Abstract  this paper presents a comparison between as a weight of the neural netwodk and is then used in the
the sensorless vector control schemes of the induction induction motor sensorless control.
motor using the Luenberger observer, the Kalman filter
and a neural network observer. The first two methods 2. Luenberger observer for induction
have been implemented on distal signal processor
(LISP).Diflereni possibilitiesfor reducing the complexity motor sensorless control
of their implementation are discussed This is of par The general equations of a diiscrete time Luenberger
ticular relevance for industrial applications based on observer are presented in [l, 3, 81.
DSP microcontrollers. The performance for the third The matrices of the discrete equivalent system can be
method is appreciated by simulation tests. computed from the induction motor matrices using the
Key words  Luenberger observer, Kalman filter, neural following simplified relations:
networks, DSP, fixed point.
Ah A' In2
Ad = e zI+Ah+
1. Introduction 2!
h
The interest for sensorless drives has been constantly Bd = l e A r Bdr E Bh + 
AB^^
raising during the last years. The fact that the rotor speed 2!
0
is not measured but estimated has several important
benefits. The drawbacks are a lower speed range and the For practical use the Luenbwger equation can be
higher computational complexity. Several estimation written as:
methods have been proposed and compared [l]. As a
;@+I)= A ~ ? ( K ) + B ~ U ~ ( I C ) (2)
general rule, the more complex they are, the better is
their performance, especially in terms of low speed be where:
havior, but also of the dynamic and static comportment. A, = Ad + L .jc BL = [Bd Lc,], U L (k)= Y@)]
Sensorless drives have started to become a standard
product, and there is currently a strong tendency of in 1 0 0 0
creasing their performance. This is supported by the Ld =[  4 11  l4 13 0 1 0 0
availability of low cost DSPbased microcontrollers.
The present paper experimentally compares two of the Because the elements of A depend of the motor speed,
schemes which are expected to deliver the best perform L has to be adapted at each sampling time. The tradi
ances. Simulations and theoretical analysis has already tional way of doing this is describled in [2].
confirmed this assumption [1,3,6]. The paper is mainly The complexity of the algorithm can be reduced if
concerned with the comparison of the way in which they analytical relations are used to obtain directly the
can be implemented on a DSP. As the existing DSP mi Luenberger matrices A, and EiL as hnctions of the
crocontrollers are fixed point and have a relatively low electrical velocity a, and the proportional constant K.
M I P S figure, the computational complexity and the algo For this purpose the Matlab 5.2 software and the
rithm sensitivity to quantization errors are very impor Symbolic Toolbox were used.
tant criteria in comparing the two methods. The following expressions for the first lines of
The third discussed sensorless scheme is an neural A, and B, discrete matrixes of the system have been
network estimator for direct field oriented control [7].
Two flux estimators are used the first is an VI estimator found:
and the second is an Io estimator designed like a neural A, ( 1,l) = c1 + c2K + c,K + c4 (K  l)o ;
network. The weights of the neural network are fhnc A,(1,2)=c5 +C,KO+C,,K~~;
tions of the electrical parameters or electrical speed of (3)
induction motor. Using an online BKP (backpropaga A U ( l , 3 ) = ~ 8+ c , 0 2 ;
tion) algorithm, a two layer network is supervised A, (A41 = ~ 1 0 0 ;
trained to minimize the error between the fluxes gener
ated from the VI estimator (desired) and from the NN B, ( 1,l) = d + d2K + d 3 K 2 + d4(K  1)0 ;
estimator. As a result the speed is recursively computed B,(1,2)= d5K+d,o+d,,Kw+d8 K 2 0 ;
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B,(1,3) = dg ; The ?(i I j)= E[x(i I j ) ] represents the best estimation
B,(1,4) = d,, ; of x up to step ,,i” based on information up to step ,,j”.
where q and d, constants depending on matrix A, B The estimation error is:
coefficients and on the sampling time h, and K is the ,(k) = x(k)  i(k I k) (9)
proportional coefficient between the poles of induction
motor and the Luenberger observer. Our task is to choose the Kalman gain K so that it
In this approaches the speed is estimated with the same minimizes the covariance matrix of the estimation error:
adaptation mechanism [2]: P, = Eb(k),(kr ] (10)
6= P (eidsiqr eiqsidr) +KI I < e i d s i q r  eiqs@dr )dt The Kalman filter algorithm is presented in [4,6].
(4)
4. Neural network observer for sensorless
where K p , K I are the proportional and integral constants induction motor control
. .
and eids= i d s  i d s , eiqs = i,, iqs are the currents The full algorithm for an indirect field oriented
errors between the real and estimated stator currents in sensorless control of induction motor using a neural
(d,q) frame. network is fully described in [7]. Two flux estimators are
used the first is an VI estimator and the second is an Io
estimator designed with the following equations:
3. Kalman filter for induction motor
sensorless control
The state observer based on Kalman filter is identical
in structure to the Luenberger observer, but the gain ma

dh,
=A,
1 +is
L,:
+jo,hI

trix is chosen not only to assure stability, but also to get
an estimation which is optimally filtered in respect with dt Tr T,
both the measurement and the input noise. A discrete The Io flux observer can be designed using a neural
system in the presence of noise can be described as: network if the discrete form of this equation is used:

iX(k’+1)= AdX(k)+BdU(k)+GdW(k)
y(k) = cx(k)+ n(k)
(5)
hr(k)=hr(kI)+(wlx, + w Z X ~ + ~ 3 ~ 3(13)
where: w1 =,
h L
w2 = h a r , w3 = h a
)
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Fig. 1. Sensorless direct field oriented control scheme of induction motor
using a neural network observer.
600
1 5 r ~
! I I : I : I : 1
b) d)
Fig.2. a) Reference speed, real speed and estimated c) Reference speed, real speed and estimated speed (dashed
speed (dashed line); time scale: O.Ss/div; vertical scale: 200 line), detail during reversion; lime scale: 0. lddiv; vertical
rpddiv. scale: 200 rpddiv.
b) Reference speed, real speed and estimated speed (dashed d) Real stator current and estimated stator current (dashed line)
line): at low reference speed; time scale: OSs/div; vertical during the speed reference presented in a); time scale: OSddiv;
.scale: 100 rpddiv. vertical scale: SNdiv.
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5.2 Experimental results using Kalman filter
a)
 I I
1 1.5 2 25 3 3.5
b) d)
Fig. 3. a) Reference speed, real speed and estimated speed c) Reference speed, real speed and estimated speed (dashed
(dashed line); time scale: O.Ss/div; vertical scale: 200 rpddiv. line), detail during reversion; time scale: 0. ls/div; vertical
b) Reference speed, real speed and estimated speed (dashed scale: 200 rpddiv.
line), at low reference speed; time scale: 0.5s/div; vertical d) Real (dashed line) and estimated stator current during the
scale: 100rpddiv. speed reference presented in a), detail at 0.9s; time scale:
O.Ols/div; vertical scale: 1Ndiv.
1 15 2 25
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15
15 0' I
05 1 15 2 25 05 1 'I 5 2 25
b) d)
Fig. 4. a) Reference speed, real speed and estimated speed c) Reference speed, real speed and estimated speed
(dashed line); time scale: O.Ss/div; vertical scale: 200 rpddiv.' (dashedline), detail during reversal; :timescale: 0. ls/div;
b) Real stator current during the speed reference presented in vertical scale: 200 rpddiv
a); time scale: O.Ss/div; vertical scale: SNdiv. d) Absolute value of rotor flux for 0.8Wb reference
during the speed reference presented in a); time scale:
O.Ss/div; vertical scale: 0.1Wb/div.
5.4 Considerations about dynamic performances and estimated and the real speed is very small. The neural
digital implementation network has three hidden neurons, the learning rate was
q=5.5, and the momentum term tr=0.06.
The experimental results presented above were
Further work will include the digital implementation of
obtained using a direct field oriented control scheme
with information about the rotor flux given by one of the these algorithms on fixedpoint I)SP controllers.
three proposed observers. All the control and estimation 6. Conclusions
tasks for implementations of the tested sensorless
schemes have been performed using the floating point The paper presented comparison among the sensorless
DSP, the TMS320C31 by Texas Instruments. The vector control schemes of the induction motor using the
sampling time for the acquisitions and for the Luenbeger observer, the Kal man filter and neural
calculations has been set at 200ps. A PWM inverter networks. These methods are extremely interesting, as
with IGBT transistors has been used. The switching they are able to increase the performance of the
frequency is 5 kHz.The induction motor parameters are sensorless systems in terms of low speed behavior,
prevented in Appendix dynamical and statical comportment However, for
For comparison two cases are considered: high speed industrial applications it is required that their
reversal, and low speed operation. computational complexity is not very high compared to,
In the first case a speed reference from 0 to 500 rpm, a say, a classical field oriented system.
reversal from 500 to 500 rpm and a speed reference The experimental results presented in the paper
from 500 to 0 rpm were selected. In all figures the confirm that Luenberger and Kalman methods achieve a
positions a), c) are related to this situation. The performance comparable in most aspects with that of
experimental results using the Luenberger observer are direct field oriented drive. The most critical issue is of
presented in Fig.2. and it can be seen that the dynamical course the low speed behavior, but both methods offer
performances are very good, in spite of a very noisy reliable operation at a stator frequency of 2 Hz and
environment . The extended Kalman filter gives a better below in Kalman filter case.
time response Fig.3.a), and it is more reliable than the While in normal conditions, there is no major
Luenberger observer, as we expected for such noisy difference between the performarice of the two methods,
environments. Luenberger algorithm can be very much simplified, so
At low speed operation was founded a minimum of that it does not require much more computational effort
speed reference, for maintaining the control of induction compared to the standard direct field oriented drives. It is
motor, at 2 Hz for Luenberger observers and around 1 expected that this will differentiate the two methods
Hz for Kalman filter. These results are presented in fiom the point of view of industrial applications in the
Fig.2.b) and Fig.3.b). near future. However, as the speed of the DSP
The simulated results using the neural network microcontrollers will increase, Kalman filter may be
observer are presented in Fig.4. The dynamical reconsidered, as it offers a better performance in
performances are very good and the delay between the extremely noisy environments and at low speed
operations.
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The neural networks have the ability to learn and REFERENCES
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