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ISSUE 1 DECEMBER 1977

INSTANTANEOUS HIGH-IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION



CONTENTS

Page

Foreword.". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . 5

Scope .. ". . • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . 5

References • . • • . . • • . . • . . . . . . • . • . . . . . . . . 5

Definjtions . . • . . • • • . • • . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . . 5

Applications. . • • • • • . . • • • • . . . . • . . . • . . . . . 7

Performance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B

Basis of Calculatinq the Performance of

Instantaneo':.: High-Impedance Differentia! Protective Systems using Low-Reactance

Current Transformers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 11

Method and Formulae for Calculating the Performance of Instantaneous HighImpedance Differentia! Protective Systems

using Low-Reactance Current Transformers 12

Peak Voltage Developed under Internal Fault

Conditions. . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Conditions of Acceptance of Protective Systems

Submitted on the Basis of Calculated

Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Table 1 30 & 31

ILLUSTRATIONS

Fig.1-19 ...•.•...•..•...•..........• 32-47

APPENDIX

. A - The Assigned Maximum Through-Fault

Current for Transformers. . . . • . . . . . . . . . .. 48

Price Cede 5"

This Standard is issued by the Electricity Supply Industry in conjunction with the Trade Associations or other bodies acknowledged in the document

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"ESt S~ 4&-3

Page3 &roe 1 December 1977

INDEX

Page

Foreword. . . • . • • . . . • . • • • . . • . . . • . • . • • . . • • . . . . . . . . • • . . • . . . . • • • . • . 5

1. 2. 3.

Scope .••..••••. , ......•...•.•.•.•......•...•.•..•..•••••. References •••••..•...•........•..••.••...•..•••.•.•.••••••. Definitions •••••• , .•..••••••••.••..•••.•• , ••.• , , , ..••.••••..

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3,12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16

Assigned Maxi mum Through-Fault Current ••• , ..••.••••.••••••...• Differential Protection ••••.•.•••..•......••...•.•••••••. " .•

Fault Setting •.•.••••••.•.• , ••..•. , , ••••••.••••. , •••••••. High Impedance •••..•.••• , ••.•.•.•. , .•.••.••.•.•.••••• , . Knee-point e.mJ. ." •.•.••. ; ••.••••...•... , ...•.••••••...

low-Reactance Current Transformer .•••. , .••.••. , ...•••••• , ••. Maximum Fault Current Available ••.•••....•.•..•..•••.••••••. , Minimum Fault Current Available .•.•••...••.....•.• , •.• , ••••••

Pro tectlve Svste m .•••••..•••• , • ~ ' .• " • ' •..••.•.••..••••••••• Rated Stability limit ••.•..•••.•..•.••••••..• " •....•.•••••• Relay 'Circuit •.... , ••••• , ..•••••••.•..•..•.•....•....•••

Relay Circuit Current .•••••••.•..••••.....•. _ •••..•.•. _ , .•. Relay Circuit Setting Voltage _ •• _ •.•.•••.•• , •...•• _ ••.•••••..• Relay Operating Current ••. , _ , • _ ....•....•.•..•.••...••.•.•• Relay Operating Voltage. _ • _ ••••.••.... _ ...••.••.•.•....•...

Relay Terminals .•.•.••• ~ ••.......•...• , .•.•.••.••.•.•.•.

4. Applications . . • • • . • . • .... • • • . • • • . . • . • • . •• . . • . • . . . . . • . • • • . • . . . 7

5. Performance Requirements . • • . . • • . . . . • • . • . . • . . . • • . . . . . . • . • . • • . • • 8

5.1 Current Rating •...•••. , . . • . . . . • . . . . • . . . • . . . . • . . . • • . . • • . . 8

5.2 Differential Earth-Fault Protection for Transformers other than

Auto-Transformers. . . • . . . • . • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . . . 8

5.3 Differentiai Pha~·Fault and/or Earth-Fault Protection for Auto-Transformers. 9

5.4 Differential Phase-Fautt and/or Earth-Paulr Protection for Synchronous

Machines • . . • • . • • . . . . • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

5.5 Differential Phase-Fault and/or Earth-Fault Protection for Reactors .•..... 10 5.6 Differential Phase.fault and/or Earth-Fault Protection for Busbars and other Primary Plan t Connections ........•..... _ ....•..•... ' .....•. , 10 5.7 Differential Earth-Fault Protection for Feeder Transformers. . . . . . . • • • .. 11

6. Basis of Calculating the Performance of Instantaneous High-lmpedance Differential Protective Systems using Low-Reactance Current Transformers ..•..•. _ ..... , 11

6.1 Stability Limit ......•........••........... , . . . • . . . . . . . . •. 11 6.2 Fault Sening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . .• 12

7. Method and Formulae for Calculating the Performance of Instantaneous High.

Impedance Differential Protective Systems using Low-Reactance Current

Transformers ... , •........•....••.................... _ ••.. " 12

7.1 Earth-Fault Protection for Unearthed Transformer Windings. . . . . . . . . . •. 13 7.2 Earth-Fault Protection for Earthed Transformer, Shunt Reactor .9f

Synchronous Machine 'rVinding . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . .. 13 7.3 Earth·Fault Protection for Transformer Star Winding (Combined with Overall

Protection) . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . .. 14

7.4 Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Delta Winding {Combined with Overall

Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15

7.5 Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Dual L.V. Star Windings (Combined

with Overall Protection] .• . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . .. 16

7.6 Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Dual L. V. Delta Windings (Combined

with Overall Protectionl .•...••..•....................... _ .. 18

7.7 Earth-Fault Protection for Auto·Transformer - .. .. 19

7.8 Phase and Earth-Fault Protection for Auto- Transformers .. , _ . _ . . . • . . . .• 21

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5 5 5

5 6 6 6

'6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

ES1 Standard 4%-3 Page 4 !ssu~! December 1977

INDEX (Cont'd)

7.9 Phase and Earth-Fault Prote-ction for Synchronous Machines, Series and

Shunt Reactors _ • " ••• _ .•.••. _ .••••.••.•••.•••••••..•....•

7.10 Earth-Fault Protection for Series Reactors . , , •••••.•..•.•..••.•..• 7.11 Earth-Fault Protection for Busbars and other Primary Plant Connections

{One Relay per Zone) ..•..•......••...••••. " •.•.•..•.•..•.•

7.12 Phase and-Earth-Fault Prote-ction for Busbars and other Primary Plant Connections (One Relay per Zone) ..•••...•••.••.••••••.•.••••• 7.13 Phase and Earth-Fault Protection for Busbars and other Primary Plant Connections (One Relay per Circuit) .•..•.••••.••••.•.•••.•....•

8. Peak Voltage Oeveloped under Internal Fault Conditions .,. _ ••.•••.••..•..

9. Conditions of Acceptance of Protective Systems Submitted on the Basis of

Calculated Performance .•.••..••..••....••....••••..••.•..•.•..

9.1 Rated Stability Limit ••.•...••..•...••.•..•.. " • '.' ...••..•..

9.2 Fault Setting .••..•....•.•••.••....•••.•••. : .••.••••..•..

9.3 Current Transformer Knee-point Voltage •.•••.•.•...•..•.•.....•. 904 Current Transformer Peak Secondary Voltage ..•..•............•... 9.5 Current Transformer Turns Ratio Error ......•..••...•.•..•.•.... 9~6 Manufacturer's Design Report .. , .•..•.....••..........•....••

Table 1 - References to Clauses in Main Document which Stipulate Stability Limit

Fault Setting and Calculation Thereof ...•........•....•....•• , 30 & 31

ILLUSTRATIONS

Fig. 1 - Typical Relay Circuits ...........•.....•......•......•....... , 32 Fig. 2. 3 & 4 - Simple Differential and Earth-Fault Protection. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33 Fig. 5 & 6 - Earth-Fault Protection for Plant Windings .............•.. _ . . . . . .. 34 Flg. 7 ":'Eart1i:j=auTt Protection for fransformerStarWinding (C'o-mbined with Overall

Protection) •.. _ ... _ ................•...... _ .... _ . . . . . . . . .. 35

Fig. 8 - Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Dual LV. Star Windings (Combined with

3-winding Overall Protection) _ _ ., 36

Fig. 9 - Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Delta Winding (Combined with Overall

Protection) _ _. " 37

Fig, 10- Earth-Fault Protection for Dual L.V. Delta Windings (Combined with

3-winding Overall Protection) .........•....................... , 38 Fig, 11 - Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Dual L. V. Star Windings (Combined

with Overal I Protection) _ __ '.. 39

Fig. 12 - Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Dual L.V. Delta Windings (Combined

with Overall Protection) , ........•.......... _ . .. 40

Fig. 13 - Earth·Faule Protection for Auto-transformer • _ •.•...•........•..•.. , 41 Fig. 14 - Phase and Earth-Fault Protection for Auto-transformer ..•.•..•. _ .... _ .. 42 Fig. 15 - Phase and Earth-Fault Protection for Synchronous Machines, Series and Shunt

Reactors _ _ , 43

Fig. 16 - Earth-Fault Protection for Series Reactor _ _ , 44

Fig. 17 - Earth-Fault Protection for Busbars and Other Primary Plant Connections (One

Relay Per Zone) _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 45

Fig. 18 - Phase and Earth- Faul t Protection for Busbars and Other Primary Plant

Connections (One Relay Per Zone) ..... , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 46 Fig, 19 - PhaS'2 and" Earth-Fault Protection forBusbars and Ome'r Primary Plant

Connections [One Relay Per Circuit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 47

APPENDIX

A - The Assigned Maximum Through.Fault Current for Transformers. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 43

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ESt St1lldard.cs-:.:.j ., _f .. ~ : .

Fa;:: 5 ~ Idu~ 1" : . :

December 197i

INSTANT ANEOUSffiGH-L\1PEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

FOREWORD

thls Standard specifies the performance of instantaneous high-impedance differential protective systems for most applications. It also states the conditions of acceptance of such protection on the basis of calculated performance in lieu of heavy current tests. Quick reference regarding the performance for any given application is given in 9.1, 9.2 and Table 1.

'Unless stated -otherwise, the r.rn.s. value is implied for all currents and voltages· referred toin this Standard.

1. SCOPE

I

{

This Standard covers the required performance and proving of instantaneous highimpedance differential protective systems as applied to synchronous machines, transformers, reactors, busbars and similar primary plant connections where bias is not required to cater for spill current (due for example to magnetizing inrush or tap changing). This Standard does not include the requirements of differential protection for induction motors, capacitors and other plant where special considerations apply (see BS 3950).

2. REFERENCES

This Standard makes reference to the latest issue of the following documents:

BS 3938, 'Current Transformers'.

BS 3950, <Electrical Protective Systems for AiC. Plant'.

Transmission Design Branch Report TD8j68 (CEGB), 'The Calculation of Balanced EarthFault Relay Settings in Combined Differential Schemes'.

Protective Curren t Transformers and Circuits, P. Mathews, Chapman and Hall Ltd. (1955).

ES[ Standards are revised when necessary by the issue either of revised pages or complete new editions. It is important that users of ESI Standards should ascertain that they are in possession or the latest issues.

3. DEFINITIONS

3.1 Assigned Maximum Through-Fault Current

The assigned maximum through. fault curren t is that which would now through the circuit concerned assuming:

0) a specified maximum plant condition:

(ii) the generator reactances are the sub-transient values.

ESI Standard 48-3 Page 6 'b:s:ne 1 December 1977

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3.2 Differential Protection.

Protection in which the differential current equals the algebraic sum of the currents flowing into the protected zone.

3.3 Fault Setting

The minimum value of the primary current at which operation of 'the protective system occurs.

3.4 High Impedance

A characteristic of the protective relay -circuit such that the relay performs as a voltage operated device as described in 6.1. Typical high-impedance relay circuits are shown in Fig. 1.

3.5 Knee-point e.m.f,

That sinusoidal e.m.f. of rated frequency applied to the secondary terminals of the transformer, all other windings being open-circuited, which, when increased by 10 per cent, causes the exciting current to increase by 50 per cent.

3.6 Low-Reactance CUrrent Transformer

A transformer of which a knowledge of the secondary exciting current, secondary winding resistance and turns ratio is sufficient for an assessment of its performance (see 4.4.2 of BS 3936: 1973 and K.S.!.l and K.S.2 of Appendix' K thereof).

3.7 Maximum Fault Current Available _

The maximum fault current available is that which would now into a short-circuit at the fault location specified assuming:

Ci) a specified maximum plan t condi tion:

(ii) the generator reactances are the sub-transient values:

(iii) the fault arc resistance is zero.

3.8 Minimum Fault Current Available

The minimum fault current available is that which would now into a short-circuit at the fault location specified assuming:

(i) a specified minimum plant condition;

(ii) the genera tor reactances are the sub-transient values: (iii) the fault arc resistance is zero.

3.9 Protective System

A combination of apparatus, including relays, transformers and ancillary equipment. designed to secure under predetermined conditions, usually abnormal, the disconnection of an element of a power system and/or to give an alarm signal.

· ESI Standard 4&-3 Page 7 Issue 1 December 1977

3.10 Rated Stability Limit

The r.m.s, value of the symmetrical component of the through-fault current, stated by the manufacturer, up to which the protective system remains stable under the conditions sta ted in this Standard.

3.11 Relay Circuit

The relay circuit consists of the relay(s) together with alI the externally. mounted' . components, such as stabilizing resistor and linear and non-linear shunt resistors.

3.12 Relay Circuit Current

The minimum value of the current which must flow through the overall relay circuit, including such components as are necessary to produce the desired overall characteristic, to enable the relay to operate (indicated by Is in Fig. I).

3.13 Relay Circuit Setting Voltage

The minimum value of the voltage which must be applied to the overall relay circuit, Includ ing such components as are necessary to produce the desired overall characteristic, to enable the relay to operate (indicated by Vs in Fig. 1).

3.14 Relay Operating Current

The minimum value of the current which must flow through the relay to enable it to operate (indicated by IR in Fig. I).

3.15 Relay Operating Voltage

The minimum value of the voltage which must be applied to the relay to enable it to opera te (indicated by V R in Fig. 1).

3.16 Relay Terminals

These are the terminals on the relay to which the internally mounted circuit components are connected. The circuit between these terminals thus excludes any externally mounted components such as series stabilizing resistors and linear and non-linear shunt resistors which may be provided.

4. APPLICATIONS

In applying this type or protection, the following shall be taken into account:

(i ) - theresistance of all wiring used for connecting the apparatus On site;

(i i) the characteristics of the CUITe nt trans forme rs: particularly to e nsu re th a t they are of the low-reactance type:

(iii) the impedance of the protected plant and its rated current;

ES1 SUn.d:u-d 48-3 hge 8 'I:ml.e 1

December 1917

(iv) the method of earthing of the power system to which the plant isconnected, and, if appropriate. the earthing of the plant, e.g. whether

Ca) directly earthed,

(b) earthed through a resistor or reactor, .

Cc) earthed through an earthing transformer with or without a resistor Or reactor,

(d) earthed through a distribution transformer;

(v) the minimum fault current available within the protected zone;

(vi) the maximum current available for external faults;

(vii) the in-zone primary capacitance current;

(viii) any high frequency transient currents;

Ox) the. continuous. and short-time thermal ratings of the components of the protective systems;

(x) the maximum value of the peak voltages in the secondary circuits during internal fault conditions.

5. PER~ORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

5.1 Current Rating

In assessing the performance req uirernen ts specified in this section, it should be noted, that the rated current of the protected equipment will not necessarily be the same as the primary rating of the current transformers, since the latter will generally be designed to have the nearest standard primary. current rating.

5.2 Differential Earth-Fault Protection for Transformers other than Auto-Transformers

CD Fault Setting

(a) When the protected winding of the transformer is connected to a solidly earthed power system, the fault setting shall be between 10 per cent and 60 per cent of the rated current of the protected winding. When a transformer winding has more than One rating, the percentage setting shall be based on the lowest of the ratings. When more than one transformer winding is connected in parallel, the percentage setting shall be based on the lowest of the rated currents of the individual transformers.

(b) When the protected winding of the transformer is not connected to a solidly earthed power system, the fault setting shall be between 10 per cent and 25 per cent of the minimum current a ... -ailable for an earth-fault at the transformer terminals.

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ESI standard 48-3 hge9 Issue 1 December 1977

(U)

Rated Stability Limit

The rated stability limit shall be not less than the assigned maximum through-fault curren t, the la tter being taken as 1.6 times (or such other value _as may b(:'.~~ed) ."tpe~:,; rated current of the protected. wmdirig :o(.ffie· ... p-o\vei~triiiiSfO"imeI. The--basis for selecting this value of through-fault current is given in Appendix-A. The assigned maximum through-fault current for through earth-fault stability may differ from that. for phase-fault stability, depending on the transformer impedances and the system' and transformer neutral earthing arrangements. For the purpose of calculation it should be assumed that any liquid earthing resistor can become short-circuit.

5.3 Differential Phase-Fault and/or Earth-Fault Protection for Auto-Transformers

(i) Fau]t Setting

(a) When the protected winding of the auto-transformer is connected to a solidly earthed power system, the fault setting shall be between 10 per cent and 60 per cent of the rated current of the high-voltage winding.

(b) When the protected winding of the transformer is not connected to a solidly earthed power system, the fault setting shall be between 10 per cent and 25 per cent of the minimum fault current available for an earth- fault at the transformer terminals.

(li) Rated Stability Limit

The rated stability limit shall be not less than the assigned maximum through-fault current, the latter being taken as 16 times (or such other value as may be agreed) the rated l.v. current of the protected winding of the auto-transformer. See A.2 of Appendix A when a reduced value is being agreed. The assigned maximum throughfault current for through earth-fault stability- rnay differ from that for phase-fault stability, depending upon the transformer impedances and the system and transformer neutral earthing arrangements. For the purpose of calculation, it should be assumed that any liquid earthing resistor can become short-circuit.

5.4 Differential Phase-Fault and/or Earth-Fault Protection for Synchronous Machines

0) Fault Setting

The fault setting shall be less than 10 per cent of the rated current of the protected winding.

(ii) Rated Stability Limit

The rated stability limit shall be not less than the assigned maximum through-fault current, the latter being taken as 12.5 times (or such other value as may be agreed) the rated current of the protected winding of the machine. The assigned maximum through-fault current for through earth-fault stability may differ from that for phasefault stability, depending on the machine impedances and the system and machine neutral earthing arranzernents. For the purpose of calculation it should be assumed

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that any earthing resistor can become short-circuit. .

ESI Standard 48--3 P3~ 10 hsue 1 ~berl917

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5.5 Differential Phase-Fault and/or Earth-Fault Protection for Reactors

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5.5.1 Series Reactors

(i) _Fault Setting

The fault setting shall be between 10 per cent and 30 per cent of the minimum fault current available for a fault at the reactor terminals.

(ii) Rated Stability limit

The rated stability limit shall be not less than the assigned maximum through-fault current, the latter being taken as 20 times (or such other value as may be agreed) the rated current of the reactor winding. The assigned maximum through-fault current for through earth-fault stability may differ from that for phase-fault stability J depending upon the source and reactor impedances. For the purpose of calculation it should be assumed that any liquid earthing resistor can become short-circuit.

5.5.2 Shunt Reactors

(i) Fault Setting

The fault setting shall be between 10 per cent and 25 per cent of the rated current of the reactor winding.

eli) Rated Stability Limit

The rated stability limit shall be not less than. 1 0 times (or such other value as may be agreed) the rated current of the reactor winding.

5.6 Differential Phase-Faultand/or Earth-Fault- Protection, forBiisbars ~nd either Primary Plant Connections

. '.: '.... .

(i) Fault Setting

The fault setting shall be between 10 per cent and 30 per cent of [he minimum fault current available unless otherwise specified.

eli) Rated Stability Limit -

The rated stability limit shall be not less than the assigned maximum through-fault-current, the la tter being taken as! 00 per cent of the switchgear short-circuit rating. The assigned maximum through-fault Current for through earth-fault stability may differ from that for phase-fault stability, depending upon the SOUrce impedance. For the purpose of calculation it should be assumed that any liquid earthing resistor can become short-circuit.

ESI st1Ddud 48-3 ~ 11 Issue 1 Decem ber 1917

5.7 Differential Earth-Fault Protection for Feeder Transformers

The fault setting and stability requirements shall be in accordance with those stated in 5.2 but due regard must be taken of the following factors:

(i) the effect of unbalanced in-zone primary capacitance currents particularly under external fault conditions;

(ii) the effect of high frequency transient CUrrents.

6. BASIS OF CALCULATING THE PERFORMANCE OF INSTANTANEOUS HIGHIMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS USING LOWREACTANCE CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

6.1 Stability Limit

The stability of a current differential system using a high-impedance relay circuit and low-reactance current transformers is based on the fact that for a given value of through fault current the maximum voltage which can appear across the relay circuit is determined . by means of a simple calculation. If the setting voltage of the relay circuit is made equal to or greater than this voltage, then the protection will be stable.

In calculating the required setting voltage of the relay circuit, it is assumed that one current transformer is fully saturated and that the remaining current transformers maintain their ratio. In the fully saturated condition, the excitation impedance of the current transformer is negligible. Since the current transformers are specified as being of the lowreactance type (see definition in 3.6), only the resistance of the secondary winding, together \It; th the wiring connecting the satura led curren t transformer to the relay ci rcuit te rmlnals need be considered. Fig. 2 shows the simple case of two current transformers only connected in a differential system. Hence the voltage, V, across the relay circuit is given by:

v :;: IF (A) T for CTt saturated V = IF (B) T for CT1 saturated

... (1) ... (2)

where:

T = turns ratio of current transformers.

A. B = resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

IF = fault current corresponding to the r.rn.s. component of the required maximum symmetrical through-fault current of the protected plant.

V = maximum r.m.s. voltage that can appear across the relay circuit due to the through-fault current, (IF)'

For stability, the relay circuit setting voltage Vs, must be made equal to or higher than V.

In a· practical system, usually more than two curren t transforrne rs are employed; nevertheless, the same principle is adopted in calculating the setting voltage of the relay circuit. Actual examples of practical systems are dealt with in 7, based, where applicable, on Transmission Design Branch Report TD 8/68.

ESl Standard 48-3 Page 12· hroe 1

December 1977

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Service experience and extensive laboratory tests have proved that, provided the relay is arranged to respond to the r.rn.s. value of the current for both symmetrical and asymmetrical through-faults, the foregoing method of calculating the relay circuit setting voltage provides a satisfactory factor of safety. TIlls is because the basic assumption of complete saturation of one current transformer, with no ratio error of the complementary one, is more severe than the state which actually occurs. As. one' current transformer begins to saturate, the voltage developed across the relay circuit transfers burden from the saturating current transformer to the other current transformer(s) acting in the differential system.

6.2 Fault Setting

During internal fault conditions, the fault current must supply the exciting current of all the connected current transformers and also the relay circuit current.

Thus, if Is == relay circuit current.at Vs volts.

1"1'],, ....•..... · •.•... 1n

::::; secondary exciting currents of the current transformers at the relay circuit setting voltage, Vs

the fault setting = (Is + II + 11 + 1 n )IT

... (3)

. The figure obtained from equation (3) must comply with the fault setting requirements specified in 5. Hence the overall relay circuit must contain the appropriate components as typically illustrated in Fig. I. Where a supervision relay is required, it also forms part of the relay circuit. The currents in equation (3) are not normally co-phasal but an arithmetic addition is adequate; the calculated setting may therefore be slightly greater than the actual setting."

The rated stability limit and fault setting of the systems shall be calculated by the' manufacturer in accordance with the method and formulae given in 7.

7. METHOD AND FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING THE PERFORMANCE OF INSTANTANEOUS HIGH-IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECfIVE SYSTEMS USING LOW-REACTANCE CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

The method is generally in accordance with the basic principles described in 6.1 and 6.2. In the more complex systems, however, consideration must be given to auxiliary current transformers and to the effect of overall differential relays in combined systems, where these are employed.

No multiplying factor (usually designated k) has been included in the expressions given for the calculation of the Rated Stability Limit of an earth-fault only system during internal faults not involving earth.

If special 'considerations make it necessary to include such 'a factor in the design, the value of k and the method of calculation should be the subject of agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

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ESI S!n.d:anl48-3 Plgel_3 ~ 1 December 1977

7.1

Earth-Fault Protection for Unearthed Transformer W"mdings

Consider the systems shown in Fig. 3 and 4 .

.

let T = turns ratio of current transformers.

A :::. resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

Vs ::: relay circuit setting voltage.

II ::: secondary exciting current of current transformer at Vs volts.

Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.

IF ::: fault current corresponding to the rated stability limit

as specified in 5.2. TIll! through earth-fault case does not apply to this system.

Zl.l Rated Stability Limit

. Consider a phase-to-phase or three-phase short-circuit at X and assume cample te saturation of a current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

7.1.2 Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

(Is + 3 II )/T amperes

7.2 Earth-Fault Protection for Earthed Transformer, Shunt Reactor or Synchronous Machine Winding

Consider the system shown in Fig. 5 and 6.

Let T = turns ratio of line and neutral current transformers.

B, F ::: resistance of wiring.

A, N ::: resistance of wiring plus curren t transforme r winding.

Vs ::: relay circuit setting voltage.

11 = secondary exciting current of line current transformer at Vs volts.

12 = secondary exciting current of neutral current transformer at Vs volts.

Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.

IF = fault current corresponding to the rated stability limit as specified in the appropriate clauses of 5.

E'SI Staruh:rd 48-3 Page 14 . Issue 1 December 1977

c

7.2.1 Rated Stability Limit

(i) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of.a line current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

IF (A+B+F) Tvolts

(ii) Consider a phase-to-earth short- circuit. at X and assume complete saturation of the •. neutral current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

(ill) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short- circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer. then Vs shall be not less than:

~.

iF (A) Tvolts

7.2.2 Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

7.3 Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Star Winding (Combined with Overall Protection)

For two-winding transformers consider Fig. 7.

For dual l.v. transformers consider Fig. 8; the symbols and calculations below apply . to the upper winding protected by relay circuit 1 (Rhfl. being the resistance of the associated section of the bias winding). The calculations for the lower winding will be similar using resistances A " B; etc. and faults at Y instead of X.

Let TJ:= turns ratio of line and neutral current transformers.

Tj./T3 = turns ratio of auxiliary current transformers.

(Tl to line current transformers, T3 to overall differential relay).

B, F, K = resistance of wiring.

A. H, N = resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

G = resistance of auxiliary current transformer Winding.

Vs = relay circuit setting voltage.

II = secondary exciting current or line current transformer at Vs volts.

12 = secondary exciting current of neutral current transformer at Vs volts. 'Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.

resistance of operating circuit of ave rail differen tial relay. resistance of biasing circuit of overall differential relay. fault current corresponding to the rated stability limit as specified in 5.2.

Ro =
Rb =
Ir- = (

ESl Stllndard 48--3 P3ge 15 Issue I December 1977

7.3.1

Rated Stability Limit

(i)

Consider a phase-to-earth short- circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

(li)

Consider a phase-to-earth short- circuit at X and assume complete saturation of the neutral current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

IF(Ji> r, volts

0'tF)

Consider a phase-to-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer. then Vs shall be not less than:

(lii)

(iy) _Q:msider a three-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than: .

7.3.2 Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

7.4 Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Delta Winding (Combined with Overall Protection)

For two-win ding trans formers consider Fig. 9.

For dual l.v. transformers consider Fig. 10; the symbols and calculations below apply to the upper winding protected by relay circuit I (Rb/2 being the resistance of the associated section of the bias winding). The calculations for the lower winding will be similar using resistance AI, B' etc. and faults at Y instead of X.

Let TI == turns ratio of line and neutral current transformers.

T1/T3!L, = turns ratio of auxiliary current transformers

(T2• to line current transformers, T3 in delta. T4 to overall di fferen tial relay).

B. F = resistance of wiring.

A, H. J, N == re sisrance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

G = resistance of auxiliary current transformer winding.

Vs == relay circuit setting v-oitage.

L, == secondary exciting current of line current transformer at Vs volts. 12 == secondary exciting current of neutral current transformer at

Vs vol ts.

ES1 SUndard 48-3 . Page 16 Issue 1 Decem ber 1917

(

Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.

Ro = resistance of operating circuit of overall differential relay. Rb = resistance of biasing circuit of overall differen tialrelay,

IF = fault current corresponding to the rated stability limit as

specified in~.2:

7.4.1 Rated Stability Limit

(i) . Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line

current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than: .

f .

(Li). Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of the neutral current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

(iii) Consider a phase-to-phase or three-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

7.4.2 Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

(Is + 3/1 + 11 )/T1 amperes

7.5 Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Dual LV. Star Windings (Combined with Overall Protection)

Consider the system shown in Fig. II.

Let TI = turns ratio of line and neutral current transformers.

T1fTJ ::= turns ratio of auxiliary current transformers. (T1 to line current transformers, TJ to overall differential relay).

B,D,E.F.

J, K. L = resistance of wiring.

A. C. G. H.

M. N = resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

Vs = relay circuit setting Voltage.

11 = secondary exciting current of line current transformer (set 1) at Vs volts.

12 = secondary exciting current of line current transformer (set 2) at Vs volts.

ESt St::mdard 48-3 ~17 ~1 December 1917

13 = secondary exciting current-of neutral current transformer (Ncr!) at Vs volts.

14 = secondary exciting current of neutral current transformer (NCf2) at Vs volts.

Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.

Ro = resistance of operating circuit of overall differential relay.

Rb = resistance of biasing circuit of overall differential relay,

IF = fault current corresponding to the. rated stability limit as specified in 5.2 .

. ;

ZS.l Rated Stability Limit

(i) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer (set I), then Vs shall be not less than:

eli) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of the neutral current transformer (NeT I ), then Vs shall be not less than:

(iii) -Consider a phase-to-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer (set I), then Vs shaU be not less than:

(iv) Consider a three-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer (set I), then Vs shall be not less than:

(v) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at Y and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer (set 2), then Vs shall be not less than:

(vi) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at Y and assutne complete saturation of the neutral current transformer (NCT2), then Vs shall be not less than:

IF (J+L+N) T', volts

(vii) Consider a phase-to-phase short-circuit at Y and assume complete saturation of a-nne current transformer (set 2), then Vs shall be not less than:

ES1 Stwdmi 4&-3 .Page lS' !zroe 1 December 1977

(_

(viii) Consider 2. three-phase short-circuit at Y and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer (set 2), then Vs shall be not less than:

7.5.2 . Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

7.0 Earth-Fault Protection for Transformer Dual L.V. Delta Wmdings (Combined with Overall Protection)

Consider the scheme shown in Fig. 12.

Let Tl := turns ratio of line and neutral current transformers.

T,jT3/TJ, ::: turns ratio of auxiliary current transformers

(Tl to line current transformers, T3 in delta, T4 to overall differential relay).

B, D, E, F ::: resistance of wiring.

A.C, G.H,

J, N := resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

Vs = relay circuit setting voltage.

II ::: secondary exciting current of line current transformer (set l)at Vs volts.

11 ::: secondary exciting current of line current transformer (set 2) at Vs volts.

13 ::: secondary exciting current of neutral current
transformer at Vs volts.
Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.
Ro = resistance of operating circuit of overall differential
relay.
Rb = resistance of biasing circuit of overall differential
relay.
IF = fault current corresponding to the rated stability
limit as specified in 5.2. 7.6.1 Raced Stability Limit

. .

(i) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a line

current transformer (set 1), then Vs shan be not tess "than:

ESI St::;l..ild;ud 48-3 Page 19 Issue 1 December 1977

(ii) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X or Y and assume complete saturation of t~eneutraI current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

(ill) . Consider a phase-to-phase or three-phase short- circuit at X and assume cornple te saturation of a line current transformer (set 1), then Vs shall be not less than:

(iy) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at Y and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer (set 2), then Vs shall be not less than:

(v) Consider a phase-to-phase or three-phase short- circuit at Y and assume complete saturation of a line current transformer (set 2), then Vs shall be not less than:

7.6.2 Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

7.7 Earth-Fault Protection for Auto-Transformer

Consider the system shown in Fig.'13.

Let

:=

low voltage

-----ratio of the auto-transformer. high vel tage

T ;:: turns ratio of all current transformers.

B.D, F. G,

H, J, K := resistance of wiring.

A, C, E = resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

Vs = relay circuit setting voltage.

II = secondary exciting current of high-voltage line current transformer at Vs volts.

11 = secondary exciting current of low-voltage line current transformer at VS Y01[5.

fJ = secondary exciting current of neutral current transformer at Vs volts.

Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.

IF = fault current (on low-voltage side) corresponding to the rated stability limit as specified in 5.3.

ESI Standard 48-3 .Page 20 Issue 1 December 1977

('

~ .;.

7.7.1 Rated Stability Limit

(i) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a highvoltage line current transformer, then Ys shall be not less than:

(ii) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a neutral current transformer, then Vs shan be not less than:

(ill) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a lowvoltage line current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

(iv) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short- circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a high-voltage line current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

IF [ ;~ 1 (A) Tvolts

(v) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a neutral current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

(vi) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation ofa low-voltage line current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

7.7.2 Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

(15 +3[1 +31;. +313 )/T amperes

(

ESI S tx.ndard 43-3 Page 21 Issue I December 1977

7.8

Phase and Earth-Fault Protection for Auto-Transformer

Consider the system shown in Fig. 14.

Let V L low-voltage

:::: high 1 ratio of the auto-transformer.

VH 1 -vo tage

T;:: turns ratio of all current transformers.

B. D. F,G = resistance of wiring.

A. C. E = resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

Vs == relay circuit setting voltage.
II == secondary exciting current of high-voltage line current
transformer at Vs volts.
J.). = secondary exciting current of low-voltage line current
transformer at Vs volts.
13 = secondary exciting current of neutral current
transformer at Vs volts.
Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.
IF :::: fault current (on low-voltage side) corresponding
to the ra ted s ta bili ty 1 irni t as s pecifie dinS .3.
7.8.1 Rated Siabiltty Limit 0) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a highvoltage line current transformer, then Vs shall be not-less than:

IF [ ~~ (A+B)+2G 1 Tvalt'

(ii) Consider a phase-to-earth short- circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a neutral current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

IF [ (I - ~~)(C+D)+2G ] Tvalt,

(iii) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a lowvoltage line current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

If (E+F)Tvolts

(iv) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short-circuit at .. :r and assume complete saturation of a high-voltage line current transformer, then Vs shall be not Jess than:

V

iF C~L.A+G) Tvolts Y H'

ESl Standard 48-3 Page 22 . Issue 1 December 1977

("

(v) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation ora neutral current transformer, then Vs' shall be not less than:

IF [ (t -:~ )(C+G) ] T volts

(vi) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short- circuit at X and assume comple te saturation of a low-voltage line current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

7.8.2 Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

7.9 Phase and Earth-Fault Protection for Synchronous Machines, Series and Shunt Reactors

Consider the system shown in Fig. 15_

Let T = turns ratio of all current transformers.

A, B = resistance of wiring plus current transformer. C, D = resistance of wiring.

Vs = relay circuit setting voltage.

IJ = secondary exciting current of current transformer (set 1) at Ys volts.

11. = secondary exciting current of current transformer (set2)at Vs volts.

Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.

IF = fault current corresponding to the rated stability limit as specified in the appropriate clauses of 5_

7.9.1 Rated Stability Limit

(i) Consider a phase-to-earth short- circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a current transformer (set I), then Vs shall be not less than:

IdA+C) T volts

(ii) Consider a phase-to-earth short- circuit at _::r and assume complete saturation of a current transformer (set 2), then Vs shall be not less than:

IF (B+D) Twits

(

ES1 S tandard 4S-3 P:,ge23 Isruel Decem her 1917

(ill)

Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short-circuit at X and assume comp1ete

sa turation of a current transformer (set 1); then Vs shall be not less than: .

IF(A) Tvolts

(iv) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a current transformer (set 2); then Vs shall be not less than:

IdB) Tvolts

7.9.2 Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

(Is +11 +11. )/T amperes

7.10 Earth-Fault Protection for Series Reactor

Consider the system shown in Fig. 16.

Let T = turns ratio of all current transformers.

A, B "" resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

C, D, E. F == resistance of wiring.

Vs == relay circuit setting voltage.
11 = secondary exciting current of current transformer
(set I) at Vs volts.
12 == secondary exciting current of current transformer
(set 2) at Vs volts.
Is == relay circuit current at Vs volts.
h ::= fault current corresponding to the rated stability
limit as specified in 5.5.1. 7.10.1 Rated Stability Limit

(i) Consider a phase-to-earth short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a current transformer (set I), then Vs shall be not less than:

IF (A +C+E) Tv 01 ts

(ii) Consider 2 phase-to-earth short- circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a current transformer (set 2), then Vs shall be not less than:

IF (B+D+F) T vol ts

(iii) Consider a phase-to-phase or a th ree-phase short- circuit at X and assume cornple te saturation of a current transformer (set I), then Vs shall be not less than:

IF.(A) Tvolts

ESI Standard 48-3 Page 24 Issue 1 December 1977

'1iv) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase short-circuit at X and assume complete saturation of a current transformer (set 2), then Vs shall be not less than:

IF (B) T volts

7.10_2 Fault Setting

The fault setting is:

(!s+3!j +31'1. )!T amperes

7.11 Earth-Fault Protection for Busbars and Oilier Primary Plant Connections (One Relay Per Zone)

Consider the system shown in Fig. 17.

Let

T == turns ratio of all current transformers.

A, B, C'::; resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

D,E,F,G,

H. K == resistance of wiring,

Vs ::; relay circuit setting voltage.

11 = secondary exciting current of anyone curren t transformer at Vs volts,

Is == relay circuit current at Vs volts.

IF == fault current corresponding to the rated stability limit as specified in 5.6.

7.11.1 Rated Stability Limit

(i) Consider an external phase-to-earth short-circuit and assume complete saturation ofa current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

IF (A +D+2G)T or IF (B+E+2H)T or IF (C+F+2J{+2K)T volts whichever is the greatest

(ii) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase external short-circuit and assume complete saturation of a current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

IF (A)T or IF (B) Tor J F (C) T vol ts whichever is the grea test

7.11.2 Faulr Setting

The. fauLt setting for 3 circuits is:

(Is +911 )/T amperes

(

ESI Sb.n.!hrd 4&-3 ~25 &mel December 1977

For n circuits the fault setting is:

. (Is + 3 n /l)/T amperes

where 3 n = number of current transformers in parallel with the relay,

7.12 Phase and Earth-Fault Protection for Busbars and Other Primary Plant Connections (One Relay Per Zone)

Consider the system shown in Fig. 18.

Let

T = turns ratio of all current transformers.

A. B. C:::: resistance of wiring plus current transformer winding.

D,hF•G •

H. flO '1 = resistance of wiring.

g

I ......

Vs = relay circuit setting voltage.

It :::: secondary exciting current of anyone current transformer at Vs volts.

Is = relay circuit current at Vs volts.

IF = fault current corresponding to the rated stability limit as specified in 5.6.

7.12.1 Rated Stability Limit

(0 Consider an external phase-to-earth short-circuit and assume complete saturation of a current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than: f)

/ ~

IF (A+D+2G)T or fdB+E+2H)T or IF (C+F+2H-t@JTyolts whichever is the greatest

(ii) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase external short-circui t and assume com pie te saturation of a current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

iF(A+C)Tor IF (B+H)Tor IF (C+H+K)Tvolts whichever is the greatest

7.12.2 Fault Setting

The fault setting for 3 circuits is:

(Is +311 )/T amperes

For n circuits the fault setting is:

(Is + n 11 )/T amperes

where n = number of current transformers in parallel with the relay.

ESl Standard 4&-3 Page 26 Issue 1 December 1977

(

'-

7.13 Phase and Earth-Fault Pro tee tio n for Busbars and Other Primary Plant Connections (One Relay Per Circuit)

Consider the system shown in Fig. 19.

let

T = turns ratio of current transformers.

A,B,C :::: resistance of wiring plus curren t transformer winding.
D,E.F. G,H = resistance of wiring.
Vs = relay circuit setting vol tage.
11 = secondary exciting current of current transformer
at Vs volts ..
Is :::: each relay circuit current at Vs volts.
ISR :::: current taken by fault se tting resistor at Vs volts.
1sL :::: current taken by peak voltage limiting device at
Vs volts.
IF = fault current corresponding to the rated stability
limit as specified in 5.6. n = number of current transformers in parallel. m :::: number of relays in parallel.

7.13.1 Rated Stability Limit

(i) Consider an external phase-to-earth short-circuit and assume complete sa turation of a current transformer, then Vs shall be not less than:

IF (A +D+2G+2H)T or IF (C+F+2G+2H)T or IF (B+E+2G)T or IF CB+E+2H)T volts whichever is the greatest.

(ii) Consider a phase-to-phase or a three-phase external short-circuit and assume complete saturation ofa current transformer. then Vs shall be not less than:

I F (A +G+H)Tor IF (C+G+H)Tor IF (B+G)T or IF (B+H}Tvolts whichever is the greatest

7.13.2 Faull Selling

The fault setting for 3 circuits is:

For n circuits the fault setting is:

em Is + n 11 + ISR + Is dlT amperes

c

ESI Standard 43-3 Pi4,<>e 27 Issue 1 December 1977

8.

PEAK VOLTAGE DEVELOPED UNDER INTERNAL FAULT CONDITIONS

The formula (see Mathews pp. 220-222) commonly used for checking the magnitude of the peak voltages developed by a current transformer under internal fault conditions is:

where:

Vk = current transformer knee-point e.m.f.

V[ = maximum voltage that would be produced if the current transformer did not saturate.

It should be noted that this formula only applies for values of Vk less than Vr/2. If Vii:: is very much less than V[ as is usually the case, the formula (Mathews p. 220-222) becomes:

9. CONDITIONS OF ACCEPTANCE OF PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS SUBMITTED ON THE BASIS OF CALCULATED PERFORtfANCE

To be acceptable the system must satisfy the following requirements:

9.1 Ra ted Stability limit

Referring to the line in Table I appropriate to the plant or connections and the protective system under consideration, the rated stability limit calculated in accordance 'With the clause referred to in Column 4 shall be not less than the value specified in the clause referred to in Column 3.

9.2 Fault Setting

Referring to the line in Table 1 appropriate to the plant or connections and the protective system under consideration, the fault setting calculated in accordance with the clause referred to in Column 6 shall not exceed the value specified in the clause referred to in Column 5.

9.3 CUrrent Transformer Knee-point Voltage

No current transformer of the system shall have a knee-point voltage less than twice the relay circuit setting voltage.

9.4 Current Transformer Peak Secondary Voltage

The current transformer peak secondary' voltage developed with maximum internal fault curre rit , asobtained by test or calculation, shall not exceed 3000 volts. The method of calculation for a system without limiting devices shall be as given in 8.

ESl Standard 48-3 Pa ge 28 Issue i December 1977

95 Current Transformer Turns Ratio Error

No current transfonner of the system shall have a per cent turns ratio error greater than twenty five times the ratio of the calculated primary fault setting to the assigned maximum through fault current.

9.6 Manufacturer's Design Report

All the relevant details of the protected equipment, protective system and calculations shall be submitted by the manufacturer on an appropriate design report which

shall include the following: .

9.6.1 Details oj Protected Equipment and System

0) Circuit Designation.

(ii) Rating of protected equipment or protected winding.

(a) MVA

(b) Nominal voltage

(c) Full load current

(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
9.6.2
(i)
.r>. (ii)
(iii)
(iY)
(v)
(vi) Rated Stability Limit (if other than given in this Standard). Method of earthing.

Nominal earth- fault current (if system is earthed through an impedance and/or earthing transformer).

Estimated residual charging current of feeder where protected equipment is a feeder transformer.

Design Details of Line, Neutral and Auxiliary Current Transformers

1>S an ufactu rer, Identification No. Turns ratio.

Winding resistance (each winding in the case of auxiliary c.ts),

Excitation curve taken at least up to the knee-point e.m.f. or secondary exciting current at relay circuit setting voltage and knee-point e.rn.f.

Confirmation that the c.ts are of the low-reactance type. In accordance with K.S.2 of Appendix K of BS 3938: 1973 (see Definition 3.6 herein) the burden for the direct

test shall be one half of the secondary winding resistance and the primary current for the direct test shall be the assigned maximum through fault CUITent of the protection concerned, while the voltage to be applied to the secondary winding for the indirect measurement shall be the product of the turns ratio the total burden (comprising secondary winding resistance and the aforementioned burden) and the aforernen tione d current.

9.6.3 Details of Connecting Leads Between. Current Transformer and Reb .... · Circuit

(i) Diagram of Connections.

(ii) Estlrna ted resistance of individual connections which are relevant.

" \,

9.6.4

(D (ti)

(iii) (iv) (v) (vi) ( .. )

.. Yll

9.6.5

(i) (li)

ESI Sbul~ 4&-~ ~ ~Z9 ~1 December 19i7

Details of Relay Circuit .

Diagram of connections.

Current and voltage setting ranges of main (high-impedance) relays and auxiliary relays (supervision, etc.).

Recommended curren t and/or voltage setting of main and auxiliary relays. Recommended settings of all shunt and series setting resistors.

Curren t taken by relay circuit at operation of main (high-impedance) relay. Vol tage across relay circuit at operation of main relay.

Recommended characteristics of peak voltage limiting device.

Performance Calculations

Required relay circuit setting voltage at rated stability limit. Fault setting.

ES1 Standard 48-3 Page 30 Issue 1 December 1977

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r: (

ESl Standard 48-3 . Page 31 Issue I Decem bet 1977

.....
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c: c
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~ ESI Sbnd:ud 48-3
Page 32 Issue 1 (
December 1971
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I ESI StlUldard 48-3 Page 33 Issue 1 December 1977

e:_

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I- ESI Standard 48-3 Page 34 .. Issue I December 1977

(

ESI Standard 48-3 Page 35 Issue!

December 1977

11

-

-

TI

RELAY IRCUIT

F

13

~------.----------

Rb

2

OVERALL DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

H

RQ

fig.7 Earth-fault protection for transformer star winding (combine-d with overall protection]

E.3.137

ESI Standard 48-3 Page 36 Issue 1 December 1977

11 CT I

SET I

J

\

x

69/38

Fig. 8 Ear th-f ault pro tection for transformer dual l.v, sill windings (combined with 3.;;i.rlding overall protection)

SET Z

OVERA.ll DI Ff£RE HIll L RELAY

ES1 Standard 48--3 Page 37 Issue 1 December 1977

TI

A

N

TI

RELAY CI RCUIT

F

OVERALL DrFFERENTIAL RELAY

Fig. 9 Earth-fault protection for transfn rrner del ta winding (combined with overall protection)

89.'39

ESI Standard 48-3 Page 33 Issue 1 ~~1977

lIeTI

SETl

5H z

,

,

~.

I

lZ

nmRl JWJQjJQj

T

I

OVERALL DiffERENTIAL REL.l.Y

89/40

Fig. 10 E..:"!L .. h .. fault protection for dual I.v .. delta iindings (combined with 3 .. winding overall protection)

('

ESI Standard 48-3 Page 39 Issue i December 1977

SET f

SET 2

Tf

l

F

OVERALL DIFFERENTIAL RELAY

x

y

Fig. 11 Earth-fault protection for transformer dual l.v. star windings (combined with overall protection)

S9{~ 1

TI

£51 Standard 48--3 Page 40 Issue 1 December 1977

(

G

E

RELAY CIRCUIT

f

J

H

Rb T

FIg. 12 Earth-fault protection for transformer dual l.v. delta 'Minding;; (combined V.iL~ overall protection)

89/42

L.V. LINE X
C.I/S 1

~
I
T C I
II
,

E H.V. LINE C.T:S

Fig.13 fum-fault protection for auto-transformer

G

G

ESI Standard 48-3 Page 41 Issue 1 December 197i

F

J

RELAY IRCUlT

t::SI Sbndud.48-3 Page 42 hmel Decemo.; 1917

x

ill J
fLV.lINE In N£UTiW. ~4 ' J
J-
crs rrS r E .J
IT
. ,
.
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Je -
F
G
,
G
..__
RELAY
CIRCUIT

RElAY
CIi\Cun

~ELAY
G CIFlCUn
_A '; Fig.14 ThJ.Se and earth-fault protection for auto-transformer

89/44

(

,.

ESI StaDda.rd 48-3 Page 43 Issue 1 December 1977

'.

SET T

SET 2 T

x

1

1

rr rr I
r r r T
I . . I
I .....__ - l-....! . . 1- I
A- S
I I
I ~ :c I
r r T
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r---r==l- I
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L
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I
I"
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I
"I
1
I
!
~~LAY RELAY RELAY
RCUIT lCilCUIT CIRCUIT HEUTP..U EARTHING RESISTOR

(WHERE APPLICAB LE J

(SEE HOTEl

NOTE

ALTERHATJYE EARTHING DEVICES flAY BE USED

Fig. IS Phase arid earth-Iault protection for synchronous machines. series and shunt reacto rs

89;'45

ESI Standard 48--3 Page 44 Issue 1 December 1977

('

x 1

I

SET r T

,..

E

F

RELAY acurr

o

c

Fig.16 Earth-fault protection for series reactor:

E9/45

ESI Standard 4S-3 Page 45 hsu e 1 December 1977

T

T

A

A

A

T

B

D

E

G

RElAY CIRCUIT

G

H

H

f

FIg. 17 Earth-fault protection for busbars and other primary plant conne-ctions (one relay per zone)

c c

8!3g7

ESI Stands . rd 48---3 Page 46 . Issue 1

December 1977

(

T

A

rr1
pi

Ull

C c C
T B T ~B
A AI B B 3
0 E 1 F
e H k
F:i H K


G H )(
RELAY
CIRCUIT
RELAY
CIRCUIT

RELAY
CIFCUIT
G Ii K Fig.18 Phase and earth-fault protection for busbars and other primary plant connec tions (one relay per zone]

89!4-3

ESI Standard 48-3 Page 47 Issue 1 December 1977

T

,
r0t
6 b w I
U'1

T~ ~ B~ r~ 1 B~ f C C c
], A I!. 0 B e B E
fi£lAY RElAY RELAY
CIRCUIT !- CIRO.HTt- r- CIPCUIT

RELAY P-ELAY f\.E LAY
CIRCUIT ~ CIRCUIT i>- CIRCUIT

RELAY REUY RELAY
CI P.CUIT I-< II- CIRCUIT
CIP.CU1T

G H
G H.
G H
~
G H
PE.IJ: VOLTAGE 7 17 I] FAULT SETTING
LlHJWIG DEVI CE S L 2 1 RESISTORS
. . Fig. 19 Pn35e and earth-fault protection for busbars and other primary plant connections (one relay per circui t)

ESI Standard 48-3 Page 48' Issue i

December 1977

(

..

APPENDIX A

THE ASSIGNED MAXThfUM THROUGH-FAULT CURRENT FOR TRANSFORMERS

AI.. TWO WINDING TRANSFORMERS

In S.2Cii) of this Standard, the assigned maximum through-fault current has been taken as 16 times the rated current of the protected winding of the power transformer. The basis of this figure is given below in order that other values can be agreed where necessary; in particular where current transformer accommodated is a limitation.

INFI NIlE SUS

Zt

F

. Fig. Al

89163

Consider the system shown in Fig. AI.

Z, = Transformer impedance (assuming positive, negative and zero phase sequence values to be equal).

ZI.22

and Zo = Impedance of remainder of system to the point of connection of the transformer. (Positive, negative and zero phase sequence impedances, respectively). Assume the usual case where Z I is approximately equal to Z2'

For a single phase to earth-fault at the point shown.

\.

ES1 Standard 4S-3 Page 49 Issue 1

December 197i

Let Zo = iz,

10 passes through Zo in parallel with the zero sequence impedance of the transformer i.e. kZ1 in parallel with Zt.

Let the zero sequence current flowing through the zero sequence impedance of the transformer be Io t.

then Jot

Similarly for the positive and negative sequence currents through the transformer:

E (kZI + Zt)

=

Zt [3k Z 1 + (2 + k) Zt]

The neutral current in the transformer,In• is given by:

that is Ip is the through -fault current for a three-phase fault, neglecting source impedance.

3k (I +R)Ip Then In = 3k + (2 + k) R

. ESI Standard ~3 Page 50 Issue 1

December 1977

Table Al gives the value of:

3k (l + R) 3k + (2 + k}R

for combinations of values of k and R:

/" .. _" -,

/

'3k(I+R)

Table A1 - Evaluation of k ( )

!3 + ,2+k R

'.

Value ofR

Valu-e of k

0.5

1.0

1.5

2

3

0.75 1.00 1.12 1.2 1.28
10 0.62 1.00 1.26 1.44 1.68
50 0.61 1.00 1.28 1.49 1.77
100 0.60 1.00 1.28 1.49 1.79
200 0.60 1.00 1.28 1.50 1.79 Early CEGB requirements were based on a factor of 1.5 applying to pessimistic. condi tions and a transformer impedance of 10 per cent giving a value of 15 times the rated current for In' Subsequently this was revised to 16 times rated current in accordance with BS 3950. Although transformer percentage impedance has increased with increased transformer ratings, it has not been neccesary to revise this stability limit as there has been no difficulty in achieving it with current transformers designed within the available accomm ada ti on.

However, should difficulty be encountered in achieving the above rated stability limit in a particular application, it would be adequate to specify a current of 1.5 Ip based on the actual transformer impedance. Where considered appropriate, the factor 1.5 may be replaced by the factor from Table Al (or evaluated from the associated expression) using values of k and R applicable to the system and transformer concerned.

A2. THREE WINDING AND AUTO-TRA..NSFORMERS

Auto-transformers are usually provided with a tertiary delta and so, as for a three winding transformer is represented by three star connected impedance in each sequence network. The ratio of zero phase sequence impedance to positive phase sequence impedance varies from one design of transformer to another and so a general solution as given in Al would be considerably more complex. If a reduction in the assigned maximum through-fault current of 5.2(1) or 5.30i) is necessary this should be calculated for the particular case

. bearing in mind the influence of the ratio Zo/Z I'

P~'blilh~d arid ;:~jnr~d by

Te ch n ic al Docurnen t atio n Bra,,=ll En9in~~rin;; Serike~. CEG8

~4'alc~:"l Ho use , 2~ C;::t~dra~ P1a~~ lorx:;:!cf1 EC~P 4Ea

JOINT PLANT TECHNICAL CO/l,IMITIE~

.-