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ANSYS/Multiphysics FSI

with Applications
Mark Troscinski
Multiphysics Product Manager

Presented By:

David Ellis
Idac Ltd

FE-Net Industry Co-ordinator for


Consumer Goods

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Agenda/Objectives
• Answer some questions:
–What is Multiphysics?
–What is FSI?
• Describe benefits of new ANSYS
FSI capability
• Illustrate some interesting FSI
applications

What is Multiphysics?

Multiphysics - The ability to


combine the effects of two or more
different, yet interrelated physical
phenomena, within one, unified
simulation environment.

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Multiphysics Coupling

Heat
Electricity
Transfer

Solid
Mechanics

Fluid
Magnetism
Mechanics

Multiphysics Coupling

Heat Solid
Transfer Mechanics

• Thermal-Structural Coupling
– Engines, Gas Turbines, Heat Exchangers
– Electronic Components, Solder Joints
– Cryogenic components and systems
• Needed for any product subjected to
extreme changes in temperature.

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Multiphysics Coupling

Heat
Electricity
Transfer

• Thermal-Electric Coupling
– Current-carrying conductors, bus bars
– Electric motors, generators, transformers
– Electronic components and systems
• Needed for electric power handling
components and systems.

Multiphysics Coupling

Electricity Magnetism

• Low-Frequency Electromagnetics
– Motors, generators, induction coils
• High-Frequency Electromagnetics
– Waveguides, patch antennas, radar systems,
microwave systems

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Multiphysics Coupling

Heat Electro-
Transfer magnetics

• Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling
– Induction heating systems
– Microwave heating systems
• Used in many manufacturing processes:
– Heat treating
– Pre-heating for metal forming operations

Multiphysics Coupling

Fluid Electro-
Mechanics magnetics

• Fluid-Electromagnetic Coupling
– Induction furnaces for stirring molten metals
• Used by induction furnace manufacturers
– Environment too harsh to easily observe stirring
patterns

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Multiphysics Coupling

Solid
Electricity
Mechanics

• Electrostatic-Structural Coupling
– Comb drives, torsional resonators
– Other MEMS devices
• Piezoelectrics
– Transducers, microphones, micropumps
– Inkjet printer actuation systems

Multiphysics Coupling

Electro- Solid
magnetics Mechanics

• Magneto-Structural Coupling
– Solenoid devices, stepper motors
– Alternators, generators
• Used by engineers to determine:
– Magnetic force (linear systems)
– Magnetic torque (rotary systems)
– Efficiency

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Multiphysics Coupling

Fluid Solid
Mechanics Mechanics

• Inviscid Fluid-Structural Coupling


– Acoustics-based applications
– Transportation NVH, undersea noise detection
• Viscous Fluid-Structural Coupling
– CFD-based applications
– Fuel injectors, control valves, fans, and pumps
– More, more, and still more!

What is CFD?
• Numerical analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer, and
related phenomena
• Within each finite element, the Navier-Stokes
equations are rewritten as algebraic equations
that relate nodal:
– Velocity
– Pressure
– Temperature
– Species concentrations
… to the values in the neighboring elements.
• Equations are assembled in matrices and solved
to yield complete picture of flow down to
resolution of mesh

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CFD Equations
• Conservation of Mass
– Continuity
• Conservation of Momentum
– Newton’s 2nd Law
• Conservation of Energy
– 1st Law of Thermodynamics
• Conservation of Species Concentration

CFD Elements

• 2D: Fluid141
– Quadrilaterals
– Triangles
• 3D: Fluid142
– Hexahedrals or bricks
– Tetrahedrals or tets
– Pyramids
– Prisms

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CFD Flow Descriptions
• Eulerian
– Focus on fixed volume of space, where fluid
enters and leaves
• Lagrangian
– Focus on particular fluid region which moves
relative to a fixed point of reference
• Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)
– Boundary of fluid region moves at arbitrary
velocity (something other than fluid velocity)
– FSI’s dynamic mesh motion scheme

What is FSI?
In reality, it’s Fluid-Solid Interaction!

Fluid
Mechanics

Heat Solid Coupled-


Transfer Mechanics Field

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How is FSI done?

Numerical coupling is
established between the
different “physics” modules

Multiphysics Math
The finite element formulation which treats
a single phenomenon uses matrix
algebra represented by:

[K]{X} = {F}

where [ K ] is the coefficient matrix


{ X } is the vector of nodal unknowns
{ F } is the known load vector

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Matrix Coupling

[ [K11] [K12]
[K21] [K22] ]{ } { }
[X1]
[X2]
=
[F1]
[F2]

• Subscript 1 represents fluid; Subscript 2 is


solid
• Coupled effects are accounted for by off-
diagonal coefficient terms K12 and K21
• Provides for coupled response in solution
after one iteration.

Matrix-Coupled FSI
• Positives:
– Solution of a coupled equation system
achieved in a single step
• Negatives:
– Requires complete re-writing of the fluid and
solid solvers (must develop new FSI elements)
– Matrix system tends to be very ill-conditioned
due to difference in “stiffness” of fluid and the
solid regions
– Large problems become computationally
expensive

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Load Vector Coupling

[ [K11] [ 0 ]
[ 0 ] [K22] ]{ } { }
[X1]
[X2]
=
[F1]
[F2]

• Subscript 1 represents fluid; Subscript 2 is


solid
• Coupled effects are accounted for by load
terms F1 and F2
• At least two iterations, one for each physics,
in sequence, are needed to achieve a
coupled response.

Load Vector-Coupled FSI


• Fluid and solid variables are updated
sequentially with independent fluid and solid
solver algorithms
• At each “FSI” time step, appropriate loads
are exchanged at the fluid-solid interface
• Positives:
– Not required to re-write fluid and solid solvers
– Able to leverage main features of each solver
– More economical for large scale problems

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ANSYS FSI Initiative
• Tightly integrate FLOTRAN CFD &
ANSYS solid solvers into a load
vector-coupled FSI algorithm that
is:
–Fully-automated
–Time-accurate
–Easy to use
• Leverage ANSYS/Mechanical core
capabilities

FSI Algorithm Benefits


• Fully-automated, time-accurate FSI
solution algorithm for:
– Fluid-structure interaction
– Fluid-thermal interaction
– Fluid-thermal-electric interaction
– Fluid-piezoelectric interaction
• Why?
→ For simulations closest to reality!

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FSI Algorithm Benefits
• Full support for all structural
nonlinearities:
– Geometric, material, and contact
• Dissimilar mesh interface:
– Automatically transfers loads between
differently meshed fluid and solid regions
• Support for beam, shell, and solid
elements:
– With or without mid-side nodes

FSI Algorithm Benefits


• Fully-implicit time-stepping scheme:
– Automatically checks convergence of all
relevant physics at each time step before
advancing in time
– Allows for independent time step sizes for
fluid and solid physics (sub-cycling)
– Provides for the most efficient, time-
accurate solutions

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FSI Algorithm Benefits
• FLOTRAN Element Birth and Death:
– Suitable for FSI problems involving
contact between immersed, moving
structures
– Fluid elements may be automatically
deactivated as surfaces come into
contact (e.g., valve closes), or reactivated
as they separate (e.g., valve opens)

FSI Algorithm Layout


Global Time Loop

Stagger Loop ANSYS FLUID


• FLOTRAN 2D/3D Elements
ALE Mesh Morph • Extensive CFD Capabilities
• ALE Formulation
Fluid Solution
• Elasticity-Based Mesh Morphing
Load Transfer

Solid Solution
Load Transfer ANSYS SOLID
• Structural/Thermal/Coupled-Field
Convergence Check • Geometric Non-Linearity
• Material Non-Linearity
End Stagger Loop • Contact Non-Linearity
• All Iterative and Direct Solvers
Increment Time • All Transient Solver Options

End Global Time Loop

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Load Transfer
From FLUID side From SOLID side

Conservative Interpolation Nodal displacements: UX, UY, UZ


Nodal forces: FX, FY, FZ Nodal temperatures: TEMP
Nodal heat rates: Q Nodal velocities: VX, VY, VZ

Non-Conservative Interpolation
Nodal force fluxes: FX”, FY”, FZ”
Nodal heat fluxes: Q”

Interpolation between dissimilar meshes

GST for FSI

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Applications
• Truly applicable across all market
segments:
– Automotive fuel injectors, control valves, engine
dampers, fans & pumps
– Aerospace airframe and propulsion system
components
– Flexible flow control devices, biomedical
vessels and valves for blood flow
– Flow-induced vibration of piping systems and
heat exchangers
– Diaper manufacturing processes, paper copy
machines
– More, more, and still more!

Deformable Flow Control Device

Under
low ∆P

Under
high ∆P

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So What?
• Vernay Labs currently designs these
devices by “seat of pants” method:
– Guess at shape to get right flow control
characteristics
– Build and test, build and test, …
• They have no automated process in place
for designing these FSI-type devices.
• ANSYS/Multiphysics can significantly
reduce their overall time to market.

Problem Description
• Fluid:
– Incompressible, turbulent water flow
– Prescribed inlet-to-outlet ∆P = 45 PSI
• Solid:
– Hyperelastic, high strain (>100%) materials
– Treated with Mooney-Rivlin model
• Simulation objective:
– Determine steady-state shape of solid and
accompanying steady-state fluid flow rate

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Axisymmetric Model

CONTA172’s TARGE169’s

Rubber -
PLANE183’s

Water - FLUID141’s

Finite Element Mesh

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FSI BC – on Fluid

FSI BC – on Solid

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FSI Results

Diesel Fuel Injection


Problem Statement:
Given plunger cavity
pressure as f(time),
what is the total mass Actuation force
flow to the leakage
collection groove?

Steels
E = 206.8 GPa
ν = 0.29
18.36 mm

Leakage collection groove


Drain pressure => 100 kPa

Radial clearance = 2.15 microns


15.77 mm
seal length 41 mm barrel diameter

8.5 mm plunger diameter

9.87 mm P(t) input (next page)


Plunger Cavity

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So What?
• Fuel injector leakage:
– Unavoidable parasitic loss
– Adversely affects system efficiency - Must be
minimized!
– Current predictions grossly underestimate
measured leakage volumes
• Caterpillar has NO automated method of
predicting leakage rates.
• Tiny gains in system efficiency would
provide tremendous advantage over their
competitors

Plunger Cavity Pressure


2.5E+08

2.0E+08 Fluid Properties:


Relative Static Pressure (Pa)

Fuel type: CAT1E262


Temperature: 85C
Kinematic Viscosity:
1.5E+08 1.171074E-06 m^2/sec
Density: 809 kg/m^3 @
101Kpa
1.0E+08 Bulk Modulus: 1171698
kpa @ 0 kpa
Bulk modulus Slope:
10.82775
5.0E+07 (i.e. bulk modulus =
1171698 + 10.82775*P

0.0E+00
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012
Time (sec)

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Model Geometry

Plunger

Barrel
Cavity

Model Geometry

10º Chamfer

Leakage Inlet

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Model Geometry

Finite Element Mesh

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Boundary Conditions
UY=0 P=0 UY=0

VX=0
VY=0
UX=0

FSI(1) FSI(2)

P(t)

UY=0

FSI Results
500X Displacements

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Leakage Flow Rates
FSI CFD
6.00

5.00
Mass Flow Rate (gm/sec)

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012
Time (sec)

LEAKAGEFSI / LEAKAGECFD = 12.0!

Pressure-Limiting Valve
Spring constant:
kspring = 8.0E+05 gm/sec^2
Spring preload:
Fpreload = 2.5E+06 gm*mm/sec^2
Ø 4.5 mm
Ball density:
ρball = 7.8E-03 gm/mm^3
Fluid density:
ρfluid = 7.5E-04 gm/mm^3
Fluid viscosity: Ø 4.0 mm 55º
µfluid = 4.0E-04 gm/(mm*sec) 0.25
mm
Relative inlet pressure:
Pinlet = 6.0E+05 Pa Ø 2.4 mm

Ø 10.0 mm

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So What?
• Pressure-limiting valves are used in anti-
lock brake systems
– Huge liability ramifications
• Per VDO, tiny geometric design changes
cause wide variations in valve response
and performance
• Currently guessing on new valve designs
• Automated FSI tool will significantly reduce
overall time to market and improve reliability

Axisymmetric Model

COMBIN14

SOLID42’s
FLUID141’s

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Finite Element Mesh

Mesh Detail

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Mesh Detail

FSI Results

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Ball Displacement History

f ≈ 875 Hz

Office Copier FSI


Paper Sheet:
Thickness: 0.0092 in
Length: 8.0 in
Width: 11.0 in
Curl Radius: 20.0 in
Weight: 0.000294# / in2 Vacuum hole:
Elastic Modulus: 500,000 PSI Width: 1/8 in

2 in 8 in

Plenum Outlet:
∆P: 3.0 in H 2O

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FSI Results

Ink Jet Printer

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Piezoelectric Micropump

PZT Layer
± 500 V Silicon
Membrane

Air

~ 3 mm

FSI Results

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Pulsing Blood Flow
Fluid element: 142’s
Solid element: 45’s
Dissimilar mesh interface

Material Properties
Solid density: 1150 kg/m^3
Young’s modulus: 3.0*10^5 Pa
Poisson ratio: 0.3

Fluid density: 1050 kg/m^3


Fluid viscosity: 4.0*10^-3

Inlet pressure pulse

FSI Results

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Vortex Shedding – Re = 100

Vortex Shedding – With Tail

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VX = 20 mph; VY = ± 5 mph

Summary
• ANSYS FSI solution capability:
– Easy to use, fully automated, time-accurate
– Full support for all structural nonlinearities
– Dissimilar mesh interface for beam, shell and
solid elements, with or without mid-side nodes
• Future developments:
– Add automatic re-meshing capability
– Add nth physics to stagger loop
– Enhance FSI post-processing
– Add AMG parallel solver

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Thank You!

Any Questions?

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