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EXPERT SYSTEMS:

By definition, an expert system is a computer program that simulates the thought


process of a human expert to solve complex decision problems in a specific domain. An
expert system operates as an interactive system that responds to questions, asks for
clarification, makes recommendations, and generally aids the decision-making process.
Expert systems provide expert advice and guidance in a wide variety of activities, from
computer diagnosis to delicate medical surgery.
FUNDAMENTALS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS:
• BACKGROUND
• CONCEPTS
• PROBLEM SELECTION
• KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION
• KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION
• TOOL SELECTION
• DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
• TESTING, VERIFICATION, VALIDATION
Most applications of expert systems will fall into one of the
following categories:
• Interpreting and identifying
• Predicting
• Diagnosing
• Designing
• Planning
• Monitoring
• Debugging and testing
• Instructing and training
• Controlling
The Need for Expert Systems
Expert systems are necessitated by the limitations associated with conventional human
decision-making processes, including:
1. Human expertise is very scarce.
2. Humans get tired from physical or mental workload.
3. Humans forget crucial details of a problem.
4. Humans are inconsistent in their day-to-day decisions.
5. Humans have limited working memory.
6. Humans are unable to comprehend large amounts of data quickly.
7. Humans are unable to retain large amounts of data in memory.
8. Humans are slow in recalling information stored in memory.
9. Humans are subject to deliberate or inadvertent bias in their actions.
10. Humans can deliberately avoid decision responsibilities.
11. Humans lie, hide, and die.
Benefits of Expert Systems
1. Increase the probability, frequency, and consistency of making good
decisions
2. Help distribute human expertise
3. Facilitate real-time, low-cost expert-level decisions by the nonexpert
4. Enhance the utilization of most of the available data
5. Permit objectivity by weighing evidence without bias and without regard for the user’s
personal and emotional reactions
6. Permit dynamism through modularity of structure
7. Free up the mind and time of the human expert to enable him or her
to concentrate on more creative activities
8. Encourage investigations into the subtle areas of a problem
There are 8 important characteristics features of a computer. A computer is
an electronic computing device which performs the execution according to the given
set of instructions called program. It accepts the data, processes it and produces the
information.

The characteristics of computer are Speed, Accuracy, Automatic,


Endurance, Versatility, Storage, Reduction of cost, Intelligent quotient.

SPEED
It denotes the speed of a computer. The computer present in the modern world has
the speed of nano and pico second

ACCURACY
It denoted the accuracy of the computer. They are reliable and robust. It ever makes
a mistake. Most probably the error occurs due to the user rather than the computer.
There may be certain hardware mistake but with the advanced technique in hand
they are overcome.

AUTOMATIC
The computers are automatic. It may execute the process without any intervention
of user once they are assigned to a work. Once the data or instruction are fetched
from the secondary devices such as optical disks, hard disks etc. Immediately they
get stored into RAM (primary memory) and then sequentially they get executed.

ENDURANCE
This denotes that the computers never get tried as the humans do. If there are
surplus amount of executions to be made then each and every execution will be
executed at the same time period. They can perform their assigned task without
taking any refreshment.

VERSATILITY
In our day to day life computers has been a part, with their extended flexibility they
are used, all over the world. They can be used as personal computers, for home
uses, for business oriented tasks, weather forecasting, space explorations, teaching,
railways, banking, medicine etc. All Modern computer can perform different kind of
tasks simultaneously.

STORAGE
Secondary storage devices are the key for the data storage. They store the data for
which the user wants to retrieve these data for future use. The examples for various
secondary devices are Floppy disk, Optical disks (CS and DVD), Zip drives, Thumb
drives etc. The data of smaller size can be easily fetched and they can be copied to
the primary memory (RAM).

REDUCTION OF COST
Computers are short term investment in order to achieve a long term gain. Though
the investment is high they reduce the cost of each and every transaction. They
reduce man power and leads to an elegant and efficient way for computing various
tasks.

I.Q(Intelligent quotient)
The only draw back of computer is it cannot make the decision of its own. It needs a
guidance to enhance the process. After all computers is a machine

IPO Cycle in Detail


Input Devices

Devices which transfer data, programs, or signals into a computer systems are called
input devices. These devices are used to give raw data to the computer to perform the
specific tasks. Firstly, the data, programs, a signals are fed into the input devices in
asuitable form, and are then converted by the device into electrical signals from human-
readable format that are transmitted to the central processing unit of the computer.

INPUT DEVICES
Mouse
> Keyboard
> Scanner
> Webcam
> Digital camera
> Microphone
> Joysticks, etc.

The Processing Device


The Processor
(CPU – Central Processing Unit)

The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This unit is responsible for all events
inside the computer. It controls all internal and external devices, performs
arithmetic and logic operations. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the device that
interprets and executes instructions.Processors differ from one to another by the
instruction set. If the same program can run on two different computer brands they
are set to be compatible. The CPU has the ability to fetch, decode, and execute
instructions and transfer information to and from other recourses over the
computer’s main data-transfer path, the bus. By definition, the CPU is the chip that
functions as the brain of a computer. In some instances, however, the term
encompasses both the processor and the computer’s memory or, even more broadly,
the main computer console.All processors use transistors as switched to produce
signals, much like a light switch, which digitizes the information and breaks them up
into small chumps.The CPU is composed of several units:
The Control Unit (CU) directs add controls the activities of the internal and external
devices. It interprets the instructions obtained into the computer, determines what
data are needed, where it is stored, where to stored the results of the operations,
and sends the control signal to the devices involved in the execution of the
instructions.
The Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) is the part where actual computations take
place. It consists of circuits, which perform arithmetic operations (e.g. Addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division) over data receive from memory and capable to
compare numbers. While performing these operations the ALU takes data from the
temporary storage area inside the CPU named registers. Registers are a group of
cells used for memory addressing, data manipulations and processing. Every
operation within the CPU take place ate the clock pulse. No operations, regardless of
how simple, can be performed in less time then transpires between ticks of this
clock. But some operations require more than one clock pulse. The faster the clock
runs, the faster the computer performs. The clock rate is measured in mega hertz
(MHZ) or million ticks per second. In most modern micro processors the clock is
usually Incorporated within the CPU.

Output Devices

Output devices are used to get final result from the computer. Firstly,
output is displayed on monitor. Then we can print out these outputs on
a paper with the help of printer. The purpose of the output devices is to
translate data and informations from electrical impulses to human-
readable format.
The output device, which is necessary for the computer to display
messages to the user, is a monitor. If we want to keep the copy of the
work on paper, we used printers. Plotters are devices that are more
suitable for the large scale outputs like engineering drawings and high
quality graphics.
• output devices
> Monitor
> Speaker
> Printer
A management information system (MIS) is a system that provides information needed to
manage organizations effectively. Management information systems involve three primary
resources: technology, information, and people.
It's important to recognize that while all three resources are key components when studying
management information systems ... the most important resource is people.
Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal
controls procedures in a business, which cover the application of people, documents,
technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems
such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy.

Initially in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was made manually and only
periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistic(s), and
gave limited and delayed information on management performance. Previously, data had to be
separated individually by the people as per the requirement and necessity of the organization.
Later, data was distinguished from information, and so instead of the collection of mass of data,
important and to the point data that is needed by the organization was stored.
Earlier, business computers were mostly used for relatively simple operations such as tracking
sales or payroll data, often without much detail. Over time, these applications became more
complex and began to store increasing amount of information while also interlinking with
previously separate information systems. As more and more data was stored and linked man
began to analyze this information into further detail, creating entire management reports from the
raw, stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications, which were
developed to provide managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that
would help in managing the enterprise.

Types of information management systems


There are many types of information management systems in the market that provide a wide
range of benefits for companies. Strategic information management system, customer relation
management systems and enterprise resource planning systems are some of them. The following
are some of the benefits that can be attained for different types of information management
systems.[4]
Advantages of information management systems (1) The company is able to highlight their
strength and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employee performance
records etc. The identification of these aspects can help the company to improve their business
processes and operations. (2) The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the
company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers. The effective
management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion
activities. (3) Information is considered to be an important asset for any company in the modern
competitive world. The consumer buying trends and behaviors can be predicted by the analysis of
sales and revenue reports from each operating region of the company.
E-commerce
E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and
selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the
World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-
business, are often used interchangably. For online retail
selling, the terme-tailing is sometimes used.
E-commerce can be divided into:

E-tailing or "virtual storefronts" on Web sites with online catalogs,


sometimes gathered into a "virtual mall":-
As a place for direct retail shopping, with its 24-hour availability, a global reach, the
ability to interact and provide custom information and ordering, and multimedia
prospects, the Web is rapidly becoming a multibillion dollar source of revenue for the
world's businesses
The gathering and use of demographic data through Web
contacts:-
was widely recognized that because of the interactive nature of the Internet,
companies could gather data about prospects and customers in unprecedented
amounts -through site registration, questionnaires, and as part of taking orders. The
issue of whether data was being collected with the knowledge and permission of
market subjects had been raised.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

EDI is the exchange of business data using an understood data format. It predates
today's Internet. EDI involves data exchange among parties that know each other
well and make arrangements for one-to-one (or point-to-point) connection, usually
dial-up. EDI is expected to be replaced by one or more standard XML formats, such
as ebXML.

E-Mail, Fax, and Internet Telephony


E-commerce is also conducted through the more limited electronic forms of
communication called e-mail, facsimile or fax, and the emerging use of telephone
calls over the Internet. Most of this is business-to-business, with some companies
attempting to use e-mail and fax for unsolicited ads (usually viewed as online junk
mail or spam) to consumers and other business prospects. An increasing number of
business Web sites offer e-mail newsletters for subscribers. A new trend is opt-in e-
mail in which Web users voluntarily sign up to receive e-mail, usually sponsored or
containing ads, about product categories or other subjects they are interested in.
Business-to-Business Buying and Selling
Thousands of companies that sell products to other companies have discovered that
the Web provides not only a 24-hour-a-day showcase for their products but a quick
way to reach the right people in a company for more information.

The Security of Business Transactions


Security includes authenticating business transactors, controlling access to
resources such as Web pages for registered or selected users, encrypting
communications, and, in general, ensuring the privacy and effectiveness of
transactions. Among the most widely-used security technologies is the Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL), which is built into both of the leading Web browsers.

The TCP/IP model is a description framework for computer network


protocols created in the 1970s by an agency of the United States Department of
Defense. It evolved from ARPANET, which was the world's first wide area
network and a predecessor of the Internet. The TCP/IP Model is sometimes called
the Internet Model.

The TCP/IP model, or Internet Protocol Suite, describes a set of general design
guidelines and implementations of specific networking protocols to enable
computers to communicate over a network. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity
specifying how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and
received at the destination. Protocols exist for a variety of different types of
communication services between computers.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol that
addresses numerous reliability issues to provide a reliable byte stream:

 data arrives in-order


 data has minimal error (i.e. correctness)
 duplicate data is discarded
 lost/discarded packets are resent
 includes traffic congestion control

Key architectural principlesEnd-to-End Principle: This principle has evolved


over time. Its original expression put the maintenance of state and overall
intelligence at the edges, and assumed the Internet that connected the edges
retained no state and concentrated on speed and simplicity. Real-world needs for
firewalls, network address translators, web content caches and the like have forced
changes in this principle.
Robustness Principle: "In general, an implementation must be conservative in its sending
behavior, and liberal in its receiving behavior. That is, it must be careful to send
well-formed datagrams, but must accept any datagram that it can interpret.

LAYERS OF TCP/IP
Application Layer (process-to-process): This is the scope within which applications create user
data and communicate this data to other processes or applications on another or the
same host. The communications partners are often called peers. This is where the
"higher level" protocols such as SMTP, FTP, SSH, HTTP, etc. operate.

Transport Layer (host-to-host): The Transport Layer constitutes the networking regime
between two network hosts, either on the local network or on remote networks separated by
routers. The Transport Layer provides a uniform networking interface that hides the actual
topology (layout) of the underlying network connections. This is where flow-control, error-
correction, and connection protocols exist, such as TCP. This layer deals with opening and
maintaining connections between Internet hosts.

Internet Layer (internetworking): The Internet Layer has the task of exchanging datagrams
across network boundaries. It is therefore also referred to as the layer that establishes
internetworking, indeed, it defines and establishes the Internet. This layer defines the
addressing and routing structures used for the TCP/IP protocol suite. The primary protocol in
this scope is the Internet Protocol, which defines IP addresses. Its function in routing is to
transport datagrams to the next IP router that has the connectivity to a network closer to the
final data destination.

Link Layer: This layer defines the networking methods within the scope of the local network
link on which hosts communicate without intervening routers. This layer describes the
protocols used to describe the local network topology and the interfaces needed to affect
transmission of Internet Layer datagrams to next-neighbor hosts. (cf. the OSI Data Link
Layer).
The SOLITARY REAPER- POETRY

MATILDA –POETRY

THE INFORMER ONE ACT PLAY

THE TRAIL SCENE FROM THE MERCHANT VENICE

(solitary MEANS single, alone( a person alone), Reaper means the person
who reaps, gather, collect……….(a single person in the paddy field
collecting paddy)

INTRODUCTION-
"The Solitary Reaper" was written on November 5, 1805 and published in
1807. The poem is broken into four eight-line stanzas (32 lines total). This
poem stands alone from Wordsworth's all most all poems because most of
his work is based closely on his own experiences; "The Solitary Reaper"
is based on the experience of someone else:
Part of what makes this poem so interesting is the fact that the
speaker does not understand the words being sung by the
beautiful young lady. He is forced to imagine what she might be singing
about. He supposes that she may be singing about history and things that
happened long ago, or some sadness that has happened in her own time
and that will happen again.

LET US SEE THE STANCE:-

In the first stanza the speaker comes across a beautiful girl working alone
in the fields of Scotland, She is "Reaping and singing by herself." He
tells the reader not to interrupt her, and then says that the valley is
overflowing by the sound of her song.

The second stanza is a list of things that cannot equal the beauty of the
girl's singing, her sound could not be matched to nightingale, desert
songs of travelers, spring time sound of cuckoo –bird...... and so
on……..
In the third stanza the reader learns that the speaker cannot understand
the words being sung. He can only guess at what she might be singing
about: - may be some sad things happened in the past, may be some
battles happened long ago, or her own sorrow or pain. The speaker
understands only the tone of sadness in her sound, so he thinks it has
a connection to the lady, which way that he doesn’t know.

In the fourth and final stanza the speaker tells the reader that even though
he did not know what she was singing about, the music stayed in his
heart as he continued up the hill, as he says “LISTENED MOTIONLESS
AND STILL, THEN MOUNTED UP THE HILL” the tone made him stand
still for a moment and there after he walked up the hill. The music
struck and stayed in his heart ….he moves on, taking the music of the
young lady with him in his heart. This is a prevalent theme in much of
Wordsworth's poetry

Hilaire Belloc was one of the most prolific writers in England during the early
twentieth century. He was known as a writer, orator, poet; He is most notable
for his Catholic faith, which had a strong impact on most of his works. He
was President of the Oxford Union and later MP for Salford from 1906 to
1910.
In the poem Matilda, the girl is of the habit of telling lies, and it made
people wonder, but her aunt has a strict rule of telling only truth
and believed Matilda. By believing Matilda aunt nearly got
herself killed, if she not have discovered the lie.
Matilda tired of sitting and getting bored at home, by telephone calls
the fire force and say that there is a fire in her house. The
firemen come immediately shouting Matilda’s house is burning.
They ran their ladders into Matilda’s house, and spray water
everywhere. Firemen ask Matilda about the fire, but she escapes
and hides herself. When matildas Aunt comes the fire men ask
about the absence of fire, Aunt pay’s the fire men and send them
away.
When the fire men goes, Matilda comes out of the hiding place, and
laughs herself for paying game with fire men. After a few
weeks , Aunt goes to the theater to see a play, even though
Matilda requests to take her, Aunt refuses. Ask’s Maltida to clear
her bad behavior of telling lies. Matilda sits disappointedly at
home.
After a while she smells the smoke, when opened the door finds a
real fire burning in the house, she coughs and from the window
calls people for help. But all the people just pass Maltida, some
stop at the street and watch her actions and calls her little liar.
Finally maltida collapses on the floor.

When Aunt comes home the house along with Maltida were burned to
ashes. MORAL STORY ISOF THE POEM IS “people ask for help when they
don't need any help. And make things more dangerous for themselves; when
the real danger is present and help is needed, nobody will listen to their
cries because people don’t want to be fooled more than one time."

introduction

brecht created an influential theory of theatre that proposed that a play


should not cause the spectator to identify emotionally with the
characters or action before him or her, but should instead provoke
rational self-reflection and a critical view of the action on the stage. He
wanted his audiences to adopt a critical perspective in order to
recognise social injustice and exploitation and to be moved to go forth
from the theatre and effect change in the world outside. For this
purpose, Brecht employed the use of techniques that remind the
spectator that the play is a representation of reality and not reality
itself.
The play

The Informer by Bertolt Brecht, transports the audience from Mexico


and Germany. The Informer centers on a family in the middle of Nazi
Germany and the everyday fear under the rule
The Wife and Husband fear that anyone, including the Maid , the Boy ,
and each other, may have informed the government of unpatriotic
behavior. Fluctuating power structures in the ountry they live causes
difficulties for those who live within it, as the two grown adults start to
fear everyone, including their own son as the informer or spy of Nazi
government.

A Lutheran schoolmaster, Karl Furcke is reading the newspaper after


Sunday dinner. He makes fun about paper's attacks on the Catholic
church and then adds that the Brownhouse, the Nazi headquarters that
funds the paper, is probably guilty of just as many dirty secrets. Karl
would never say such sentiments in public, but in the privacy of his
own home he enjoys the role of the fearless person. Because if he
speaks his ideas and opinions in public , the Nazi government of its
informers/spy’s will punish him.

Then his wife notices that their son Karl-Heinrich has disappeared. A
minute ago he was discussing the newspaper with his father; now he
is untraceable. Where could he have gone? Could he have gone to
Hitler Youth Group? Husband fears that their son would expose all he
said about nazi government, and what would be its after effects, what
happen to the father who was exposed by his son.

bit by bit his confidence leaks out. Husband defends himself against
his wife's worried fears. "That can't be interpreted as an attack," he
desperately says. "Why, what is aid is just an observation."
conclusion

One of Brecht's most important principles was what he called the


"defamiliarization effect", "distancing effect", or "estrangement
effect",This involved, stripping the event of its self-evident, familiar,
obvious quality and creating a sense of astonishment and curiosity
about them". To this end, Brecht employed techniques such as the
actor's direct address to the audience, harsh and bright stage lighting,
the use of songs to interrupt the action, explanatory placards, and, in
rehearsals, the transposition of text to the third person or past tense,
and speaking the stage directions out loud.

The trial scene or the judgment scene is the longest scene in the drama The
Merchant of Venice which was written by William Shakespeare. This is the most
important scene in this drama and it is one of the most interesting and attractive
scene of any drama written by William Shakespeare. It is the climax of The Merchant
of Venice where good prevails and bad evil get punished. Although the trial scene
was mainly about the punishment and saving of Antonio but in the trial scene it was
a fight between Portia and Shylock.

The duke was sympathetic to Antonio and wish that Shylock forgets him from taking
the flesh of Antonio. However, Shylock was not interested at this and he wanted to
only take flesh from Antonio’s body. He was not interested to listening anything
about mercy and all he wanted was revenge of all the insults he had suffered from
Antonio and every other Christian in Venice. The first part of the trial scene was
dominated by Shylock and everyone including the readers, viewers and audience
think that there is no way to stop Shylock.

The arrival of Portia brings some hope to everyone but Portia in costume of a lawyer
supported Shylock’s claim that Shylock had all the rights to take pound of flesh from
Antonio’s body. Hearing this Shylock got very happy and excited and praised the
judge. However, when Portia said that Shylock has to take a pound a flesh without
dropping any blood from Antonio’s body then everyone understood that
Portia’s judgment was saving Antonio. In the end, Shylock lost the trial
and judgment went against him. He suffered a lot and it was stated by the court that
Shylock would lose all his property and he will have to convert as a Christian.

In the trial scene, we can see the conflict of idea of judgment of two religions.
According to Judaism (Jews religion), justice means punishing the bad people. So,
Shylock feels that he has suffered and he must get an eye for an eye. Eye for an
eye or pit for a pit is the main idea of justice according to Jews religion. So, Shylock
wanted this kind of justice and he wanted the flesh from the body of Antonio
because he felt that it is the exact justice for him after suffering a lot of insults from
all the Christians including Antonio.

On the other hand, Christianity has a softer approach to a justice and revenge. One
famous idea of Jesus Christ is that if someone then put your right chick in front of
that person. Christianity gives a lot of important in forgiving and mercy.
Shakespeare has tried to show that the idea of justice of Christianity is better than
the idea of justice of Judaism. So, Shakespeare has shown that Shylock became a
Christian and this way Shylock got saved.

That trial seen is the fight between Portia and Shylock. All other characters watched
the fighting between them. Shylock thought that he had won the trial and no one
could have stopped him from taking revenge against Antonio. He was so sure that
she started to celebrate very early and others could understand that he was a very
bad person who did not care for humanity. On the other hand, Portia was a very
smart person and she was determined to save Antonio.

The trial scene is a memorable one because of the strong dialogues from Shylock
and from Portia. Some of the dialogues has become very popular and are seen
common among the English people.
MY INDIA(LALAJII) BY JIM CORBETT

India was ruled by the British for nearly three centuries until 1947. During this
period, several thousands of Europeans arrived in India seeking adventure and
fortune. Many had returned to their homeland with enough money to spend the rest
of their lives in comfort. A number of them felt sorry for the poor, but most of them
didn’t care. A very few of them actually cared and concerned for their welfare, and
Jim Corbett stands tall among that small band of Europeans. His family had been
living in India for three generations. Corbett was born in Naini Tal on 25th July
1875. He had to quit the school at the age of 16 to look for a job in order to support
his family. He found a job that led him to become a trans-shipment Inspector for the
Bengal and Northwestern Railway where he spent 21 years. Working with hundreds
of simple, loyal and hardworking laborers. Most of the stories in MY INDIA revolve
around this period he spent in Mokameh Ghat. Even as a very young man, Corbett
was compassionate and helpful, gave himself freely and expecting nothing in return.

Take the story of a stranger dying of cholera, near a railway station. His name was
Lalajee, once a prosperous grain merchant who became penniless after being
cheated by his partner. Without any hope in life, he took the train, got off at
Mokameh Ghat affected with the cholera, went to the shores of the Ganges and
prayed for death.
But Corbett listened to his story, carried him home to his bungalow, nursed him back
to health, and after regaining his health given money, to start a new
business., and return train ticket to his native place. Lalajee left with 450
Rupees, and in 1898 that was Corbett’s salary for 3 months, given to a
stranger to start a new life of hope. But Lalajee returned correctly before the
close of one year, and paid the loan amount with interest. But Corbett only
accepted the loan amount. There after every year Lalajee used to send Mango
fruit to Corbett as a token of their friendship

My India is filled with such stories of love and compassion by an English-


Irish man towards the poor and needy who lived such a simple life. He bought
vast stretches of land, built houses and gave them to the poor, paid taxes on
them, helped them to create orchards in the property and making it a model
village. Many thinks this was Corbett’s best work, written in such a style
without slightest exaggeration or self praising. Always modest in his narrative
and story telling, one of the true qualities of a great man