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# UNIT – III

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
2 MARKS
1. What is a Generator polynomial? Give some standard generator polynomials.
2. What are Convolutional Codes? How are they different from block Codes?
3. What are Code Tree, Code Trellis and State diagrams for Convolutional encoders?
4. Define Hamming distance and Hamming Weight. MAY/JUNE 2007
5. Show that c= { 000, 001, 101 }is not a linear code. MAY/JUNE 2007
6. What is meant by Systematic and non Systematic Codes?
7. What is meant by Linear block Codes?
8. What is meant by Cyclic Codes?
9. Define Syndrome
10. What are the properties of Linear Block Codes?
11. What are the properties of Cyclic Codes?
12. What are the properties of Syndrome?
13. When is a code said to be linear? NOV/DEC 2006
14. What is the essence of Huffman coding? NOV/DEC 2006
15. State two properties of syndrome (used in linear block codes).
NOV/DEC 2007
16. What do you mean by code rate and constraint length in convolutional code?
NOV/DEC 2007
17. Define Syndrome in error correction coding.
APRIL/MAY 2008, NOV/DEC 2008
18. Why Cyclic codes are extremely well suited for error detection?
APRIL/MAY 2008
19. Give the error correcting capability of a linear block code.NOV/DEC 2008

8 MARKS

## 1. a) Define linear block code. (2)

b) How to find the parity check matrix? (4)
c) Give the syndrome decoding algorithm. (4)
d) Design a linear block code with dmin ≥ 3 for some block length n = 2m-1. (6)
e) Consider a hamming code C which is determined by the parity check matrix.

1 1 0 1 1 0 0
 
H = 1 0 1 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 1 0 0 1
 

## i) Show that the two vectors C1 = (0010011) and C2 = (0001111) are

codewords of C and calculate the hamming distance between them.
ii) Assume that a codeword C was transmitted and that a vector r = c + e is
received. Show that the syndrome s = r.HT only depends on error vector e.

iii) Calculate the syndromes for all possible error vectors e with Hamming
weight < = 1 and list them in a table. How can this be used to correct a single
bit error in an arbitrary position.

iv) What is the length and the dimension K of the code. Why can the minimum
Hamming distance dmin not be larger than three?

2. The generator matrix for a (6,3)block code is given below. Find all the Code word
of this Code.

1 0 0 0 1 1 
 
G = 0 1 0 1 0 1 
0 0 1 1 1 0 
 

## 3. Considering (7,4) Code defined by generator polynomial g(x)=1+x+x3

the codeword 0111001 is sent over a noisy Channel producing a received word
0101001 that has a single error. Determine Syndrome Polynomial S(x) and error
polynomial e(x).

4. For a (6,3) systematic linear block code, the three parity check bits c4,c5,c6 are
formed from the following equations MAY/JUNE 2007
C4 = d1+d3
C5 = d1+d2+d3
C6 = d1+d2

## i) Write down the generator matrix

ii) Construct all possible codewords
iii) Suppose that the received word is 01011.Decode this received word by
finding the location of the error and the transmitted data bits.

5. Consider a (7,4) cyclic code with generator polynomial g(x) = 1+x+x3 .Let data
d=(1010) . Find the corresponding systematic codeword. MAY/JUNE 2007

6. Consider the (7,4) Hamming code defined by the generator polynomial g(x)=1+x+x3
The codeword 1000101 is sent over a noisy channel producing the received word
0000101 that has a single error. Determine the syndrome polynomial s(x) for this
received word. Find its corresponding message vector m and express m in
polynomial m(x). NOV/DEC 2006

## 7. How is syndrome calculated in cyclic codes? NOV/DEC 2006

8. The SEC (7,4) Hamming code can be converted into a double error detecting and
single error correcting (8,4) code by using an extra parity check. Construct the
generator matrix for the code and also construct encoder and decoder for the code.
NOV/DEC 2007
9. A convolutional encoder has a single shift register with 2 stages, 3 modulo-2 adders
and an output multiplexer.The generator sequences of the encoder are as follows
g1(x)=(1,0,1) and g2(x)=(1,1,0) and g3(x)=(1,1,1).Draw (i) the block diagram of the
encoder, (ii) state diagram, and also explain the working principle of the encoder.
NOV/DEC 2007
10. Construct a Convolutional encoder for the following specifications:
Rate efficiency = ½, Constraint length = 4.
The connection from the shift registers to modulo-2 adders are described by the
following equations:

g1(x) = 1+x
g2(x) = x
Determine the output codeword for the input message 1110. APRIL/MAY 2008

11. Explain cyclic codes with its generator polynomial and parity check polynomial.
NOV/DEC 2008
12. Consider the (7,4) Hamming code with P = 1 1 0.Determine the codeword for

011
111
101
The message 0010. Suppose the codeword 1100010 is received.Determine if the
codeword is correct. If it is in error correct the error. NOV/DEC 2008