You are on page 1of 7

World Tunnel Congress 2008 - Underground Facilities for Better Environment and Safety - India

Concreting behind steel liner at large heights – A case study

R.D. Varangaonkar
Gammon India Limited, Mumbai, India

SYNOPSIS: Pump concrete technique is adopted very often on most places. Efforts are made and designs
are improved to pump concrete to longer distances and higher heights. This paper deals with high pressure
concrete pumped to a height of 780m. As on date the world record for pumping concrete is for a height of
535m. To pump the concrete to 780m height, one concrete pump was specially designed and manufactured.
Concrete pipes were also specially designed and manufactured to take up such high concrete pressure
including the pipe jointing clamps. Method for cleaning the pipe was also developed in the eventuality of
chocking of concrete in pipe. A thorough and detailed planning was done to achieve this tough task. This
paper describes in detail the minute planning done for the projects to achieve this tough task.

1. LOCATION Lesser Himalayan Zone. The Project comprises of


85m high concrete dam, 6m diameter concrete lined
Parbati Hydroelectric Project is located in Kullu tunnel 31.6km long and two numbers of inclined
District of Himachal Pradesh which is situated in pressure shafts inc lined at 30 degree each having

Sketch showing a general layout drawing of the project


INTAKE STRUCTURE
3 Nos.DESILTING CHAMBERS

TOSH NALLAH

CONCRETE DAM
DIVERSION TUNNEL HO
RS 6.0
E
R

SH M GAMMON'S SCOPE OF WORK


PARBATI RIVE

O D IA
E LOT PB - 3. INCLUDES HRT
SH
AP FROM RD- 24733 TO 31371 M
E D
H.
R.
T. CONSTRUCTION ADIT
6.0 M DIA CIRCULAR H.R.T. ADIT NO. 3
HURLA NALLAH
TRENCH WEAR
FEEDER TUNNEL BOTTOM ADIT-2 JIW TAIL RACE CHANNEL
PANCHA-HURLA AN
FEEDER TUNNEL-II
3.0 M DIA. TO PRESSUIRE SHAFT AL
LA
SA
H IN
ADIT NO. 1 FEEDER TUNNEL-III
JR
PORTAL EL. 2185.00 IV
SHEELAGARH ER
PANCHA MALLAH
TRENCH WEAR POWER HOUSE
ADIT NO. 3A 4NO.PENSTOCKS 2.5M DIA.
2NO. PRESSURE SHAFTS 3.5M DIA.
ADIT NO. 3A ADIT TO PRESSURE SHAFT TOP
ADIT NO. 3
MANIHAR-PANCHA VALVE HOUSE
FEEDER TUNNEL-I
ADIT TO SURGE SHAFT BOTTOM
TRENCH WEAR APPROACH ADIT
ADIT NO. 2 TO SURGE SHAFT TOP
ADIT NO. 4

17.0 M DIA SURGE SHAFT


DROP SHAFT NO.1 DROP SHAFT NO.2
4.0 M DIA. 4.0 M DIA. ADIT NO. 5
6.0 M DIA
HORSE SHOE SHAPED H.R.T.

A
LAYOUT PLAN

Sketch showing the location of inclined pressure shafts and approach Adits
Adit No. 5 Bottom Adit-2 (for TBM Erection
2 NO. Pressure Shaft
Portal EL. 2100.00 (3.5 M Dia) at Spacing & Further Excavation of 3.5m. dia JIWA NALLAH
(6000Ø D Shaped Length 515m.) of 48m c/c Pressure Shaft
Portal EL. 1332.00 4 No. Penstocks
6000 Ø HRT (2.5 m. Dia at Spacing
Length 640.00m.
6000 Ø D Shaped of 24m c/c
Up Surge Gallery Bottom Adit-1 to Penstock
325m. Long at EL. 2225 Portal EL. 1332.00
Vertical Bend Line
(6500Ø D Shape Length 215m.
6000 Ø D Shaped
Down Surge Gallery
Access to Lower
250m. Long at EL. 2117.50 Manhole SA
IN J
SA

H.R.T. RD 31371m. Approach Adit to Surge R IV


Shaft Bottom Portal EL. 2100.00 ER
IN J

17m. Dia Surge Shaft (6000Ø D Shape Length= 355m.)


R IV

Invert EL. 2106.00m. Power House


Valve House
ER

Approach Adit to Surge (8MX12MX63M) Tail Race Channel


Shaft Top Portal EL. 2230.00 LAYOUT PLAN OF PRESSURE SHAFT & POWER HOUSE
(6000Ø D SHAPE LENGTH= 150 M.)

1148
length of 1542m. The surface powerhouse of then making arrangement for laying the
800MW, consisting of four units. These two concrete pipeline.
inclined pressure shafts were bored by Double • To carry the concrete by transit mixers
Shield Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). The bored mounted on the trolley would be very slow
diameter of inclined pressure shaft is 4.8m operation and charging the transit mixers
diameter. would be tough or almost unfeasible.
• The pumping of concrete from top at 30 degree
2. THE TASK would be difficult because of air trapping.
Laying the pipeline would again interfere with
Inclined pressure shaft boring was completed by ferrule transportation.
TBM and was simultaneously lined by pre-cast • Approach to the concrete pipeline would be
segment lining. The task now left out is to install only from the trolley which is used for
the ferrules 3.5m diameter inside the pre-cast lined transportation of concrete.
tunnel and concrete behind the steel liner, i.e. to fill • Pumping from bottom also needed very
up the gap between pre-cast concrete lining and meticulous planning for –
steel ferrules.

90 THICK PEBBLE FILLING


FOLLOWED BY GROUTING

200 THICK PRE-CAST


CONCRETE SEGMENTAL LINING

400 THICK CONCRETE FILLING


BEHIND STEEL LINER

STEEL LINER

3.50m

4.3m
4.70m
4.88m

Sketch showing the bored diameter, pre-cast segment and steel liner and showing the gap for concrete

Three options were available for concreting – - Arrangement for shifting and extending
1. To carry the concrete from top by transit pipelines.
mixers mounted on trolleys. - Arrangement for manpower to reach the
2. To pump the concrete from top. location of concrete.
3. To pumps the concrete from bottom. • Considering the advantages and disadvantages
of both the operations, it was decided to pump
First two options for carrying concrete from top was concrete from bottom. This will be having
extremely difficult because of : advantage that it will be independent from the
• It was interfering with the transportation of operation of ferrule transportation. Manpower
ferrules requiring very meticulous interaction can also easily reach with the help of
for carrying the ferrules to the location and independent winch and trolley from the
bottom. The only problem was to find a pump

1149
suitable for pumping concrete approximately at Table 1. Pump BP 4000 HDR – 180/125 –
a height of 800m. Specifications & Details

Technical Parameter 4000


3. PLANNING
Motor Output 160 KW
Nominal Speed 1500 rpm
Concreting
Pumping Cylinder 180 x 2000 mm
We checked up various projects all over the world Dia. X Stroke
and could get the information that the maximum Dead Weight 8000 kg
height at which concrete has been poured so far is (incl. oil)
535m. In order to pump concrete at the height of Delivery Pipeline (HP) up to DN 150 (HD) mm
800m, we had to identify a suitable pump capable of Rock Valve Dia. 180 / 180 / 150 HP mm
this operation. We contacted two major pump Max. Hydraulic Oil Pressure
manufacturers from Germany, i.e. Putzmeister and 320 bar
Schwing Stetter. Both these manufacturers have Capacity of Charging Hopper 400 l
agreed to look into the new design of high pressure Diff – Cylinder Dn / dn/ Stroke 125 / 80 / 2000 mm
pump capable of pumping up to 800m height. A Diff – Cylinder Drive* KS SS
pump named BP4000 HDR designed by Schwing Max. Number of Strokes per 17 28
Stetter was found to be suitable for pumping minute
concrete to this height; along with the accessories, Basic Setting of Number of 15 25
i.e. delivery pipelines, couplings, shut-off valve, Strokes
ball catcher, pit catcher (Table 1). Max. theoretical Concrete 45 M3/h 77 M3/h
The ferrule length was 6m. A detailed planning Output
was worked out whether to concrete one, two or Max. Concrete Pressure 154 bar 91 bar
three ferrules at a time. It was found most
*KS = piston-side admission / SS = rod-side admission
economical and faster to adapt to concrete two
ferrules, i.e. 12m length of concrete at a time. The
gap between the pre-cast segment lining and steel
liner was only 400mm and therefore it was not 3.1 Mix proportions of self compacting concrete
possible to vibrate concrete with external vibrators.
Necessarily, it required Self-Compacting Concrete. Grade = M25 A20
It was decided and planned to pour self-compacting Characteristics Strength = 25N/mm2
concrete. A special design mix was done for self-
Standard Division = 4 N/mm2
compacting concrete.
Target Mean Strength = 31.6 N/mm2
Contents

Cement (kg/m3) 315 Viscocity modified Admixture


(Lt/m3) 0.9
3
High Volume Fly Ash (kg/m ) 135 Slump Flow (mm) 712
3
F. A. (kg/m ) 926 T ________ (Sec) 3
3
A10 (kg/m ) 349 V – Funnel Test (Sec) 9
A20 (kg/m3) 426 V Funnel at T ___ (Sec) 3
3
Water (kg/m ) 180 L – Box (h2/h1) 0.93
th 2
w/c 0.4 7 day Strength (N/mm ) 22.81
th 2
C.A : F.A 45 : 55 28 day Strength (N/mm ) 32.89
Super plasticizer (Lt/m3) 3.6

1150
4. PIPELINE designed in such a way that it would not tilt at 30
degree when pulled up. Necessary counter weight
4.1 Design of Pipe was designed. Five numbers of pipes weighing
In order to sustain such a high pressure of above approximately 1 ton would be transported at a time
300 bar, a special pipeline was designed and since frequent trips of winch need to be avoided.
manufactured in Germany. Also out of the various
Support for the rails was designed and “I” section
options of pipeline diameters of 100mm, 125mm
and 150mm, it was found that 125mm diameter pipe was laid down to cross members welded to erected
would be most suited for this type of work. For such ferrule. A proper arrangement also was made for
a high pressure, special pipe was to be manpower to safely travel on this winch.
manufactured and in case only one thickness of pipe
was adopted throughout the length, the cost was
coming exorbitantly high. Concrete pressure since 5.1 Selection of winch
will be reducing from bottom to top, it was planned The special trolley has to travel from 0m to 1542m.
to reduce the pipe thickness gradually. Two types of
It was since required to be pulled from top,

Suitable Couplings were also designed to sustain this high pressure.

Pump-1

Pump-2

Twin Pump Arrangement

pipe thickness were designed:


• 8.8mm pipe up to the height of 800m. necessarily the wire rope has to come from a return
• 7.1mm pipe beyond 800m up to end pulley which has to be very rigidly and firmly fixed
to take the loads of trolley, pipeline, manpower and
5. TRANSPORTATION & FIXING OF the complete load of the wire rope.
PIPELINE The total wire rope would come to more than
Considering 12m concrete at a time, similar 3000m. To accommodate such a large length of
extension of pipeline would be required. To wire rope, a specially designed albatross winch was
transport the pipeline to 30 degree inclined location, imported from Germany.
rail trolley was specially designed. The trolley was

1151
Sketch showing inclined trolley, arrangement for rail and cross members and return pulley.

Keeping in mind the safety of the people .013cum/m. This amount of concrete will be stored
traveling on the winch and in the eventuality of in the length of concrete in use at particular
location. The task is to use the concrete in the
requiring to stop the winch anywhere on the path,
pipeline and not allowed to go waste and then clean
the winch was so designed that the wire rope was the pipe. It was therefore planned to use shut off
having one core of wire by which winch could be valves at designed locations which can be closed
operated by remote control by the passenger when required.
(i) In case of chocking, a particular section can be
traveling on the trolley.
isolated and cleaned.
Requirement of concrete was only 5 cum/m. (ii) Once the concrete is complete, shut off valve at
Therefore it was decided that the existing the bottom can be closed and sponge ball with
arrangement of 30 cum batching plant and three water column can be inserted in the pipeline
transit mixers will be used. The only addition was to and with the help of second pump with which
erect one silo and weighing arrangement for fly ash. bye-pass line is installed, water or bantonite
Planning was also required to be done for cleaning slurry can be pumped, pushing the complete
the pipeline. The pipeline would carry concrete concrete column up and to the location. When

1152
this sponge ball reaches the top, trap basket • Aligning of ferrules at location 2 hours
will not allow the ball to cross but complete • Preheating and welding for first ferrule 48 hours
concrete can be unloaded to the location. When • 48 hours x 2 (for second ferrule) 96 hours
the sponge ball reaches the top, water from the • Concreting of 60 cum 6 hours
pipeline can be emptied by the by-pass • Cleaning the pipeline 1 ½ hours
emptying pipes which unload the complete • Total cycle time for 12m pipeline 107 ½ hours
water and bantonite slurry into the tank and
cleaning the entire pipeline simultaneously. For
8. CONCLUSION
more than 100m of pipeline length, care was
taken that water is not allowed to empty • The work is very difficult and hazardous in
without a pressurized cleaning scrapper nature.
otherwise concrete may stick to the pipeline • The working place is also very restricted.
walls.
• Working on inclined 30 degree becomes very
6. SAFETY strenuous and difficult.
• Selection and design of concrete pump,
Considering the length of travel, restricted place of
work and tremendous load on the return pulley and suitable concrete pipeline was most important
winch, the following safety measures were taken. decision for success of project.

Concrete pipeline cleaning using sponge balls

Similarly, following safety measures were taken for


lowering the ferrules : • A detail design was also very important for
• Double breaking arrangement on winch. transportation of pipes and manpower to the
• Close circuit T.V. at the front point of ferrule work location.
winch. In order to avoid any mishaps and consequent
• No manpower was allowed while ferrules were stoppage of work, a detailed planning was required
shifted. to be done for smooth operation and successful
completion of work.
• Inspection of motor, gear box, winch and wire
rope after each operation and maintenance of
BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS OF THE AUTHOR
winch every week including the certification
by mechanical engineer incharge. R.D.Varangaonkar, graduated in Civil
• Welding for cross girder supporting rail was Engineering from the Regional
done by a very skilled welder and was checked Engineering College, Bhopal, Vikram
by foreman every time. University Ujjain (MP) ranked 5th in
• Return pulley anchoring was checked University, Merit List 1968. He was
everyday. placed 17th in merit list of H.S.S.C.
Exam of M.P. Board of Secondary
7. CHRONOLOGICAL COMPLETE CYCLE
Education.
• Lowering of ferrules 6m at a time 2 hours

1153
He is Fellow of five premier institutions of India • Industrial Structures
including Indian National Academy of Engineering & • Cooling Towers, Water Tower, T.V. Towers.
Member of eleven institutions of various natures. • Silos & Prilling Towers.
He has about 40 years of rich experience in • Prestressed Concrete Bridges Rail-cum-Road
construction of variety of Civil Engineering large scale Bridges.
• Pile Foundation - Large diameter and depth.
projects as under.
• Mega Hydro-Electric Projects.

1154