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with Applications

Mark Troscinski

Multiphysics Product Manager

Presented By:

David Ellis

Idac Ltd

Consumer Goods

1

Agenda/Objectives

• Answer some questions:

–What is Multiphysics?

–What is FSI?

• Describe benefits of new ANSYS

FSI capability

• Illustrate some interesting FSI

applications

What is Multiphysics?

combine the effects of two or more

different, yet interrelated physical

phenomena, within one, unified

simulation environment.

2

Multiphysics Coupling

Heat

Electricity

Transfer

Solid

Mechanics

Fluid

Magnetism

Mechanics

Multiphysics Coupling

Heat Solid

Transfer Mechanics

• Thermal-Structural Coupling

– Engines, Gas Turbines, Heat Exchangers

– Electronic Components, Solder Joints

– Cryogenic components and systems

• Needed for any product subjected to

extreme changes in temperature.

3

Multiphysics Coupling

Heat

Electricity

Transfer

• Thermal-Electric Coupling

– Current-carrying conductors, bus bars

– Electric motors, generators, transformers

– Electronic components and systems

• Needed for electric power handling

components and systems.

Multiphysics Coupling

Electricity Magnetism

• Low-Frequency Electromagnetics

– Motors, generators, induction coils

• High-Frequency Electromagnetics

– Waveguides, patch antennas, radar systems,

microwave systems

4

Multiphysics Coupling

Heat Electro-

Transfer magnetics

• Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling

– Induction heating systems

– Microwave heating systems

• Used in many manufacturing processes:

– Heat treating

– Pre-heating for metal forming operations

Multiphysics Coupling

Fluid Electro-

Mechanics magnetics

• Fluid-Electromagnetic Coupling

– Induction furnaces for stirring molten metals

• Used by induction furnace manufacturers

– Environment too harsh to easily observe stirring

patterns

5

Multiphysics Coupling

Solid

Electricity

Mechanics

• Electrostatic-Structural Coupling

– Comb drives, torsional resonators

– Other MEMS devices

• Piezoelectrics

– Transducers, microphones, micropumps

– Inkjet printer actuation systems

Multiphysics Coupling

Electro- Solid

magnetics Mechanics

• Magneto-Structural Coupling

– Solenoid devices, stepper motors

– Alternators, generators

• Used by engineers to determine:

– Magnetic force (linear systems)

– Magnetic torque (rotary systems)

– Efficiency

6

Multiphysics Coupling

Fluid Solid

Mechanics Mechanics

– Acoustics-based applications

– Transportation NVH, undersea noise detection

• Viscous Fluid-Structural Coupling

– CFD-based applications

– Fuel injectors, control valves, fans, and pumps

– More, more, and still more!

What is CFD?

• Numerical analysis of fluid flow, heat transfer, and

related phenomena

• Within each finite element, the Navier-Stokes

equations are rewritten as algebraic equations

that relate nodal:

– Velocity

– Pressure

– Temperature

– Species concentrations

… to the values in the neighboring elements.

• Equations are assembled in matrices and solved

to yield complete picture of flow down to

resolution of mesh

7

CFD Equations

• Conservation of Mass

– Continuity

• Conservation of Momentum

– Newton’s 2nd Law

• Conservation of Energy

– 1st Law of Thermodynamics

• Conservation of Species Concentration

CFD Elements

• 2D: Fluid141

– Quadrilaterals

– Triangles

• 3D: Fluid142

– Hexahedrals or bricks

– Tetrahedrals or tets

– Pyramids

– Prisms

8

CFD Flow Descriptions

• Eulerian

– Focus on fixed volume of space, where fluid

enters and leaves

• Lagrangian

– Focus on particular fluid region which moves

relative to a fixed point of reference

• Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)

– Boundary of fluid region moves at arbitrary

velocity (something other than fluid velocity)

– FSI’s dynamic mesh motion scheme

What is FSI?

In reality, it’s Fluid-Solid Interaction!

Fluid

Mechanics

Transfer Mechanics Field

9

How is FSI done?

Numerical coupling is

established between the

different “physics” modules

Multiphysics Math

The finite element formulation which treats

a single phenomenon uses matrix

algebra represented by:

[K]{X} = {F}

{ X } is the vector of nodal unknowns

{ F } is the known load vector

10

Matrix Coupling

[ [K11] [K12]

[K21] [K22] ]{ } { }

[X1]

[X2]

=

[F1]

[F2]

solid

• Coupled effects are accounted for by off-

diagonal coefficient terms K12 and K21

• Provides for coupled response in solution

after one iteration.

Matrix-Coupled FSI

• Positives:

– Solution of a coupled equation system

achieved in a single step

• Negatives:

– Requires complete re-writing of the fluid and

solid solvers (must develop new FSI elements)

– Matrix system tends to be very ill-conditioned

due to difference in “stiffness” of fluid and the

solid regions

– Large problems become computationally

expensive

11

Load Vector Coupling

[ [K11] [ 0 ]

[ 0 ] [K22] ]{ } { }

[X1]

[X2]

=

[F1]

[F2]

solid

• Coupled effects are accounted for by load

terms F1 and F2

• At least two iterations, one for each physics,

in sequence, are needed to achieve a

coupled response.

• Fluid and solid variables are updated

sequentially with independent fluid and solid

solver algorithms

• At each “FSI” time step, appropriate loads

are exchanged at the fluid-solid interface

• Positives:

– Not required to re-write fluid and solid solvers

– Able to leverage main features of each solver

– More economical for large scale problems

12

ANSYS FSI Initiative

• Tightly integrate FLOTRAN CFD &

ANSYS solid solvers into a load

vector-coupled FSI algorithm that

is:

–Fully-automated

–Time-accurate

–Easy to use

• Leverage ANSYS/Mechanical core

capabilities

• Fully-automated, time-accurate FSI

solution algorithm for:

– Fluid-structure interaction

– Fluid-thermal interaction

– Fluid-thermal-electric interaction

– Fluid-piezoelectric interaction

• Why?

→ For simulations closest to reality!

13

FSI Algorithm Benefits

• Full support for all structural

nonlinearities:

– Geometric, material, and contact

• Dissimilar mesh interface:

– Automatically transfers loads between

differently meshed fluid and solid regions

• Support for beam, shell, and solid

elements:

– With or without mid-side nodes

• Fully-implicit time-stepping scheme:

– Automatically checks convergence of all

relevant physics at each time step before

advancing in time

– Allows for independent time step sizes for

fluid and solid physics (sub-cycling)

– Provides for the most efficient, time-

accurate solutions

14

FSI Algorithm Benefits

• FLOTRAN Element Birth and Death:

– Suitable for FSI problems involving

contact between immersed, moving

structures

– Fluid elements may be automatically

deactivated as surfaces come into

contact (e.g., valve closes), or reactivated

as they separate (e.g., valve opens)

Global Time Loop

• FLOTRAN 2D/3D Elements

ALE Mesh Morph • Extensive CFD Capabilities

• ALE Formulation

Fluid Solution

• Elasticity-Based Mesh Morphing

Load Transfer

Solid Solution

Load Transfer ANSYS SOLID

• Structural/Thermal/Coupled-Field

Convergence Check • Geometric Non-Linearity

• Material Non-Linearity

End Stagger Loop • Contact Non-Linearity

• All Iterative and Direct Solvers

Increment Time • All Transient Solver Options

15

Load Transfer

From FLUID side From SOLID side

Nodal forces: FX, FY, FZ Nodal temperatures: TEMP

Nodal heat rates: Q Nodal velocities: VX, VY, VZ

Non-Conservative Interpolation

Nodal force fluxes: FX”, FY”, FZ”

Nodal heat fluxes: Q”

16

Applications

• Truly applicable across all market

segments:

– Automotive fuel injectors, control valves, engine

dampers, fans & pumps

– Aerospace airframe and propulsion system

components

– Flexible flow control devices, biomedical

vessels and valves for blood flow

– Flow-induced vibration of piping systems and

heat exchangers

– Diaper manufacturing processes, paper copy

machines

– More, more, and still more!

Under

low ∆P

Under

high ∆P

17

So What?

• Vernay Labs currently designs these

devices by “seat of pants” method:

– Guess at shape to get right flow control

characteristics

– Build and test, build and test, …

• They have no automated process in place

for designing these FSI-type devices.

• ANSYS/Multiphysics can significantly

reduce their overall time to market.

Problem Description

• Fluid:

– Incompressible, turbulent water flow

– Prescribed inlet-to-outlet ∆P = 45 PSI

• Solid:

– Hyperelastic, high strain (>100%) materials

– Treated with Mooney-Rivlin model

• Simulation objective:

– Determine steady-state shape of solid and

accompanying steady-state fluid flow rate

18

Axisymmetric Model

CONTA172’s TARGE169’s

Rubber -

PLANE183’s

Water - FLUID141’s

19

FSI BC – on Fluid

FSI BC – on Solid

20

FSI Results

Problem Statement:

Given plunger cavity

pressure as f(time),

what is the total mass Actuation force

flow to the leakage

collection groove?

Steels

E = 206.8 GPa

ν = 0.29

18.36 mm

Drain pressure => 100 kPa

15.77 mm

seal length 41 mm barrel diameter

Plunger Cavity

21

So What?

• Fuel injector leakage:

– Unavoidable parasitic loss

– Adversely affects system efficiency - Must be

minimized!

– Current predictions grossly underestimate

measured leakage volumes

• Caterpillar has NO automated method of

predicting leakage rates.

• Tiny gains in system efficiency would

provide tremendous advantage over their

competitors

2.5E+08

Relative Static Pressure (Pa)

Temperature: 85C

Kinematic Viscosity:

1.5E+08 1.171074E-06 m^2/sec

Density: 809 kg/m^3 @

101Kpa

1.0E+08 Bulk Modulus: 1171698

kpa @ 0 kpa

Bulk modulus Slope:

10.82775

5.0E+07 (i.e. bulk modulus =

1171698 + 10.82775*P

0.0E+00

0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012

Time (sec)

22

Model Geometry

Plunger

Barrel

Cavity

Model Geometry

10º Chamfer

Leakage Inlet

23

Model Geometry

24

Boundary Conditions

UY=0 P=0 UY=0

VX=0

VY=0

UX=0

FSI(1) FSI(2)

P(t)

UY=0

FSI Results

500X Displacements

25

Leakage Flow Rates

FSI CFD

6.00

5.00

Mass Flow Rate (gm/sec)

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 0.012

Time (sec)

Pressure-Limiting Valve

Spring constant:

kspring = 8.0E+05 gm/sec^2

Spring preload:

Fpreload = 2.5E+06 gm*mm/sec^2

Ø 4.5 mm

Ball density:

ρball = 7.8E-03 gm/mm^3

Fluid density:

ρfluid = 7.5E-04 gm/mm^3

Fluid viscosity: Ø 4.0 mm 55º

µfluid = 4.0E-04 gm/(mm*sec) 0.25

mm

Relative inlet pressure:

Pinlet = 6.0E+05 Pa Ø 2.4 mm

Ø 10.0 mm

26

So What?

• Pressure-limiting valves are used in anti-

lock brake systems

– Huge liability ramifications

• Per VDO, tiny geometric design changes

cause wide variations in valve response

and performance

• Currently guessing on new valve designs

• Automated FSI tool will significantly reduce

overall time to market and improve reliability

Axisymmetric Model

COMBIN14

SOLID42’s

FLUID141’s

27

Finite Element Mesh

Mesh Detail

28

Mesh Detail

FSI Results

29

Ball Displacement History

f ≈ 875 Hz

Paper Sheet:

Thickness: 0.0092 in

Length: 8.0 in

Width: 11.0 in

Curl Radius: 20.0 in

Weight: 0.000294# / in2 Vacuum hole:

Elastic Modulus: 500,000 PSI Width: 1/8 in

2 in 8 in

Plenum Outlet:

∆P: 3.0 in H 2O

30

FSI Results

31

Piezoelectric Micropump

PZT Layer

± 500 V Silicon

Membrane

Air

~ 3 mm

FSI Results

32

Pulsing Blood Flow

Fluid element: 142’s

Solid element: 45’s

Dissimilar mesh interface

Material Properties

Solid density: 1150 kg/m^3

Young’s modulus: 3.0*10^5 Pa

Poisson ratio: 0.3

Fluid viscosity: 4.0*10^-3

FSI Results

33

Vortex Shedding – Re = 100

34

VX = 20 mph; VY = ± 5 mph

Summary

• ANSYS FSI solution capability:

– Easy to use, fully automated, time-accurate

– Full support for all structural nonlinearities

– Dissimilar mesh interface for beam, shell and

solid elements, with or without mid-side nodes

• Future developments:

– Add automatic re-meshing capability

– Add nth physics to stagger loop

– Enhance FSI post-processing

– Add AMG parallel solver

35

Thank You!

Any Questions?

36

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