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Elements of the Object-Process Methodology Language

ENTITIES

STRUCTURAL LINKS & COMPLEXITY MANAGEMENT

ENABLING AND TRANSFORMING PROCEDURAL LINKS

EVENT, CONDITION, AND INVOCATION PROCEDURAL LINKS

ENTITIES
Name Symbol OPL Definition

B is physical.
(shaded rectangle)
An object is a thing that exists.
Object C is physical and
environmental. A process is a thing that transforms
Things

(shaded dashed rectangle)


at least one object.
E is physical.
(shaded ellipse) Transformation is object generation
Process or consumption, or effect—a change
F is physical and in the state of an object.
environmental.
(shaded dashed ellipse)

A is s1.
A state is situation an object can be at
or a value it can assume.
B can be s1 or s2.
State
States are always within an object.
C can be s1, s2, or s3.
States can be initial or final.
s1 is initial.
s3 is final.

STRUCTURAL LINKS & COMPLEXITY


MANAGEMENT
Name Symbol OPL Semantics
Fundamental Structural

A consists of B
and C.
Relations

Aggregation-
A is the whole, B and C are parts.
Participation
A consists of B
and C.
A exhibits B, as
well as C. Object B is an attribute of A and
process C is its operation (method).
Exhibition-
Characterization
A can be an object or a process.
A exhibits B, as
well as C.

B is an A.
C is an A.
A specializes into B and C.
Generalization-
Specialization A, B, and C can be either all objects or
all processes.
B is A.
C is A.

B is an instance
Object A is the class, for which B and
Classification- of A.
C are instances.
Instantiation C is an instance
Applicable to processes too.
of A.
A relates to B.
(for
Unidirectional &
unidirectional)
bidirectional A user-defined textual tag describes
tagged structural any structural relation between two
A and C are
links objects or between two processes.
related.
(for
bidirectional)
A exhibits C.
A consists of B.
Zooming into process A, B is its part
A zooms into B,
and C is its attribute.
as well as C.
In-zooming
A exhibits C.
A consists of B. Zooming into object A, B is its part and
A zooms into B, C is its operation.
as well as C.
ENABLING AND TRANSFORMING PROCEDURAL LINKS

Name Symbol OPL Semantics

Denotes that the object is a human


Agent Link A handles B.
operator.
Enabling links

"Wait until" semantics: Process B


Instrument
B requires A. cannot happen if object A does not
Link
exist.
State-
"Wait until" semantics: Process B
Specified B requires s1
cannot happen if object A is not at
Instrument A.
state s1.
Link
Consumption
B consumes A. Process B consumes Object A.
Link
State-
Specified B consumes s1 Process B consumes Object A
Consumption A. when it is at State s1.
Link

Result Link B yields A. Process B creates Object A.


Transforming links

State-
Specified Process B creates Object A at State
B yields s1 A.
Result Link s1.

Input-Output B changes A Process B changes the state of


Link Pair from s1 to s2. Object A from State s1 to State s2.

Process B changes the state of


Effect Link B affects A. Object A; the details of the effect
may be added at a lower level.
EVENT, CONDITION, AND INVOCATION
PROCEDURAL LINKS

Name Symbol OPL Semantics

Existence or generation of object A will


Instrument
A triggers B. attempt to trigger process B once.
Event Link
B triggers A. Execution will proceed if the triggering
failed.

State-
A triggers B. Entering state s1 will attempt to trigger
Specified
when it enters s1. the process once. Execution will proceed
Instrument
B requires s1 A. if the triggering failed.
Event Link

Existence or generation of object A will


Consumption A triggers B. attempt to trigger process B once. If B is
Event Link B consumes A. triggered, it will consume A. Execution
will proceed if the triggering failed.

State- A triggers B Entering state s2 will attempt to trigger


Specified when it enters s2. the process once. If B is triggered, it will
Consumption B consumes s2 consume A. Execution will proceed if the
Event Link A. triggering failed.

Existence of object A is a condition to


the execution of B.
Condition B occurs if A
If object A does not exist, then process B
Link exists.
is skipped and regular system flow
continues.
Existence of object A at state s2 is a
State-
condition to the execution of B.
Specified B occurs if A is
If object A does not exist, then process B
Condition s1.
is skipped and regular system flow
Link
continues.
Execution will proceed if the triggering
Invocation failed (due to failure to fulfill one or
B invokes C.
Link more of the conditions in the
precondition set).