speed of the velOCity, pressures, temperature, and Figure 3 shows how the pressure and
SOundis another important matter. Let's densitv of the air. These differences de- shock waves first form on top of the mis-
see, first, what happens when the still pend ~pon the "i\lach number" and the sile at "approaching sonic speeds." This
surface of water is disturbed. If you drop shape of the missile, shock wave causes difficulty in steering,
a pebble into a pool of water, a circular The i\lach number is simply a com- for it creates unpredictable forces on the
Wave moves out from the splash. This parison of the velOCity of the missile to control surfaces which are often ren-
de red useless, at least for the moment. is necessary because of the shock waves aerodynamic forces and weight to under-
That is the reason for getting the missile that alway; occur in supersonic Right. take any type of maneuvers in the air.
on through the transsonic speeds in a Top views of airfoils or airfoil plan- The problem is much more critical with
hurry. If we don't we might lose control forms are shown in figure 5. The swept- a missile since it tra\'els at such tremen-
of it entirely. or the control surfaces may back wing on one of the missiles shown dous speeds-two miles in fi\'e seconds,
get damaged. At the higher (the supe;- enables it to get up closer to the speed of sometimes. During this very short time
sonic) speeds. the shock wa\'es behave in sound without any shock wa\'e occurring
than it could with a straight wing. i\lany
of our present high-performance aircraft
have that wing shape for the same

Control Surfaces
The basic control surfaces are pictured
in figure 6. They look much like those
of a conventional aircraft. They give
the missile its Right "attitudes" (figure
Figure 5. Airfoil Planlorms Figure 8. Control 0/ Flight
7). These are called pitch or elevator
control. yaw or rudder control, and roll
or ailero~ control. Manv combinations
a regular manner. more fm'orable for of these basic control su'rfaces are used it may have to make steep turns, and this
control and stability. puts enormous stresses on the structure,
for present-day missiles.
\Vhen missiles' travel at supersonic The main point here is that the center
1\ movement of one of these surfaces
speeds, there is a tremendous rise in of gra\'ity of the missile must always be
causes a pressure difference to exist on
temperature on the outside of the missile. ahead of the center of pressure (the cen-
its surface and exert a lift forcc to stecr
t\ moving missile has n stngnant layer of ter of the total lift forcc) ns shown in
. the missile. Figure 8 shows how a down-
air all around it known ns a boundary figure 9.
laver, air that sticks to the missile becaus~
of viscosity. This layer of dead air gets
so extremelv hot that it ma\' melt the
"skin" or s;lrfnce of the mi~sile if the
T HIS, in brief, is how and why guided
missiles fly. \Vhen a guided missile is
cnlled upon to perform violent maneu,
missile gets moving fast enough! This is vcrs the control surfaces must take hold
why a meteorite entering the atmosphere in a fraction of a second nnd slew the
will melt. Its boundary laver of air "bird" around to head it toward thc tar-
reaches temperatures of tllOus;nds of de- get. Pressure forces are created to exert
grees. For a missile traveling at twice n lift thnt turns the missile. The surfaces
the speed of sound (at a i\lach number on which these forces act are like those
of two) the outside skin temperature of conventional aircraft with certain
is about 475 degrees Fahrenheit-hot Figure 7. Flight Altitude
modifications. The biggest problem of
enough to melt lead. aerodynamical control comes in the trans-
sonic speed zone when shock wavcs first
wlissile Configurations ward deflection will cause the air to flow start to form. These cause tremendous
faster ovcr the top with a decreased pres- forces to buffet the control surfaces, with
T HE shape of the wings and tail sur-
faces of each missile is different, al-
sure. The higher pressure on the bottom
gives a force in the up direction, and the
lack of control and often damage to
though a general pattern is lISually
combination of the two pressure forces is,
of course, lift. If lift is exerted on the


tail, the missile will be tipped nose down

and start diving. If the left aileron is
turned up and the right one down, an
unbalanced lift is created which makes
the missile roll. ~- _.---.:"'~::::
Different arrangements of the steering GRAVITY PRESSURE

controls have been used. The German

V-2 rocket-propelled missile had the WEIGHT

shapc shown in figure 9, with all its ClNTU 0.: GlAvtTT MU\l U FOIWAID Of CfNT£Jl Of fOtrsSUlf

Figure 6. Control Sur/aces steering and lift surfaces to the rear. The Figure 9. Stability
forward or "Canard" type of controls
are also uscd extensivelv on some of the
followed. Figure 4 shows the different present missiles. ' them. But in the supersonic speed zone.
types of airfoils or profile views of typical the shock wa\'Cs beha\'e in a regular pat-
wing and tail sections. Notice that the
supersonic airfoils have sharp leading F OR proper control of Right, stability is
also important. Just as a ship must be
tern and we are able to design control
surfaces that operate effectively.
(front) edges whereas the subsonic on'e properly balanced to navigate, so must a The next article in this series will
has a blunt leading edge. This difference missile have the proper distribution of cover guided-missile propulsion.
Indo-China: Outpost Of Anti-Communism

TODAY we hear much of the strate- Commonwealth of Nations. Immediate

gic importance of Indo-China. A signif- development of autonomous local go"-
icant part of that strategic importance ernments, however, was hampered at the
can be summed up in one word-rice. outset b" the lack of sufficient numbers
One of the basic factors of strategy is of qualified Indo-Chinese to serve as gO\'-
economics and one of the major aspects ernment officials. Almost immediately,
of economics is food. As one of the too, it was hampered by internal rebel-
great rice-producing areas of Asia, Indo- lion.
China's food surpluses in the past have At the beginning of World War II
been vital to India, to China, to Japan the Japanese Army had been quick to
and the Philippines. snatch the rich prize offered by Indo-
But Indo-China is a symbol, too. Like China's lush valleys and river deltas. But
Korea, it is a symbol of the free world's the Japanese did more than drive the
determination to oppose aggression. It French temporarily out of the area; they
is one of today's major trouble spots, sowed seeds from which has grown
where other nations could easily become biller fruit. With VJ-Day in sight, they
involved at any moment. Secretary Lov- gave arms and encouragement to dissi-
ett was recently quoted as telling Con- dent elements which wanted no restora-
gress that ".... The U. S. faces the Indo-China is actually made up of tion of French authority. Caught in the
possibility of getting into another war, three countries, Vietnam, Cambodia and wave of nationalism which swept over
Korea style, if the situation in Indo- Laos, which are independent and asso- the East, rebellious Indo-Chinese went
China gets worse." ciated states within the French Union. underground in the interior, particularly
At the same time, Indo-China is far Prior to 'Vorld War II they were colonial in the northern part of the region. Un-
away. 'Vhy should America be con- possessions or protectorates of France, der the leadership of Russian-trained Ho
cerned with what happens there? Con- but after the establishment of the Fourth Chi l\Iinh, they formed a rebel "govern-
sideration of the events which have been Republic an agreement in 1948 gave ment" (under the communist-directed
transpiring in that part of the world them a new status in an organizational Vietminh Party), and in 1946 began
should suggest an answer to that ques- pattern which was aimed toward becom- military operations. In 1950 this "gov-
tion. ing something comparable to the British ernment" was recognized by the Soviet

'.a~:-- ....~
',. _ "I!i- .......
Artillery blasts Vietminh positions in Phuly area, French troops use mine detectors to clear road.
between 160,000 and 185.000 troops almost always costly. French casualties
of the French Union Armv involved. since the war began are said to ha\'e ex-
Of these. some 55.000 are from I\letro- ceeded U. S. losses in Korea. In officers
politan France; the remainder are For- alone. the French ha\'e lost the equi\'a-
eign Legionnaires, i\loroccans, Algerians lent of three classes from St. Cyr. In
and Senegalese. In addition the French terms of money, too, the price has been
Union Armv includes 65,000 Indo- high: by November. 1951 the cost had
Chinese volunteers. These native forces, already mounted above two billion dol-
which outnumber the I\letropolitan lars and present expenditures are at the
French numerically, have made and are estimated rate of a billion dollars a year.
making a valuable contribution to the Operations in such a war are difficult
anti-communist war. The naval and air at best. The French objective, at least
forces, which increase the total by an until the armies of the Associated States
estimated 28,000 men, are virtually all become capable of taking over an ex-
Frenchmen. In addition, the armies of panded share of the campaigning. is to
the Associated States muster a total vari- hold the delta area which includes Hanoi
ously assessed at from 100,000 to 142,- and Haiphong. Making full use of their
000. All told. the anti-Vietminh forces control of the air, the French base their
probably number at least 300,000 men, tactics on bombing and strafing as well
exclusive of auxiliaries. as artillery attacks against Vietminh
Probaby no one knows how many strongpoints before the infan try moves
rebels make up the Vietminh forces. in to the assault. Any village may con-
by French Some reports have put their numbers at stitute such a strongpoint and the vil-
only 45,000 full-time troops. but others lages are numerous. That kind of war
have claimed as many as 180,000, To a is slow and tedious but the French ef-
and its satellites, including communist forts are producing results. There are
large extent, too, the Indo-Chinese com-
China. recurrent reports of dwindling Vietminh
munists make use of auxiliaries, ir-
Much as the French government forces, of a drop in rebel morale. True,
regulars whose missions are sabotage,
might wish to stand the Associated States the death of General De Lattre in Janu-
terrorism and collection of intelligence.
on their own governmental feet, the lack ary of this year was a blow to the anti-
No assessment of the Vietminh capa-
of local leaders and organization made communist effort, but his successor,
bility can ignore the material aid being
this impossible; French abandonment of General Raoul Sa lan, is carrying on the
furnished by other Bed governments. Al-
the Associated States would have guar- fight with persistence and determination.
though no Red Chinese soldiers have
anteed Vietminh victory. Painfullv the But why is the United States con-
been identified in battle, up to 10,000
French fought to hold off the :ebels cerned in Indo-China? Why is military
Chinese military and technical advisers
while building and equipping armies for aid being supplied? Basically, the answer
are said to be operating with the Viet-
the Associated States. Autonomy has can be found in a statement General
minh forces, and Vietminh personnel are
been granted piecemeal, as rapidly 'as the De Lattre made a few months before his
reported to be receiving training in
situation permitted, although the proc- death: "vVe are fighting on a world bat-
ess still cannot be said to be complete. tlefield for liberty ... for peace." Indo-
The circumstances enabled the rebels Since its very beginning the Indo-
China is one of the skirmish lines on
t? disto~t the facts into a propaganda Chinese war has been bloody. The
that world battlefield. Recognizing early
lme whIch has not been without effect mountainous and jungle terrain encour-
in 1950 that this was no mere colonial
ev.en among some informed people. Viet- ages the rebels' guerrilla tactics. After
war but the fight of free nations against
ml~h ch.~racterized the struggle as a fight four years of meeting ambushes and
attempted communist domination, the
agamst \Vestern imperialism," and for snipers whenever they pushed out from
United States began shipping military
a time this misrepresentation was ac- Hanoi, the French were developing a
mentality which was defensive, even de- equipment to Indo-China. Most of this
cepted in certain \Vestern circles in
featist. But in December, 1950 General materiel has been going to arm the newly
which there was talk of France's "~olo-
De Lattre De Tassigny took command. formed units of the Associated States,
nial war" in Indo-China.
"From now on, you will be led!" he not to the French Army, and has played
Actually, the truth is far different. Anv
imperialistic objectives in Indo-China ar~ promised his army, and proceeded to a significant role in the development of
not French but communist. The French make good his word. \Vithin a month trained, qualified organizations. Up till
are fighting to establish governments his thrusts into the interior had swung last January, 100 shiploads of U. S. sup-
which can fend for themselves against the balance and the French, infused plies had reached Indo-China, and dur-
a faction which is attempting to extend with a new offensive spirit, were con- ing the past few. months the rate of
communist domination. In this struggle, solidating their control over the entire delivery has been increased, with the
the French have made a tremendous Red River Delta, whic~ is the main 150th shipload reported in late i\lay.
military effort. Although published fig- geographical prize for which both sides American assistance need not be justi-
~res of the anti-communist military force are fighting. fied solely on grounds of aid to the op-
In Indo-China vary, there appear to be However, anti-guerrilla operations are ponents of aggression, however. The
war in Indo-China cannot be isolated over, there are economic implications. back the Chinese Reds from outright
from the worldwide situation. It pos- Industrialized countries would be de- participation in the war. There might
sesses a signilicance for policy not only prived of vital sources of strategic ma- have been some question in the com-
in the Far East but in Europe, not only terials. With regard to rice, much of munists' minds regarding what the West
for the French Union but for all the Free Asia is a seller's market, with customers would do about aggression in Korea, but
World. With a substantial percentage competing against each other. Japan, in there can hardly be doubt of the conse-
of her career soldiers tied down and a particular, must import rice, and the quences of full-scale Chinese aggression
large proportion of her military budget price exacted by a communist Indo- in Indo-China.
committed in Southeast Asia, France China would almost certainly include Britain's Foreign Secretary Eden, for
cannot move as fast as would otherwise politital dema,pds which could face Ja- one, made it clear several months ago
be possible toward the formation of di- pan with the necessity of choosing be- that the U. N. would take action against
visions for service under SHAPE. Like- tween a pro-communist course and any Red Chinese intervention in the
wise, she has little more than a token starvation. Whichever choice were made, Indo-Chinese war. How long this knowl-
force to spare for U. N. operations in United States policy aims would suffer. edge can deter Mao T se-iung and his
Korea. The great unknown in the problem ot:':. Chinese planners is anyone's guess, but
The Indo-Chinese war has already Indo-China is the future behavior of without more intensive help from the
cost France more than the total amount Red China. There is a striking parallel communist bloc, the Vietrninh forces
of military aid which she has received between the present situation in Indo- can probably ndt overthrow the legiti-
from the United States for defense in China and the situation in Korea in the mate governments of the Associated
Europe. If the Vietminh rebellion could fall of 1950, before the U. N. advance States.
be wiped up, undivided effort could be to the Yalu River. The entire complexion On the other hand, even assuming
devoted to the development of greater of the war could be altered by Chinese no Chinese intervention, it is unfortu-
strength in other areas of strategic sig- action. There is an interconnection with nately not possible to foresee a successful
nificance. Solely for its part in hastening the current situation in Korea, too: if conclusion of the war in the immediate
the attainment of this end, by helping there is no resumption of full-scale fight- future. For some time to come, the con-
the Associated States and the French to ing in Korea it is possible that China flict in Indo-China will probably con-
smash the rebellion, American military may feel a necessity to lash out against tinue to be a drain on the French
assistance can be justified. Indo-China. The Chinese are old hands military effort, a diversion from the task
Still another consideration for the at the communist game of diverting at- of developing a defense force in Europe.
United States is the probable effect of tention from one irritation by introduc- Thanks to a widening understanding
a communist-dominated Indo-China on ing a counter-irritation. A "crusade" of the issues involved, however, there
the rest of Asia. Malaya would be fur- against the "imperialists" could be used has been a stiffening of support of the
ther jeopardized; Thailand, Burma and to justify numerous domestic abuses. anti-communist forces fighting against
Indonesia would be subjected to intense There is no question but what China Vietminh. Also, the developing military
pressure to submit to the demands of the is fully capable of sweeping into Indo- power of the Associated States, abetted
communists; India, completely flanked China. Some accounts claim that there as it is by American help on an increas-
by Red-dominated areas, would find are 250,000 Red Chinese troops poised ing scale, should in time permit the re-
maintenance of her neutral position ex- on the Chinese side of the border; and turn of French Army units to France, to
tremely difficult. And the effects would Red Chinese aircraft, including jet fight- take their places in the ranks of the de-
not be limited to the areas immediately ers, are based in South China in loca- fenders of Europe. In these two factors
adjoining Southeast Asia. tions which would permit them to and in their inherent prospects of con-
The impact of such a major communist support an invasion. tinuing and expanding the suppression
victory on the fatalistic Oriental mind But the sure knowledge that interfer- of rebel activities, there is hope that a
would add tremendous force to the com- ence would bring prompt action by anti- clear-cut victory may eventually be won.
munists' propaganda campaign. More- communist nations appears to be holding Notify the Journal of Y~ur Address Chonge

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JULY-AUGUST, 1952 17

THE 34th AAA Brigade has this The trainer reproduces the roar of the
year adopted something new in the way attacking aircraft engines as well as the
of training antiaircraft machine gun- whistle and e:\:plosion of bombs and gun
ners. Procured by Headquarters, Euro- fire. \\Then the gun fires, the sound of
pean Command from the R. F. D. the gun shot is duplicated. The sound
Company, Godalming, Surrey, Eng- track of some films incorporates the
land, the "Portobel" machine gun train- noise of guns from adjacent units. This,
er has taken its place along with live combined with the ability of the equip-
firing among American AM troops in ment to provide incoming courses (some-
Europe. The Porrobel M.G. Trainer thing which you don't normally get
The Portobel is a portable training with towed sleeves or RCAT's) tends to
device which has been designed to pro- which mO\'es in azimuth and elevation lend to the Portobel a high degree of
vide M 16 and i\ 155 quadruple caliber while reflecting on the inner surface of realism.
.50 machine gunners with practice in the dome. Thus, the path and attitude
tracking targets with speeds up to 500 of aircraft attacking as in real flight is Training
miles per hour on any type of course. simulated. Through experience it has been
Although presently equipped only with On the films is a yellow spot which found that it is best first to orient pro-
an M45 quad fifty turret as used on becomes visible when the aircraft comes spective students with a lecture, or series
our M16's and M55's, it may be adapted within range of the gun. This spot is of lectures, covering a description of the
for use with 1\1 19 and towed 40mm type projected in such a manner that it al- equipment, its capabilities and limita-
turrets. ways represents future position and in- tions (the M45 turret, the Cal. .50
Being portable, the equipment may dicates the correct point of aim of the machine gun and the Mark IX sight),
be moved to wherever the greatest gun at the moment it is fired. the elementary principles of sighting,
training need exists. In the 34th Bri- The targets shown on the screen are a brief description of the Portobel, its
gade, the most efficient use of the Porto- engaged by personnel manning an elec- operation and training. This may be
bel has been obtained by allowing each tronic machine gun in an i\H5 turret done with all the gunners in a battal.
battalion scheduled for range firing to which, when fired, projects a cross of ion at the same time.
have the use of it for at least two weeks light onto the screen. If the gun has Following this orientation, a class of
preceding the battalion's time on the been aimed correctly, the reticle should fifteen students is about the optimum
range. coincide with the yellow spot on the number for actual training. The most
Due to the nature of its construction, film. This spot is normally not visible effective procedure is to allow each stu-
the equipment may be used under most to the gunners as they wear spectacles dent to fire a series of short courses to
weather conditions. This is of particu- which filter out the yellow color. The get the feel of the equipment and the
lar importance in Germany, where the instructor is provided with a hit record- proper sight picture. During this pe-
number of fair flying days per year as ing apparatus by means of which he riod, the instructor interrupts frequently
well as the range time available to any automatically records the number of hits to correct the gunner in the turret and
one unit is strictly limited. obtained by the gunner by pressing a to lecture the group as a whole. This
button when the gun is correctly aimed. can be accomplished in a four hour
Description The number of rounds fired is auto- period. During the next four hour pe-
The apparatus consists primarily of matically recorded and thus it is possible riod the men can be allowed to fire
an airtight fabric dome 30' in diameter to compare the number of hits against longer series of courses with less inter-
and 20' in height which in use is main- the number of rounds fired for an accu- ference by the instructor. On these
tained in a fully inflated state by an rate analysis of each shot. series, the men can be scored and ad-
airblower. The instruction of personnel Considerable care has been taken to vised of their progress. With time al.
under training is carried on inside the reproduce in the apparatus the psycho- lowances for climbing in and out of the
dome, the internal pressure of which is logical effects of sound on the mind. turret, breaks, etc., this gives about a
approximately one millibar greater than half hour of simulated firing per man.
the external barometric pressure. The The authors report that the Porto-
Poorer students can be returned for ad.
interior of the dome is illuminated to bel Machine Gun Trainer was pro- ditional time.
resemble the sky and is finished with a cured for $13,000 and that the oper- Thus, the machine gun crews of an
white rubber surface which provides a ating costs are nomina/. That would A\V battalion can be trained in about
make it far less expensive than simi-
good screen. A 35mm projector, suit- two weeks. The machine gun sections
lar purpose devices used in our train-
ably modified, projects pictures of at- ing centers and armories.--Editor. of a Gun battalion can be trained in
tacking aircraft onto a motorized mirror about one week.

IN June, 1947, I got the word that I

could get a detail to take an eighteen
tirely independent, is the Trials Estab-
lishment, R. A., at Ty Croes. This
fluence, and its occupant is much envied.
The IG, courses, is a major.
months course at SAM, Manorbier. agency performs like our Army Field The instructional wings, each headed
With some busy inquiring I discovered Forces Board No.4, and also carries out by a lieutenant colonel, constitute the
that this referred to the British School some work comparable to that at Aber- bulk of SAM. At present, the school
of Antiaircraft Artillery at Manorbier, deen Proving Ground. consists of the following wings:
Wales; hence the SAM, Manorbier. During World War II the British ~ HAA Wing
We really shouldn't remain quite so School of Antiaircraft Artillery trained ~ LAA/SL Wing
ignorant as I was. SAM, Manorbier over 32,000 students in 1400 courses. ~ Radar Wing
is the center for all AM activity in Among the students were Americans, ~ Basic Science Wing
Great Britain, and they have there many Canadians, Australians, Indians, South The instructional responsibilities of
ideas and practices which we do well to Africans, Egyptians, Maltese, and a large these various wings are clearly indicated
learn about. representation from neighboring Eu- by their names. A varying number of
The School of Antiaircraft Defense ropean countries. Over 2400 urgently instructors may be assigned to any par-
was organized about 1934 at Biggin Hill needed Instructors in Gunnery (rs G), ticular wing based on teaching require-
and was manned jointly by the Royal and Assistant Instructors in Gunnery ments at the time. Due to their effective,
Artillery (gunnery) and the Royal En- (AI's G), were trained. Between 350 comprehensive training, it is a simple
gineers (searchlights). In 1939 the Royal and 400 user and acceptance trials were matter for instructors to be transferred
Artillery took complete responsibility and completed. AM personnel who had re- from one wing to another in order to
at the same time the School was dis- ceived their training at Manorbier fought balance the instructor load.
persed from Biggin HilI. in every theater in the war and exercised
The Gunn~ry Wing was moved to great influence on antiaircraft matters. School Facilities
Manorbier, Wales for its good firing Physical Layout. For some time prior
range on the shore, and there it has re- Organization to its dire~t connection with SAM,
mained. This wing has had seniority The present organization of SAM is Manorbier had been a temporarily leased
throughout and in varying degrees has about the same as that indicated above. site and the location of the 3rd AA Prac-
exercised supervision and control over A brigadier commands both SAM and tice Camp Headquarters. After the Gun-
other wings. Manorbier Post. The post functions nery Wing 'had moved from Biggin Hill
Eventually the Wing was split to form only to support the school, and conse- to Manorbier in November, 1939, efforts
the Heavy AM Wing and the Light quently, its operations are limited to were made to construct some semi-perma-
AAA Wing. In 1942 the School was supervising supply, transportation, mess nent type buildings. This project com-
officially centered at Manorbier with the and billets. The commandant has, of pleted the present post during the period
Chief Instructor (Cl) Gunnery, becom- course, a staff to handle these post re- 1940 to 1942. With the exception of a
ing CI of all instructional wings. sponsibilities. Generally speaking, their few office buildings, the garrison theater,
The Searchlight Wing, tied closely to duties are divorced from the school itself; and the large materiel sheds, all buildings
RAF, moved successively to Shrivenham, therefore, I shall discuss this aspect no are small, single story, frame structures.
Rhyl, Bude, Langham, and finally to further. In 1947, Manorbier achieved a perma-
Manorbier, where it is now combined in In the school, immediately subordinate nent post status and, thus, it became
the LAA Wing. to the commandant is the colonel, chief possible to institute a permanent type
The Radar Wing, stationed earlier at instructor, who is responsible to the com- construction program.
Felixestowe and Watchet, moved to mandant for the instruction given at Firing Point. A good deal of instruc-
Manorbier in 1944. SAAA. He has two principal assistants tional time at SAM is spent in firing.
In 1947 SAAA found it necessary to to help him with his routine tasks. The The school possesses a well organized
add a Basic Science Wing. PA (personal assistant) functions in firing point for both heavy and light anti-
much the same manner as a combination aircraft artillery practice. Fire control in-
Closely related to the School, but en-
aide-adjutant-secretary would in our serv- struments are in semi-static locations.
ice. At present, the PA is a captain. The static AM guns are in concrete
The IG, courses (instructor in gunnery, emplacements. Mobile heavy and light
Major M. R. McCarthy, a graduate of
SMA, Manorbier, now serves with the West- courses) advises the CIon matters per- AM weapons are emplaced in a special
ern AA Cammand. He acknowledges his in- taining to course :SChedules, instruction section to the flank of the static guns.
debtedness ta Lt. Col. John H. F. Mermagen,
R.A., British liaison Officer with A.F.F. to be given, assignment of graduates, The entire firing point is situated imme-
Board No.4, for his valuable help. and use of equipment. This position diately adjacent to the, classrooms on a
seems to be one of considerable in- flat-topped cliff about two hundred feet
abO\'e the sea. Some occasionally nasty course at Camberly. (US equivalent is staff course, perform duty with troops
weather in winter and the presence of the Command and General Staff Col- for a time, return to SAM to take the
considerable coast-wise shipping in the lege.) The big "G" denoting successful other short gunnery staff course, and
Bristol Channel are the only features to completion of the long gunnery staff then be awarded his "big G,"
detract from an e:>'1:remelygood antiair- course is much coveted by Royal Artil- Long and Short Gunnery Staff
craft firing point. lery Officers. Courses, NCO's. These courses for en-
Instmctor Staff. Especially noteworthy The course includes a rather complete listed ranks are similar to the officers'
to US officers was the excellent use made coverage of basic electricity, radio and gunnery staff courses, but more emphasis
of well qualified enlisted instructors on radar, military chemistry, review of is placed on practical work ,vith materiel.
a wide variety of tasks. These assistant mathematics, AM gun and gun carriage Graduates qualify as assistant instruc-
instructors in gunnery (AI's G) taught design and development, design and de- tors in gunnery and achieve advance-
materiel classes, radar laboratory work, velopment in the field of fire control in- ment in rank and position.
all drill on the firing point, maintenance, struments, and ballistics. In addition, Y olmg Officers' COllrse. After gradua-
and some formal classroom instruction. instruction emphasizing the practical as- tion from the Royal Military Academy,
These AI's G were, almost without ex- pect is given in light antiaircraft artillery, a newly commissioned artillery officer is
ception, a great credit to SAAA and to heavy antiaircraft artillery, AA radar, known as a YO until his first assignment
the British Army. and tactical employment. to a regiment. Training of these young
Practice Camps. Although not strictly The course also includes instruction academy graduates in AM work is the
a part of SAAA, the AAA practice camp given at the Artillery (Field) School at task of SAM. Formerly, this instruction
is, in effect, largely controlled by SAAA Larkhill, the Coast Artillery School at was given at Manorbier; now it is given
since the School assigns instructors to Plymouth, and the Naval School of Gun- by a AAA Wing at the Artillery School
supervise firing at the camps. In Eng- nery at Portsmouth. Also, several visits at Larkhill. This wing is manned by in-
land, there are three practice camps for are made to both military and industrial structors trained by SAM. The US
AAA; they are located at Bude, Ton- centers for observation of the latest equivalent of this instruction is the
fanau, and Weybourne. Generally, units trends in military design and production branch basic instruction given to newly
of the Territorial Army (US equivalent methods. There is no corresponding commissioned officers.
is the National Guard) conduct their an- course to a long gunnery staff course in Senior Officers' COllrse. This course
nual practice during the summer months. US Army schools. is given only when required. Senior
Most resident courses at SAAA conform Short Gunnery Staff COllrse. This artillery officers attend to be indoctri-
to a normal academic year. Therefore, course includes roughly one-half of the nated in the latest developments in AAA
SAAA has instructors available during instruction given in a long gunnery staff materiel and tactics.
the summer months for duty at the prac- course. The exact material to be taught Specialized COllrses. As required, spe-
tice camps. depends upon the needs of the officer cial courses are given to train Kine theod-
concerned. Ordinarily, the curriculum olite operators, OQ 3 (RCAT) operators,
Courses of Instruction breakdown is "radar-heavy antiaircraft AAOR personnel, and aircraft recogni-
Long Gunner Staff Course. This artillery" or "searchlights-light antiair- tion experts.
course is of eighteen months duration craft artillery." l'vluch of the very valu- Regimental and Assistant Regimental
and is given to carefully selected officers able preliminary instruction of a long Instmctors Courses. These courses in-
for the purpose of training them as in- gunnery staff course is eliminated. Com- struct officers and enlisted ranks respec-
structors in gunnery. For promotion pur- pletion of this course is indicated by the tively in the operation and maintenance
poses, attendance at this course may be award of a '1ittle G." It is not unusual of the organizational equipment.
considered in lieu of the Staff College for an officer to take one short gunnery Territorial Army Courses. Numerous

Class at 40mm firing point. Note temporary classrooms in

background and distinctive headgear worn by Assistant Southern England and Wales.
Instructor in Gunnery.
courses of one or two weeks duration and antitank gunnery as necessary to these SAM trained 1's G (Instructors
have been held to instruct T A officers enable AAA to shoot in the ground in Gunnery) are detailed to Territorial
and enlisted ranks. Most students at- role. Army units as regular army instructors.
tending a course of this type have had ~ Preparation of training publications to In addition, IG conferences are held
wartime AAA experience, and the course, cover the above items. annually to keep the "IG" in touch with
therefore, serves as a refresher. The School of Antiaircraft Artillery is SAM. I's G come to .these conferences
responsible for: from such distant points as India, Gi-
Foreign Students ~ Interpretation of the principles of air braltar, Middle East, and from the Brit-
SAAA trains student officers of many defense laid down by the chiefs of ish Army of the Rhine. The conference
nationalities-US, Canadian, Maltese, staff in order to insure the most effec- lasts about one week, and the agenda in-
Dutch, French, Norwegian, South Afri- tive employment of artillery in the AA cludes all new developments in AM
can, Indian, Australian, Egyptian, New role. materiel or thought.
Zealander, and perhaps others. It was ~ Advice to the director, Royal Artillery, However, the most effective means
pleasant to find that any information de- on the application of these principles of promulgating SAAA doctrine was
sired on new AAA trends was cheerfully of air defense. through a variety of excellent publica-
made available to US officers. In no in- ~ AIl technical and tactical instruction tions. These school publications have in-
stance was information denied because in handling of AA artillery, except as cluded:
of the fact that a US student was foreign. is specifically delegated to field artil- ~ Antiaircraft Training Instructions.
lery or coast artillery. This type of document is published
Liaison with other Service ~ Technical instruction in the engage- as required to outline drills on new
Agencies ment of sea targets by AM guns. equipment prior to the publication of
Artillery School. In analyzing the re- ~ Cooperation with the Coast Artillery official literature.
lationship of SAAA to the Artillery School as regards policy and teaching ~ The Bulletin of the SAAA. This was
School at Larkhill, it must be remem- of siting of the CAI AA battery. published quarterly from early 1942
bered that prior to 1939 a very small ~ Assistance in instruction of CA courses until April, 1946 when its publication
proportion of regular army RA personnel in employment of CAI AA weapons in was suspended by order from the War
was assigned to antiaircraft artillery and the AA role. Office. This was an exteremly valuable
that the majority of AAA units belonged ~ Preparation of training publications to publication, and its loss left a vacuum
to the Territorial Army. This means that cover the above items. which has been only partially filled
following the war vitually no regular Coast Artillery School. The Coast Ar- by the AA IG Letter. The Bulletin
artillery officers were trained in the tech- tillery School also has certain responsi- described all new equipment or tech-
nique and tactics of antiaircraft artil- bilities in antiaircraft artillery training: nique for AAA personnel.
lery. In general, temporary officers had ~ Advice to director, Royal Artillery, on ~ The AA IG Letter. This is published
been taught this new branch. Emphasis siting and technical development of at irregular intervals and is circulated
on defense against air attack has meant the CAI AA battery. to I's G and units throughout the
a great peacetime expansion of antiair- ~ Cooperation with SAM as regards world. (Similar to the Newsletter as
craft artillery. Therefore, there has been policy and teaching of siting of formerly published by the AA&GM
a conversion of many officers from field CAI AA weapons. Branch, TAS.)
artillery to antiaircraft artillery by means ~ Assistance in the instruction of AM In addition to the SAAA publications
of instruction given at SAAA. gunnery staff courses in the principles listed above, many AAA articles appear
The British are strong for the "one of seaward defense of ports and bases, in publication of the Royal Regiment of
regiment" idea in artillery. This idea is and the employment of AM guns in Artillery-RA Notes.
fostered in official and unofficial publica- the antiship role. A final and commendable effort to
tions, by close contacts between the two ~ Assistance in the preparation of train- keep AM practices in the field in agree-
schools, and by varying an individual ing publications where applicable. ment with SAM practices was the estab-
officer's assignments within the Royal AA Command. SAM maintains very lishment of a special staff section under
Regiment of Artillery. As mentioned pre- close liaison with AA Command on gun- the chief instructor, SAM, for the pur-
viously, a Young Officer is given all of nery matters. A great aid to this liaison pose of receiving and answering letters
his basic artillery indoctrination now in is the furnishing by SAAA of I's G .and of inquiry from individuals or units not
one place-the Artillery School at Lark- AI's G to AA Command. in contact with the school.
hill. RAP and US Army. Liaison with
However, it has been necessary to de- SAM is maintained by both the RAF Conclusions
nne rather closely the responsibility for and the US Army through the assign- It is believed that the administration
instruction of antiaircraft artillery per- ment of special liaison officers. and methods used at SMA, Manorbier,
sonnel between the two schools. The should be carefully studied, especially to
Artillery School is responsible for: Influence of SAAA decide the merits of:
~ Instruction in tactical employment of SAAA maintains a control over AA ~ Providing a special course of instruc-
antiaircraft artillery as it concerns doctrine through various means. One of tion at the AA and GM Branch, TAS,
Royal Artillery commanders and staff these is the fact that all AAA instructors for all AAA instructors. Instructors
at a Corps or Division level. are trained at SAM. Another factor in- for AM Instruction Teams for over-
~ Instruction in field artillery gunnery suring a uniform AA doctrine is that seas commands are now trained in a

JULY-AUGUST, 1952 21
special course. Howe\'er. somewhat presently used. In order to secure and is exchanged only on a personal basis.
neglected on technical AAA matters keep a good man in this type of work, Generally speaking, the SAM ap-
have been National Guard. ORC. and he must be gi\'en some special prestige proach to the problem of training mili-
ROTC instructors. They would be and the possibility of advancement. tary personnel is similar to that used in
much better qualified after ha\'ing at- ~ Establishment of a correspondence de- US service schools. The results achieved
tended a special course designed for partment at AA and G~I Branch, in both cases are excellent. It was very
their training as AAA instructors. T AS, for the sole purpose of answer- evident that SAM had adopted certain
~ Selection and training of qualified en- ing letters of inquiry from officers US techniques in training. And it was
listed men to supplement officer in- located away from the school. At pres- equally evident that SAAA, ~lanorbier,
structors on a much greater scale than ent valuable information-of this nature has many good ideas and techniques.

~ ... ~.ji-'T't~:~ ~
-AlIf" ;' < • _ 'J • -~,*,? -
"Scots wha' hae wi' \\1allace bled ... :': Pipers of the 586th Light AAA Regiment furnished music for a review of the 39th
AAA A\\1 Bn. Co!. Metticus May, ,commanding the 32nd AAA Brig. and Lt. Co!. Peter J. Lacy, CO of the 39th with mem-
bers of the Bn. staff take the review at Schulthrope, England. An hour-long bagpipe concen followed the ceremony.



T HE assembly line is just about in

full swing at the Fort Bliss OCS, where
rolled in the classes. The attrition rate
was high; but those associated with the
this category because of shortcomings in
their educational background. An in-
approximately one hundred second lieu- school feel that when the seal of ap- dividual may report to OCS having had
tenants are commissioned each month. proval is placed on an OCS graduate, he little or a great deal of formal education.
These eager lads are joining fellow anti- is ready to be a credit to his fellow ar- However, he may have had this formal
aircraftsmen in units located throughout tillerymen wherever he may serve. ' education in fields divorced from the
the country. Candidates fail to graduate from the knowledge needed to master the academic
The first three graduating classes pro- school for a multitude of reasons. Per- work demanded of him at OCS. Others
vided the Army with three hundred new haps the greatest determent to success- in the lack of motivation category re-
officers. Graduates of the first two classes ful completion of the course is termed sign to avoid involuntary relief from the
were assigned to antiaircraft battalions lack of motivation. This is a catchall school.
in the various continental Army areas. category and one of the reasons why a Specifically, if a candidate decides
Members of class three, almost to the candidate may be so tabbed is that he that for some reason he is unable to suc-
man, were assigned to units stationed lacks in military experience. Some of cessfully complete some portion of the
at Fort Bliss. Many of them are present- the men reporting to OCS have been in curriculum he may elect to resign rather
ly on duty with the AM RTC. the Army a very short time and the hard- than be discharged because of his short-
The three hundred who finally ships of their new environment make it coming. Then there are some who re-
achieved the goal of a commission were difficult for them to meet the rigorous sign because they feel that after being
among the 582 who were initially en- standards of the school. Others fall into at OCS for a period of time, they are

no longer desirous of becoming an of- from the rolls. The requirements are first three classes sixt,"{me candidates
ficer. Candidates who ha,'e observed demanding and an individual who may were released because the,' could not
that their tactical officers are not clock have a minor defect which normally meet the academic standards. Candi-
watchers have been heard to express, "I would be no handicap finds himself in dates not possessing an aptitude for
didn't know an officer had to work; I difficulty at OCS. A person susceptible mathematics often experience difficulty
thought he spent all his time at the club to eye strain, for example, may find that in completing the course. A high cor-
or on the golf course. If I have to work cracking the books night after night is relation has been found for example be-
as hard as th,ese officers after I get my more than his eves can endure. Or an tween the results of a candidate's work
commission ... well I just don't want old football injury, which has not both- in math and his grade in communica-
any part of it." Others resign because ered him for years, may kick up on a tions or in surface gunnery, where the
they were not assigned to the OCS of candidate as he undergoes some of his artilleryman is required to apply a knowl-
their choice. vVhen a man applies for rigorous physical exercises preparing for edge of mathematics.
OCS, he is required to list three choices the five 1'1' tests he is required to take. Because of the importance of mathe-
of branches in which he would like to In the first three classes a total of thirty matics and related subjects, emphasis is
serve. Some who have resigned say, candidates were not graduated due to a placed early in the curriculum of each
"~ly first two choices were in the serv- physical defect of some nature. class on giving candidates who need ex-
ice branches, and I was required to list Candidates must attain a certain pro- tra instruction, every opportunity to re-
my third choice as one of the combat ficiency in military leadership. They are ceive needed coaching. Officers devote
arms." The Army attempts to assign constantly observed by their tactical of- many hours during the evening to extra
candidates to schools of their choosing; ficers to 'determine if they possess the classes and indi,'idual tutoring. Due to
but in the final analysis the quotas are qualities which will enable them to lead this extra work, many candidates have
filled according to the requirements as men to battle. The candidates are as- been kept from falling by the wayside.
specified by the Department of. the signed many of the 53 position of re- Candidates are assisted in the solution
Army. sponsibility in a candidate battery such of personal problems in an attempt to
Finally, candidates in the lack of mo- as battery commander, platoon leader, graduate as many who are worthy as
tivation •category do not complete the or section leader. \Vhile performing in possible. All personnel of the OCS de-
prescribed course for personal reasons, these positions, candidates have ample partment are available to the candidates,
such as family difficulties. opportunity for demonstrating any lead- 24 hours a day, guiding them through
A question often asked of those af- ership potential they may possess. It was any difficulty.
filiated with the OCS is, "How many determined that twenty-five did not Though the pitfalls on the road to an
candidates do you discharge for disciplin- possess these desirable qualities in the OCS commission are many, a constant
ary reasons?" Actually the number fall- first three classes, and these candidates effort is being made toward the goal set
ing into this category is amazingly small. were released from the school. by Colonel Robert H. Krueger, Director
To date only three candidates have been As can be expected, one of the biggest of the OCS, who stresses to members of
discharged from the school for discipli- reasons for discharge from the OCS is his department that, "Nothing would
nary reasons. failure to meet the requirements of the please me more than to graduate one
Physical defects take a sizable toll academic portion of the course. In the hundred percent of every class."

Co!. R. H. Krueger congrarulates distinguished military A clean sweep for OCS in the Fort Bliss tenniS tuUClJd-
graduates, left to right: Francis P. Gross, III, John G. ment and a hearty congrarulation from Lt. Co!. George J.
Christopher, Thomas R. Callahan. Distinguished graduates Bayerle, Jr., Assistant Director, OCS. Left to,right, Candi-
must, be in the upper 10 percent of their class and are date Charles. E. Shaaf, Colonel Bayerle, Lt. Frank W'.
recommended for Regular Army commissions. Sample.
JULY-AUGUST, 1952 23
The Far East Antiaircraft Artillery School

The standardization of operational

control requires that AM unit proce-
The requirements for the AAA School in (now Colonel) organized the course for gun
the 40th AAA Brigade and their problems battalion officers. Lieutenant Wm. F. La dures be systematized. In exercising
appear to be typical of what may be ex- Hatte (now Lt. Col.) organized the course for
training management O\'er such widely
pected in any active theater in War. AW officers. Lieutenant Edwards organized
In 1942 we had a like requirement in the course for radar officers. separated units, General Devine relies
Alaska. Several regiments had been rushed The general plan was that two officers heavily on FEAAAS to provide uniform
up from training centers where their AAA from each AW battalion would take the
training with the few available weapons was Brigade AW course and then return to their training of key individuals. The sub-
deficient and their training in maintenance own battalions to give the same course to ordinate units in turn use the students
was deplorable. officers and selected men. The same scheme
The officers and key men needed to learn applied to the other courses. trained by FEAAAS as instructors in
a lot more about their gunnery. They also The courses were designed primarily for decentralized training so essential in
needed to learn how to operate, adjust, and the battalion garrison schools. The sched-
maintain their equipment. Ordnance ma- ules and all work sheets were prepared on units deployed tactically.
chinists were not available. Simple gun re- that basis. The emphasis was placed on the During the period from June 1950 to
pairs might be accomplished, but if an AAA student's work with his hands and brains on
director were sent to local Ordnance for re- the equipment he had to master, with par- September 1951, 40th AAA Brigade
pair, their only solution was to send it back ticular attention to adjustment and mainte- units in Japan were relatively stable due
to Benicia Arsenal and requisition replace- nance.
ment. It was obvious that the troops needed When these students returned to their re- to the freeze on rotation. 1\.lost critical
to do a great deal more for themselves and spective battalions they took with them pre- specialists were on the job and relatively
equally obvious that each battalion needed pared schedules and work sheets for the
to conduct intensive and practical AAA gun. courses they were then to give. Most of few changes occurred. Units had been
nery and maintenance schools. them turned out to be able instructors with deployed a few months before war
The first requirement was to train instruc- gratifying results throughout the command.
tors for them. So the 42nd AAA Brigade As the schools progressed the attendant
broke out in Korea and were maintain-
Headquarters organized school courses for improvement in AAA operations and mainte- ing their alert status, building their p0-
that purpose. Lt. Col. Seymour I. Gilman nance in the units was particularly gratifying.
sitions, constructing their own housing
and fortifications, and continuing train-
ing. During this period the FEAAAS
courses were designed to raise standards
THE 40th AAA Brigade operates the is accomplished at the group level of efficiency in the employment of AM
Far East Antiaircraft Artillery School through the air division in which de- armament with the emphasis on accu-
(FEAAAS) at Camp Moore, Honshu, ployed. Details of operational control racy in firing and proper maintenance
Japan. are worked out between the Command- of equipment. Courses were conducted
The units of the 40th AAA Brigade ing General of the 40th AAA Brigade, for battery officers, range platoon ser-
are deployed. tactically in Japan over a Brigadier General James G. Devine, geants, gun platoon sergeants, and AW
vast area. The command chain is nor- and the Commanding General of the platoon sergeants. The graduates in
mal; that is, from brigade to group to Japan Air Defense Force, Brigadier turn carried on the training in their re-
battalion. Operational control, however, General Delmar T. Spivey. spective battalions. This procedure paid

SFC Spears conducting LAA Artillery Mechanics class on Major Demarcy conducting LAA Fire Comrol Mechanics
M45 Turret. class in Checks and Adjustments of the M5A () Director.
off in increased efficiency and improved
shooting in all units of the brigade. Dur-
ing this period the pipeline provided a
trickle which equaled our normal losses
by attrition.
Rotation was resumed in September
1951. The loss of weapon and platoon
chiefs did not greatly impair efficiency
inasmuch as previous training had quali-
lied replacements within the units. The
pressure became acute, howe\'er, when
certain specialists moved out and the
pipeline stream did not increase enough
to meet foreseeable needs. Existing
schools in the Far East Command were
capable of providing training in some of
these fields. Responsibility for training Lt. Galambos, Communication Division Chief, and the Field Radio Mechanics
in the others was placed upon FEAAAS.
In order to provide this training
Light AA Artillery Mechanics Battery, 40th AAA Brigade, for admin-
FEAAAS initiated an expanded pro- Course istration.
gram in February 1952, which is still
Heavy & Medium AA Artillery Most of the present instructors have
current, consisting of the following:
Mec1wnics Course had field duty with brigade units in
AM Battery Officers Course Vnit Supply Specialists Course Japan before teaching in the school.
Heavy & Medium AA Range Pla- Thus field conditions are constantly be-
toon Sergeants Course The FEAAAS is organized to include ing considered in all instruction. AIl of
Heavy & Medium AA Gun Pla- a division each for heavy and medium the enlisted instructors are actively en-
toon Sergeants Course AAA, light AAA, target acquisition and gaged in practical work with the stu-
Light AA Platoon Sergeants Course fire control, and communications. The dents in various courses and in the
Target Acquisitioll Radar Opera- present strength of the faculty and maintenance of the equipment used by
tors COHTse school detachment is 15 officers, two the school. J\hny of these enlisted in-
Radio Operators Course ReA civilian technical representatives, structors also do a lot of platform work.
Radar & Fire Control lvlec1umics and 48 enlisted men. Due to the FEC The equipment used in training has
Course troop ceiling the spaces used to operate been acquired through special letters of
COml!/lmication Chiefs Course the school presently corne from the authorization. 1\'lost of the trainino/:> aids
Field Radio Mechanics Course spaces authorized brigade T /O&E units. have been made locally, much of the
Light AA Fire Control Mechanics The school detachment and all enlisted basic materials coming from various
Course students are attached to Headquarters salvage yards.
Activities at FEAAAS center around
a main building which contains the
school headquarters, the administrative
office, division offices, six classrooms,
and drafting room. Nine laboratory
buildings, fire control and gun parks, a
16mm projection room, and a carpenter
shop, complete the facilities operated by
the school.
AIl classrooms are weIl organized and
include a platform, speakers stand,
blackboard, chart wires, and desks and
chairs. Since the school frequently has
twelve different Courses in session it
requires close coordination to make labo-
ratories and classrooms available with-
-- out conflict .
-~ The school facilities include;
CODE ROOM: A classroom with a
2a-position code table and one E£95
Code Practice Set.
H & MAA Gun Platoon Sergeants class on Maintenance. building with four 40mm Guns, four
JUtY -AUGUST, 1952
1\15A2 Directors, and four 1\15 Genera- practical work accomplished by all stu- section to AAA units from the Ryukyus,
tors, and is so arranged that classes can dents. Method of Instruction proce- Korea, and di,'isional AM units in
be broken down into small groups at dures are stressed in all courses to pro- Japan. 1\larine and Air Force students
each piece of equipment (this is gener- vide able and efficient instructors upon are frequently in attendance. During
ally true of all the laboratories). In- return of students to units in the field. the period from June 1950 to December
struction can be conducted indoors or Conduct of the school program is 1951, 492 officers and 1549 enlisted stu-
in a suitable area just outside. based on the premise that students dents from a total of 44 organizations
should be free from other duties during were trained in the various courses then
REi\IOTE CONTROL SYSTEM course instruction. Passes are freeh- conducted at FEAAAS. This year's
AND DIRECTOR LABORATORY: granted if individual academic achieve- programming plans for about 1700 stu-
ment is above the required level. The dents. The maximum capacity of
A building with five MIS Remote Con- resident instruction progresses at a very FEAAAS as presently established is 250
trol Systems, eight M5 Series Directors, rapid rate, however, and most students students at anyone time.
fiye lvl5 Generators, and various cutawav find the need for seyeral hours of study The need for centralized AAA train-
and breakdown training aids. The la~- each night in preparation of the next ing in this command has been well es-
ratory is so arranged that classes can be day's assignment. There is a noticeable tablished. The heavy personnel turn-
broken down into small groups for prac- lack of disciplinary problems in the op- over of all units in the next eight months
tical work. eration of FEAAAS.
with generally inadequate replacements
Other facilities constructed along the Since FEAAAS is operated as an ac-
indicates that specialists will have to be
same standards include: tivity ~f the 40th AAA Brigade, its fa-
trained locally for some time in the fu.
Gun park, fire control park, projec- cilities are used freely in checking out
tion and drafting rooms, carpenter shop, ture. Efforts are still being made to get
new procedures before placing them in
and other laboratories for medium and special authorization for a Table of Dis-
effect in the field. Instructors are used
heavy guns, machine guns, surface gun- tribution to operate this school in order
regularly as part of brigade inspection
nery, communications, target acquisi- teams and thus have a chance to see the to avoid the evil of drawing topflight
tion, and radar and fire control. need for, and results of training given personnel from brigade units in the field
The Camp Moore recreational and by the school. for this purpose.
athletic facilities also include some ex: Although FEAAAS was established It is assumed that future needs of the
cellent features like a swimming pool, to meet 40th AAA Brigade needs, these brigade may change. Accordingly,
bowling alleys, volleybail courts, a li- facilities have been made available to FEAAAS is a flexible organization and
brary, and service club. many other units and branches of the stands ready to provide training where
Major attention is given to stress the service. Quotas are allocated by the S3 the need is demonstrated.

40th AAA Brigade

AFTER the outbreak of the Korean of Engineers became responsible for used by the AAA, it was realized that a
conRict, medium and heavy AAA gun storage, issue, and maintenance of gen- critical condition existed and a solution
battalions were deployed in defense of erator power units M7 through MIS had to be found.
key installations in Japan. The T /O&E The idea of using commercial power
pertaining to the above type organiza- was considered but soon discarded. The
tions authorize the issue of unit genera- frequency of Japanese commercial type
tor MIS. Only fifteen per cent of this power is 50 cycles with a maximum out-
type generator was available to the put voltage of 100 volts. Also commer-
units, the remainder being substitute cial power plants and associate equip-
M7, 1'17Al, MIS or MI5Al generator ment may easily be rendered unsef\'-
sets. Much difficulty was experienced iceable by enemy action. Efforts were
during the early months in maintaining then directed to locating a suitable sub-
the substitute unit generators assigned stitute for authorized gasoline-dri,'en
the organizations due to continuous generator unit among presently stocked
operation, run-down equipment and enoineer generator sets. Generator set,
lack of spare parts. o
portable, diesel engine-driven, ski'd
By December, 1950, when the Corps Figure I-Diesel Generator RD-I4A. mounted, 30 KvV, 127/220 volt, three
RD-14 A down to 120 volts for three
phase operation, as required by AA
equipment, a step-down transformer had
to be added. A series of tests to de\'elop
a pilot model were conducted at the
40th AAA Brigade, Far East Antiaircraft
Artillery School at Camp j\ loore and a
final type transformer package was
agreed upon. This transformer unit
would be entirely separate and would
simply be connected to the basic RD-
14A, diesel generator by using two 25
Figure 2-Transfonner. foot jumper cables. Necessary instru-
___ . _ ~-r",
ments, to control final output of the
unit and for testing purposes, were in- Figure3-Cableconnections for Gen=
phase, sixty cycle, was found to be
erator RD-14A.
available and tests were begun. cluded on the portable transformer.
The Ready Power International Die- In order to facilitate the hook-up of mounted and protected by a housing
sel-Electric Plant is a heavy duty, com- jumper cables to the diesel unit, two consisting of steel frames and a cover.
pletely independent source of electrical adapters were installed on the genera- This package unit is a semipermanent
energy; which will render unusually tor. One is a standard three-plug recep- installation at the present time; how-
long and efficient service for continuous tacle assembly used on the M7, MIS or ever, it is believed that this generator-
production of power. This plant has M18 generators. The other is a special transformer unit could be mounted in a
the necessary requirements both in six pole, six conductor receptacle that suitable trailer and be made completely
speed control and close regulation of leads to the automatic voltage regulator. mobile. At any rate, the modified RD-
voltage and frequency, which is so nec- The' transformer is compact, light, 14A diesel generator has proven to be
essary in present AAA fire comtol weatherproof, and constructed for out- the solution to the generator problem
equipment. door service. The transformer, switch- in the AAA gun battalions of the 40th
To extend the voltage control of the board and convenient outlets are skid AAA Brigade in Japan,


TRACER elements in certain lots of against moisture. servation. The point where tracer was
AAA A\V ammunition have deterio- Tests conducted here in the Canal best observed was found to be a few
rated to the extent that they are practi- Zone using this compound have con- feet from the gun target line on the
cally useless. As a result many thou- sistently produced suitable trails up to upwind side of the gun.
sands of rounds are to be either disposed 1000 yards and fire adjustment correc- No apparent ill effects in functioning
of or reprocessed at great expense. A tions were easily applied from trail ob- of the gun or ammunition have been
simple solution that restores such am- observed to date as a result of firing this
munition to use, at least for training, has modified ammunition.
been tried locally on 40mm antitank Preparation of Ammunition: Prior to
ammunition and found to be highly coating, the ammunition should be
Successful. A small quantity of wax wiped clean so that the wind~hield por-
spread on the nose of a projectile, at tion of the projectile is free of dirt or
least one traveling at about the rate of foreign matter. The sealing compound is
2700 feet per second, will apparently melted down into liquid form and placed
evaporate, leaving a distinct, heavy va- in a number ten can or other suitable
por trail that can be easily substituted container with a horizontal reference
for a tracer stream for observation and mark inscribed on the inside of the can
adjustment .. so that immersion to the same depth of
The wax used in this instance was all projectiles to be dipped is facilitated.
I Signal Corps Sealing Compound, No. This particular sealing compound re-
31-GI613-30, which is basically wax in mains in a liquid form for a relatively
,,,nce ..ind "red exten,;vely .. a p<e-
protecting equipment
long period and it is therefore not
Observers check Tracer Trail. necessary, to keep the can in direct
JULY-AUGUST, 1952 27
contact with the heating source. The may be used when the desired thick- This modification has already re-
aforementioned reference mark should ness is attained. sulted in substantial savings and should
allow for immersion to the depth Qf one The coated ammunition should be be a good selling point to get the go
and one-half inches. If the coating on returned to the cardboard containers SO ahead signal permission for modifica-
the projectile extends back from the tip that no foreign matter will collect on tion.
on the ogive portion of the windshield the compound. It is recommended that The application of this process to all
any farther than this, fouling of the the containers be stood on end to mini- 40mm HE ammunition for use in AA
breechblock and bore may result during mize damaging of the smooth coating fire should be just as successful as the
firing. of compound. In addition, this will also AP experiments and is expected to he
The amount of coating required may facilitate the removal of ammunition tried locally at an early date.
vary with climatic conditions and type from the containers at the firing range. If this modification is used on ammu-
of wax used. Here in Panama we have During firing, the number seven man nition with PD Fuzes, necessary pre-
settled for a three Dip s~dard which should modify his loading habits by cautions in application of the coating
is suitable. This amount of dip results moving his left hand back a few inches should be observed to avoid fouling of
in approximately 1/16 of an inch thick- to prevent roughing up of the coating. the fuze working parts, which might re-
ness. Mter the last dip is made, the The ammunition handlers should be sult in duds. In addition, the weapons
excess compound on the tip of the pro- particularly observant and inspect each employed in firing such modified am-
jectile should be tapered off so the pro- round in the clip before passing it to the munition should be checked from time
jectile guide on the automatic loader number seven man making sure that no to time to insure against undesirable
doesn't become fquled during feeding. foreign matter has collected on the fouling of the weapons.
To speed solidification a cold water dip round.


AA [;, GM School

~ artilleryman without communi- reports to the communications officer. which has two positions, LB and CB.
cations is about as effective as a fan This falling back on the officer directly This switch must be turned all the way
dancer acting before a blind audience. responsible for the technical mainte- toward LB if the phone is to operate on
No matter how much radio communi- nance of our electronic devices is only a local battery. Field telephones are
cations are employed, telephone commu- natural. Natural because most of us, generally operated on local battery sys-
nications will be employed more. It is when confronted with an electronic tems. However if a common battery
important therefore that we know how malfunction, immediately jump to the system is employed, the screw switch
to make a few simple tests to determine conclusion that we lack the technical must be turned in the direction of CB
whether or not our telephone will work background necessary to make even as far as it will go.
and how to perform a few field expe- minor repairs. No technical background Inspect the receiver and transmitter
dients to keep it in operation when is needed to understand and make the caps to see that they are screwed down
trouble occurs. tests or perform the field expedients tight and straight.
If you happen to be a liaison officer, outlined herein. Inspect the handset cord for breaks
forward observer or stationed on an out- "Before testing a telephone it should and proper connection. The black wire
post, a few minutes spent in testing be inspected to make sure the batteries should be connected to the T & BATT
your telephone before leaving head- are installed properly and making good + terminal, the red wire to C terminal
quarters will often save you a long contact. Contacts should be clean and and the white wire to R terminal. A
trip back. More than that it may pre- free of grease. New batteries sometimes metal band is fastened around the hand-
vent you from being without communi- have a thin coating of protective grease set cord giving this key for connecting
cations when good communications are over them that may cause a poor con- to the terminals. If the handset cord
. most vital for your own safety and that nection. Turning the batteries in place terminates in a plug which plugs into
of your unit. will remove this grease as the positive the phone these connections are already
Too many of us never give commu- contact on the telephone itself is made made. Since the plug will go in only
nications a thought until we are with- rough just for this purpose. one way, it is impossible to make the
out it. Then there is great wailing and Looking down on the telephone from wrong connections.
gnashing of teeth and many indignant above, a screw switch will be seen This completes the inspection and we
can now make our tests. The telephone be heard in the test telephone there is T,ouble & Symploms Expedient
EE-Eight has only four circuits that nothing wrong with the talking circuit. Sho,ted gene,otor
need be tested. A satisfactory test indi- Defective generator turns Signal the switchboard
The above tests, with the exception
hard. Cannot ring aut or distant phone by mak.
cates the telephone is in good operating of the ringer circuit, can be made even but can ring in. ing a short across hand.
condition. The four circuits are genera- if a test telephone is not available. set terminal T to L2. A
laud clicking will be
tor, ringer, listening and talking. \Vithout a test telephone to test the heard at the distant
These tests are most easily made with generator circuit place your fingers phone causing operator
to answer. Talking cir.
the aid of another telephone known to across terminals LI and L2 and turn cuit is unimpaired.
be good which is referred to as the test the generator crank. A shock will be
felt if the generator is good. Open genera to,
Defective generator turns Some as for shorted gen-
To make tests insert batteries in both To test the talking circuit place the easy. Cannot ring aut erator.

telephones. Connect the two telephones receiver to your ear and blow into the but can ring in.

together with a short piece of field wire transmitter. A rushing sound should
Shorted ringe,
connecting one end of the wire to LI be heard. Also operate the handset
Can ring aut but cannot To talk in and aut turn
and L2 terminals of one phone and the switch and a clicking noise should be ring in. Generator turns generator cronk 'I. turn
hard. and hold in. To receive
other end to Ll and L2 terminals of the heard.
incoming ringing sig.
other phone. To test the listening circuit place the nal hold line in fingers
receiver to your ear and turn the gen- or tie to toe. Shock will
To test the generator cirwit turn the be felt an incoming
erator. A fluttering should be heard in rings. If a plug type
generator crank of the telephone being U-4IGT,
the reciver. a component
tested. This should cause the test tele- part of switchboard SB.
Even after the above tests prove a 1 BIGT is connected
phone to ring.
telephone to be good, trouble will some- across L1 and L2 a visual
To test the ringer circuit turn the times develop. Remembering that there
signal will result an in.
coming rings.
generator crank of the test telephone are only four circuits in the EE-Eight
and the telephone being tested should we can expect trouble in a limited num- Open ringe,
ring. ber of places. A short or open in any
Can ring aut but cannot Hold line in fingers or
ring in. Generator turns connect plug U.4/GT as
To test the listening circuit have one of these circuits or a short or open easy. for shorted ringer. Not
someone talk into the transmitter of the necessary to hold gen.
in the line itself will result in trouble. erotar crank in to talk
test telephone. If the conversation can If we know the symptoms for each of in and aut.
be heard in the telephone being tested these conditions we can analyze the
Shorted t,onsmitter
the receiver or listening circuit is good. trouble and make use of various field Can ring aut and in. Can Use receiver to transmit
To test the talking circuit simply talk expedients to keep communications in- listen but cannot talk and receive. Talk very
aut. Laud click heard in laud.
into the transmitter of the telephone be- tact. A listing of trouble, symptoms receiver when handset
ing tested and if the conversation can and field expedients follows: switch is operated. Can
heor no side tone (rush.
ing noise) when blowing
into transmitter.

Open transmitter
Can ring aut and in. Can Some as for shorted
listen but cannot talk transmitter.
aut. No click in receiver
when handset switch is
operated. No side tone.

Shorted receiver
Can ring aut and in. There is no field expedi.
Cannot talk in. Can talk ent for a shorted receiver

out. No side tone. No except new receiver may
shack felt across C & R be installed if available.
~ terminals of handset
.Jt... ) ..J. when generator is

J!~ turned.


i1 Open receive,
Can ring out and in.
Cannot talk in but can
talk out. No side tone.
Shock felt across C & R
generator is
No expedient. Must
.stall new receiver.

Sho,ted line
./ Generator turns hard. Short must be located
Cannot ring out or in. and repaired.
Moving into Newark from Fort Hancock, Battery D, 41st AAA Gun Bn. receives
Cannot talk out or in.
the keys to the city as they prepare an antiaircraft demonstration on Armed Forces
Day. Mayor Villani greets the unit at City Hall, Captain Peter Garambrone,
Open line
Generator turns easy. Open must be located
Cannot ring out or in. and wires spliced to.
Cannot talk out or in. gether.

JULY-AUGUST, 1952 29

SIXIT miles due East of Tokyo, on the 6114th Tow Target Squadron. Cap-
the sandy and windswept beach of the tain Ross arrived at Katakai Firing
Chiba Peninsula, lies. Katakai Firing Range on 4 January, 1952, and remained
Range which is operated by the 138th until 19 January, during which time he
AAA Group under the command of gave ten hours of Bight instruction to my-
Colonel \Villiam L. McNamee. self and to 1st Lt. Robert L. Wittnebel,
The battalions in the group go there CO of the 31st RCAT Detachment. He
for their thrice yearly firing practice. also gave over fifty hours of instruction
Frequent visitors too, are the divisional to maintenance personnel of both de-
AAA AW battalions stationed in Japan, 'tachments.
Air Force Ground Defense Units, and Launching the OQ-19D is accom-
AAA A W units of the I\Jarine Corps. plished by means of a three wheeled
Also, Katakai has played host to the launching cart which travels around a
21st, 25th, 50th, 140th, and 933rd AAA hard top circular track, two tenths of a
A\V Battalions as they trained prior to mile in circumference. Thrust from the
moving on to Korea. OQ-19D descending by parachute after propeller provides propulsion of the
Stationed permanently on the range, control release. target and cart and they revolve around
are the 31st and 36th Radio Controlled the track at increasing speed until suffi-
Airplane Target Detachments. Each their targets before returning. In Octo- cient flying speed is attained. The tar-
composed of one officer and eleven en- ber the 36th RCAT Detachment was get is then released from the cart into
listed men, they operate and maintain airlifted South to the newly set up AAA free flight by means of an electrically
the OQ-19D Radio Controlled Air- Range on Kyushu. The 36th returned operated solenoid. At present the only
planes used for target practice at Kata- to Katakai six weeks later after having launching site in Japan is the one lo-
kai. From I January, 1951, through Bown targets for the 507th AAA A\V cated at Katakai. However, plans are
December of the same year, 395 Target Battalion and the AAA A\V Battery of under way for the construction of addi-
Planes of the OQ-3 type were launched, the 187th Airborne RCT. tional launching sites and it is expected
and 137 were expended by reason of Soon after the 36th RCAT Detach- that in the near future the RCAT De-
gunfire. This indicates almost three ment had returned to Katakai the sup- tachments will again be "on the road."
Bights per target which is an excellent ply of OQ-3's became exhausted and the The OQ-19D is a much better target
average for this type of plane. These OQ-19D was received in its place. It for Antiaircraft firing practice than was
Detachments provided targets also at was completely different in construction its cumbersome predecessor, the OQ-3.
three other Antiaircraft Ranges in Ja- and operation and required entirely new In horizontal Bight it is capable of
pan during 1951. concepts of Bight characteristics and tech- speeds in excess of 200 miles per hour
In April, 1951, the 36th RCAT De- niques in control and maintenance. and can perform all of the aerobatics
tachment, taking twenty targets and an Where the OQ-3 had consisted of a that are accomplished by conventional
A-2 Catapult, moved by rail to Misawa fabric-covered metal framework and aircraft, to include loops, rolls, Immel-
Air Force Base ~n Northern Honshu, and wooden-ribbed wings, the OQ-19D was mans, chandelles, and even tailspins. So
spent five weeks on the range located a sleek, all-metal plane. In place of the far at Katakai, the OQ-19D has only
there, Bying target planes for the 865th two cylinder, eight horsepower engine been used 'for Automatic Weapons fir-
AAA AW Battalion and the 753rd with its one gallon fuel tank, the new ing but personnel of the RCAT Detach-
AAA Gun Battalion. In August, the target possessed a powerful four cylin- ments are anxiously awaiting the day
residents of Hokkaido, the Northern- der, seventy-two horsepower engine, when they can provide missions for
most Island of Japan, were startled to and had a fuel capacity of eleven gal- heavy AAA. In Bying courses for A\V
see small red and white airplanes buzz- lons. Also, the electronic equipment units with the OQ-19D it is possible to
ing angrily through the sky overhead. was new and a different method of provide almost any type of course.
The 31st RCAT Detachment were By- launching was involved. Although the The target can be put through its
ing them for gunnery practice of the personnel of both RCAT Detachments paces simulating the evasive action of a
145th AAA AW Battalion (SP). The had been successfully Bying the OQ-3 jet fighter, which makes it an elusi\'e
31st had been airlifted from Katakai to Target it was nevessary to secure quali- and tantalizing streak of red in the
Hokkaido in "Flying Boxcars," carrying fied instruction on the new type target gunners' sights. The usual procedure at
twenty targets and a catapult with them. before attempting to operate it. Katakai is for an A\V unit to fire upon
For six weeks they remained, Bying a The Air Force came to the rescue in a towed sleeve in the first stages of
total of 47 missions and expending all the form of Captain \Villiam D. Ross of training and for record fire, and to fire on
RCATs in the later phases. The type Since Katakai is an o\'erwater range, tinually striving to gi\'e the best possible
of course to be Bown is largely depend- a great majority of the targets brought
target support to the units they service.
ent upon the proficiency of the firing down by gunfire fall into the sea. Each
unit. For a well trained unit the target In March of 1952 a series of successful
of the RCAT Detachments has a
must be Bown at ma:-.:imum ranges and tests were run, utilizing the OQ-19D
"D~'ck" for use in recovery. The nau-
evasive action taken to prevent exces- tical'RCAT-men sometimes go a mile in the towing of target flags. A quarter
sive target losses. The effect on morale out into the Pacific to retrieve a fallen section of an A6B Target Flag was used
of firing on a '1i\'e" target is worth target. The wing of the target is filled for the test which provided a flag twelve
mentioning. A touch of realism is added with a light buoyant plastic which will feet in length and three feet in width.
to the firing and the elation of the crew float the plane indefinitely. \\Then the Parachute shroud lines were used to
that has downed a "Cat" is evident to water is too rough for safe operation of make a tow cable 600 feet long, a length
all in sight or hearing. the "Duck" the downed targets are car- which provides ample protection to the
Due to an agreement with the local ried down the coast by prevailing cur- OQ while the flag is being fired upon.
Japanese fishermen, firing is permitted rents. A great number of them are The resulting target rivaled the flag
at Katakai only during the afternoon eventually returned by the cooperative towed by present conventional aircraft,
hours. The mornings, however, are Japanese Fishing Fleet. being just as fast, providing a wider va-
used for tracking missions. The RCAT Detachments are con- riety of courses, and excellent visibility.



TWENTY months ago the officers USAFI facilities were made available; is the outstanding mess hall of Battery
and enlisted men of the 903d and the and even little doghouses were built D, 764th AAA Battalion. This dining
764th AAA Battalions of the Canal out of the final odds and ends of the room was literally carved out of a cement
Zone's 65th AAA Group, commanded salvaged materials. All in all, the field bunker originally used to store ammuni-
by Colonel Sanford J. Goodman, moved positions slowly became more desirable tion for the old seacoast guns. Taste-
out of their cozy barracks and hit the "homes" than had been the garrison bar- fully decorated, it recently drew the
dusty trail to field alert positions which racks in Forts Clayton and Davis-camps particular interest of Colonel Henry G.
had not been occupied since the days located at the Pacific and Atlantic en- McFeely, AAA veteran, on a general
of World War II. trances to the Panama Canal. staff visit from the Pentagon.
"Just for a few days," went the rumor usa shows and soldier-entertainment This life in the field has well demon-
as the men searched for the former posi- are being used as much as possible to strated how fortunate it is to have men
tions, obscured by the lush tropical life break the deadly monotony of the field in each battery with skill and know how
of Panama. Some of these positions schedule. The Canal Zone AA soldiers' as carpenters, plumbers, electricians, and
couldn't be found until weeks after the routine is a demanding life. He is on in other like skills. Every battery in the
move to the field. duty from sunrise to sunset, subject to group has demonstrated resourcefulness
As the weeks turned into months, alert duty shifts, and receives one 24 in meeting conditions as they exist, as
ceaseless training and tactical build-ups hour pass each eight days, if he is lucky. well as in developing a strong antiair-
welded the antiaircraft defenses of the Typical of the field position facilities craft defense ready for instant action.
Panama Canal into a cohesive unit.
With the primary defense mission
well in hand, the troops turned their
ingenuity to improving their living con-
ditions. Salvaged materials were gath-
ered together and ramshackle open-air
facilities soon became comfortable instal-
A "mobile sick-call" was established;
jungle-chapels were set up; NCO Club-
PX's were built; motion picture theaters
came into being where iguanas once
dwelt; flowers were planted around the
tight and homey barracks; I&E rooms
were constructed; playing fields and O.S. Army Photo
Corporal Crosby, Pfc Teague and Pfc Thompson, Btry B, 903rd AAA Bn., reach
courts were laid out; mobile libraries and
their position by rowboat in typical fashion.
Colonel Evans R. Crowell, head of
the ROTC at Texas \-Vestern College,
El Paso, Texas, was in actual charoe
with Brig. Gen. F. L. Havden, in over-
all command. '

Artillery Inspector Visits

~Iajor General John M. Lentz, Inspec.
to~ of Artillery, Office of the Chief, Army
FIeld Forces, made a staff visit to Fort
Bliss, June 13-18.
General Lentz started his schedule
with briefings on activities of the Post
and of the School, on June 14.
NEW HOME FOR A.F.F. BO. 4. The new building of the Army Field Forces
Board No.4 at Fort Bliss, Texas, shown above in an architect's sketch, will be
ready in July or August of this year. The wing on the left is for the Guided Mis- Open House at Bliss
sile Shop. A similar wing for an Antiaircraft Shop is planned for the other side. Some 25,000 residents of the area
The Board's Support Group, headed by Lt. Co!. \'Vendell B. Sell, will occupy the visited Fort Bliss on May 17, to attend
center of the building. The new Board No.4 quarters will be 265 feet long and
an Armed Forces Day open house spon-
137 feet wide. It will have a repair and assembly shop 120x120 feet and a two-
story wing to house a carpenter shop, machine shop and offices. A feature of the sored by Army, Navy, and Air Force
design has been to make the entire building dust and sand proof by special installations of the vicinity.
weatherproofing of doors and windows. A forced ventilating system will filter Fort Bliss, Biggs Air Force Base, Wil-
all air in the building. The contemporary architectural design of the struCture liam Beaumont Army Hospital and the
with colored stucco walls will hamlonize with other buildings at Fort Bliss. An
El Paso Naval Reserve Training Center
Administration building to be located directly in front of this shop building is
also planned. demonstrated the practical unification
of the services as hosts for a series of ex-
tensive displays.
Emphasis for the day was on the most

FORT BLISS ACTIVITIES modem weapons and equipment but

due honor was paid to serviceman of
an earlier date. One of the most color-
Command Inspection visit, with actual supervision of prepara- ful events on the program was the formal
tions delegated to Col. C. C. Harvey, Jr., retreat ceremony in which a mounted
General of the Fourth
who was designated USMA project
officer for the visit.
color guard of veterans of the 1st Cavalry
Division participated, wearing old-style
Army, visited Fort Bliss for a command cavalry uniforms.
ROTC Cadets In Field
inspection, June 16-18. Each branch of the Armed Forces-
Four weeks of living and training un- Army, Navy, and Air Force-had its own
Climaxing the command inspection
der field conditions was the dominating exhibit. There were antiaircraft guns,
was a dismounted review held on Noel
feature of the six-week Antiaircraft Ar- radars, directors and missiles; a Link
Field at 2:30 P.M., June 18. Four battal-
tillery ROTC summer camp opening at Trainer and types of survival equipment
ions of Fort Bliss troops paraded. Col K.
Fort Bliss on June 21. The cadets biv- for airmen.
R. Kenerick was commander of troops.
ouacked on the Oro Grande ranges.
USMA Cadets Visit During these four weeks, they were Gen. Gay's Visit
Two full days of concentrated anti- given intensive training including prac- Major General Hobart R. Gay, deputy
aircraft artillery and guided missile in- tice firing of the principal weapons in commander, Fourth Army, who was sta-
struction highlighted the visit of 516 AM. The field training period in- tioned at Fort Bliss when it was a cavalry
United States Military Academy Cadets cluded a two-day tactical field exercise post, returned as an honored guest for
to Fort Bliss, June 14-18. In this in- in which aggressor forces were used. the Armed Forces Day weekend.
struction, the extensive training and The initial week of the summer camp, He was guest speaker at the Armed
range facilities of the Post were utilized. before the cadets moved to the firing Forces Day luncheon given in El Paso
lbe cadets witnessed medium, heavy ranges, was spent in carbine marksman- by the Armed Forces Committee of the
and light antiaircraft artillery in aerial ship training. Chamber of Commerce. In addition
firing on the Fort Bliss ranges and also More than 1200 senior ROTC cadets, General Gay visited various installations
saw how AA is used in close support of coming from thirty colleges and universi- and facilities of the post, including the
infantry in combat. Another important ties in tlie United State and Puerto Rico, Antiaircraft Artillery OCS, the 1st Guid-
phase of their 'instruction was indoctrina- attended the camp. ed Missile Group and the AAA Replace-
tion in guided missile developments. This was the second consecutive sum- ment Center.
Brig. Gen. F. L. Hayden, command- mer that AM ROTC cadets from all Corporal Gordon K. Anderson, 1st
ing general of Fort Bliss, was in general sections of the United States and from Guided Missile Group, was chosen as
charge of arrangements for the Cadets' Puerto Rico have trained at Fort Bliss. representative for all troops in the area

at the Armed Forces Day luncheon. went to the Air Ground School at South- Korean Awards at Bliss
One of 20 enlisted men of the area ern Pines.
Bron::e Star
who were special guests at the luncheon,
Se\'eral new units have been attached Lt. Co!. Roy A. Tate
Corporal Anderson sat at the speaker's
to the brigade in the past month. The 1st Lt. l\ lathew Dadich
lable with I\lajor General Hobart R.
718th Transportation Truck Company 1st Lt. Paul J. Tate
Gay. chief speaker for the occasion.
just returned from Long Horn and the l\ljSgt. James K. Dulaney
10th AM AW Battalion (Smbl) trans- SFC Charles L. Campbell
38th Brigade Headquarters
Sgt. Billy Bums
During the past few months the bri- ferred from Camp Edwards.
Sgt, Richard l\IcCurry
oade has had a breather and in the inter- The 10th Battalion is one of the oldest Sgt. Eugene B. Robinson
"\'al sent l\ lajor E. V. Joyce, S4, to C &
GSC at Fort Lea\'enworth. Lt. Col. A.
, .
artillerv units of the United States Arm\'. Sgt. William J. Sutherland
Air Medal
~1. Ahrens, S3. and Captain l\ l. L. Sin- Training during this period has been
1st Lt. Thomas L. Kelly
derman, Headquarters Battery com- confined previously to basic unit sub-
Arm y Commendation Ribbon
mander, attended Air Ground School, jects. Extensive use has been made of
CpL Victor 1\ I. Stark
then went to Exercise Long I-lorn as G3 aggressor personnel to test local security CpL Kenneth K. Ellis
and Air Action Officer. Captain A. V, and test unit reaction to road blocks and Certificate of Achievement
Clark and 1st Lt. R. R. -Hawkins, Jr., attack of convoys. i\'ljSgt. Henry P. 'vVeicks


Field Manuals the printers, are scheduled for distribu- tains exercises for light AAA when em-
FM 44-1, Antiaircraft Artillery Em- tion before the end of July. They areTM ployed in close support of infantry and
ployment, has recently been printed and 20-300, Use of Radio-Controlled Air- armor.
distributed. This manual was written plane Targets, and TM 44-225, Orienta-
at the AA & GM Br, T AS, Fort Bliss tion for Artillery. TM 44-234, AAA
Special Texts and Army Training
and supersedes FM 4-100, Organization Service Practice, has been forwarded to
OCAFF where it is undergoing final Tests
and Tactics of Antiaircraft Artillery,
published in 1943. The new manual revIew. Two new special texts on surface-to-
contains 177 pages and 32 charts and air missiles are in preparation. These
figures. The manual outlines the or- Training Circulars texts will be classified.
ganization and basic tactical principles KIT 44-8, Antiaircraft Artillery Bat-
OCAFF has already received a pro-
for the employment of light, medium, talion (Light (75mm) Mbl), has been
posed training circular, Fire Control and
and heavy AAA in air defense and sur- forwarded to OCAFF for review before
Gunnery, T69, for final review. Proposed
face missions. printing. A IT 44-5, AAA Brigade
circulars on service of the AN/TPS 1-0
Fl\1 44-38, Service of Directors M9} (Group), has been written and is bein~
and service of the Duster, both important
~19AI, M9A2, and MIO, is now at the reviewed by G3 at AAA & GiVI Cen-
to users of these new pieces of equip-
printers for publication. Hil 44-33A, ter, Fort Bliss, prior to submission to
ment, are in preparation.
Ser\'ice of AA Fire Control System M33, OCAFF.
\l'iII prescribe drill, operation, and main-
tenance for this new fire control ma- Changes to Field Manuals Training Films
lerieL The manual outline has been
Changes to three manuals are in prep- Two completed training films have
forwarded to OCAFF for approval.
aration at AA & GM Br, T AS. Changes been previewed and are being re\'ised
AA & GM Br, T AS, plans to revise
No. I, FM 44-4, Antiaircraft Artillery in .accordance with comments made by
t\l'o manuals this summer. Fivl 44-60,
Guns, will cover the tactical employ- AA & GM Br, T AS, at Fort Bliss. These
Service of the 40mm Gun, will include
ment of medium and heavy AAA as films are general orientation films on
details of the M3A2 weapon. FM 21-80"
described in DA TC 18 and will dis- light AAA with the infantry and ar-
Recognition Training, will incorporate
cuss the use of VT fuzes. Changes No. mored division, and light AAA in dose
the results of a study of the methods
2 to FM 6-40, Field Artillery Gunnery, support of infantry. Nine other training
best suited for teachin'g this subject.
describes indirect fire methods for AAA. films or film bulletins, all concerned with
Changes No. I to FM 44-2, Antiaircraft service and employment of the AAFCS
Technical Manuals Artillery Automatic \Vcapons, takes up T33 or the M33 trailer and acquisition
Two technical manuals, currently at the aspects of surface firing and con- radar, are in preparation.
JULY-AUGUST, 1952 33
35th Brigade I n Field Positions
"Met" Tests
The 35th AAA Brigade has recenth.
conducted a few interesting meteor~
logical tests under 2nd Lieut. Donald
THE 35th AAA Brioade
under Brio.
n All of the brigade battalions are al- D. Johnston. the officer in charge.
Gen. Homer Case has con:inued to oc- ready training for their fall target prac- The tests have merely s!arted, and
cupy field positions in the \Vashington tices to be conducted at Bethanv Beach accordingly no conclusi,'e results ha,'e
and Baltimore metropolitan areas for the during October:November. and Decem- been reached. They are of particular
past two months. ber. interest, howe,'er, in that they appear
During the latter part of July the bri- Colonel D. D. i\lartin has assumed to be ,'ery instructi,'e for any meteoro-
gade participated in the Joint ADC- command of the 208th AAA Group in logical section.
AAC-Ground Observer Corps Team the AAA defense of Baltimore, replacing Initially the tests merely checked the
Exercise. During this period the volun- Col. Howard S. Ives who was relie,'ed standard methods of plotting and COm-
teer ci,'ilian observers were used to from acti,'e duty to return to his civilian putations for ballistic winds against the
supplement the radar warning net position with the Connecticut State determination of the same data by the
manned by air and antiair crews. Hos- Highway Department. Col. Ives has simplified procedure described in the
tile air attacks were simulated bv Air recently been named executi,'e officer Nov-Dec. 1951 JOURNAL. This check
Force planes .. of the 103rd AAA Brigade, Conn. Na- prm'ed to be instructive and interesting
The 261st AAA Brigade, Delaware tional Guard. though sometimes inconclusive.
N.C., Brig. Gen. J. B. i\loore command- Col. Francis A Liwski, 35th Brigade At any rate the first tests led to far
ing, did their summer camp training with more instructive tests.
Executive, also commands the 19th
the 35th from July 20th to August 3rd. AAA Group pending arrival of replace- The met crew can take the balloon
During the camp they had an excel- observations for wind determination bv
ment for Col. i\lartin. The group and
lent opportunity to participate in all using the SCR 584, T33, theodolite
the brigade have occupied field positions
phases of the brigade headquarters oper- with pilot balloon, or by theodolite with
ations including the AAOC operations. a balloon borne radiosonde. In the
Lt. Col. Joseph H. Orr has relie\'ed
Early in August the 736th AAA Gun latter test two completely independent
Major J. I-I. Felter in command of the
Battalion, Lt. Col. Frank T. Lynch com- sets of observations are made simul-
71st 1\AA Gun Battalion. i\lajor Felter
manding, will return to home station at taneously. They may be made on the
leaves the Fort Beh.oir battalion for dutv
\Vilmington, Delaware, and revert to same balloon if applicable. Both sets of
in FECOi\l.
inactive status in the Delaware National readings are solved by the standard
Guard. Lt. Col. Thos. H. Barfield has recently plotting method to get the ballistic wind
During the past year the 736th has joined the brigade from the AA School. data. When that is completed each set
become an important element of the bri- Lt. Col. Burton R. Brown is also ex- of readings is used to determine the
gade. The battalion will be replaced pected to join in August from General ballistic wind data by the simplified
by the 89th AAA Gun Bn. Staff duty in \Vashington. (C011lillued 01' page 46)

CENTRAL AA CO.M.MAi~D. Col. Donald J. Bailey, CO., Central Army AA

Command, and staff. (L to R) \X'OJG Ralph C Gallion, adjutant; Capt. Francis
WI. Turnbull, asst. plans officer and S2; Lt. Col. James H. McCann, Jr., plans
officer and executive; Major Roy H. Lundgren, °
and T Officer; Capt. Stanley A.
Swieckowski, 54; W'OJG Robert E. Roswald, asst. adjutant. j
(Extracted frOIll "H istor)' of H eGl')' AA Fire Control and ldateriel," by Colollel \ Vi Ilia III J. \ V uestj

WHEN a German airplane bombed of the target had changed and this Laboratory research, in the case of
Paris on 30 August ]9 I4, it started a added greatly to the difficulty of making France and Great Britain, began on a
chain reaction in artillery circles that is predictions. Only a combination of luck high plane. TIle French battery com-
still going on. Two months later bomb- and crystal ball gazing could obtain a manders were for the greater part men
ing had increased to such an extent that hit by such a method of fire control. of engineering experience. The British
defense from the ground became a must. Ne\'ertheless, it was the first method of officers were drawn from all walks of
Ilistory records that there were previous fire control since it used the human life and very few were of the engineering
instances of aerial bombing-in Tripoli mind as a data computer. profession. For this reason the French
in 19] I, and in the war between Spain \Vhat was needed was the develop- were in a better position to cope with
and J\lorocco in ]9] 3-but little or no ment of instruments which would de- the mathematical reasoning of antiair-
thought had been given as to what to termine the position of the target at a craft fire control problems.
do about it. future time equal to the time of Hight of
Since the existent artillery in ]9 I4 the projectile. One by one the problems
would not elevate sufficiently to engage were solved. Two methods of position OUn. antiaircraft service dates back
an aerial target, crude improvisations finding were developed in coordination to the fall of ]917 when a detail of 25
were resorted to. Some tried means of with the instruments required by these officers was sent to attend the Antiair-
ele\'ating the wheels of the field gun, methods to make them effective. These craft School at Arnouville-Ies Gonnesse.
others experimented with dropping the were the linear speed and angular lnl\'el Although in action only four months
trail. Everyone fired at airplanes with methods. and having only two skeleton gun bat-
whatever weapons they had; usually re- As \Vorld Vlar'l went on, antiaircraft talions, our service was credited with
gardless of whether or not the airplane artillery increased in effectiveness. The downing 58 enemy airplanes. At the
was in range. (And sometimes by mis- airplanes resorted to night Hying and as close of the war, approximately ] 2,000
take at friendly airplanes.) a result searchlights and sound locators U.S. soldiers in France were assigned to
It was soon apparent that intricate were developed to increase the effective- antiaircraft units.
llre control apparatus was necessary if ness of guns at night. The first antiaircraft course for offi-
airplanes were to be successfully en- The pioneer antiaircraft artillerymen cers was held at Fort J\lonroe, Virginia,
gaged. A decision was made that field were confronted with a very difficult in February ]918. It was of five weeks
artillery should not be assigned the dual problem which, to many of them, must duration. Following completion of this
missions of firing at air and ground tar- have seemed to be impossible. A 1920 course it was expected that the gradu-
!iets. An antiaircraft service was or- Ordnance report had this to say on the ates would take further instruction at
ganized and specially designed equip- subject, "\Vhen the complexity of the the American A1\ School in France.
ment supplied. problem is considered, one wonders at Available for conducting instruction in
To develop suitable weapons was the faith exhibited in the possibility of practice firing at Fort Monroe was one
only the beginning. The airplane was finding a solution, at the ingenuity dis- three-inch gun. According to an official
a much faster target than any pre\'i- played in working out the fire control statement, upon completion of the Fort
ously encountered. Fuze functioning at devices, and at the measure of success 1'Ionroe course, the officer was qualified
high altitudes was known but partially. met with by the personnel who had m "to devise, improvise, and operate suffi-
Three dimensional Right prediction just hand the development of this arm of cient fire control apparatus to enable
did not exist. the service." him to take charge immediately of an
Estimation and adjustment was the \Vorld \Var I gave an impetus to antiaircraft battery."
methocl first used. The gun was pointed antiaircraft development which would It is impossible to properly record the
at the target somewhat similar to shoot- have been impossible in peace. The history of our antiaircraft artillery with-
ing at birds on the wing. The fuze was ]9] 4 French antiaircraft defense con- out mention of the fire control methods
set bv guess. The round was fired at sisted of about ten guns and no per- developed by the French. Not one round

Ithe t~rget and the nearness of the burst sonnel. In ]9]8 it consisted of about of ammunition was fired from a U.S.
to the target observed. Then the gun- 900 guns, 600 machine guns, and 600 manufactured antiaircraft gun at an
ners went into a huddle and decided on searchlights manned by ],500 officers enemy target during \Vorld \Var I! We
the necessarv corrections in azimuth, and 40,OCO men. The other combatant used French guns and fire control equip-

lelevation and fuze. By now the position

nations expanded in like proportion. ment.
Fig. 1-75mm AA autocannon mounted on truck (French). Fig. 2- Tach)'scope.

Let us take a look at what the French ods were used. For a particular altitude At first the linear speed of the air-
had. and speed, graphic diagrams for lateral plane was estimated. Later on the tachy'
Before the outbreak of \Vorld \Var 1. and vertical deHections plotted in terms scope was designed to measure the
the French had manufactured a 75mm of azimuth and ranges, permitted deter- speed from the displacement of the
autocannon which could elevate to 75 mination of corrections for every 15 airplane after its altitude was known.
degrees. It had a field of fire in azimuth degrees. The angle of approach. determined by
of 240 degrees. Muzzle velocity was The plotting hoard method was su- estimate at first and later by the angle
1.850 feet per second and rate of fire perseded in 1916 by instruments soh.- of approach telescope, also was neces,
was 10 rounds per minute. It was ing automatically the formulas for cor- sary.
mounted on a truck and stability of a rections. These instruments were the The principle of the tachyscope in-
sort was provided by screw jacks. goniograph, sitogoniograph and tachy- \'DIved the rate of travel of the airpiane
This autocannon had been designed $Ope (Fig. 2). The same year the angle in a horizontal plane parallel to that at
for the purpose of engaging balloons as of approach telescope was developed. which it was Hying and at a height
targets. The pointing apparatus pre- This instrument wiII be covered in a above the instrument eyepiece propor-
sumed that it was possible to make lat- later article. tional to the altitude of the target. The
eral and vertical adjustment of fire by instrument consisted of a horizontal
The goniograph determined lateral
direct observation of the burst. grill of concentric circles. the radius of
deHection corrections; the sitogoniograph
During \Vorld \Var I the French which corresponded to definite speeds
determined vertical deflection correc-
modified the autocannon by emplacing sllch as 30, 40, 50, and 60 meters per
tions. These instruments which were
it on a trailer and by improving the second. The grill was secured to a verti-
based on slide rule principles permitted
sighting mechanism, Fig. 1. The sight- cal support graduated in altitude thus
logarithmic computation of the deflec-
ing system de\'eloped was unique for permitting a proportional altitude set-
tion corrections.
that day. The traversing gear mecha- ting. About this vertical support a hori-
nism contained a differential svstem zontal bar bearing a peephole slide could
which made it possible to lay the gun in be revolved.
alinement with the predicted future po- ]n operation, the target initially waS
sition of the target without disturbing held in alinement with the eyepiece, the
the pointer. 1\ second differential gear center of the grill and the target. Hold-
system was contained in the mechanism ing this alinement, the observer noted
which controlled the setting of vertical on or near which circle the objective
deflections. was projected, 10 seconds later. The
As previously mentioned there were radius of this point permitted readily a
two methods of determining the future simple calc:ulation of the engine speed.
position of the target as developed by \Vhen the wind was blowing. this
the French; the linear speed and angu- did not give the engine speed and it W?S
lar travel methods. therefore necessary to start the target
The linear speed method, also called not from the center of the grill but frorn
the angle of approach method, was the a movable point or immediately belo\\'
first to be developed since it did not re- it. The directional effect of the wind
quire complicated measuring instru- was compensated for by orienting the
ments. Vertical and lateral deflection pointer into the wind.
corrections were determined. At first, Fig. 3-Altitude telemeter, rear view To determine range a one-meter base
plotting hoards employing graphic meth- (French). instrument manufactured by Barr &

Straud was the first instrument used. altitude and the introduction of an auto- instruments of delicate construction. It
Errors were very large with this instru- matic corrector for determining future was not until 1917 that the problems
ment if the range exceeded 6,000 meters. angular height. were definitely soh-ed.
The introduction of the altitude tele- The angular travel method of fire con- Actually there were types of instru-
meter about the middle of 1915 im- trol, also known as the tachymetric meth- ments used; one was called Corrector
prm.ed considerably the accuracy of the od. consisted of measuring the lateral and Brocq (electromagnetic corrector), the
fire control system Fig 3. The princi- vertical angular velocity of the airplane other was called Corrector R.A. (a me-
ple of the telemeter was to obtain fuze and multiplying these values by time chanica] instrument).
range as a function of altitude and an- of flight. Accurate results could have Both of these instruments were used
gular height. Considering altitude to been obtained if it had been possible to by U.S. troops and in our service were
be constant during time of flight plus determine the mean angular speed dur- adopted officially. The Brocq was desig-
dead time, future fuze range could be ing time of flight. Approximate ,'alues nated AA Data Computer i\Iodel 1916
obtained if altitude and future angular of correction were obtained and various and the Corrector R.A. was designated
height were known. Altitude telemetry methods were developed to correct these AA Data Computer 1\Iodel 1917. These
became effective only after accurate in- approximate values to exact values. The two data computers will be discussed in
struments were developed for measuring angular travel method required accurate a later article.

THE Army's only Antiaircraft Artil- . tiago Gue,'era, commander of troops,
lery Replacement Training Center has decorations are presented men of the
doubled in size and graduated some 35,- RTC, usually Korean veterans.
000soldiers trained for combat. The AAA During the last week of March,
BTC, commanded by Colonel Earl \V. branch materia] trainees resumed train-
, Heathcote, was established August 10, ing on the Synthetic Trainer 1\Iark 1.
1950 at Fort Bliss, Texas. Graduates are where they gain experience in actual
now serving in the continental United tracking of targets and tracer observa-
States, Alaska, Europe, and the Far East. tions. On Apri] 3, troops attending the
The primary mission of the AAA specialist courses, tracked and fired on
BTC is to train automatic weapons crew- radio controlled airplane targets. These
men, heavy antiaircraft artillery cannon- two types of training are now a regular
eers, director operators, radar operators, part of the AAA RTC program for the
operations assistants, and aircraft warn- branch materia] trainees. The radio con-
ing specialists. The training program has trolled airplane targets are furnished by
been stepped up to eight weeks of basic the 52nd RCAT detachment, recently
and eight weeks of branch material train- attached to the AAA RTC.
ing. The unit method of instruction is Co!. Heathcote and Staff. Group commanders are: First, Colo-
being used. nel Geoffrey \V. Sargent; Second, Lt.
A specialist training course has been assisted by the AAA RTC. i'vien are Col. Santiago Guevara. Battalion com-
in operation since the first of this year, selected to undergo a 13-week specialist m?nders: Lt. Col. Harold E. Graham,
four classes having received training as training program, and returned to theil 1st Bn.; Col. 'Geoffrey \V. Sargent, 2nd
specialists. parent organization. Bn.; Lt. Col. Arthur S. Naylor, 3rd Bn.;
The secondarv mission of the AAA A coveted award for men of the AAA Lt. Col. John Martinelli, 4th Bn.; Major
BTC is to trai; basic soldiers for post RTC' is to be named as "the RTC Fred R. vVhitehead, 5th Bn.; Lt. Col.
units. These trainees receive eight weeks Trainee of the 1\Ionth." The selection Grover Crawford, 6th Bn.; Lt. Col. A]-
of basic training and a special five weeks is based upon the individual's military bert W. Harvey, 7th Bn.; Major i\Ii]ton
advanced individual branch material appearance, and knowledge, training D. Kert, 8th Bn.; l\Iajor Winford E.
course prior to returning to their parent and military courtesy. The winner is Osburn, 9th Bn.; Lt. Col. Valentine T.
unit. taken on a tour of the AAA RTC by Terribi]e, 10th Bn.; i\Iajor Fred Patter-
There were six battalions within the the commanding officer, visits the leader's son, II th Bn.; Captain James G. Hayes.
AAA RTC in August 1951, there are and specialist courses, then to post head- ]2th Bn.
now two groups, twelve battalions, and quarters where he is presented to the Headquarters AAA RTC staff officers:
fifty batteries. Fort B]iss commanding general. Private Major James D. Benner, executive; Lt.
Incorporated in the AAA RTC is the LaVerne D. Boeck, Auburn, Nebraska, Col. Elmer E. Twining, 53; i\Iajor Wi]-
leader's course battalion which has grad- was designated for the month of March. ]iam A. i\lcQueeney, S4, Captain Fran-
uated 930 potential leaders since it was A mass dismounted review staged by cis B. Mathews, 51, and Captain Joseph
aetivated. the branch materia] battalions is held M. Schmid, acting adjutant. Captain
National guard battalions arriving at periodically. \Vith Co]onel Heathcote as Robert A. Leitzell, adjutant, is currently
Fort Bliss, lacking trained personnel, are the reviewing officer, and Lt. Col. 5an- hospitalized.
JULY-AUGUST, 1952 37
* * ** * **** * ** * *** **** **
Original Honor Roll 13.h AAA Group 15.h AAA AW Bn (SPI 450.h AAA AW Bn
881h AAA Airborne Bn
Col. w. A. Couthen Lt. Col. Jas. M. Moore Lt. Col. B. N. Singleton
14th AAA Group 21s. AAA AW Bn (SPI 459th AAA AW Bn
It. Co/. R. B. Borry, Jr.
Col. H. E. Michelet Lt. Col. J. W. Dry Moj. M. W. Johnson
2281h AAA Group
1 6.h AAA Group 32nd AAA AW Bn 464th AAA A W Bn
Col. D. W. Be.heo, Jr., S. C.
Lt. Col. G. E. Brown Maj. Wm. A. Bobo Lt. Col. R. E. Glasgow
19th AAA Group 361h AAA Gun Bn 502nd AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Co/. 1. H. Pope, Jr., S. C.
Col. F. A. liwski Lt. Col. G. W. Best Lt. Col. P. G. Brown
305.h AAA Group
65.h AAA Group 371h AAA Gun Bn 6851h AAA Gun Bn
Col. John S. Moyer, N. Y.
Col. B. E. Cordell Maj. R. G. Duncan Lt. Col. P. O. Fronson, Mass.
197.h AAA Group 381h AAA Gun Bn 697.h AAA AW Bn
Separate Commands Col. A. S. Boker, N. H. Lt. Col. S. R. Kelley Maj. W. C. Thompson, N. Mex.
Army AAA Commond 200th AAA Group 39.h AAA AW Bn IMI 698th AAA Gun Bn
lieut. Gen. J. l. lewis Col. C. M. Woodbury, N. Mex. Lt. Col. P. J. Lacey, Jr. Lt. Col. F. Monico, Illinois
Third Army Training Cenler 2051h AAA Group 4151 AAA Gun Bn 708th AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. C. H. Armstrong Col. V. G. Hines, Wosh Maj. D. R. Ward Lt. Col. P. L. Getzinger, Po.
Easl AAA Command 207th AAA Group 50lh AAA A W Bn 710th AAA Gun Bn.
Brig. Gen. Wm. H. Hamilton Lt. Col. R. G. Irish, N. Y. Lt. Col. J. T. Hennessy Copt. 1. T. Chisman
Central AAA Command 20Blh AAA Group 53rd AAA Gun Bn 711th AAA Gun Bn
Col. D. J. Boiley Col. D. D. Martin Maj. J. M. Rutledge Lt. Col. N. J. Walton, Ala.
Wesl AAA Command 211 th AAA Group 561h AAA Gun Bn 712.h AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. R. W. Berry Col. G. F. lineham, Jr., Moss. Lt. Cal. M. A. Selsor, Jr. Maj. F. M. Buchanan, Fla.
216th AAA Group 60th AAA A W Bn 716th AAA Gun Bn
Guided Missile Depl. Col. W. E. Johnson, Minn. Lt. Col. Wm. D. Ward Lt. Col. Joe R. Stewart, N. Mex.
AA & GM School 21 81h AAA Group 62nd AAA AW Bn (SPI 717.h AAA Gun Bn
Col. F. M. McGoldrick Col. V. P. Lupinacci, Po. Lt. Col. C. E. Meadows Lt. Col. E. D. Pelzer, N. Mex.
Officer Candidate School 220.h AAA Group 63rd AAA Gun Bn 71 8th AAA Gun Bn
Col. R. H. Krueger Col. R. H. Hopkins, Mass. Lt. Col. C. F. Coffey Lt. Col. J. J. Loughran
AAA Repl Training Cenler 2241h AAA Group 64th AAA Gun Bn. 720.h AAA Gun Bn.
Col. E. W. Heathcote Col. E. W. Thompson Lt. Col. D. B. Nye Lt. Col. G. A. Duke, Calif.
226th AAA Group 65th AAA Gun Bn 726th AAA Gun Bn
Col. John D. Sides, Ala. Lt. Col. H. C. Brown Lt. Cal. C. F. Arnold, N. Mex.
Brigades 227.h AAA Group 661h AAA Gun Bn 730.h AAA Gun Bn
32nd AAA Brigade Col. P. l. Wall, Fla. Lt. Col. C. M. Brown Lt. Col. C. D. Holliday, Calif.
Col. M. W. May, Jr. 250th AAA Group 68th AAA Gun Bn 736.h AAA Gun Bn
34th AAA Brigade Col. A. M. Lazar, Calif. Lt. Col. R. H. Stephens Lt. Col. F. T. Lynch, Dela.

Brig. Gen. R. R. Hendrix 260th AAA Group 69th AAA Gun Bn 745.h AAA Gun Bn
351h AAA Brigade Col. l. S. Mann Lt. Col. M. G. Moyer Maj. E. Mountain, Conn.
Brig. Gen. Homer Case 302nd AAA Group 71st AAA Gun Bn 747th AAA Gun Bn

38th AAA Brigade Col. John M. Welch, Ohio Maj. J. H. Felter Lt. Col. J. F. Kane, Mass.
Cal. K. R. Kenerick 3131h AAA Group 73rd AAA AW Bn 764th AAA Gun Bn
40lh AAA Brigade Col. A. F. Hoehle, Po. Lt. Col. P. W. Pedrotti Lt. Col. Wm. J. Bennett
Brig. Gen. James G. Devine 326th AAA Group 76th AAA Gun Bn 772nd AAA Gun Bn
47th AAA Brigade Col. M. D. Meyers, Po. Lt. Col. J. D. Gemmell Col. F. S. Grant, Mass.
Col. G. C. Gibbs 374th AAA Group 77th AAA Gun Bn 773rd AAA Gun Bn
51st AAA Brigade Col. T. F. Mullaney, Jr., Illinois Lt. Col. W. P. Wright, Jr. Lr. Col. G. F. Slavin
Col. H. P. Hennessy 515th AAA Group 79th AAA Gun Bn 8041h AAA AW Bn (MI
56.h AAA Brigade Col. F. G. Rowell, N. Mex. Maj. R. A. Boaz Maj. S. N. Caudill, N. Mex.
Brig. Gen. H. F. Meyers 80.h AAA Airborne Bn 867th AAA AW Bn
103rd AAA Brigade
Battalions Lt. Col. l. W. Linderer Maj. S. M. Arnold
Brig. Gen. R. Y. Moore 151 AAA Training Bn 82nd AAA AW Bn 903rd AAA AW Bn
104th AAA Brigade Lt. Col. H. E. Graham Lt. Col. H. K. Clork Lt. Col. J. D. Shearouse
Brig. Gen. V. P. Coyne, Mass. 2nd AAA AW Bn 91 sl AAA AW Bn 933rd AAA AW Bn
105th AAA Brigade Lt. Col. J. l. Butler Lt. Col. R. A. Clafee Lt. Col. R. M. Husron
Brig. Gen. A. H. Doud, N. Y. 2nd AAA Training Bn 120th AAA Gun Bn 951s1 AAA Gun Bn
107.h AAA Brigade Lt. Col. J. H. Doyle Lt. Col. H. C. Gray, N. Mex. Lt. Col. W. G. Babbitt
Brig. Gen. J. W. Squire, Va. 3rd AAA AW Bn 126th AAA AW Bn 30.h AAA Lt. Btry
111 th AAA Brigade Lt. Col. J. P. Goettl Lt. Col. R. C. Carrera, Mass. Copt. W. A. Brant
Brig. Gen. Chas. G. Sage, N. Mex. 3rd AAA Tng. Bn. 127.h AAA AW Bn (SPI Btry A, 37th AAA Gun Bn
112.h AAA Brigade Lt. Col. A. S. Naylor Lt. Col. H. G. White, N. Y. Lt. A. B. Whitesides
Brig. Gen. J. W. Cook, Calif. 41h AAA AW Bn (M) 133rd AAA AW Bn
114th AAA Brigade Lt. Col. R. J. Connelly Lt. Col. E. J. Modjeske, Illinois Operations Detachments
Brig. Gen. G. W. Fisher 41h AAA Training Bn 137.h AAA AW Bn 115.h AAA Opns. Del.
Maj. C. M. Smith Lt. Col. l. B. Ti pton Moj. E. F. DeLeon
51h AAA Training Bn 144th AAA AW Bn 177th AAA Opns. Del.
Groups Maj. F. R. Whitehead, Sr. Lt. Col. R. T. Dunn Moj. W. F. Hale, Va.
1., Composite Group 6th AAA Training Bn 150.h AAA Gun Bn 181st AAA Opns. Del.
Col. T. H. leary Lt. Col. G. l. Crawford, Jr. Lt. Col. L. O. Ellis, Jr., N. C. Copt. C. Geek
2nd AAA Group 8th AAA Training Bn 256th AAA AW Bn 1 861h AAA Opns. De'.
Col. C. G. Patterson Moj. M. D. Kerl Lt. Col. R. W. Hoag, Minn. Maj. Wm. S. WolI, Colif.
4th AAA Group 91h AAA Training Bn 2591h AAA Gun Bn 286th AAA Opns. Det.
Col. l. A. Bonifay Maj. W. E. Osburn Moj. L. T. Darcy Copt. J. B. Stopyra, Dela.
6th AAA Group 10th AAA Training Bn 340lh AAA Gun Bn 506th AAA Opns. Det.
Col. W. 1. Wuest
10th AAA Group
Col. G. R. Corey
Lt. Col. V. T. Terribile
11 th AAA Training Bn
Lt. Col. A. O. Chittenden
Lt. Col. G. V. Selwyn, D. C.
3981h AAA AW Bn
Lt. Col. L. B. Dean
Capt. J. J. Niehoff
SlOth AAA Opns. Det.
Maj. R. H. Moser
l11h AAA Group
Col. W. B. logon
12th AAA Training
Maj. L. E. Marlowe
Bn 443rd AAA AW Bn (SP)
Lt. Col. B. A. Spiller
5111h AAA Opns.
Copt. M. J. Healy

...... ... .. ... ... .. 11-
U.S. ArmyF



' CONTINENTAL Central Prisoner certain key staff officers and personnel was followed in rapid succession, singly
\ of \Var Enclosure Number 32 was set from Headquarters Battery be dispatched and in groups, by others even before the
1 up in the little resort town of i\londorf- to Mondorf as well. vVith this accom- surrender documents were signed in
les-Bains, Luxembourg in early May of plished, I set out. directly for the new Rheims, Berlin and Kiel.
1945 by elements of the 391st AAA A\V site for a preliminary reconnaissance After fingerprinting and photograph-
Battalion. and preparation for the arrival of troops ing, a thorough search of each prisoner's
The battalion's first introduction to who would have the task of preparing person and belongings was made under
prisoner of war duty was a sudden a secure prison for the expected "guests" the direction of Captain i\kEwen, bat-
change for troops who had shifted of the Allied Governments. talion S2. It was during such searches
l rapidly in the war of movement from There were conferences with repre- that small vials of cyanide were occasion-
the Normandy Beaches and whose train- sentatives of G2, SHEAF, detailed plan- ally found. This was the poison which

ling had never included preparation for

handling POvVs in general or the far
touchier problem of maintaining an ex-
ning for the job, and requisitioning of
buildings to house prisoners and our
own troops. To provide a work detail to
top Nazis had provided for themselves.
All were identical and one such was
used by Heinrich Himmler, Hitler's
I tra special enclosure for the highest augment troop labor, some 200 vVehr- Gestapo chief, when captured by the
'I ranking of Nazi field marshals, ad- macht prisoners were carefully selected British.
mirals, general staff officers and key for special skills and the battalion sup-
civilian internees of the Third Reich. ply section, under Captain Francis M. Goering Cured of Drug Habit
I On May 5th, the author was sum- Vaughn, labored night and day to pro- The only one to "take the cure" that
I moned and hurriedly briefed by the cure everything from barbed wire to cap- summer was I-Iermann Goering. Upon
provost marshal on the battalion's new tured German medical supplies which arrival he was received in the usual man-
r top secret mission: -to set up and oper- were allocated to POVl operations. ner. Equipped with sufficient luggage
r ate a suitable center for the topAight ;\Iajor Elmer J. Fox, S3 (now Lt. to take an extensive luxury cruise, he
Nazis who were even then surrendering Col.), undertook the planning of secur- was relieved of all but the barest ne-
to the advancing American, British and ity, briefing of guard details and selec- cessities and deprived of the services of
French forces rather than fall into the tion of personnel for key duties inside the valet-de~hambre he had thought-
hands of the Red Army moving into the inclosure. SHEAF G2 detailed a fully brought with him into captivity.
Germanv from the East. small staff of trained interrogators who This was a bitter blow to the ex-Reichs-
I "You'll probably wind up guarding were to work closely with the fallen marshal who had expected more chival-
I Adolf Hitler himself for all I know," hierarchv of Ilitler's Germanv in the
- - rous treatment from his captors.
the provost marshal said, adding "You'd weeks to come. Among Goering's effects was a small
.I better get on your bicycle right now and
pull at least one of your batteries out
Even as the Palace Hotel in ~Iondorf
was being refurbished and before the
valise containing a large number of para-
codeine pills, a morphine substitute
immediately." double barbed wire enclosure had been which he took in large doses twice a day.
Using the phone on his desk, I issued completed the first prisoner to be de- Under the guidance of the battalion's
the necessary orders to the battalion livered was Arthur Se);ss-Inquart, Nazi surgeon, Goering was cured by a gradual
executive to have Baker Battery roll as governor-general of Holland, who stood reduction of the daily amount over a
quickly as possible and also directed that high on the Allied war criminal list. He period of six weeks.
JULY-AUGUST, 1952 39
During J!lls period the prisoners were quested the views of Joachim von Rib- to solve the question in 1943 but did
constantly subjected to interrogations on bentrop. Admiral Karl Doenitz, Field not succeed due to lack of means."
a wide ,-ariety of topics ranging from the 1\farshals Wilhelm Keitel and Albert Asked what effect this would have on
effects of strategic bombing to economic Kesselring. Jacob Nagle, former chief Japan's war effort, he said, "I don't know
and political factors in Germany through- of the Reich PostaT Minism', had been what the effect upon the Japanese War
out the war. mentioned by fellow captiv~s as having effort will be but the Japanese popula-
Goering. Ribbentrop, Keitel, Doenitz some knowledge of Germany's efforts in tion will be destroyed by it."
and Von Papen were in constant de- atomic experimentation. He was also Doenitz expressed surprise that Ameri-
mand as military and civilian represen- scheduled for an interview. ca had succeeded in this development.
tatives of the Allied governments visited Hermann Goering's first comment on saying, 'We were afraid you would do
Mondorf in search of information. Most the Stars and Stripes headline was char- it sooner, in time to use against Ger-
of the prisoners were cooperati\'e, some acteristicallyabrupt. "I don't believe it," many, since America had the power and
were anxious to state for the record their he said. After the article was translated material to accomplish it."
views and to giw their \'ersion of events he asked, "Now what will the Japanese As a preventative to future wars, Doe.
connected with Germany's war effort. do?" He pondered the implications and nitz stated that "A weapon of this kind
From a security point of view the said, "If England and America have this would certainly prevent future wars. It
American guard personnel were keyed together, the Russians will have to think could destroy mankind despite the San
to a high point of vigilance. It was things over." Francisco Conference." He added. "It's
feared that with the experience of years This led to a discussion on the dam- important that the Russians do not get
aging effects of the blast and Goering hold of it."
of Nazi occupation. local Luxembourg-
pointed out that a lot depended upon He then asked if the news story was
ers might become incensed at the pres-
the terrain at the target, thus neatly ex- truth or propaganda and was told that
ence of their bitterest enemies and cre-
plaining the relatively light damage to it was true and that truth was the best
ate a disturbance. Fortunatelv this never
Nagasaki where the second bomb was propaganda. He agreed that this was so.
happened. -
used a little later. He said, "A 12,000- calling the A-bomb "a terrible thing." I
Introduction to the A-Bomb ton bomb would have the force of a 500- expressed the hope that it would never
pound bomb, depending upon the area be used again and the Admiral silently
Goering was a little morose on the
of impact." replied with the sort of look that must
afternoon of August 7, 1945. The numb-
The former chief of the Luftwaffe have made his submarine wolf-pack com-
ing shock of Nazi Germany's total col-
asked why this had been announced, and manders quail upon returning from an
lapse into chaos, his own imprisonment
was told that the news value was great unsuccessful mission.
and the daily reduction of his customary
and the existence of the bomb was dis- Field Marshal Albert Kesselring ex-
dosage of para-codeine tablets all con- pressed no particular surprise when the
closed with the dropping of the first
tributed to the former Reichsmarshal's news was explained to him. The former
one on Japan. He expressed the opinion
deep depression. German commander always maintained
that large battleships were now imprac-
Now he was called into one of the a correct degree of aplomb and always
tical and in commenting upon America's
rooms in the Palace Hotel that had been gave carefully considered statements un-
scientific achievements said, "At all events
set aside for the use of allied interroga- der questioning. Like most of the others
this is a mighty accomplishment." He
tors for another tiresome interview with of the Nazi high command, he was uni-
added, "I don't want to have anything
his captors. formly cooperative and his statements on
to do with. I'm leaving this world."
On this day the Army newspaper, Goering was a realist. While up to military subjects reflected his long train-
Stars and Stripes, carried a lead story with the time, he didn't know precisely what ing and professional attainments, not at
banner headlines telling of the atomic was in store for him, he was aware that all unique among the lifelong Prussian
bomb that had been dropped on Hiro- an international tribunal was forming officer class.
shima and speculated on the effect that and that his chances for ultimate survival In summing up his thoughts on the
this new development in warfare would were extremely slim. Niirnberg was yet bomb, he said, "The introduction of the
have on the outcome of the war in the to come. atomic bomb means a yet unsurveyable
Pacific. The story was as complete as Admiral Karl Doenitz was escorted progress in aerial technique and tactics;
security limitations would permit and into the interrogation office and seated and for the war on land and sea, perhaps
likened the explosion to the equivalent himself a little uncertainly. Cigarettes a revolution. The 20,OOO-toneffect of a
of 20,000 tons of conventional bombs in were passed and the A-bomb story was bomb is tantamount to wiping out a tar-
its history making blast. freely translated. Still in uniform but get above the surface of the ground or
Associated Press correspondent George deprived of his swastika-laden decora- water. The commitment of large bomber
Tucker had phoned from Frankfort, tions, Doenitz maintained a frozen dig- formations with such bombs will result
Germany, asking for the reactions of nity but he was usually cooperative with in the annihilation of a zone. Human
several of the top former members of his questioners. lungs, even at a great distance, will not
the Nazi hierarchy who were being held He was silent for a moment while he \vithstand the pressure of the blast.
as prisoners of war or civilian internees digested the implications of this new Therefore this bomb will, in addition to
in what had been a luxury hotel in Lux- development. He was asked if he had its effect upon lifeless targets, replace
embourg's prewar health spa. knowledge of the atomic experiments the fragmentation effects of existing
In addition to Goering, the AP re- made in Germany and replied, 'We tried bombs and grenades in all those cases

where the pressure effects cannot be captivity that Hitler ruled by never let- Upon questioning, it became evident
neutralized. ting one department know what other that his scientific knowledge of nuclear
"The fuze and transmittability of the branches of the Nazi government were fission was meager but he was clearly
small bomb's effect on surrounding doing. On the atom-bomb development familiar with some of the work being
water. will determine whether the new he professed to have no knowledge other done. He stated that "German scientists
bomb can replace sea mines or multiply than "I belie,'e our scientists were doing were at work on this problem and they
their effect. If the 20,000 tons can be as ,vell as could be expected but they had been using what had been the larg-
transformed directly into water pressure, had not gotten beyond the experimental est cyclotron in Europe (one and a half
then this bomb, or the dropping of stage and laboratory theory. This work million volts). These experiments were
masses of such bombs, is a downright was kept very secret in Germany and I carried on in laboratories in Berlin and
crisis in naval warfare. didn't know anything about it except two new cyclotrons had been obtained
"If the bomb has little weight or bulk. that the scientists were working hard to (ten million volts each) but thev had
then a small number of planes can re- perfect it." never been put into operation." .
place present large formations. To put An interesting sidelight took place dur- Nagel also remarked that "America
it differently. smaller and hence cheaper ing the interview with Keitel. I ques- was considered well ahead in this experi-
and faster planes can achieve the same tioned him on the use of poison gas mentation and had a great many cyclo-
results. Other things being equal, the during World War II. He stated that trons in use. So far as I know, the
range of raids can be increased." the Germans had never made use of German experiments met with no prac-
Kesselring continued his dissertation gas at any time because it was realized tical success." He added, "I don't think
and pointed to possible defense meas- that Allied retaliation would have been Hitler expected any immediate results
ures. He suggested the "increase of ef- carried out on a scale that Germany for practical use. If he had, he would
ficiency in interceptor planes and in could not hope to match, He appeared have said so."
antiaircraft artillery." He also pointed to be well informed upon the quantities He expressed great surprise at our suc-
to the "possibility of creating electrical of lethal chemical agents available to cess with the A-bomb and said, "We
interference with the efficiencv of the the Anglo-American forces and knew had considered it as only a theory dif-
engines of bomber planes." A' problem that the German supplies were vastly ficult to put to practical use."
that German scientists of World War II inferior. Joachim von Ribbentrop, former For-
were busy seeking an answer to. Keitel said, "At one time we feared eign Minister of Hitler's Reich, gave a
Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, who the Allies would make use of poison gas diplomat's view of the advent of this
was later hanged at Niirnburg, had been against the Reich. Your press and radio newest of man-made horrors. His reac-
Hitler's chief-of-staff of the OKW made so much publicity about it that we tions dealt with the political effects of
(Obercommando-Wehrmacht). Al- felt that you were leading up to a justi- the new weapon, and his gradual rec-
though a model prisoner of war, he was fication for its use." ognition of its potential in terms of power
shunned by many of the old-line profes- He did no moralizing on the reasons politics was the most interesting to wit-
sional German officers because of his for or against the employment of gas but ness of all of the interviews.
stubborn loyalty to the Hitler regime, stated "there would have been no tacti- When confronted with the Stars and
which was despised by most of them, cal advantage to us and the reprisal Stripes article, his emotions were mixed.
Keitel was regarded by his contemporaries would have been too horrible." He stated that he knew in a general
as a political opportunist who had seen At one time Keitel feared that Ger- sort of way that scientists had been work-
several heads of the regular German many would be accused of using gas. ing on the smashing of the atom but
army replaced when their professional An Allied fighter airplane strafed a Ger- he had no information of the nature of
knowledge disagreed with Hitler's in- man railway train which was transport- this. He had always regarded experi-
tuition. ing several tank cars of chemical agents. ments of this type as "something out of
I a~ked him if an atom bomb could The train was destroyed and a quantity Jules Verne, something mysterious and
have been one of the secret weapons of gas was released. Members of the fantastic." He continued, in cultured
in the process of development which train crew were killed but no other dam- English, that he had heard, as any school
were frequently mentioned in German age was done and no notice appeared boy had, that if one could split the atom
propaganda broadcasts. Keitel replied, to be taken of the incident bv the Allied one would have enough energy to sail a
"If our experiments had gotten so far forces. ' steamer across the ocean. He had heard
that it could have been used as a weapon Keitel felt that the future use of atom- this was possible theoretically but could
of war, I'm sure Hitler would have men- ic bombs might be cancelled out in much not himself understand the meaning of
tioned it." He added that Professor the same manner that poison gas was it.
Osenbert, head of the Reich Research during the recent war. 'When the bomb story was read to him
Council, had visited him in March of During the course of the conversation in detail he came to a full realization of
1945 and did not mention it, nor did with Keitel, he stated that Jacob Nagel our achievement and, as though thunder-
Hitler at that time. had recently delivered a lecture to the struck, said, "This ends everything-this
"I don't know enough about its full other prisoners. As Postal Minister of is extraordinary-Good Heavens! This
possibilities to judge," was his reply the Reich, he had been connected with means the revolution of everything if
when asked what effect the bomb would atomic research and was familiar with you have that. It would mean, for the
have upon the prevention of future wars. such developments as had taken place in United States, domination of everything
Keitel made it plain throughout his Germany. as a political effect. It means the end
JUlY-AUGUST,1952 41
of all wars, as no one would be so stupid e,'ery power on earth," He added that upon presentation of his credentials as
as to even think of war with such in- "Hitler once or twice talked about the Hitler's Ambassador to the Court of 51.
struments in being." smashing of the atom and had heard James.
\Varming to the subject. he said. "Prov- that this problem had been theoretically During the period. American troops
idence has granted to mankind an op- soh-ed." were comfortably quartered in many of
portunity to end all wars." Asked about Ribbentrop was more emotionally l\Iondorf's hotels, living in a manner
the effect upon Japan, he said. "It wiII aroused than any of his fellow prison- to which they had been too long unac.
not onlv shorten the war but finish it ers. He was usually cooperati,'e but he customed after months of field soldierinob'
completely," had been described bv one Allied inter- In early August, Prisoner of \Var En.
He reiterated that this development rogator as a cold cynical liar. This was closure No. 32 was closed and the princi.
would give "absolute domination for perhaps an apt description of the former pal members of the Nazi gang were
America" and "If this is available to champagne salesman whose first diplo- transferred to Ntirnburg to occupy cells
e,'erybody, human nature can heave a matic exchange of note was when he in the high-walled city prison.
sigh of relief as no one would use it," greeted the Throne of England with a For the second time the 391st set up
and again, .'It will upset everything. resounding Heil Hitler and a Nazi salute a prison for the major war criminals.

Gen. lewis Promoted to Three

Stars Now Heads AAA Assn.
General, Army Antiaircraft Command, was recently pro-
moted to the grade of Lieutenant General. This comes as
good news to the Antiaircraft Artillery everywhere. It
highlights the long and distinguished career of Lieut. Gen-
eral Lewis, and also marks the recognition of the Army An-
tiaircraft Command 'as one of the Army's major commands.
He assumed his new command on April 28th, relieving
lvlajor General \Villard \V. Irvine as the latter retired. He
had previously commanded the AAA and GM Center at
Fort Bliss, Texas since October, 1950.
As a battery commander and young staff officer Ceneral
Lewis established a reputation years ago as an artilleryman.
1\lore recenily in the war and since, his notable achievements
have been as an able commander and army administrator.
Long before the economy program came in fashion General
Lewis was hammering away to close out installations no
longer needed in Europe, and making enemies as he did it.
At the same time he was achieving business like administra-
tion and economy in men, money, and supplies for the
United States Government.
The Army Antiaircraft Command comprises all the Army
units assigned to the Air Defense in the United States. It
is a part of the Air Defense Command, commanded by Gen-
eral Benjamin Chid law. The Headquarters are located by
those of the Air Defense Command at Ent Air Force Base, Lt. Gen. John T. Lewis
Colorado Springs, Colorado.
unexpired term of Major General \Villard \V. Irvine,
Named President AA Association who resigned following his retirement on April 30th,
Gen. Lewis was elected President of the U. S. Antiair- Maj. Gen. L. L. Lemnitzer was elected Vice-Presi-
craft Association by the Executive Council on 8 June. He dent at the same time to serve till December 31,
was elected to serve through this calendar year to 611 the 1953.

the China-Burma-lndia thealre to sen'e
General Officer Assignments throughout the \Var as General Strate-
meyer's A1\ officer in the Air Command.
Changes ae Bliss-EAAC it is a good guess that General Hidgway
Since the war, General Tarrant at-
Brig. Gen. Hobart I-le\\'ett. formerly has an important logistical job for him.
tended the National \Var College and
commander of the 31st AAA Brigade, served a tour in Strategic Plans Branch.
Gen. Evans Leaves R.O.A. Pose
Fort Lewis. \Vashington, has just as- G3. Department of the Army General
sumed his new duties as the Assistant
BRIG. GENERAL E. ARTHUR EVANS, Staff and with the Joint Chiefs.
Commandant, the AA and G?\ I Branch, His last assignment was on the staR'
Executive Director of the Hesen'e Of-
The Artillery School at Fort Bliss, Texas. of the Alaskan Command at Fort Rich-
hcers Association, has recently accepted
Brig. Gen. Frederick L. I-layden, ardson until he took command of the
appointment as the City i\lanager of
formerly Assistant Commandant of the 102nd AAA Brigade at Fort Washing-
i\ liami, Florida, effecti\"e September 1st.
School. will relieve Brig. Gen. \Vm. H. ton, New York in April. \Vhen that
A charter member of this Association,
llamilton as Commander of the Eastern brigade returned to inactive status with
General Evans has long been active in
.\rmy AA Command at i\liddletown, the New York National Guard it was re-
antiaircraft affairs. In \Vorld \Var I he
:\ew York, in August.
was commissioned at the Officers Train- placed by the 52nd AAA Brigade which
General Hamilton, member of the Gen. Tarrant now commands.
ing School at Fort i\lonroe and later
102nd A1\[\ Brigade. has held the com-
served as an instructor there. Gen. \Vood Commands 53rd AAA
mand for the past few months since i\laj.
From 1929 to 1940 he commanded the Brig.
Gen. Paul \V. Hutledge departed for
977th CA (A1\) Reserve Hegiment in
Europe. General Hamilton will now re- Brig. Gen. Robert J. Wood grad-
Los Angeles, during which time the
rert to inactive status to resume com- uated from U Sf\IA in 1930 and was
regiment won the Coast Artillery Trophy
mand of the 102nd AAA Brigade, N. Y. commissioned in the CAC.
as the outstanding CA reserve regiment.
:\".G. During \VorId \Var II he served with
In 1942 he was appointed a brigadier
AAA in Newfoundland, England, and
General Mickelsen Commands general and assigned to command the
North Africa. He participated in the
AA and GM Center Florida subsector of the Eastern Defense
landing at Salerno and served through-
Command. In 1944 General Evans came
?\Iajor General Stanley R Mickelsen out the Italian campaign in the G3 Sec-
to \Vashington where he served on the
arrived at Fort Bliss early in July to as- tion of General 1\ lark Clark's Fifth
\Var Department General Staff until he
sume command of the AA and GM Cen- Armv.
was relieved from active duty to assume
ter. The assignment was not entirely Since the war, General \Vood has
his present position as Executive Direc-
nell' to him. During \Vorld \Var II Gen- served in the Plans and Operations Di-
tor, H.O.A.
eral ?\lickelsen commanded the AAA TC vision of the \Var Department General
Since 1945 General Evans has estab-
at Fort l3Iiss. Again from 1947 to 1950 Staff and for one year as ?\'Iilitary Aide
lished a reputation in \Vashington and
while on duty as assistant commandant to Secretary of Defense Forrestal. He
across the country by his aggressive ac-
of the Artillery School at Fort Sill, Gen- attended the National \Var College and
tions to secure legislation and national
eral 1\ lickelsen found himself intimately served on the faculty there for two vears.
defense policies favorable to the devel- o ,

associated with the problems of the In his last assignment he accompanied

opment of a strong Organized Resen"e
School and the Center at Fort Bliss. General Eisenhower to Paris where he
General f\ lickelsen has been a strong headed the SHAPE initial planning
General and f\ Irs. Evans plan to move
proponent of the merger of the Field group, subsequently becoming Secretary
from \Vashington and establish their
Artillerv, Antiaircraft, and Guided Mis- of the StafT at SHAPE.
home in Miami in August.
sile ele~ents of The Artillerv School. In May he took command of the 53rd
Elected to replace Gen. Evans was
During the past three y;ars General AAA Brigade in Swarthmore, Pa., where
Col. Charles M. Boyer who for the past
~Iickelsen has served in \Vashington as he serves in the Eastern Antiaircraft
SIX years has been executi\'e officer of
the Deputy G3 for Guided Missiles. Command in charge of the AAA de-
With a second Guided i\'lissiles hat also fenses of Pittsburgh and Philadelphia.
in the G4 office he was able to exercise General Officer Promoeions
great influence in modernizing and ex- Reeirements
The promotions of Brigadier Generals
pediting the Army's program in that Legare K. Tarrant and Hobert J. \Vood Colonel Abram V. Rinearson retired
field. at Fort McPherson, Georgia on July 31st
were recend\, announced.
after fortv, years
, of sen'ice. His last as-
Gen. \Veible From FECOM co Gen. Tarrant Heads 52nd AAA signment was with the HOTC in the
SHAPE Brig. high schools of Atlanta.
~Iajor General \\'alter L. \Veible, General Legare K. Tarrant graduated
formerly commander of the Japan Logis- at USf\IA in 1928 and was commis- Colonel Shuey E. \Volfe will retire at
tical Command, was transferred in July sioned in the CAe. Cincinnati, Ohio on August 31st after
to Headquarters SHAPE in Paris. No In WorId War II he served with the thirty five years' service. He has been
announcement has been made as to Gen- First Fighter Command at Mitchel Field serving as senior instructor for the ORC
eral \\Teible's new assignment; however, until 1943 when he was transferred to in the Cincinnati District.
being "pl,<e<J b~',b, 45,h AAA B'ig'd,.l
in August. Col. Harold P. Hennessy re- ,
mains in command of the new unit.
The 71lth AAA Gun Battalion, under
Lt. Col. N. J. \\'alton, will return to
Alabama in August and w:ill be replaced
b\. the 86th AAA Gun Battalion.
from July 6th to 20th. Along with them In September the 7Ilth AM Gun
31st Scores in Public Relations
in the shore camp were the other Dis- Battalion will revert to inactive status
The good neighbor policy paid off for and the 99th will be acth-ated to replace
trict Guard units, all under command
the Army in Seattle, \Vash., when an the Guard unit.
of 1\laj. Gen. Wm. H. Abendroth.
editorial appeared recently in the Seattle The 224th AAA Group will likewise
Post-llltelligeJlcer praising the Army for As usual the 90mm Antiaircraft gun
firing at the sleeve targets took preced- revert in August, returning to Virginia
a fine public relations job in that area. under Col. Edwin \V. Thompson. CoI.
This came about as a result of the ence among the training activities.
Arthur Arthur C. Peterson commands
Army's attitude toward civilian protests Each afternoon of the second week was
the newly acti\'ated 24th AAA Group
raised against the establishment of an devoted to such firing.
which will replace the Virginia group.
antiaircraft gun position on a Seattle golf The' all-night sham battle between
The 226th AAA Group phases out
course. the 340th as the defending force and
and returns to !\lobi Ie. Alabama under
Although the Army was under no ob- all the other units as aggressors also at-
Co!. John D. Sides in early September.
ligation to pay any further attention to tracted wide attention.
Col. I lemy D. Lind commands the 26th
the objections by the property owners in Colonel Joseph B. Hafer was chief
AAA Group which will take over from
the neighborhood-once it had legally of the inspection team for the camp.
Co!. Sides' unit.
Col. John F. Kahle and Lt. Col. Edward
acquired the land for the proposed gun
\\T. Quinlan attended camp as senior Colonel Hoehle Commands AAA
site-they got together with the residents
HA instructors. ORC in Camp
and listened patiently to what everyone
had to say. National Guard AAA Units The Second Army AAA ORC units
As a result, all possible concessions Reverting were formed in a provisional brigade
were made and the Army came up with for the annual summer camp at Fort
Among the National Guard AAA
a compromise plan which came as close 1\liles, Delaware July the 6th to 20th.
units completing their tours of active
as possible to satisfying everyone. Colonel Armand F. Hoehle, command-
federal service are:
According to the editorial, "Everyone ing the 313th AAA Group, Pittsburgh,
51st AAA Brigade, Pennsylvania, IS
who followed the discussions ... (be- Pa., commanded these units through the
tween the Army, the Armed Forces Ad- very active and instructive camp. Lt.
\'isory Committee, law firms, Seattle CAMP STEWART Col. I-Iarry A. Edwards was the execu-
School Board, which was also interested tive.
in the property, and the residents in the Colonel John 1\1. Welch commanded
area) ... should come out of the ex- the 302nd AAA Group of Cincinnati,
perience with a new respect and regard Ohio, which included the 453rd AA1\
for the United States Armv:' A \V Bn of the Cleveland, Ohio, area
Full credit was given to the "man pri- under Lt. Col. Paul \\T. Rogers, and the
marily responsible for the happy outcome 199th AAA AW Bn of the Columbus,
of what could have developed into an Ohio, area under Major Luke R. Laugh.
acrimonious dispute-Brig. Gen. Hobart ner. The 30lst AAA Opns. Oct. under
Hewett, commanding general of the 31st 1\lajor George Tollini was in camp with
AAA Brigade at Fort Lewis-whose duty the 35th AAA Brigade in Washington
is to provide the Pacific Northwest with area-Lt. Col. Alfred E. Murphy is the
protection from bombers in case of at- group executive.
tack." Colonel l\lartin D. 1\le\'ers com-
The Seattle paper remarked that Gen- manded the 326th AAA Grou'p of Phila-
eral Hewett and his staff proved them- delphia with Lt. Col. George S. McKee
selves to be "good neighbors".during the as his executive. The 326th Group in-
entire controversv over the antiaircraft The Clare H. Armstrong Cup presented cluded the 387th AAA A \V Bn of Wil-
gun position. by Brigadier General Armstrong to
mington, Delaware under Lt. Col. Rob-
Lieutenant Colonel Mark Selsor, com-
As a result the Armv has made a lot mander of the 56th AAA Battalion at ert Wetherall and the 457th MA AW
of good friends in Seattle. Camp Stewart, as recognition for his Bn of Baltimore under Lt. Col. John
unit's proficiency in firing. Others are S. B. V. Shriver. The 304th AAA
D.C. Guard at Bethany Beach 1st Lt. Frank Shaw, General Arm- Opns. Det., a regular member of the
The 340th AAA Gun Bn, Lt. Col. strong's aide, and Sergeant First Class
Philadelphia group, took its active duty
Samuel H. Bowens, 56th Battalion,
George V. Selwyn, commanding, en- who received the Bronze Star for serv- training with the 35th AAA Brigade in
camped at Bethany Beach, Delaware ice against the enemy in Korea. the \Vashington area.
:\11 of these Second Army AAA units
ha\'e trained together each summer for The Army and Air Defense
;t'veral years, which was evident in the In his testimony the other day before a Senate Appropriations subcommittee,
teamwork and pace being maintained. General J. Lawton Collins placed emphasis on a fact that is not generally realized.
The second week of camp was devoted The fact is this: That the Army is playing a role of vital importance in carrying
Out the recent order for a sharp intensification of the Nation's defenses against air
fully to AAA firing on the Dewey Beach
Range. Such defenses, in the minds of many Americans, are \'isualized as being almost
Btry B of the 398th AAA A\V Bn, exclusively the responsibility of the Air Force. In the popular view, they also ha\'e
Camp Edwards, Mass., furnished the been O\'ersimplified into a system of radar warnings and around-the-clock vigilance
weapons, AAA instructors, and mainte- by specially organized units of interceptor planes. Actually, however, as General
Collins has made clear in his capacity as Army Chief of Staff, they involve con-
nance support.
siderablY,more than that, not the least important of their elements being ground
One extracurricular event of typical action.
interest and style was the fine enter- In fact, as General Collins has testified, ground fire is one of the most effective
tainment put on by i\lajor Howard defenses against air attack. During the Second \Vorld \Var, for example, we lost
Schwartz, 313th Group S4, and a fine "many more" fighters and bombers to the enemy's land-based guns than to the
enemy's planes. Similarly, such guns have accounted for 87 per cent of all the
staff on J\'londay night, July 14th, for
United Nations aircraft that have been destroyed thus far in combat with the
a group of twenty-eight handicapped Communists in Korea-a statistic that dramatically demonstrates whv the Armv.
youngsters, six to fourteen years old, though earthbound, must nevertheless deal activel): with the sky.' .
who were vacationing at Lewes, Dela- Accordingly, one of the Army's major missions today is to build up its fire-
ware, nearby. In short order they were power to cope with aerial attacks on the continental United States and on our
troops and bases overseas. To that end. it has deployed its antiaircraft units around
manning a 90mm gun, riding a duck,
key atomic plants, strategic industrial centers and vital military installations at
wearing army helmets, and fully enjoy- home and abroad. At the same time, for the same defensive purposes. it has been
ing the program, the refreshments, and equipping itself with special weapons of various kinds, some of them highly ad-
the band concert by the 322nd ORC vanced and others still in the development stage.
Army Band of Johnstown, Pa., under These weapons include radar-controlled "Skyswecper" guns and supersonic
guided missiles and free rockets. According to General Collins, the progress we
~lr. Burkhart.
have made with one of the guided missiles-the NIKE-"is most encouraging and
During the same period Colonel we have already achieved hits on maneuvering drone aircraft at great ranges and
Harry C. Bailey as commander headed altitudes." Indeed, given things like the NIKE in sufficient quantity, the Army
up the \Vilmington, Delaware AAA should be able in time to establish a genuinely formidable ground defense against
ORC School in camp. Attached or as- aerial assault.
As of today, howe\'er, it would be foolhardy to imagine that such a defense
signed to the school were a total of 86 exists. True enough, since the outbreak of the Korean war, the Army has in-
officers taking their summer camp train- creased the numbers of its active antiaircraft battalions from 48 to ]] 0, but the
ing. They included groups from other increase, as General Collins has pointed out, is still far short of wartime require-
ORC schools in the Second and Third ments or what is needed in this extremely dangerous period when ground fire-
power-together with other deterrents against aerial attack-ought to be stepped
up as fast as possible in proportion to the threat confronting the Nation.
Lt. Colonels J. E. Cook, Jr., Anthony That threat is too big and real to be countered with half measures. Along with
J. J\laiale, Chester W. i\lebus, John B. other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Collins has done well to warn the
Quinn, and Macon Stroud headed the Senate against supporting the spending ceiling and budget cuts that the House
list of the staff and faculty. has imposed on the armed forces for fiscal ]953. The Army's role in air defense
is only ol}e of the things involved, but it is crucial enough to illustrate how such
Colonels Henry M. Alford, Jack W.
"economizing"-if finally enacted-could add up to folly of the most reckless kind.
Eichinger, B. T. Ferguson, Everett A.
Haygood, and Arthur C. Michael of the Editorial reprinted from the June 22 edition The Sunday Star, IF' a/hington. D. C.
Third Army Area and Colonel J\'lichael
A. Gross of the Second Arm\' led the
list of students .. of commanders, where the various units unit, and will just as soon as we can
sen'ed. individual and unit citations, get it past the Public Information Officer.
To the Editor anv other information of historical value. The P. 1. O. here at Fort Bliss, i\lajor
1 am engaged in preparing the history Any information that JOURNALreaders Brandt, has gone to bat for me on this
of the 32d AAA A \V Battalion. We can give will be appreciated. problem, but hasn't been able to get on
ha\'e received the official statement of ARTHUR B. HILL base yet. Yesterday, after receiving your
lineage and battle honors from the De- Capt. Arty. letter, I phoned him again requesting a
partment of the Army which gives only 32nd AAA A\V Bn release for the JOURNAL. Same story as
a rough outline for the proposed history. APO 994 last J\lonth, when we fired a VIP shoot
\Ve find that since 1924, we derived for the U .S.i\ 1.A. visitors.
from companies formerly composing the
To the Editor We'll break through some day.
Second Battalion of the 14th Coast Artil- It is always a pleasure to receive a let- WILLIAM A. BRANT

lery Regiment, the 169th Coast Artillery ter from the Antiaircraft Association, and Captain, Arty.
Battalion, and the 477th Antaircraft especially one requesting an article about
Battalion, these are the organizations we our organization. \Ve would be more Rebuttal On Calibration Fire
are interested in. than happy to grant your request for ~To the Editor:
\Ve are mainly interested in the names the article on Skysweeper training in this Referring to the article on Calibration

JULY-AUGUST, 1952 45
Fire. by Captain Raymond F. Aquilina. To the Editor saving of manpower is made pos-
in the ;'\Iay-June issue, it is apparent The meteorological section of this bat- sible by the elimination of plotters
some points hm'e been o\'erlooked. talion conducted a series of trial runs in in both methods.
Evidently the size of targets considered December 1951 to obtain ballistic wind c. Twentv- to thirt\'. minutes are
normal, for medium and heavy antiair. data as outlined in the ;'\o\'ember.De- saved when using the theodolite
craft weapons has not been considered. cember 1951 issue of the AA JOUR.'fAL method and fifty to sixty minutes
The following measurements were ob. The results were encouraging and the 'when using the new radar method.
tained by using the average measure- new method was used in computing met ThIS saving of time is possible be-
ments of U.S.A.F. planes listed in FM messages during service practice fired cause computing is done as the data
30-30. by the battalion in March 1952. Met is recorded.
Type Length Wingspread messages obtained in this manner proved
Fighters 37' 42'
d. Meteorological personnel con-
Light Bombardment 52' 69' as effective as messages computed as out- ducting the tests doubt the accuracy
Medium Bombardment 95' 122' lined in TM 20-240. The battalion of wind azimuth when wind direc-
Heavy Bombardment 162.6' 230'
Transport 64'-123' 95'-200' average score for the service practice tion varies 500 mils or more between
Considering the size of targets shown was higher than scores fired in the past the surface and zone 10. The best
above, it is apparent that with the .2dF three years although this cannot be at- accuracy is obtained \,-'hen wind di-
correction applied and using the disper- tributed entirely to the type met message rection does not vary more than 200
sion ladder for range, we can now ex- used. mils.
pect fifty percent of the rounds to have The following conclusions were Ballistic \vind data obtained by the
effect on a target considered normal to reached after a thorough trial of the new new method has proven in this unit to
AAA instead of the sixteen percent ex- method for obtaining ballistic wind data: be sufficiently accurate for AAA purposes
pected when the correction has not been a. It is simple and easy for mete- and the saving of time and personnel
applied. orological personnel to master. outweighs the slight inaccuracies which
Only a right to left course was con- b. Two men are saved using the may result.
sidered in illustrating the problem, al- new theodolite method and one man RALPHA. BOAZ,Major, Arty.
though the arguments are valid for a when using the radar method. This 79th AAA Gun Bn.
left to right course. In considering other
types of courses, we get a far different
(Continued from page 34) As the T33 was about 3000 yards
picture as shown below. The dispersion
ladders are not considered. procedure using the wind speed com- from point of release the simplified
puter. procedure could not be used with its
Without With Thus for each standard altitude, or data.
Corrections Corrections
Incoming 62 yds short 30 yds over
for each line in the met message, four The resultant ballistic wind data are
Outgoing 62 yds short 30 yds short solutions are arrived at. The enlighten- tabulated below for standard altitudes
45° Incoming 62 yds short 20 yds over, 30
ing fact about this is that the four solu- five (6000 ft.) to eleven (30,090 ft.),
yds astern.
45° Outgoing 62 yds short 20 yds short, 30 tions are rarely identical. Comparison showing in normal manner wind azi-
yds astern. and analysis are instructive. If the two muth in hundred mils and speed in
It would appear that if the size of standard method solutions agree more miles per hour.
the target, and the dispersion ladder are closely than the two simplified solu- A study of the tabulated results im-
taken into consideration, a far greater tions, that would indicate superiority of mediately suggests the possibility of
percentage of hits can be expected if the standard method, and vice versa. error in the ballistic wind data deter-
the x.2dF correction is applied. Anyone solution at variance with the mined from the SCR 584 readings by
It was pointed out that prior to calibra- others suggests error1 the standard method. The T33 results.
tion fire, the guns of a battalion should One test was conducted with a slight very consistent, are also consistently high
be regrouped to minimize differences in variation in that the radar balloon was in wind azimuth suggesting check on
muzzle velOCity. It is felt that if this released and'tracked by the SCR 584 orientation.
regrouping had taken place, and unless at the station and by a T33 on battery For the past month the station has
the guns had had an excessive number site near by. Simultaneously a Pibal also turned out ballistic densities and
of rounds fired through the tube, that a was tracked by a theodolite at the sta- temperatures based on radiosonde sound-
correction of .2dF would be excessive. tion. ings.
No attempt will be made to discuss
which part of an aircraft the radar will =============================---.-
Met THEODOLITE (Piball SCR 584 T33
track when in automatic, but during Line Standard Simplified Standard Simplified Standard
visual tracking on a firing course, it is No. Azm. Speed Azm. Speed Azm. Speed Azm. Speed Azm. Spee~
customary to track the front, or center of 5 11 12 12 13 12 12 14- 11 12 1.?
mass of the aircraft. The reason for 6 12 13 12 14- 11 15 12 11 13 1~_
discussing this point is readily apparent, 7 11 13 10 15 10 18 11 13 12 13
since it will determine how far ahead or 8 10 15 10 17 09 21 10 16 11--16_
astern, or over, or short the burst will be. 9 10 17 09 21 07 29 08 19 10 18
LAWRENCE B. PETERSON 10 08 19 06 27 06 28 06 23 08 23_
Captain 65th AAA Gun Bn. 11 05 33 05 26 06 28
DA Special Orders Covering May 1, 1952 through June 30, 1952.
Promotions and demotions not included.

COLONELS Stone, Alexander G., Stu Det A We, Carlisle Priest, Perry B.• OAC of S G 1, 8531st AAU,
Adams. Gilbert No, OAS of A 8502nd AAU, Bks, Carlisle, Pa. \X'ashington. D.C.
W'ashington, D.C. Thompson, Elmer 1., Far East Command, Yoko- Raffaeli, Raymond J., EUCOM, Bremerhaven,
Barchan, Stanley S., Far East Command, Yoko- hama. Germany.
hama. Thompson, Maxwell H., USA Alaska, Fort Reinbothe. Alfred H., Far East Command,
Barrett, John T., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Richardson. Yokohama.
many. Thompson, M.H., Far East Command, Yoko- Ripley, Lyman H., Far East Command, Yoko-
Blandford, \XI. 0., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- hama. hama.
many. Thompson, R. P., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Sawyer, Ted L., 7689th Hq Gp, USFA, Salz-
Bogue, Joy R., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- many. burg. Austria.
many. Turner, Robert A., Stu Det, AWe, Carlisle Shemwell, Victor B., EUCOM, Bremerhaven,
Brindley, John R., Far East Command, Yoko- Bks, Carlisle, Pa. Germany.
hama. Weld, Seth 1., Jr., CGSC 5025th ASU, Fort Shivers, George W., Jr., USA Alaska, Fort
Calhoun, \X'. R., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Leavenworth. Kansas. Richardson.
many. Wertz, George M., Jr., Armed Forces Staff Sweek, J. G., OAC of S G 3, 8534th AAU,
Daley, John P., Far East Command, Yokohama. College, Norfolk, Va. \Xfashington. D.C.
Duff, Russell G., Off. Secy. of Def. 8475th Van Ormer, Henry P., Stu Det A WC Carlisle
AAU, Wash., D.C. Bks, Carlisle, Pa.
Adams, Alvin S., XV Corps Arty, Cp Polk. La. Walker. John W., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leaven-
Ellery, Frederick W., Stu Det A WC Carlisle
Armstrong, C. H., Jr., OAC of S G 3, 8534th worth, Kansas.
Bks, Carlisle, Pa.
AAU, \X'ashington, D.C. \1(filliams, D. B., Far East Command, Yoko-
Fisher, Samuel H., Stu Det AM TC 8622nd
Aycr, Raymond c., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leaven- hama.
AAU, Ft Devens, Mass.
worth, Kansas. Wood, H. G., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leaven-
Fletter, Randolph W., Stu Det Hq 1st A, Naval
Ball, Raymond c., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leaven- worth, Kansas.
War College, Newport, R.I.
worth, Kansas. Young, Robert E., OAC of S G 1, 8531st AAU,
Garton, George G., OAC of S G 4, 8535th
Beatson, John B., Far East Command, Yoko- Washington, D.C.
AAU, Washington, D.C.
Goodrich, Walker R., Joint Staff OJCS 8485th MAJORS
Benson, John S., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leaven-
AAU, Washington, D.C.
worth, Kansas. Aleveras, James A., 4055th ASU 1st GM Gp.,
Harrison, Richard H., Off of TIG 8539th AAU,
Berkeley, Charles c., Jr., Far East Command, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Washington, D.C.
Yokohama. Bartlett, Eben B., Jr., EUCOM, Bremerhaven,
Harden, John c., OAC of S G 3, 8534th AAU,
Brown, Burton R., 35th AAA Brigade, Fort Germany.
W'ashington, D.C.
Meade, Maryland. Collison, Tom D., Cmlc Hq Sp Wpn Comd
Heitman, Charles 1., Jr., OAS of A, 8503rd
Brown, Charles P., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leaven. 8452nd AAU, Sandia Base, Albuquerque,
AAU, Washington, D.C.
worth, Kansas. N. Mex.
Hewitt, Robert A., Far East Command, Yoko.
Clements, Thomas H., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Cripps, George W., Far East Command, Yoko-
Leavenworth, Kansas. hama.
Hillberg. Lauri J., EUCOM. Bremerhaven, Ger-
Cooper, H. B., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko- Grogan, John B., 4052nd ASU AA & GM Cen-
hama. ter, Ft Bliss, Tex.
Hunter, Kelvin H., Stu Det Hq 1st A, Naval
Crawford, G. 1., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko- Hale, \1('illiam F., Far East Command, Yoko.
War College, Newport, R.I.
hama. hama.
Hutton, Carl I., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Di Fusco; Manrico P., Stu Det AA & GM Br Haydock, Charles E., Jr., Far East Command,
Krueger, Robert H., Far East Command, Yoko.
hama. T AS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Yokohama.
Lamer, Thomas M., OAC of S G 2, 8533rJ Drew, Bernard J., Western AA Comd, 8577th Haymaker, Gerald 1., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft
AAU, Washington, D.C. AAU, Hamilton Air Force Base, California. Sill, Okla.
Drexel, C. G., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Holst, William W., Far East Command, Yoko.
Lash. Percy H., Jr., OS of De£., 8475th AAU,
many. hama.
Washington, D.C.
Freund. John F., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leaven- Jackson, Charles F., 11th AAA Group, Fort
Logan, W. Bruce, Stu Det Hq 1st A, Syracuse
Univ., Syracuse, N.Y. worth, Kansas. Tilden, N.Y.
Lucas, Mason H., Far East Command, Yoko- Hanson, Arthur F., 1122nd ASU Mass NG Jones, Willard L., Far East Command, Yoko-
hama. Instr Gp, Boston, Mass. hama.
Hendrickson, Edward H., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Matthews, William G., 102nd AAA Brigade,
Massello, W. M., OAC of S G 3, 8534th AAU,
Leavenworth, Kansas. Ft \Vadsworth, N.Y.
Washington, D.C.
Herman. Dean 1., 2nd Very Hvy Arty Spt Gp, Page, Cecil W., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko-
McBride, Clyde R., OAC of S G 2, 8533rd Sandia Base, New Mexico. hama.
AAU, Washington, D.C. Hodge, Frederic W., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Parsons, Marcus 1., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leav-
O'Meara, Andrew P., Far East Command, Yoko- Germany. enworth, Kansas.
hama. Kessler, Robert H., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Peeples, Edward T., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leav-
Paige, Byron 1., XVIII Abn Corps Arty, Ft. Germany. enworth, Kansas.
Bragg, N.C. Kisiel, Edwin c., Stu Det CGSC, Fort leaven- Raleigh, E. c., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Peca, Peter S., Stu Det A WC, Carlisle Bks., worth, Kansas. Routh, C. 1. Major, Far East Command, Yoko-
Carlisle, Pa. Lockhart, Eugene, Stu Det A WC, Carlisle Bks., hama.
Perry, Miller 0., ARW AF Det, 8658th AAU Carlisle, Pa. Smith, Chester M., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leav.
"'Ista. Army Advisory Group, Air University, Lockwood, \1('m. W., Far East Command, Yoko- enworth, Kansas.
Maxwell AFB, Ala. hama. Smith, Jasper K., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger-
Power, George W., OC of S, 8525th AAU, many.
Neil, Terrance, Far East Command, Yokohama.
Washington, D.C. Stanwood, A. H., Far East Command, Yoko-
Newbury, Alvin 1., 4305th ASU, Tex ORC
Ratcliffe, Lamar c., OAC of S G 4, 8535th hama.
Instr Gp., Dallas, Tex.
AAU, Washington, D.C. Stansbury, J. E., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko-
Nolen, Neil D., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Romlein, John W., CGSC, 5025th ASU, Fort O'Rourke, Peter J., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leaven- Sullivan, DanielL., Jr., 216th AAA Group,
Leavenworth, Kansas. worth, Kansas. Camp McCoy, Wisconsin.
Shepherd, Charles E., Far East Command, Y oko- Pierre, George H., Jr., 0 Secy of De£., 8475th Townsend, Lester 8., Jr., Stu Det CGSC, Fort
hama. AAU, Washington, D.C. Leavenworth, Kansas.
Skinner, J. H., Far East Command, Yokohama. Poston, Carl M., Stu Det CGSC, Fort Leaven- Worley, Thomas G., 108th AAA Brigade,
Speiser, R. G., Far East Command, Yokohama. worth, Kansas. Swarthmore Station, Philadelphia, Pa.
JULY-AUGUST, 1952 47
CAPTAINS Tuscany, Franklin H., 4052nd ASU AA & GM Watson, Wm. L., Far East Command, YolcG-
Br TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex . harna.
.Amanti. Jerome J., USA Pacific, Ft Shafter, TH.
Walker, J. E., Far East Command, Yokohama. Wetzel, Richard D., Far East Command, Y oko.
Amundson. Griffin M., Far East Command,
White, Alvin D_, Jr., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft hama.
Andersen. G. K., Far East Command, Yoko- Sill, Okla. SECOND LIEUTENANTS
hama. Wilson. Neil S., 80th AAA Abn Bn, 82nd Abn Berman, Harold. Stu Det AA & GM Br T AS
Anderson, A. A., Far East Command, Y oko- Div, Ft Bragg, N.C Ft Bliss, Tex. '
hama. Wise, W. A., Far East Command, Yokohama. Birdsall, O. L., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko.
Argo, Clyde R., USA Alaska, Fort Richardson. Yawn, Archie M., Far East Command, Yoko- hama.
Birely, Samuel L.. EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- hama. Bowers, Emmett, W., Far East Command, Yoko-
Black, .George H., Fal" East Command, Y oko- Anderson, Richard D., USA Pacific, Ft Shafter, Branch, M. S., Far East Command, Yokohama.
hama. TH. Bryant, Robert R., Stu Det The Arty Sch, ft
Colbert, Edward F., Far East Command, Yoko- Anlauf, Richard E, 4052nd ASU AA & GM Sill, Okla.
hama. Br TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Cabell, Stanley F., 715th AM Gun Bn, Ft
Cooper, William c., Jr., Far East Command, Barbour, P. P., ElTCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Totten, N.Y.
Yokohama. many. Caldwell, Wm. P., Far East Command, YokG-
Demick, Frank W., 108th AAA Brigade, Barnes, James C, Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS, hama.
Swatthmore Station, Philadelphia, Pa. Ft Bliss, Tex. Christensen, Donald A., Far East Command,
Dent, James R., Far East Command, Yokohama. Bowers, Joseph F., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Yokohama.
Eddy, George W., 4052nd ASU AA & GM Br Germany. Clarico, Anthony]., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft
TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Brown, C. H., Far East Command, Yokohama. Sill, Okla.
Erdman, G. B., Far East Command, Yokohama. Call, Chellis H., 4052nd ASU AAA RTC, Ft Connelly, Leo B., Far East Command, Y oko-
Falco, Anthony, Far East Command, Yokohama. Bliss, Texas. hama.
Fellman, Malcolm A., 4305th ASU Tex ORC Carmody, M. P., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Cornish, W. R., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Instr Gp, A&M College of Texas, College many. Cushing, J. B., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Station, Tex. Davenport, Charles E., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Davis, H. S., Jr., Far East Command, Yokc-
Frick, Edwin J.. EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Germany. hama.
many. Deichmeister, Frank L., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Denton, Lyle 1., Far East Command, Y oko.
Fuller. R. D., Far East Command, Yokohama. Germany. hama.
Gilman, Bernard A., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Dillon. Alvin, Jr., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill, Diver. Arthur G., Far East Command, Y oko.
Germany. Okla. hama.
Good, William 0., Far East Command, Yoko- Fitzgerald, Richard A., Stu Det AA & GM Br Dooley, Michael J., EUCOM, Bremerhaven,
hama. TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Germany.
Gray, Arthur R., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Fuller. William M., 88th AAA Abn Bn, Ft Douglas, Robert A., Jr., EUCOM, Bremer-
many, Campbell, Ky. haven, Germany.
Hartwig, Harvey H., 47th AAA Brigade, Ft Groghan, John ]., Jr., Fort Bliss, Texas. Drumwright, Thomas F., Jr., Far East Com.
Baker, Calif. Heckman, Harvey T., Stu Det AA & GM Br mand, Yokohama.
Hightower, John H., Jr., Stu Det AAA TC TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Farrell, Roger H., Far East Command, Yoko-
8622nd AAU, Ft Devens, Mass. Hembree. Noble S., Far East Command, Y oko- hama.
Higgins, Timothy G., Det M OAC of S G 2, hama. Felts, Ernestc., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill, Okla.
8582nd AAU, Wash., D.C. Judkins, Vernon T., Far East Command, Yoko- Foreman, Robert 1., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill,
James, Thomas G., 11th Abn Div. Ft Campbell, hama. Okla.
Ky. Kimbert, Richard T., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft. Freeman, Raymond C, Far East Command.
Kerby, J. B., Far East Command, Yokohama. Sill, Okla. Yokohama.
Kohler, Donald J., 4054th ASU AA & GM Br Lewis, Charles R., Jr., 31st AAA Brigade, Ft Graves, Roger A., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger-
TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Lewis, Washington. many.
Lopez, R. A., Far East Command, Yokohama. Lockwood, Charles M., 35th AAA Brigade, Ft Gray, Lewis P., Jr., EUCOM, Bremerhaven.
Manniello, Francis P., Far East Command, Meade, Md. Germany.
Yokohama. Lumpkin, Henry R., 4052nd ASU AAA & GM Griffin, James E., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill,
Monroe, Robert W., 102nd AAA Gun Bn, In- Ctr., Ft Bliss, Tex. Okla.
diantown Gap Mil Res, Indiantown Gap, Pa. Machott, Hymen E., 380th AAA Gun Bn, Cp Grignon, Virgil A., Jr., EUCOM, Bremer.
Northrup, Charles R., 197th AAA Group, Ft Edwards, Mass. haven, Germany.
Banks, Mass. Maher, John P., 685th AAA Gun Bn, Ft Hall, Charles L., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko-
Nunn, H. B., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko. Devens, Mass. hama.
hama. Mandeville, Douglas F., Far East Command, Hamby, W. R., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Oberg, Vincent G., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill, Yokohama. Hanby, John B., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko-
Okla. Martin, C W., Far East Command, Yokohama. hama.
Oesterricher, Anthony W., Far East Command, McCormack, H., Far East Command, Yokohama. Harkness, Clarence T., EUCOM, Bremerhaven,
Yokohama. Moseley, Bruce W., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Germany.
Omohundro, Robert L., Hq Army AA Comd, Germany. Harris, P. H., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Ent AFB, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Myers, Solomon, Jr., Far East Command, Y oko. Heck, Arthur C, Stu Det Arty $ch, Ft Sill,
Parrott, William R., Far East Command, Y oko- hama. Okla.
hama. O'Neill, Edward W., Far East Command, Y oko- Helweg, D. L., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Pierson, Howard W., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill, hama. Howell, H. E., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Okla. Portera, John H., Far East Command, Yoko- Jones, Eugene G., Far East Command, Yoko-
Preston, Harry H., Stu Det AA & GM Br hama. hama.
TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Rives, ]. F., Far East Command, Yokohama. Jordan, Charles D., 80th AAA Abn Bn, Ft
Quinn, George M., Stu Det AA & GM Br Ruppert, Jack T., 4052nd ASU AAA & GM Bragg, N.C
TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Ctr, Ft Bliss, Tex. Joseph, Elias, Far East Command, Yokohama.
Remmie, J. A. Far East Command, Yokohama. Schulte, Arden C, 4052nd ASU AA & GM Katz, Richard A., 11th AAA Gp, Ft Tilden,
Roach, Walter]., 536th AAA Gun Bn, Ft Br TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. N.Y.
Totten, N.Y. Setler, Verl E., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Lester, H. R., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko-
Roller, Harry N., 464th AAA AW BN, Cp many. hama.
Roberts, Calif. Smith, Milam R., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger- Lopea, Albert V., Far East Command, Yoko-
Rouse, H. L., Far East Command, Yokohama. many. hama.
Sargent, John E, 71st AAA Gun Bn, Ft Bel- Strickland, Robert T., Far East Command, Y oko- Love, J. H., Far East Command, Yokohama.
voir, Va. hama. Maloney, Ralph L., EVCOM, Bremerhaven,
Smaw, Daniel G., Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS, Thayer, George E., Jr., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Germany.
Ft Bliss, Tex. Germany. McDaniels, Wilbur N., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft
Smith, George F., Jr., 4054th ASU AA & GM Thomas, Daniel L., 209th AAA Gp., Indian- Sill, Okla.
Br TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. town Gap Mil Res, Indiantown Gap, Pa. McTaggart, G. D., Far East Command, Yoko-
Smith, Howard R., Far East Command, Yoko- Thomson, Oliver C, Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill, hama.
hama. Okla. Nolan, James M., Jr., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft
Stachelski, A. C, Jr., Far East Command, Yoko- Travis, John E., 9th AAA Gun Bn, Ft Scott, Sill, Okla.
hama. Calif. Pepe, Louis M., EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger-
Stephens, Charles E., Far East Command, Y oko. Tucker, Gordon E., 35th AAA Brigade, Ft many.
hama. Meade, Md. Rach, R. A., Far East Commaud, Yokohama.
Taylor, R. C, Far East Command, Yokohama. Tutt, Garvin A_, Stu Det l;.A & GM Br TAS, Rehm, WiIIiam L, Far East Command, Yoko-
Thompson, R., Far East Command, Yokohama. Ft Bliss, Tex. hama.

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631 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W. WASHINGTON 4, D. C.