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SANITATION OPTIONS IN PERI-URBAN

AREAS: Can Tho City, Vietnam


Associate Professor Michael Paddon
University of Technology Sydney THINK.
CHANGE.
DO

ADB-DMC and Partner Sanitation Dialogue


“making sanitation a sustainable business”
23-25 May 2011, ADB, Manila

1
Can Tho Sustainable Sanitation
Project

 Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) ,


Can Tho University, City Water Supply
and Sewerage Company (CTWSSC)
 Approved by CT Peoples’ Committee
 Detailed material and assistance from:
 GTZ waste water project in Can Tho
 International NGO re technologies-BORDA
 DONRE monitored water quality
 ISF costing and sustainability analysis methodology
 Aim - develop a methodology for Asian city sustainable
infrastructure investment planning
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Can Tho City and the peri-
urban area

Can Tho
City

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1. Can Tho – detailed orientation and wastewater challenges

Current challenges for sewerage in Can Tho

 Affordability for households


 Funding for WSSC to manage sewerage
 Rate of urbanisation is unsure
 Climate change impacts
 Pollution in river and ground water from leaking septics
 Flat land makes gravity sewer difficult
 Lack of connection between developer’s design and
primary collection system

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1. Can Tho -detailed orientation and wastewater challenges

Development Plans for Peri Urban South Can Tho

 Based on existing plans of 16 developments,


and further 21 developments, total population
will be 278 000
 55 600 dwellings
 Based on actual predicted water-use in each
development lot (residential and non-
residential), total wastewater produced will be
57 750 m3/day

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2. Sanitation Options

Options 1-3

1. Centralised: connect new


developments to
wastewater treatment
plant being built
2. Decentralised: separate
systems for each
development
3. Combination of 1 and 2
depending on location

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2. Sanitation Options

Option 4

4. Combination of 1 and 2
- for the decentralised
component, separat
egreywater, blackwater,
and urine
(for nutrient recovery,
treatment and re use
as fertilizer)

Michael Paddon, ISF, University of


23-25 May, Manila 7
Technology Sydney
3. Costing analysis results
End use assumptions

Calculate household water use

Calculate unit wastewater and


nutrient production

Calculate wastewater (grey &


black) for each development

Summarise and calculate flow


rates

Calculate infrastructure size for


each option (pipes, pumps,
treatment)

Calculate costs for each option


year by year as developments
are built 8
3. Costing analysis results

Comparison of options

Cost of option in present Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4


value million VND (2010) Fully Fully Centralised Centralised
centralised decentralised /decentralised /decentralised
with resource
recovery in
decentralised
areas
Present Value Capital Cost 517,000 276,000 256,000 330,000
(27m USD) (14m USD) (13m USD) (17m USD)
Present Value Operation 4,000 1,900 2,200 2,300
and Maintenance Cost
Present Value Revenue - - - 11,800
from Fertiliser Sales
Levelised cost per 20 11 10 13
household (1,000 USD) (600 USD) (500 USD) (700 USD)
3
Levelised cost per m water 0.064 0.030 0.029 0.036
consumed (3.4 USD) (1.6 USD) (1.6 USD) (1.9 USD)

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3. Costing analysis results

Comparison of capital costs of options

Net present value


600000

500000

400000
NPV (Million VND)

300000
NPV (triệu VNĐ)

200000

100000

0
Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4

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3. Costing analysis results

Operation and maintenance costs, and sales


of fertiliser

Net present value of sales of fertiliser -


Net present value - operation and
maintenance 12,000
12,000

10,000
10,000

8,000
8,000
Million VND

6,000
6,000

4,000 4,000

2,000 2,000

0 -
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

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3. Costing analysis results

Energy usage of options

18.0

16.0

14.0

12.0
Million kWh/year

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0
Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4

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4. Sustainability assessment

Sustainability criteria – five dimensions

Technical and Risk (TR) e g technology,complexity


Social and Health (SH) e g public health, equity
Environmental (Env) e g water quality, energy use
Economic (Eco) e g costs, land use
City Future (CF) e g resilience, innovative

Each with 4-5 criteria

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4. Sustainability assessment

Results of sustainability assessment

Technical (TR)
6

City future (CF) 2 Social and health (SH)

Economic and Financial (Eco) Environment (Env)

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4. 5. Sustainability assessment

Results of sustainability assessment

18

16

14

12

10

l 0 15
PHƯƠNG ÁN 1 PHƯƠNG ÁN 2 PHƯƠNG ÁN 3 PHƯƠNG ÁN 4
5. Wider Policy Implications

Our Conclusions

 Decentralised systems can provide cost-effective,


sustainable wastewater solutions, particularly with
uncertain rates of urbanisation
 Consideration should be given to both decentralised and
centralised systems in wastewater infrastructure planning.
 The most important criterion is that waste water planning is
appropriate to local situations and circumstances
 There need for demonstration of novel decentralised
technologies give city stakeholders confidence and
experience in decentralised wastewater technologies
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Acknowledgements

 The ISF team – Juliet Willetts,


Cynthia Mitchell, Naomi
Carrard and Monique Retamal
 College of Environment and
Natural Resources at Can Tho
University
 Can Tho Water Supply and
Sewerage Company
 AusAID

Michael Paddon
mpaddon@uts.edu.au