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Proceedings of the ASME 2009 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering

OMAE2009
May 31 - June 5, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

OMAE2009-80081

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A STRAIGHT-BLADED VERTICAL AXIS WIND


TURBINE WITH A DIRECTED GUIDE VANE ROW

Manabu Takao Hiroyuki Takita Yohei Saito


Matsue College of Technology Matsue College of Technology Matsue College of Technology
Matsue, Shimane, Japan Matsue, Shimane, Japan Matsue, Shimane, Japan

Takao Maeda Yasunari Kamada Kazuhiko Toshimitsu


Mie University Mie University Oita College of Technology
Tsu, Mie, Japan Tsu, Mie, Japan Oita, Oita, Japan

ABSTRACT mounted on a rotating shaft (Fig. 1). Although the turbine


The objective of this study is to show the effect of guide needs a bearing at the top of the structure and has complicated
vane geometry on the performance of wind turbine. In order aerodynamic interaction between the downwind blades and the
to overcome the disadvantages of vertical axis wind turbine, a wakes of the upwind blades, it has some advantages in
straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (S-VAWT) with a
directed guide vane row has been proposed and tested by the
authors. According to previous studies, it was clarified that
the performance of the turbine can be improved by means of
the directed guide vane row. However, the guide vane
geometry of S-VAWT has not been optimized so far. In order
to clarify the effect of guide vane geometry, the effects of
distance between the guide vanes and the number of guide
vanes on power and torque coefficients were investigated in the
experiments. The experimental study was carried out by a
wind tunnel. The wind tunnel with a diameter of 1.8m is open
jet type. The wind velocity is from 5 to 9 m/s in the
experiments. The rotor has three straight blades with a profile
of NACA4518 and a chord length of 100 mm, a diameter of 0.6
m and a blade height of 0.7 m. The guide vane row consists
of some arc plates.

INTRODUCTION
Floating offshore wind farms are being considered for
Japanese waters. In such case, in order to control behavior of
the float, it is very important to use a vertical axis wind turbine
which has low center of gravity. As such wind turbine, a Figure 1 Photograph of straight-bladed vertical axis wind
straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (this is named “S- turbine
VAWT” in the study) has been developed and investigated so
far [1, 2]. This turbine consists of several aerofoil vertically

1 Copyright © 2009 by ASME


136
0
1 26 R8
°

Guide vane R
35 136
0
Rotation
Shaft Plate Tail vane
θ

v
200

4 59 Blade

α
(NACA0018)
825

Figure 2 Outline of straight-bladed vertical axial wind turbine (a) Without guide vane
with directed guide vane[4]

0.2
Vane-less
With GV
0.16

0.12
Cp

0.08

0.04

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
λ (b) With guide vane

Figure 3 Effect of directed guide vane on power coefficient Figure 4 Instantaneous flow patterns around the wind
of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine[4] turbine[4]

comparison with a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT): (1) 4]. However, it may be considered that the guide vanes in
The center of gravity is relatively lower because the generator downstream of the rotor prevent airflow from the rotor. In
and gearbox can be placed on the ground. (2) A yaw order to overcome the disadvantages of S-VAWT mentioned
mechanism to turn the rotor against the wind is not necessary above, a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with a
for the turbine system. On the other hand, however, there are directed guide vane row has been proposed and tested by the
substantial drawbacks of S-VAWT. That is, the power authors [5, 6]. The guide vane which consists of arc plate
coefficient and self-starting characteristic of S-VAWT are less rotates around the rotor and is directed to the wind by
than those of HAWT. aerodynamic force generated by tail vane, so as to put the guide
According to previous studies, the performances of drag- vane in upstream of the rotor (Fig. 2). According to previous
based vertical axis wind turbines, such as Savonius wind studies, it was clarified that the performance of the straight-
turbine and cross-flow wind turbine, can be improved by bladed vertical axis turbine can be improved by means of the
setting guide vanes around the rotors because the guide vanes directed guide vane row (Fig. 3) [5]. Furthermore, it has been
in upstream of the rotor work as nozzle and increase torque [3, found that since the guide vane generates wake in its
downstream and increases the whirl velocity of inlet flow to the

2 Copyright © 2009 by ASME


Figure 5 Photograph of test apparatus

Figure 7 Straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with


directed guide vane row

Table 1 Specifications of rotor

Blade profile NACA4518


Radius R (mm) 300
Height H (mm) 700
Chord length C (mm) 100
Number of blades Zr 3
Solidity σ 0.5

Table 2 Specifications of guide vane

Blade profile Arc plate


Chord length (mm) 87
Radius (mm) 50
Camber angle (°) 120
Thickness (mm) 3
Figure 6 Outline of Test apparatus Height (mm) 760
Number of vanes Zg 1-4

rotor, the performance of S-VAWT is enhanced as shown in


Fig. 4 which is instantaneous flow patter around the wind were investigated by using a wind tunnel in the experiments.
turbine obtained by CFD [6]. However, the effect of guide
vane geometry on the performance has not been clarified so far. NOMENCLATURE
In the study, in order to clarify the effect of guide vane A Projected area = 2HR
geometry, the effects of distance between the guide vanes and C Chord length of rotor blade
number of guide vanes on power and torque coefficients Cp Power coefficient = P/(ρAV3/2)

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Table 3 Configuration of guide vane row 0.20
Vane-less
Number of vanes Distance between Configuration of W=100mm
Zg the vanes W (mm) vanes 0.15 150
200
1 −

Cp
0.10
2 100

2 150
0.05
2 200

3 100 0.00
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
3 125 λ

3 150
(a) Zg = 2
4 100
0.20
Vane-less
W=100mm
Cp,peak peak power coefficient 0.15 125
Ct torque coefficient = T/(ρAV2R/2)
150
Ct,peak peak torque coefficient
Cp
H rotor blade height (m) 0.10
N rotational speed of rotor (rpm)
P power output = Tω (W)
R radius of rotor (m) 0.05
Re Reynolds number based on the chord = UC/ν
T torque (Nm)
U circumferential velocity of rotor = Rω (m/s) 0.00
V wind velocity (m/s) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
W distance between the guide vanes (mm) λ
Zg number of guide vanes
Zr number of rotor blades (b) Zg = 3
Greek symbols
λ rotational speed ratio = U/V Figure 8 Effect of distance between the guide vanes on power
ρ density of air (kg/m3) coefficient
σ solidity of rotor = CZr/(2R)
ω angular velocity of rotor = πN/30 (rad/s)
speed N is up to 650 rpm. The torque is obtained by taking
EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE into consideration unloaded torque which is measured when the
Figures 5, 6 and 7 show the experimental apparatus. The induction motor rotates the rotor shaft without the blade.
experiments for the proposed S-VAWT are carried out by a The tested turbine has some straight rotor blades with a
wind tunnel. The wind tunnel has an outlet diameter of 1.8 m profile of NACA4518, a chord length of C = 100 mm, a radius
and it is an open jet type. The center of the turbine rotor is of R = 0.3 m and a height of H = 0.7 m. Detailed information
located at 1.2 m downstream from the center of the wind tunnel about the rotor is indicated in Figs. 6, 7 and Table 1. The
outlet. The rotor axis is held by two ball bearings, and is number of rotor blades Zr is 3 which correspond to a solidity of
combined through couplings with both the torque detector and σ = 0.5.
the induction motor which is controlled by an inverter, as Actually, the guide vane row having some arc plates rotates
shown in Fig. 6. The wind velocity is ranging from 5 to 7 m/s around the rotor and is directed to the wind by aerodynamic
in the experiments. The wind velocity was measured at the force generated by tail vane, so as to put the guide vane row in
wind tunnel outlet by using a Pitot tube survey. The rotational upstream of the rotor. However, in the study, the guide vane
row is fixed in order to investigate the effect of guide vane

4 Copyright © 2009 by ASME


0.15 0.20
Vane-less Vane-less
W=100mm Z=1
0.15
150 2
0.10
200 3
4

Cp
Ct

0.10

0.05
0.05

0.00 0.00
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
λ λ

(a) Zg = 2 (a) Power coefficient

0.15 0.15
Vane-less Vane-less
W=100mm Z=1
125 2
0.10 150
0.10 3
4
Ct
Ct

0.05 0.05

0.00 0.00
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
λ λ

(b) Zg = 3 (b) Torque coefficient

Figure 9 Effect of distance between the guide vanes on torque Figure 10 Effect of number of guide vanes on turbine
coefficient characteristics (W = 100mm)

geometry as the first step of study, as shown in Fig. 6. The this case, a modified swept area should be used in the definition
profile of guide vane consists of an arc and has a chord of 87 of Cp. But it is very difficult to decide the modified swept
mm, a radius of 50 mm and a thickness of 3 mm. As shown in area because the position of guide vane row always changes in
Table 3, The distance between the guide vanes W is ranging actual case. Therefore, the original rotor area is used in the
from 100 mm to 200 mm in order to investigate its effect. definition of Cp in the study.
Further, the number of guide vanes Zg is ranging from 1 to 4. Figure 8 shows the effect of the distance between the guide
vanes W on the power coefficient Cp. Figures 8(a) and 8(b)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS are comparisons in the cases of Zg = 2 and 3, respectively.
Experimental results are expressed in terms of the power From both the figures, it found that the power coefficient can
coefficient Cp and torque coefficients CT, which are all plotted be fairly improved by setting the guide vane in spite of value of
against the rotational speed ratio λ. The original rotor area is W. The highest values of Cp were obtained in the case of W =
used for the estimates of Cp in the study. However, the guide 150mm for Zg = 2 and in the case of W = 125mm for Zg = 3.
vane row captures air from outside the original swept area. In This is because area of wake is narrow in the case of smaller W
and inlet flow does not turn in the case of longer distance of W.

5 Copyright © 2009 by ASME


However, the Cp and Ct increase with Zg at higher rotational
0.25 speed ratio.
Figure 11 shows the effect of Reynolds number Re on the
0.2 turbine characteristics. Here, the Reynolds numbers are at the
rotational speed ratio showing the peak coefficient. As may
be seen from the figure, Re strongly affects Cp,peak and Ct,peak
C p,peak

0.15 because the rotor blade is a reaction type, especially, both the
peak coefficient increase with Re in the tested range of Re.
0.1 Moreover, it may be considered that flow pattern around the
guide vane is improved when Re becomes higher, and then an
0.05 airflow direction from the guide vane row to the rotor changes.
Here, it should be noted that the peak power coefficients in
0 the study are on the order of 0.2. These are much lower that
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 what is typical for modern HAWTs. The reasons of this fact
are that the tested Reynolds number is quite lower and the test
Re [x105] solidity is relatively higher when compared with those of
previous studies.
(a) Peak power coefficient
CONCLUSIONS
In the study, the experimental study of straight-bladed
vertical axis wind turbine (S-VAWT) with directed guide vane
0.14 row was carried out by a wind tunnel. The effects of distance
0.12 between the guide vanes and number of guide vanes on the
power coefficient and the torque coefficient were investigated
0.1 in the experiments. As a result, the effect of guide vane
C t,peak

0.08 geometry on the performance was clarified in the study.


(1) The power coefficient and the torque coefficient in the
0.06 case of S-VAWT depend on the distance between the
0.04 guide vanes.
(2) There is the optimum value of W and it is 125mm ≤ W ≤
0.02 150mm in this study.
0 (3) The power coefficient and the torque coefficient in the
case of S-VAWT are independent of the number of guide
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 vanes.
However, it should be noted that the wind direction is fixed
Re [x105] in the experiments because of a wind tunnel. In practice,
since the wind direction always changes, it is necessary to
(b) Peak torque coefficient investigate the effect of responsiveness of guide vane behavior.
This investigation would be one of future studies in order to
Figure 11 Effect of Reynolds number on turbine develop a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with high
characteristics (W = 125mm, Zg = 3) performance.
Furthermore, the center of gravity for S-VAWT with
directed guide vane row should be compare with the original S-
Further, the rotational speed ratio showing the peak value VAWT which has no guide vane, as next step of the study.
decreases with the increase of W for both the cases of Zg. This comparison is very important to evaluate the usefulness of
Similarly, regarding the torque coefficient, the highest the new S-VAWT for the float of offshore wind farm.
values of Cp were obtained in the case of W = 150mm for Zg = Finally, the cost for manufacturing the guide vane and tail
2 and in the case of W = 125mm for Zg = 3 as shown in Fig. 9. should be estimated and discussed in order to solve economical
Therefore, it can be concluded form the above facts that there is problem. This matter also would be a future study for
the optimum value of distance between the guide vanes and it is developments of the proposed S-VAWT.
125mm ≤ W ≤ 150mm in the experiments.
Figure 10 indicates the effect of number of guide vanes on REFERENCE
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guide vanes is W = 100mm. As shown in the figure, the peak “Aerodynamic Models for Darrieus-type Straight-bladed
values for both the coefficients are independent of Zg.

6 Copyright © 2009 by ASME


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