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PROJECT PROJECT

PROFILE PROFILE

PROJECT PROJECT PROFILE PROFILE
PROJECT PROJECT PROFILE PROFILE

97.313

First published 1990 ISBN 0 7210 1388 0

Price Group C © British Cement Association 1990

Published by the British Cement Association on behalf of the industry sponsors of the Reinforced Concrete Council.

British Cement Association Wexham Springs, Slough 5L3 6PL Telephone Fulmer (0753) 662727 Fax (0753)660399 Telex 848352

All advice or information from the British Cement Association is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitation of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted. Readers should note that all BCA publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.

S.T. Lillie C.T. Bryant HTC S. Waring M.E Southcott DipArch, RIBA BSc, MBA, MICE FOREWORD

S.T. Lillie

C.T. Bryant HTC

S. Waring

M.E Southcott

DipArch, RIBA

BSc, MBA, MICE

FOREWORD

This publication was commissioned by the Reinforced Concrete Council, which was set up to promote better knowledge and understanding of reinforced concrete design and building technology. Its members are Co-Steel Sheerness plc and Allied Steel and Wire, representing the major suppliers of reinforcing steel in the UK, and the British Cement Association, representing the major manufacturers of Portland Cement in the UK. Steve Lillie is Construction Manager for Byrne Brothers (Formwork) Ltd, the concrete frame contractor for The Harlequin, Watford Cliff Bryant is Senior Executive for Bovis Construction Limited, and was Project Director for construction on all phases of The Harlequin. Simon Waring is Associate Partner with Chapman Taylor and Partners and was the Architect for the project. Martin Southcott is Project Manager for the Reinforced Concrete Council.

CONTENTS

THE PROJECT

2

BUILDING

General Frame and foundations Cladding and finishes Services Building management system

3

SPECIFICATION

3

4

4

4

DESIGN

General Architecture Frame Services Building management system

4

5

6

7

8

CONSTRUCTION

General Substructure Superstructure Cladding and finishes

8

8

9

10

CAPITALIZING ON CONCRETE

11

APPENDIX

Project details

12

PROJECT

PROFILE

PROJECT PROFILE THE PROJECT The Harlequin in Watford was designed to increase and improve prime shopping

THE PROJECT

The Harlequin in Watford was designed to increase and improve prime shopping facilities in this well-established regional shopping town north of London. Developed on a ten-acre site in the town centre, the scheme is the largest and most significant development in Watford for

generations. At the time of building, it was the largest in- town retailing scheme under construction in the UK. By connecting into existing buildings, the development includes six key anchor stores, another 150 shop units of various sizes, a food court, and ample parking spaces linking directly into the malls.

It also takes full advantage of the nearby junction

between the Ml and the M25. A new motorway link road will connect this with the town’s inner ring road, which forms a boundary to the site. Among the physical and timing problems faced by the development team were:

a tight programme of phased completions, including

an early handover of building shells for fitting out

the relocation of an existing major department store in

a new building on the site, with no loss of trading

the complex geometry and sloping malls necessary to fit the development into an urban site

overall height and construction depth restrictions

the incorporation often existing listed buildings

providing adaptability during construction to meet future tenants’ needs.

during construction to meet future tenants’ needs. Concrete frames used throughout the project These problems

Concrete frames used throughout the project

These problems were overcome by using contignous concrete piles for the basement perimeter and in-situ

reinforced concrete for the superstructure. None of the other options considered, which included steel, could meet the design and cost constraints, nor the required flexibility and rate of construction. The Harlequin was constructed in five phases. The first three phases opened during 1990 and 1991 ahead of programme, and are trading well. The remaining two phases opened on programme in June 1992.

A total of 135 000 m 3 of concrete was used, with a

peak placement rate of 1800 m 3 per week.

PROJECT

BUILDING SPECIFICATION

General

With the dramatic increase in the number of shopping centres over recent years, the public has come to expect ever higher standards. They will not be disappointed with The Harlequin, as a glance at its principal features will show:

a total of 150 retail units, each between 500 and 15 000 sq ft, on two principal trading levels and providing over 700000 sq ft of retail space

a major 200 000 sq ft anchor store, Trewins (part of

the John Lewis Partnership), on four trading levels

full integration with the existing Marks & Spencer, Littlewoods and British Home Stores, and with the existing Charter Place shopping centre

over 2000 car parking spaces, on up to five levels above the malls, with three separate access ramps

four feature lifts, five standard lifts, and numerous escalators connecting malls and car parks

retail units serviced from a basement that incorporates

a lorry access route about 1 kin long, seven unloading

docks, and goods lifts servicing the rear access of nearly all units

seven major glazed atria over the malls and shops

a food court, with seven kiosks, catering for 450

environmentally-controlled malls with high quality finishes

ten listed buildings, some dating back to the 16th century, restored and incorporated into the development

public toilets, telephones, and child-minding and baby-changing facilities.

telephones, and child-minding and baby-changing facilities. The atrium in Trewins Frame and foundations The frame is

The atrium in Trewins

Frame and foundations

The frame is mostly in-situ reinforced concrete, with precast concrete floor soffit slabs acting compositely for later car park phases. Beam and slab construction was chosen for malls and for retail units, and flat slab for the Trewins store. Reinforced concrete transfer beams and

PROFILE

store. Reinforced concrete transfer beams and PROFILE One of the shopping malls The basement servicing of

One of the shopping malls

transfer beams and PROFILE One of the shopping malls The basement servicing of retail units Lifts

The basement

servicing of

retail units

Lifts and escalators connect upper and lower malls and give dirct access from car parks

servicing of retail units Lifts and escalators connect upper and lower malls and give dirct access
External materials are mostly traditional The terrazo floor has bright patterned borders Daylight has been
External materials are mostly traditional The terrazo floor has bright patterned borders Daylight has been

External materials are mostly traditional

The terrazo floor has bright patterned borders

traditional The terrazo floor has bright patterned borders Daylight has been introduced to the malls wherever
traditional The terrazo floor has bright patterned borders Daylight has been introduced to the malls wherever
traditional The terrazo floor has bright patterned borders Daylight has been introduced to the malls wherever

Daylight has been introduced to the malls wherever practical

slabs cater for changes in the column grid at basement level. The structure is supported by both bored and continuous-flight auger (CFA) piles founded in chalk. The floors are designed for imposed loadings ranging from 4.5 to 6.0 kN/m2.

Cladding and finishes

Exterior cladding is traditional, using stock brick with reconstructed stone copings and trims. These were chosen and detailed so that interior finishing could progress behind an independent inner blockwork leaf. In the malls, plain and patterned terrazzo floors, glazed metal balustrades, fibrous plaster bulkheads and ceilings, and painted concrete columns provide a simple foil to the retailers’ own decors. Fairfaced concrete is used extensively in the car parking areas, with painted soffits carrying light into the aisles and coloured metal grilles over openings.

Services

Partial air conditioning, regulated by internal and external sensors, creates a pleasant environment in the malls, with a design temperature of 23°C in summer and 16 C in winter. The retail units are provided with all normal services, including sprinklers, fire alarms, condenser water and an intercom system. Goods lifts connect the separate rear or side accesses of the units with one of the seven basement unloading docks. A high design priority was to provide daylight to the malls from the atria, supplemented by computer- controlled lighting to suit the season and time of day. Customers can circulate freely using a mixture of escalators, and standard and feature lifts, which link malls, adjacent stores, and car parks.

Building management system

Comprehensive building management systems, incor- porating closed-circuit TV, fire alarm, public address system and car park barrier controls, are housed in the basement control centre. There is a duplicate monitor located in the Management Suite, allowing 24 hour surveillance all year round.

Suite, allowing 24 hour surveillance all year round. General Urban shopping centres present their designers with

General

Urban shopping centres present their designers with a very special set of problems. Complex patterns of land ownership, conflicting architectural requirements, and subtle commercial pressures from a variety of sources, including those retailers connecting with the site, all have to be reconciled.

Architecture The site is bound on one long side by the inner ring road, and

Architecture

The site is bound on one long side by the inner ring road, and on the opposite side by the partly pedestrianized High Street, containing existing major retailers. It is also crossed by a pedestrianized shopping street. The northern end of the site connects with Charter Place, which has been refurbished by the local authority. Extended pedestrian routes, linking Charter Place with High Street along two new mall levels, integrate The Harlequin with existing shops. From its entrance on High Street, the main mall slopes gently upwards to link with the first floors of the existing High Street anchor stores, and with Charter Place. The lower mall connects the ground floors of Charter Place and the High Street stores, and leads into The Harlequin’s food court. Many shoppers will arrive by car, and three separate car parks provide direct access from the ring road to five levels of parking above the two shopping levels. Each car park has one primary point from where lifts, stairs and escalators give direct access into the malls. Despite the difficult site, particular care was taken to create bright and cheerful car parking, with clear spans where possible. In the last two phases, precast plank units were used to form voided slabs, with a smooth soffit for painting.

to form voided slabs, with a smooth soffit for painting. The site is contained within the

The site is contained within the ring road and the High Streetto form voided slabs, with a smooth soffit for painting. Bright and spacious carparking is a

site is contained within the ring road and the High Street Bright and spacious carparking is
site is contained within the ring road and the High Street Bright and spacious carparking is
site is contained within the ring road and the High Street Bright and spacious carparking is

Bright and spacious carparking is a feature of the scheme

A strong attraction of the scheme is the variety and interest in the malls, which have been designed as five separate but related spaces. The plan changes direction from space to space, and there is always something new and unseen around the corner. Simple ceilings in some areas contrast with vaulted glazing alongside the five-level car parks, and the gently sloping floors mirror the slopes of the street outside. Natural daylight and sunshine are brought deep into the malls through the high-level rooflighting and atrium glazing, and intense pools of artificial light eliminate dark comers. Softer artificial lighting takes over on winter afternoons and evenings. While the terrazzo floor has bright patterned borders, finishes in the malls are generally clean and simple, leaving retailers and their customers to provide bright colours and images.

and their customers to provide bright colours and images. UPPER MALL A typical section showing basement,
and their customers to provide bright colours and images. UPPER MALL A typical section showing basement,

UPPER MALLand their customers to provide bright colours and images. A typical section showing basement, shopping malls

customers to provide bright colours and images. UPPER MALL A typical section showing basement, shopping malls
customers to provide bright colours and images. UPPER MALL A typical section showing basement, shopping malls

A typical section showing basement, shopping malls and parking

The outer wall is interrupted so t h a t Trewins is visible from the

The outer wall is interrupted so that Trewins is visible from the outside

so t h a t Trewins is visible from the outside Finishes are clean and simple

Finishes are clean and simple allowing retailers to provide colour and interest

simple allowing retailers to provide colour and interest Lower mall showing typical column layout Introducing a
simple allowing retailers to provide colour and interest Lower mall showing typical column layout Introducing a
simple allowing retailers to provide colour and interest Lower mall showing typical column layout Introducing a

Lower mall showing typical column layout

Introducing a large new development into a traditional town poses many problems of scale and access. The scheme has two faces - an outside face onto the ring road, with access by car and viewed mainly from a distance or from passing vehicles, and an inside face viewed in detail by the pedestrian shopper. The outside wall, with shop service areas and car parking above, forms a physical barrier along the ring road. The wall is interrupted to allow Trewins and other major retailers to be visible from outside. On the inside, the building scale is reduced to two storeys of shopping within the malls. A group of existing grade II listed buildings on High Street has been renovated and refurbished, and integrated into the scheme. External materials are mostly traditional, to suit the preferences of both the Planning Authority and the client. Walls are built of stock bricks - several types are used across the scheme - with reconstructed stone tims and copings. The car parks are enclosed in brickwork, relieved by coloured metal grilles that give a distinctive pattern to the building, and the extensive atrium roofs are clad in green anti-sun glass to reduce glare.

Frame

In-situ reinforced concrete was chosen as the most appropriate material for the structural frame, being preferable to steelwork for a number of reasons. Headroom in the shop units was not generally critical, because the beams run along the lines of dividing walls. However, height restrictions in both the basement roadway and the upper-level car park areas called for a shallower overall floor depth than concrete slab and steel beam construction could provide. Overall height restric- tions made concrete flat slab construction the ideal choice for the four trading levels of the Trewins store. The unsymmetrical and non-repetitive geometry of the buildings, and the need for adaptability during construc- tion to meet eventual tenants’ requirements, also favoured in-situ reinforced concrete. Once consideration had been given to the implications of the ‘fast-track’ programme, in which the design and construction stages were to follow each other extremely closely, the decision to use concrete was no longer in doubt, because the lead-in times for structural steelwork would have been unacceptable. The lower mall or ground floor, constructed as a beam and slab, acts as a vast transition zone between the different column layouts of the wide traffic ways below and the shops and mall above. Structural steel would have required deeper sections, resulting in more excavation and increased retaining wall costs. This floor contains nominal additional amounts of reinforcement to provide both for temporary access for unloading heavy goods vehicles, and for the early removal of basement propping. This allowed work in the base- ment to proceed simultaneously with that on the upper levels.

Simply by altering the amount of concrete cover to the reinforcement, the fire resistance requirements

Simply by altering the amount of concrete cover to the reinforcement, the fire resistance requirements of four hours in the basement and two hours in the mall areas were immediately satisfied. No additional fire-cladding or spraying was necessary, as would have been the case with

a steelwork frame. This allowed other work in the

basement to continue without hindrance or risk of damage to any fire protection. Much use was made of screw-threaded reinforcement couplers for bar sizes up to 40 mm across

temporary structural interfaces. This enabled construction joints, even those through heavily reinforced beam sections, to be made cleanly across construction phase boundaries. Connections between in-situ walls and adjacent slabs and staircases were generally made using reinforcement continuity strips cast into the walls. These allowed unimpeded formwork to be used for vertical components

so that they could progress independently of horizontal

elements. Reinforcement hidden in the continuity strips was bent out to form starter bars after the formwork was struck. Continuity strips were also used around the peri- meter of temporary openings, such as those for materials access shafts and tower cranes. The resulting unobstructed openings were straightforward to fill in after use. In early phases, clear-span parking was achieved using reinforced concrete cast onto a trough slab system between downstand beams spanning 15 m. In phases four and five, the trough slab was changed to a voided slab, formed by precast concrete planks with integral void formers. These planks act as permanent formwork, presenting a cleaner soffit and speeding construction. In areas adjacent to the existing BHS and M&S stores, expensive propping of the perimeter contiguous pile wall was avoided by using ‘top-down’ construction. The lower mall slab was cast first and acted as a diaphragm restraint during excavation and construction of the

basement.

Services

Services provided include mall supply and extract systems, smoke extract, air handling units (AHUs), sprinklers, ventilation risers, hose reels, and an advanced fire alarm system linked to the local fire brigade. The distribution needs of management and tenants are met by the single-level basement serviced by nineteen 21-person goods lifts. Customers are provided with four high-speed glass-clad scenic lifts and five enclosed lifts, along with escalators to serve the lower and upper mall shopping areas, and car parks. Seven 11 kW sub-stations within the centre feed a network of five main switchrooms and numerous electrical risers. Major plant installations are situated at basement and roof levels. These house two chilled-plant/ pump rooms, AHU units and motor control centres.

pump rooms, AHU units and motor control centres. Construction proceeded on several levels simultaneously

Construction proceeded on several levels

simultaneously

Car park constructed using the trough slab system

Car park constructed using the trough slab system Later phases used precast concrete planks with polystyrene
Car park constructed using the trough slab system Later phases used precast concrete planks with polystyrene

Later phases used precast concrete planks with polystyrene void formers

used precast concrete planks with polystyrene void formers The precast planks resulted in a cleaner soffit

The precast planks resulted in a cleaner soffit and faster construction

7800
7800

In-situ RC beam

construction 7800 I n - s i t u R C b e a m Temporary

Temporary propping

I n - s i t u R C b e a m Temporary propping I

In-situ concrete,

Mesh

reinforcement,

Lattice

reinforcement,

c r e t e , Mesh reinforcement, Lattice reinforcement, 1 Voided slab construction ~---~““~---~+ Precast

1

Voided slab construction

~---~““~---~+ Precast unit 1200 )i
~---~““~---~+
Precast
unit
1200
)i
The basement control centre Curved profiles were easily achieved in concrete Retail units are provided

The basement

control centre

The basement control centre Curved profiles were easily achieved in concrete Retail units are provided with
The basement control centre Curved profiles were easily achieved in concrete Retail units are provided with

Curved profiles were easily achieved in concrete

centre Curved profiles were easily achieved in concrete Retail units are provided with connections for all

Retail units are provided with connections for all normal services, including sprinklers, fire alarm and condenser water, but not gas. Services are routed in the false ceilings of the malls and in the service corridors at the back of tenants’ units.

Building management system

A central control room in the basement uses sophisticated systems to control building management functions, plant monitoring, programming and maintenance, and the six car park barriers. Duplicate monitoring is provided in the centre’s Management Suite. Closed-circuit TV security for all internal and external areas is transmitted by radio signal. A fire alarm system is linked to life-saving and support systems, core pressurization (to protect escape routes from smoke), general plant and the public address system.

from smoke), general plant and the public address system. General The phasing of the scheme was

General

The phasing of the scheme was dictated by the need to

relocate the Trewins store within the site without loss of trade. Furthermore, the start date depended on the out- come of a compulsory purchase enquiry that delayed detailed design. Consequently, phases one to three were fast-track, with design information issued in stages just

ahead of construction. By phases four and five, design had pulled ahead and construction became truly fast-build. Recognizing the risks of such a complex project, the client chose the Management Contracting route. A number of construction features were adopted to improve buildability, many as a result of feedback to the design team from both the frame and management contractors. These included changes to restrictive specification clauses, such as those covering pour sizes,

mix design, striking times and surface finishes.

Safety and QA Schemes were introduced by the management contractor to ensure that standards were maintained despite the fast pace of construction. The frame contractor maintained uninterrupted winter working by electing to provide heated concrete, tenting, heated work areas, and insulation to fresh concrete, and by monitoring air and concrete temperatures during placing.

Substructure

The basement walls were formed by contiguous bored

piles, designed to be propped at the top by the lower mall

(ground floor) slab. However, in most areas the basement

was excavated before the slab was constructed, so a

variety of methods was used to cater for this temporary

condition, including:

additional pile reinforcement temporary support, using propping and anchor blocks, or cross-bracing ‘top-down’

additional pile reinforcement temporary support, using propping and anchor blocks, or cross-bracing ‘top-down’ basement construction, including methods devised by the frame contractor ground anchors. In one case all four methods were used within an area of only approximately 5000 m2. The piles were constructed by either conventional rotary boring or CFA rigs. Both these techniques were relatively quiet and vibration free, especially the CFA, which was used to particular advantage directly adjacent to existing buildings that were to be retained. The soil survey showed six metres of claybound hoggin lying over chalk of variable quality, with typical collapsed ‘solution features’,. formed by the passage of groundwater in the chalk, in several parts of the site. Reinforced concrete bored piles were particularly appropriate here, as they were relatively easy to adapt to the ground conditions revealed by ‘Frugo’ testing at each location. For speed, the lower mall slab was constructed directly after the basement pile caps. This removed the underground drainage and basement slab from the critical path and allowed them to be installed later under shelter. Piles were generally in economical groups of three, so that no bracing was required during top-down construction.

Superstructure

Most of the structural frame was in-situ reinforced concrete. The frame contractor used a variety of support systems and construction techniques, and a materials strategy designed to meet the short lead times and fast programme. At the peak some 3000 m2 of formwork were prepared per week. In the Trewins area, flat slabs were used to minimize construction depths, thus providing the necessary head- room over four trading levels and two operation floors. Elsewhere, with two trading levels, the relatively

high storey heights of the malls, and an irregular structure, a beam and slab system was found most suitable.

In general, a single 40 N/mm2 concrete mix,

suitable for pumping, was used to reduce striking times and simplify the ordering and supply of materials.

However, for special circumstances the contractor elected to use:

l

a 60 N/mm2 mix when falsework was to be struck in 48 hours

l

a superplasticized 40 N/mm2 mix with 10 mm aggregate in the heavily reinforced transfer slab

l

lightweight concrete for the mass fills forming the mall slopes.

A statistical analysis of cube strengths and

temperatures was used to justify early formwork striking without the need for specific cube results.

striking without the need for specific cube results. CFA piling was employed where noise and vibration
striking without the need for specific cube results. CFA piling was employed where noise and vibration

CFA piling was employed where noise and vibration were critical

piling was employed where noise and vibration were critical The varying ground conditions required an adaptable
piling was employed where noise and vibration were critical The varying ground conditions required an adaptable
piling was employed where noise and vibration were critical The varying ground conditions required an adaptable
piling was employed where noise and vibration were critical The varying ground conditions required an adaptable
piling was employed where noise and vibration were critical The varying ground conditions required an adaptable

The varying ground conditions

required an adaptable piling

strategy

A range of support systems and construction techniques was used throughout the contract

and construction techniques was used throughout the contract A single concrete mix, suitable for pumping, was

A single concrete mix, suitable for pumping, was used widely on the project

mix, suitable for pumping, was used widely on the project The transfer slab required a superplasticized
mix, suitable for pumping, was used widely on the project The transfer slab required a superplasticized

The

transfer slab required a superplasticized mix with 10mm of aggregate

heavily reinforced

Access routes had to be kept open throughout the contract U Crane layout A high

Access routes had to be kept open throughout

the

contract

Access routes had to be kept open throughout the contract U Crane layout A high standard
Access routes had to be kept open throughout the contract U Crane layout A high standard
Access routes had to be kept open throughout the contract U Crane layout A high standard
U
U

Crane layout

had to be kept open throughout the contract U Crane layout A high standard of fairface

A high standard of fairface work allowed direct decoration of carparks

of fairface work allowed direct decoration of carparks Internal blockwork proceeded independently of the brick

Internal blockwork proceeded independently of the brick outer skin

Two resident mobile pumps and one static pump - occasionally relocated - placed all horizontal concrete, whilst vertically elements were served by skip from tower cranes. Exterior scaffolding was avoided by extending the soffit forms beyond the building line, with special hand- rail and toeboard brackets attached. In addition, bolt-on cantilever bracket assemblies were used to ‘leap-frog’ up the concrete exterior elevations. This led to considerable time and cost savings and increased worker safety. The frame contractor was regularly among the leaders of the project’s safety league. The falsework had to provide access, not only for retail traffic routes that had to be kept open during construction, but also for the extensive construction traffic serving the different construction phases. Measures taken included the use of proprietary bridge units and phased construction with early formwork striking. The complex phasing of the works was satisfied by the extensive use of reinforcement couplers and continuity strips. These also allowed the complicated core construction to advance in shell form ahead of floor slabs, stairs and dividing walls in the lift shafts, thus taking these elements off the critical path and enabling floor cycle times to be considerably reduced. Other ‘buildability’ changes, designed to speed up construction and increase cost effectiveness, included:

providing additional reinforcement in certain locations, to obviate the need for backpropping where early access was required re-detailing wall and column reinforcement to suit construction sequences, geared to a reduced alternative programme approving larger concrete pours and standardizing slab finishes. All standard staircases were precast, ensuring high quality and safe, early access for following trades. A particularly high standard of finish was demanded in many areas where direct decoration of the concrete was specified, to reduce the need for wet trades and to speed internal finishing. Extensive fairface work included car parks, access ramps and external parapets.

Cladding and finishes

Some three million bricks were laid in the external walls. These were designed to be self-supporting from their base and were constructed full height, with only wall ties connecting them to the structural frame. Thus internal blockwork could proceed independently of the cladding, providing a sheltered environment for finishes and services. This design also avoided the problems usually associated with nibs or bolted-on support angles. The steel atria rooflights were supported at high level off the concrete frame. Access for construction was provided by temporary., weatherproof decking,

allowing finishes to proceed at the same time as the roof construction. Throughout the project,

allowing finishes to proceed at the same time as the roof construction. Throughout the project, construction was made easier by realistic tolerances and finishes, set to suit the particular situation, ranging from direct finishes and fairface concrete, to less critical concrete hidden by finishes supported on adjustable brackets.

e n b y finishes supported on adjustable brackets. This brief examination shows The Harlequin to

This brief examination shows The Harlequin to have been a large and complex project with a number of challenging design and construction requirements, such as fast-track, fast-build, and critical phasing. Yet throughout the project, careful teamwork fully exploited the advantages of concrete to minimize the impact of any problems. By specifying reinforced concrete as the main structural material, the development team ensured:

Flexibility of

l

form to suit a complex site geometry tying-in with existing structures

l

structural type, materials and construction methods to accommodate difficult phasing and access

l

details to suit a design evolving and adapting to the needs of architects, tenants and services

l piling to cater for unpredictable ground conditions. Fast-track and fast-build capability with

minimal lead times allowing a fast start, and construction to follow close behind design

simple, reliable methods to remove cores and walls from the critical path

l direct finishes and inherent fire proofing to speed following trades. Buildability through

close liaison between designers and the management and frame contractors, ensuring early feedback

the frame contractor electing to use additional materials and more expensive methods, resulting in quicker construction and additional safety

l

l

l

l

l the willingness of the designers to alter restrictive specification clauses to speed the work without compromising quality. Low construction depth

l in car park ramps, Trewins’ four trading floors and the massive ground floor transfer structure above the basement. This minimized excavation and height of structure, and maximized space. Inherent fire resistance a easily achieving up to a four hour rating in a robust and immediate form. By making full use of these advantages, it is not surprising that all phases -of the development were constructed on, or ahead of programme, within budget and with a quality exceeding all expectations.

Excavation in progress- October 1988

all expectations. Excavation in progress- October 1988 Frame for Phase 1 completed, Phase 2 in progress
all expectations. Excavation in progress- October 1988 Frame for Phase 1 completed, Phase 2 in progress
all expectations. Excavation in progress- October 1988 Frame for Phase 1 completed, Phase 2 in progress

Frame for Phase 1 completed, Phase 2 in progress - June 1989

for Phase 1 completed, Phase 2 in progress - June 1989 Phase 5. Frame nearing completion

Phase 5. Frame nearing completion - September 1991, and

Phase 5. Frame nearing completion - September 1991, and The final phases of The Harlequin were
Phase 5. Frame nearing completion - September 1991, and The final phases of The Harlequin were

The final phases of

The Harlequin were formally

1992

opened on 16 June

Frame nearing completion - September 1991, and The final phases of The Harlequin were formally 1992
A P P E N D I X Co-developers Capital & Counties Sun Alliance Group

A

P

P

E

N

D

I

X

A P P E N D I X Co-developers Capital & Counties Sun Alliance Group Properties

Co-developers

Capital & Counties Sun Alliance Group Properties Watford Borough Council

Management contractor

Bovis Construction Limited

Architect

Chapman Taylor Partners

Structural engineer

Clarke Nicholls & Marcel

Services engineer

How Engineering Services (Midland)

Frame and substructure contractor

Byrne Brothers (Formwork) Limited

Quantity surveyor

Cyril Sweet and Partners

Limited Quantity surveyor Cyril Sweet and Partners The phases are shown on page 2   Gross
Limited Quantity surveyor Cyril Sweet and Partners The phases are shown on page 2   Gross

The phases are shown on page 2

Cyril Sweet and Partners The phases are shown on page 2   Gross floor area 184
 

Gross floor area

184 000 m*

Car park area

 

7 0 50 0 m*

 

Net lettable area

8 0 000 m2

Maximum number of storeys

6

  £/m2 % Piling 23.92 3 . 8 Substructure 55.76 8 . 7 Frame 180.48
  £/m2 % Piling 23.92 3 . 8 Substructure 55.76 8 . 7 Frame 180.48
 

£/m2

%

Piling

23.92

3.8

Substructure

55.76

8.7

Frame

180.48

28.2

M&E

141.91

22.3

Cladding and roofing

78.88

12.3

Finishes

83.48

13.1

External works

10.21

1.6

Sundries

62.66

9.8

TOTALS

637.30

100.0

62.66 9.8 TOTALS 637.30 1 0 0 . 0 Start September 1988 Finish Tune 1992 Duration
62.66 9.8 TOTALS 637.30 1 0 0 . 0 Start September 1988 Finish Tune 1992 Duration

Start

September 1988

Finish

Tune 1992

Duration - phased over

45 months

1992 Duration - phased over 4 5 m o n t h s 0 Roof-top parking
0
0

Roof-top

parking

High-level glazing

0

m o n t h s 0 Roof-top parking High-level glazing 0 S h o p

Shopping

Trewins

malls

cl Stores and shops

l l s c l S t o r e s a n d s h

Lorry access road

c l S t o r e s a n d s h o p s

Loading docks, storage, plant rooms, workshop

PROJECT PROFILE: THE HARLEQUIN, WATFORD

S.T. Lillie, CT. Bryant, S. Waring and M.F. Southcott

BRITISH CEMENT ASSOCIATION PUBLICATION ‘97.328

Bryant, S. Waring and M.F. Southcott BRITISH CEMENT ASSOCIATION PUBLICATION ‘97.328 con@rete CI/SfB I UDC 693.95:725.26

con@rete

CI/SfB

I

UDC

693.95:725.26