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Antenna Theory

Applications

2004
Outline

z Antenna Construction z New Concepts

Pioneers of EM Theory & Antennas

z Thales(600 BC): Observed sparks when silk

rubbed on amber, natural stones attracted

z Gilbert
Gauss, Volta (1800), Oersted (1819), Ampere
(1820), Ohm, Faraday, Henry (1831), Maxwell
(1873)
The First Antenna
z HeinrichRudolph Hertz’s (1886) built first
z Guglielmo Marconi:
- Repeated Hertz’s experiments
- Built first radio system to signal over
large distances: England to Newfoundland
- Proved radio waves bend around earth
- Also applied technology to ships
Dipole

F0 (MHz) λ (Meters) λ (Inches)

30 10.0 393.6
¼λ 80 3.75 147.6
160 1.87 73.8
280 1.07 42.2
460 0.65 25.7
800 0.38 14.8
F0 ¼λ 960 0.31 12.3
1700 0.18 6.95
2000 0.15 5.90
Dipoles and the Antenna

z Need to “flatten” the “doughnut” to concentrate the signal to

where it is wanted, at ground level
Understanding the Mysterious “dB”
– A dB is 1/10th of a “Bel” (Named after Alexander Graham Bell)

– A dB or “Decibel” originally comes from quantifying signal strengths in terms

of relative loudness as registered by the human ear
– dB in the RF world is the difference between two signal strengths

Blah bl ah
blah bl ah
dBd and dBi

A single dipole An isotropic radiator

doughnut pattern ALL directions

The gain of an antenna compared

to a dipole is in “dBd”

2.17dB The gain of an antenna compared

to an isotropic radiator is in “dBi”
The dipole is 2.17dB higher in gain eg: 3dBd = 5.17dBi
“dBm and dBc”
“dBm” – Absolute signal strength relative to 1 milliwatt
1 mWatt = 0 dBm
1 Watt = +30 dBm Note: The
Logarithmic Scale
10 Watts = +40 dBm 10 x log10 (Power Ratio)
20 Watts = +43 dBm

“dBc” – Signal strength relative to a signal of known strength, in

this case: the carrier signal

How and why is dBc used with base station antenna specs?

Pay attention – Group quiz later!

Basic Antenna System

• Antenna
• Jumper Cable
• Feeder Cable
• Surge Arrestor
• Jumper Cable
Full System Sweep

• 3 different tests
• Return Loss
• VSWR
• Distance to Fault (DTF)
• Antenna
• Jumper Cable
• Feeder Cable
• Surge Arrestor
• Jumper Cable
Impedance
• These 3 tests measure the reflected voltages caused
by change of impedance in a transmission line.
• Impedance is measured in ohms (Ω).
V=IxR

or V=IxZ

where Z is defined as impedance and is

complex
Examples: Z=R+jX
• Wireless = 50Ω
R = resistance and X = reactance both
• Old TV = 300Ω measured in ohms
• Cable TV = 75Ω
Impedance
Cover (Jacket) Outer
Conductor

D d

Dielectric Inner
(Foam) Conductor

History note:
•Older CATV coax had air dielectric
utilizing plastic disc’s to support the
center conductor.
Impedance

Antenna
Source
= 50 ohms
50 ohms

Cable
=
50 ohms

Match!
Return Loss

Transmitted: 9.92W

51Ω
Reflected: 0.08W
Incident : 10W

A typical system always has some nominal

impedance mismatch. Here the Return Loss is
50Ω 10 log (0.08 / 10) = -21dB PASS!
Return Loss

* Limit lines should be provided

by system design engineers.
System Failures

Antenna
Source
= 50 ohms
50 ohms

Cable
=
50 ohms
System Failures

Smashed!
Antenna
Source
= 50 ohms 95 ohms
50 ohms

Mismatch!
When an impedance mismatch occurs in an RF subsystem, an amount
of RF energy is reflected back to the source.
System Failures

Transmitted: 5.9W

95Ω
Reflected:4.1W
Incident : 10W

When something is wrong, much more energy

will reflect causing performance failures. Here
the Return Loss is
50Ω
10 log (4.1 / 10) = -3.87dB FAIL!
System Failures
System Failures
Mini Group Quiz!

What is the “standard” torque

spec of a 7/16 DIN?
“Positive Stop” Connector
A) 18 to 22 ft-lbs. - up to 70 ft-lbs
B) 50 to 55 ft-lbs. A
C) 122 to 127ft-lbs

RF components have some reflection but damaged components will cause larger
reflections and in that case creates a system to fail.
VSWR
Transmitted: 9.92W

51Ω

Reflected: 0.08W
Incident : 10W

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is

related to Return Loss. The difference is that
50Ω
Here the VSWR is
VSWR = (1+(10^21/20)) / (1-(10^21/20))
Or
-21dB RL = 1.195:1 VSWR PASS!
VSWR
VSWR

Transmitted: 5.9W

95Ω
Reflected:4.1W
Incident : 10W

Here the VSWR is

VSWR = (1+(10^3.8/20)) / (1-(10^3.8/20))

50Ω or
-3.84 dB RL = 4.60:1 VSWR FAIL!
VSWR
DTF
These tests work best when
used as a references.

Test results may be swayed

Fault by variables such as vector

Travel time(ms)
Travel time(ms) addition and subtraction of
phase, interfering signals
and cable lengths.

Consider matching current

test results to previously
recorded tests and look for
changes.
DTF
Effect of VSWR
Good VSWR is only one component of an efficient antenna system.
Note: 2 dB in Return Loss is much smaller than 2 dB of forward gain!

Return Transmission Power Power

VSWR Loss (dB) Loss (dB) Reflected (%) Trans. (%)

1.00 −∞ 0.00 0.0 100.0

1.10 −26.4 0.01 0.2 99.8
1.20 −20.8 0.04 0.8 99.2
1.30 −17.7 0.08 1.7 98.3
1.40 −15.6 0.12 2.8 97.2
1.50 −14.0 0.18 4.0 96.0
2.00 −9.5 0.51 11.1 88.9
3D View
Antenna Pattern

Source: COMSEARCH
Shaping Antenna Patterns
Vertical arrangement of properly phased dipoles allows control of radiation
patterns at the horizon as well as above and below the horizon.
The more dipoles are stacked vertically, the flatter the “beam” is and the higher
the antenna coverage or “gain” in the general direction of the horizon.
Shaping Antenna Patterns (cont . . .)
Aperture Vertical Horizontal Stacking 4 dipoles
of Dipoles Pattern Pattern vertically in line changes
the pattern shape
(squashes the doughnut)
Single Dipole and increases the gain
over single dipole.
The peak of the horizontal
or vertical pattern
measures the gain.
The little lobes, illustrated
in the lower section, are
4 Dipoles
Vertically Stacked secondary minor lobes.
GENERAL STACKING RULE:
• Collinear elements (in-line vertically).
• Optimum spacing (for non-electrical tilt) is approximately 0.9λ.
• Doubling the number of elements increases gain by 3 dB, and reduces
vertical beamwidth by half.
Gain

What is it?
Antenna gain is a comparison of the power/field characteristics of a
device under test (DUT) to a specified gain standard.

Why is it useful?
Gain is directly associated with link budget: coverage distance and/or
obstacle penetration (buildings, foliage, etc).

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing. The
reference gain standard must always be specified.
Gain References (dBd and dBi)

z An isotropic antenna is
a single point in space Isotropic (dBi)
Isotropic Pattern Dipole (dBd)
Gain
sphere (not physically Dipole Pattern
possible)

z A dipole antenna is one

(physically possible)
3 (dBd) = 5.15 (dBi)

z A gain antenna is two or 0 (dBd) = 2.15 (dBi)

phased together
Principles of Antenna Gain
Omni Antenna Directional Antennas
Side View Top View
-3 dB
0 dBd
0 dBd 60°

-3 dB
+3 dBd 180°

+3 dBd 30° -3 dB

-3 dB

+6 dBd 90°
+6 dBd 15°
-3 dB
-3 dB

7.5°
+9 dBd +9 dBd 45°
-3 dB

-3 dB
Theoretical Gain of Antennas (dBd)

Half Power Azimuth Beam Width Typical Length

(Influenced by Grounded Back “Plate”) of Antenna (ft.)
800/900 DCS 1800 Vertical
360° 180° 120° 105° 90° 60° 45° 33° MHzPCS 1900 Beamwidth
vertically spaced (0.9λ)

2 3 6 7 8 9 11 12 13.6 2' 1' 30°

3 4.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 12.5 13.5 15.1 3' 1.5' 20°
4 6 9 10 11 12 14 15 16.6 4' 2' 15°
6 7.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 15.5 16.5 18.1 6' 3' 10°
8 9 12 13 14 15 17 18 19.6 8' 4' 7.5°
Gain vs. Length
25

20

15
Gain (dBi)

10

5
G=10 log ( 2.2 λπ L W )
2
e

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Antenna Length (wavelengths)

65° Az BW 90° Az BW 120° Az BW

Gain vs. Beamwidths
25

20

15
Gain (dBi)

10

5 G=10 log ( 29000

Az EI
)
BW BW

0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Antenna Gain

z Gain (dBi) = Directivity (dBi) – Losses (dB)

z Losses: Conductor
Dielectric
Impedance
Polarization

Polarization

z Electricand magnetic fields are

interdependent => Electromagnetic wave

z Time-changing electric field generates

magnetic field, vice versa

z An antenna’s polarization is a characteristic of

the EM wave, i.e. electric field’s orientation

z If
antenna and incoming EM wave are co-
polarized => Max response from antenna
BREAK
Elements

Dipole 1800/1900/UMTS Diversity (Dual-Pol)

Directed Dipole™ Directed Dipole™

Patch 800/900 MHz MAR

Directed Dipole™ Microstrip Annular Ring
Dipoles

Single Dipole Crossed Dipole

Feed Harness Construction

Series Feed Center Feed Corporate

(Hybrid) Feed
Feed Harness Construction (cont . . .)

Center Feed
Series Feed (Hybrid) Corporate Feed

Advantages: z Minimal feed losses z Frequency z Frequency

z Simple feed system independent main independent main
lobe direction beam direction
z Reasonably z More beam
simple feed shaping ability,
system side lobe
suppression
BEAMTILT
z Not as versatile as z Complex feed
+1°

corporate (less system
+1° ASP-705
bandwidth, less
+2°
450 455 460 465 470 MHz
beam shaping)
Feed Networks

z Cable

z Microstripline, Corporate Feeds

– Dielectric Substrate

– Air Substrate

Microstrip Feed Lines

z Dielectric Substrate
– uses ‘printed circuit’ technology
– power limitations
– dielectric substrate causes loss (1.0 dB/m)

z Air Substrate
– metal strip spaced above a groundplane
– minimal solder or welded joints
– laser cut or punched
– air substrate cause minimal loss (0.5 dB/m)
Air Microstrip Network
Dielectric Substrate Microstrip
Stacking Dipoles
8 Dipoles

1 Dipole 4 Dipoles

2 Dipoles
Azimuth Omni Antenna
Vertical Pattern
Directional Array Antenna
Pattern Simulation
Main Lobe
What is it?
The main lobe is the radiation pattern 35° Total
lobe that contains the majority portion of Main Lobe

Why is it useful?
Shaping of the pattern allows the
contained coverage necessary for
interference-limited system designs.

How is it measured?
The main lobe is characterized using a
number of the measurements which will
follow.
Half-Power Beamwidth
Horizontal and Vertical
What is it?
1/2 Power
The angular span between the half-power Beamwidth
(-3 dB) points measured on the cut of the

Why is it useful?
It allows system designers to
choose the optimum characteristics
for coverage vs. interference
requirements.

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from
antenna range testing.

What is T-Mobile standard?

Most applications require 65 degrees in
azimuth, ~5 degrees in elevation.
Front-To-Back Ratio
What is it?
The ratio in dB of the maximum directivity
of an antenna to its directivity in a
specified rearward direction.

Why is it useful?
It characterizes unwanted
interference on the backside of the
main lobe. The larger the number,
the better!

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from
antenna range testing.
F/B Ratio
What is T-Mobile standard? 0 dB - 25 dB = 25 dB
30 dB throughout the region that is +/- 45 degrees directly back of the
main lobe.
Sidelobe Level
What is it?
Sidelobe level is a measure of a
particular sidelobe or angular
group of sidelobes with Sidelobe Level
respect to the main lobe. (-20 dB)
Why is it useful?
Sidelobe level or pattern
shaping allows the minor lobe
energy to be tailored to the
antenna’s intended use. See
Null Fill and Upper Sidelobe
Suppression.

How is it measured?
It is always measured with respect to the
main lobe in dB.
Null Filling
What is it?
Null Filling is an array optimization technique
that reduces the null between the
lower lobes in the elevation plane.
Why is it useful?
For arrays with a narrow vertical beam-
width (less than 12°), null filling
significantly improves signal intensity in
all coverage targets below the main lobe.
How is it measured?
Null fill is easiest explained as the
relative dB difference between the peak
of the main beam and the depth of the
1st lower null.
What is T-Mobile standard?
The depth of the 1st lower null shall not be more than 20 dB
relative to the peak of the main beam.
Null Fill
Important for antennas with narrow elevation beamwidths.

Null Filled to 16 dB Below Peak

0
Transmit Power = 1 W
-20
Base Station Antenna Height = 40 m
-40
Base Station Antenna Gain = 18 dBi
-60 Elevation Beamwidth = 6.5°
-80

-100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Distance (km)
Upper Sidelobe Suppression
What is it?
Upper sidelobe suppression (USLS) is an array
optimization technique that reduces the
undesirable sidelobes above the main lobe.
Why is it useful?
For arrays with a narrow vertical
beamwidth (less than 12°), USLS can
significantly reduce interference due to
multi-path or when the antenna is
mechanically downtilted.
How is it measured?
USLS is the relative dB difference
between the peak of the main beam
peak of the first upper sidelobe.
What is T-Mobile standard?
Upper side lobes must be at least –18 dB from the main lobe through
zenith.
Orthogonality
What is it?
The ability of an antenna to discriminate δ
between two EM waves whose polarization
difference is 90 degrees.

Why is it useful?
Orthogonal arrays within a single
antenna allow for polarization diversity.
(As opposed to spatial diversity.)

How is it measured?
XPol = 20 log ( tan (δ))
The difference between the co-polar δ = 0°, XPol = -∞ dB
pattern and the cross-polar pattern, δ = 5°, XPol = -21 dB
usually measured in the boresite (the δ =10°, XPol = -15 dB
direction of the main signal). δ =15°, XPol = -11 dB
δ =20°, XPol = -9 dB
δ =30°, XPol = -5 dB
δ =40°, XPol =-1.5 dB
Cross-Pol Ratio (CPR)
What is it? 120°
CPR is a comparison of the co-pol vs. cross-pol 0

-10

-20

(alternatively over the 3 dB beamwidth). -25

-30

-35
TYPICAL
Why is it useful? -40

It is a measure of the ability of a dual-pol array to

distinguish between orthogonal EM waves. The Co-Polarization
better the CPR, the better the performance of Cross-Polarization
polarization diversity. (Source @ 90°)
120°
How is it measured? 0

-10

-25

-30

What is T-Mobile standard? -35

-40
LOG
16 dB minimum for azimuth pattern.
Horizontal Beam Tracking
What is it?
It refers to the beam tracking between the two 120°
beams of a +/-45° polarization diversity antenna
over a specified angular range.

Why is it useful?
-45° +45°
For optimum diversity Array Array
performance, the beams should
track as closely as possible.

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected
from antenna range testing and
compares the two plots in dB over
the specified angular range.

What is T-Mobile standard?

The beams shall track within 1 dB over the 3
dB horizontal beamwidth.
Beam Squint
Horizontal
Boresite
What is it?
The amount of pointing error of a given beam θ/2
Squint
referenced to mechanical boresite. θ
-3 dB +3 dB
Why is it useful?
The beam squint can affect the sector
coverage if it is not at mechanical
boresite. It can also affect the
performance of the polarization
diversity style antennas if the two
arrays do not have similar patterns.

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected
from antenna range testing.

What is T-Mobile standard?

For the horizontal beam, squint shall be less than 10% of the 3
dB beamwidth. For the vertical beam, squint shall be less than
10% of the 3 dB beamwidth.
Sector Power Ratio (SPR)
What is it? 120°
SPR is a ratio expressed in percentage of the
power outside the desired sector to the power
inside the desired sector created by an
antenna’s pattern.

Why is it useful?
It is a percentage that allows comparison
of various antennas. The better the SPR,
the better the interference performance of
the system.
How is it measured?
It is mathematically derived from the DESIRED
measured range data.
UNDESIRED
300
What is T-Mobile standard?
Σ P
60
Undesired
(Being studied.) SPR (%) = X 100
60
Σ P
300
Desired
120° Sector Overlay Issues
“On the Capacity and Outage Probability of a CDMA Heirarchial Mobile
System with Perfect/Imperfect Power Control and Sectorization”
By: Jie ZHOU et, al IEICE TRANS FUNDAMENTALS, VOL.E82-A, NO.7 JULY 1999

. . . From the numerical results, the user capacities are dramatically decreased as the
imperfect power control increases and the overlap between the sectors (imperfect
sectorization) increases . . .

“Effect of Soft and Softer Handoffs

Percentage of
capacity loss
on CDMA System Capacity”
By: Chin-Chun Lee et, al IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR
TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 47, NO. 3,
AUGUST 1998

overlapping angle in degree

Qualitatively, excessive overlay also
reduces capacity of TDMA and GSM
systems.
The Impact:
Lower Co-Channel Interference/Better Capacity & Quality
antennas produce a high degree of
imperfect power control or sector
overlap.
Imperfect sectorization presents
opportunities for:
z Increased softer hand-offs
z Interfering signals
z Dropped calls
65° 90°
z Reduced capacity
Log Periodics (Example)
The rapid roll-off of the lower lobes of
the log periodic antennas create larger,
better defined “cones
of silence” behind the array.

z Much smaller softer hand-off area

z Dramatic call quality improvement
z 5% - 10 % capacity enhancement
65° 90°
Antenna-Based System Improvements
Key antenna parameters to examine closely…

Log Periodic Standard 85° Panel Antenna

-7dB Roll off -6dB
at -/+ 60°

74° points 83°

Horizontal
-16dB Ant/Ant -12dB
Isolation

Next Sector
Ant/Ant
-35dB -18dB
Isolation

120° Cone 60°

Cone of Silence with >40dB of Silence Area of Poor Silence with
Front-to-Back Ratio >27dB Front-to-Back Ratio
Dipole vs. LP Element

Azimuth Pattern Comparison:

1850 MHz, 2-Deg EDT

-10
Amplitude (dB)

-20

-30

-40

-50
-180 -150 -120 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Azimuth Angle (Degrees)
System Issues

z Downtilt – electrical vs. mechanical

z RET optimization

z Pattern distortion, alignment, orientation

z Antenna isolation
Choosing Sector Antennas

For 3 sector cell sites, what performance differences can

be expected from the use of antennas with different
horizontal apertures?

Criteria:
z Area of service indifference between adjacent sectors
(“ping-pong” area).
z For comparison, use 6 dB differentials.
z Antenna gain and overall sector coverage.
3 x 120° Antennas
120°
Horizontal
Overlay
Pattern
57° 3 dB
3 x 90° Antennas
90°
43° Horizontal
Overlay
Pattern

5 dB
3 x 65° Antennas
24° 65°
Horizontal
Overlay
Pattern

6 dB
Beam Downtilt
In urban areas, service and frequency utilization are
frequently improved by directing maximum radiation power at
an area below the horizon.

This Technique:
z Improves coverage of open areas close
to the base station.
z Allows more effective penetration of
nearby buildings, particular high-traffic
lower levels and garages.
z Permits the use of adjacent frequencies
in the same general region.
Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt

z A combination of equal electrical and mechanical downtilts

lowers main beam and brings back lobe onto the horizon!
Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt

Mechanical Electrical
Mechanical Downtilt Mounting Kit
Mechanical Downtilt

Mechanical Tilt Causes:

• Beam Peak to Tilt Below Horizon
• Back Lobe to Tilt Above Horizon
• At ± 90° No Tilt

Pattern Analogy: Rotating a Disk

Mechanical Downtilt Coverage
100 90 80 100 90 80
110 70 110 70
120 60 120 60
130 50 130 50

140 40 140 40

150 30 150 30

160 20 160 20

170 10 170 10

180 0 180 0

230 310 230 310

240 300 240 300
250 290 250 290
260 270 280 260 270 280

Mechanical Tilt 0° 4° 6° 8° 10°

Sample Antenna
0° Mechanical Downtilt

85°
Sample Antenna
7° Mechanical Downtilt

93°
Sample Antenna
15° Mechanical Downtilt

123°
Sample Antenna
20° Mechanical Downtilt

Horizontal
3 dB Bandwidth
Undefined
Managing Beam Tilt
For the radiation pattern to show maximum gain in the direction
of the horizon, each stacked dipole must be fed from the signal
source “in phase”. Feeding vertically arranged dipoles “out of
phase” will generate patterns that “look up” or “look down”.
The degree of beam tilt is a function of the phase shift of one
dipole relative to the adjacent dipole and their physical spacing.

GENERATING Electrical BEAM TILT

Dipoles Fed w/ Uniform Phase Dipoles Fed w/ Sequential Phase

Energy

in ¼λ

e
Phase

t
W av
Fron
Exciter
Exciter
Electrical Downtilt

Electrical Tilt Causes:

• Beam Peak to Tilt Below Horizon
• Back Lobe to Tilt Below Horizon
• All portions of the Pattern Tilts

Pattern Analogy: Forming a Cone Out of a Disk

Electrical Downtilt Coverage
100 90 80 100 90 80
110 70 110 70
120 60 120 60
130 50 130 50

140 40 140 40

150 30 150 30

160 20 160 20

170 10 170 10

180 0 180 0

230 310 230 310

240 300 240 300
250 290 250 290
260 270 280 260 270 280

Electrical Tilt 0° 4° 6° 8° 10°

Mechanical vs. Electrical Downtilt

350 0 10
340 20
330 30
320 40

310 50

300 60

290 70

280 80

270 90

260 100

250 110

240 120

230 130

220 140
210 150
200 160
190 180 170
With Variable Electrical Downtilt (VED),
you can adjust anywhere in seconds.
Sample Antenna
3° Electrical Downtilt
Sample Antenna
8° Electrical Downtilt
Sample Antenna
Overlay Electrical Downtilt

Remote Electrical Downtilt (RET)
Optimization

ANMS

ATC100 Series

Future

ATC200 Series
BREAK
Causes of Inter-Modulation Distortion

z Ferromagnetic materials in the current path:

– Steel
– Nickel Plating or Underplating

z Current Disruption:
– Loosely Contacting Surfaces
– Non-Conductive Oxide Layers Between Contact
Surfaces
“Intermod” Interference
Where?
F1 F3

Tx Rx Tx Rx
F1 F2 F3 F1 F2 F3

Tx Tx
F2 F2

F1
F2 F3 F
1
F3 Rx
DUP Tx1 F3
C F2
Tx1
O ELSEWHERE
M
Tx2 Rx3
B Tx2
ANTENNA-PRODUCED
Remember dBc?

“dBc” with antennas work like this IMD – Inter-Modulation Distortion

- 2 tones @ 20Watts = 43dBm PIM – Passive Inter-Modulation
- Scan for 3rd order of those 2 carriers
- If 3rd order = -110dBm then that = -153dBc
110dBm + 43dBm = 153dBc
PCS A-Band
Product Frequencies, Two-Signal IM
FIM = nF1 ± mF2
Example: F1 = 1945 MHz; F2 = 1930 MHz
Product Product Product
n m Order Formulae Frequencies (MHz)
1 1 Second 1F1 + 1F2 3875
1F1 – 1F2 15
2 1 Third 2F1 + 1F2 5820
*2F1 – 1F2 1960
1 2 Third 2F2 + 1F1 5805
*2F2 – 1F1 1915
2 2 Fourth 2F1 + 2F2 7750
2F1 – 2F2 30
3 2 Fifth 3F1 + 2F2 9695
*3F1 – 2F2 1975
2 3 Fifth 3F2 + 2F1 9680
*3F2 – 2F1 1900
*Odd-order difference products fall in-band.
Two-Signal IM
Odd-Order Difference Products
Example: F1 = 1945 MHz; F2 = 1930 MHz
ΔF = F1 - F2 = 15
F2 F1
1930 1945
2F2 – F1 2F1 – F2
1915 1960
ΔF
ΔF ΔF
3F2 – 2F1 3F1 – 2F2
F2 – ΔF F1 + ΔF
1900 1975

2ΔF 2ΔF

F2 – 2ΔF F1 + 2ΔF

Third Order: F1 + ΔF; F2 - ΔF

Fifth Order: F1 + 2ΔF; F2 - 2ΔF
Seventh Order:: F1 + 3ΔF; F2 - 3ΔF
“Higher than the highest – lower than the lowest – none in-between”
PCS Duplexed IM
Own Rx Any Rx
Tx Rx Band Band IM Equations
Band Frequency Frequency IM Order IM Order Own Rx Band Any Rx Band

C 1975-1990 1895-1910 11th 11th =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1900 =6*Tx(low)-5*Tx(high)=1900

A Band IM
11th 9th 7th 5th 3rd
1855 1870 1885 1900 1915 1930 1945

20 MHz

Channel Bandwidth FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan

Block (MHz) Frequencies
C 30 1895-1910, 1975-1990 Note: Some of the original C Block
C1 15 1902.5-1910, 1982.5-1990
C2 15 1895-1902-5, 1975-1982.5 licenses (Originally 30 MHz each) were
C3 10 1895-1900, 1975-1980 split into multiplelicenses (C-1 and C-2:
C4 10 1900-1905, 1980-1985 15 MHz; C-3, C-4, and C-5: 10MHz).
C5 10 1905-1910, 1985-1990
A and F Band IM
3rd
1895 1935 1975

20 MHz

Channel Bandwidth FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan

Block (MHz) Frequencies
C 30 1895-1910, 1975-1990 Note: Some of the original C Block
C1 15 1902.5-1910, 1982.5-1990
C2 15 1895-1902-5, 1975-1982.5 licenses (Originally 30 MHz each) were
C3 10 1895-1900, 1975-1980 split into multiplelicenses (C-1 and C-2:
C4 10 1900-1905, 1980-1985 15 MHz; C-3, C-4, and C-5: 10MHz).
C5 10 1905-1910, 1985-1990
System VSWR Calculator
Frequency (MHz): 895.00

System Max. Return Cable Cable Insertion Reflections

Cable Type
Component VSWR Loss (dB) Length (m) Length (ft) Loss (dB) at input
Antenna 1.33 16.98 0.0983
Top Jumper 1.07 29.42 2
LDF4-50A 1.22 4.00 0.08 0.0239
Main Feed Line 1.11 25.66 1
LDF5-50A 30.48 100.00 1.18 0.0484
Surge Suppressor 1.07 29.42 0.20 0.0329
Bottom Jumper 1.07 29.42 2
LDF4-50A 1.83 6.00 0.13 0.0338
1.59

Jumper Cable Types: Estimated System Reflection: 0.1216

FSJ4-50B Estimated System VSWR: 1.28
LDF4-50A Estimated System Return Loss (dB): 18.3

Main Feedline Cable Types: Maximum System Reflection: 0.2372

LDF5-50A Maximum System VSWR: 1.62
LDF6-50 Maximum System Return Loss (dB): 12.5
LDF7-50A
VXL5-50
VXL6-50 Total Insertion Loss (dB): 1.59
VXL7-50

Return Loss to VSWR converter Feet to meters converter

Return Loss (dB) VSWR feet meters
28.00 1.0829 4.00 1.22
Antenna Pattern Distortions

Conductive (metallic) obstruction in the path

of transmit and/or receive antennas may
distort antenna radiation patterns in a way
that causes systems coverage problems and

A few basic precautions will prevent pattern

distortions.
105° Horizontal Pattern
No Obstacle

330° 30°
105°
+15
+10
+5 880 MHz
300° 0 60°
-5

-10

270° 90°

240° 120° Antenna

210° 150°
180°
105° Horizontal Pattern
Obstruction at -10 dB Point

330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°

-10 dB Point
3½'
240° 120° Building
Antenna Corner

210° 150°
180°
105° Horizontal Pattern
Obstruction at -6 dB Point

330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°

0° -6 dB Point
'

240° 120° Building
Antenna Corner

210° 150°
180°
105° Horizontal Pattern
Obstruction at -3 dB Point

330° 30°

270° 90° -3 dB Point

'
3½ Building
Corner
240° 120°
Antenna

210° 150°
180°
90° Horizontal Pattern
No Obstacle

330° +15
30°
+10
+5
300° 0 60°
-5 880 MHz
-10

270° 90°

240° 120°

Antenna
210° 150°
180°
90° Horizontal Pattern
0.5 l Diameter Obstacle at 0°

330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°

12λ

240° 120°
Antenna

210° 150°
180°
90° Horizontal Pattern
0.5 l Diameter Obstacle at 45°

330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°
45°

240° 120°
Antenna

210° 150°
180°
90° Horizontal Pattern
0.5 l Diameter Obstacle at 60°

330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°
60°

240° 120° Antenna

210° 150°
180°
90° Horizontal Pattern
0.5 l Diameter Obstacle at 80°

330° 30°

300° 60°
880 MHz

270° 90°

80°

240° 120°
Antenna

210° 150°
180°
General Rule
Area that needs to be free of obstructions (> 0.57 WL)
Maximum Gain

> 12 WL

3 dB Point
(45°)

L
W
8
6 dB Point

>
(60°)
L
W
>6

WL > 3 WL 10 dB Point
(80° - 90°)
Antenna
90° horizontal (3 dB) beamwidth
Attenuation Provided By Vertical
Separation of Dipole Antennas
70

60

50
MHz Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz
Isolation in dB

M M M M M
00 0 0 0 5 0
20 85 45 16 7 4
40

30

20

10
1 2 3 5 10 20 30 50 100
(0.3) (0.61) (0.91) (1.52) (3.05) (6.1) (9.14) (15.24)
(30.48)
Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters)
The values indicated by these curves are approximate because of coupling which exists between the
antenna and transmission line. Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas. The curves
will also provide acceptable results for gain type antennas. Values are measured between the physical
center of the tower antennas and the antennas are mounted directly above the other, with no horizontal
offset (collinear). No correction factor is required for the antenna gains.
Attenuation Provided By Horizontal
Separation of Dipole Antennas
80

z
70 0 MH
20 0
z
50 MH
8
60
z
MH
Isolation in dB

450
50
z
MH
150
40 Hz
70 M
Hz
50 M z
H
30 30 M

20
10 20 30 50 100 200 300 500 1000
(3.05) (6.1) (9.14) (15.24) (30.48) (60.96) (91.44) (152.4)
(304.8)
Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters)

Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas. The curves will also provide acceptable
results for gain type antennas if (1) the indicated isolation is reduced by the sum of the antenna gains
and (2) the spacing between the gain antennas is at least 50 ft. (15.24 m) (approximately the far field).
Pattern Distortions

d
tan a =
D
d = D * tan a
tan 1° = 0.01745
Note: tan 10° = 0.1763 10 * 0.01745 = 0.1745
Antenna Elevation Pattern

Base Station Antenna w/ 4 Deg EDT

-10
Amplitude (dB)

-20

-30

-40

-50
-180 -150 -120 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Elevation Angle (Degree)
Gain Points of a Typical Main Lobe
(Relative to Maximum Gain)

Vertical
a Beam
a Width= 2 a
(-3dB point)

-3dB point a° below bore sight.

-6dB point 1.35 * a° below bore sight.
-10 dB point 1.7 * a° below bore sight.
Changes In Antenna Performance
In The Presence of:
Non-Conductive Obstructions, such as Screens

FIBERGLASS

Cell Site Antenna

PANEL

DIM “A”
Performance of Sample PCS Antenna
Behind Camouflage (¼" Fiberglass)

120° FIBERGLASS

Cell Site Ant.

PANEL
Horizontal Aperture

110°

DIM “A”
100°

90°

80°
1/4 λ 1/2 λ 3/4 λ 1λ 1-1/2 λ 2λ

70°
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim. A)

Performance of Sample PCS Antenna
Behind Camouflage (¼" Fiberglass)
1.7

FIBERGLASS
1.6

Cell Site Ant.

PANEL
VSWR (Worst Case)

1.5
DIM “A”

1.4

1.3

1/4 λ 1/2 λ 1λ 1-1/2 λ 2λ

1.2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim. A)
0° 90° 330°

30°
102°
330° 30°

300° 60°
Distance 300° 60°

270°
-55
-50
90°
From 270°
-55
-50
90°

Fiberglass
-45 -45
-40
240° -40 240° 120°
120° -35
-35
-30 -30

-25 -25
210° 150° 210° 150°
-20 -20
180° 180°

No Fiberglass 3" to Fiberglass

330°

30°
68°

300° 60°

270° 90°
-50
-45
-40
-35
240° 120°
-30
-25
-20
210° 150°
-15
180°

1.5" to Fiberglass
77°
0° 0°
330° 30° 330° 30°
112°

300° 60° 300° 60°

270°
Distance 270°

From
90° 90°
-50 -50
-45 -45
-40 -40

Fiberglass
240° -35 -35
120° 240° 120°
-30 -30
-25 -25
-20 -20
210° 150° 210° 150°
-15 -15
180° 180°

330°

30°
108°

300° 60°

270° 90°
-50
-45
-40

240° -35
120°
-30
-25
-20
210° 150°
-15
180°

9" to Fiberglass