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Ehrig u. a.: Universal Theory of Automata
240 Seiten. OM 22,80
Hotz: Infonnatlk: Rechenanlagen
Struktur und Entwurf, 136 Seiten. OM 14,80 (LAMM)
Kandzia/Langmaack: Informatlk: Programmlerung
234 Seiten. OM 18,80 (LAMM)
Maurer: Datenstrukturen und Programmlerverfahren
222 Seiten. OM 25,80 (LAMM)
Schnor,: Rekuralve Funktlonen und Ihre Komplexltlt
191 Seiten. OM 24,80 (LAMM)
Wirth: Systematlschea Programmleren
Eine Einfuhrung. 160 Seiten. OM 14,80 (LAMM)
Mathematik
Bohmer: SpllneFunktlonen
Theorie und Anwendungen. 340 Seiten. OM 24,80
Clegg: Varlatlonsrechnung
138 Seiten. OM 14,80
Collatz: Dlfferentlalglelchungen
Eine Einfuhrung unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Anwendungen.
5. Aufl. 226 Seiten. OM 18,80 (LAMM)
CollatzlKrabs: Approxlmatlonstheorle
TSchebyscheffscheApproximation mit Anwendungen. 208 Seiten. OM 26,80
Constantinescu: Dlstributlonen unci Ihre Anwendung In der Physik
144 Seiten. OM 16,80
Fischer/Sacher: ElnfDhrung In die Algebra
238 Seiten. OM 15,80
Grigorieff: Numerlk gew6hnllcher Dlfferentlalglelchungen
Band 1: Einschrittverfahren. 202 Seiten. OM 13,80
Band 2: MehrschriHverfahren
Hainzl: Mathematik fOr Naturwlssenschaftler
311 Seiten. OM 29, (LAMM)
Hilbert: Grundlagen cler Geometrle
11. Aufl. VII, 271 Seiten, OM 18,80
Kochendorffer: Detennlnanten und Matrlzen
IV, 148 Seiten. OM 14,80
Stiefel: ElnfDhrung In die numerische Mathematik
Eine Oarstellung unter Betonung des algorithmischen Standpunktes
4. Aufl. 257 Seiten. OM 18,80 (LAMM)
B.G.Teubner Stuttgart
Dr. rer. nat. Hartmut Ehrig
1944 born in Angermlinde, Germany
19631969 study of mathematics, physics and
theoretical informatics at the Tech
nische Universitat Berlin (TUB)
1969 Dipl.Math.
197 I Dr. rer. nat.
19701972 Wissenschaftlicher Assistent at the
Fachbereich Mathematik of the TUB
since 1972 Assistenzprofessor at the Fachbereich
Kybernetik of the TUB
1974 venia legendi
KlausDieter Kiermeier
1949 born in Berlin, Germany
since 1969 study of mathematics, physics and
theoretical informatics at the TUB
Preface
Contents
Introduction 7
References 230
Introduction
I, 0, S d, 1 automaton type
__________~f________~~~ 0
. . . . fXiCiT............ 1
SXT
............. 
ev
............
............
"<T,O>xT
__________~f________~~~ B
A
PB
(1.2.1) ...
(1.3.2)
(1.6.1)
A®B
and l:SxI ~ 0 .
In analogy to bilinear functions a bicontinuous function
f:AxB ~ C is a function such that f is continuous in each
component separately, i.e. f(a,):B ~ C and f(,b):A ~ C
are continuous for all aEA, bEB. Moreover each bicontinuous
function f:AxB ~ C can be reduced to a continuous function
f:A®B ~ C using a universal property similar to (1.6.1).
In fact A®B, called biproduct of A and B, is the cartesian
product of A and B endowed with the inductive or bitopology.
Explicitly a set 0 is open in A®B iff ("iff" means "if and
only if") for all aEA and bEB the sections 0a = (bEB/(a,b)EO}
and 0b = (aEA/(a,b)EO} are open in B and A respectively.
Clearly each open set in the product topology ofAxB is open
in A®B, but vice versa the interior of the following cruci
fix (1.7.1) together with the center is open in the bitopol
ogy but of course not in the product topology:
21
(1.9.3)
~a 1 r a®D
A®l r0C
A®C
~U
U®U
~U
In (1.9.3) and (1.9.4) we have omitted the indices of a, 1
and rand A®a is defined to be idA®a for example where idA
is the identity morphism of the object A.
(1.10.1) u ... 1
1
o Eo 801 _ _ _ _d:=.._;~~ S
(1.11.1) 1r.,
0 Eo
l' S'01 d~'~~~ S'
(2.1.1)
 M(A)~+~
(2.2.1)
E(A)
SxI
(2.3.1)
<I+,O>XI
(2.3.2)
d! !L
S ;;0.. <1+,0>
g
36
Sx1
~m~~> <1+,0>
(2.7.2)
~ __________~ b' Y2
(2.7.4)
(3.3.1)
f
S ~~~~ S1
(3.4.1)
S(G) h :;. K
(3.5.1)
E(S) ~~~~ B
(3.6.1 )
(4.2.0)
(4.2.2) 1n =l+o(S®i)
n
for all nEN
using the coproduct properties of S®I+.
of In:S®I n ~ 0 . II.
The construction of 1+ leads to the following nice compati
bility property of 1+ which will be needed later on:
In+1
1+0 (S®in + 1 )
1+0 (S®i)o (S®Il8Ii n )
In the first step we have used the bifunctor properties of
181 and in the other steps the definitions of 1+, In+1' 1+
and i respectively. •
63
f
S®K 0
__ ~Itv
~
(4.3.1) ~~K =
<K,O>®K
;:;. 0
<I+,O>®I+
________:l______~~;;.. 0
. . . . . . . ........ 1
S®1
<1+,O>®1
67
1 S®in+1 + g®I+ + +
S®I n + .:~~;J30,. S®I ... <I
....!~=;;;. ,O>®I
® d+,O>Y
<I+,O>®I®I+
®
~
Id®I+ (4.4.3)
(4.4.6)
101+! (4.4.1) ev
(4.4.4)
o o
(4.4.5)
68
= 11 = 1 .
In order to get (4.4.6) it suffices to show that diagram (1)
in (4.4.7) is equalized by ev (cf.(4.3.2)). But this fol
lows from the fact that the outer diagram in (4.4.7) is
commutative by (4.2.4) and the same is true for the remain
ing subdiagrams.
<I+,O>®I+ ev
"
> 0
AA)®I+ (4.3.3)
1+
S®I+ ;:;. 0
(4.4.7)
•
4.5 Theorem (C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n 0 f
S
1
fl <1+,0>
:,~
Corollary ( C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n 0 f M a 
chi n e M 0 r p h i s m s ) : A ~morphism g:S .... <1+,0>
is the machine morphism of an automaton iff there is a
d:SI8II .... S such that god = Lo (gI8lI) . In this case we have
g=M(A) for the automaton A=(S,d,l) with 1=ev 1 o(gI8lI).
Proof: Since the condition g od=Lo(gI8lI) asserts that g
is a ~Medvmorphism the corollary is a direct consequence
of theorem 4.5. •
__________=f________~~~ L
K
(4.6.1)
~~0 B'
s M(A) ~ <1+,0>
(4.6.2)
~=~
E(A)
(4.7.1)
c mE~~~>· D
(4.7.2) f Y g
C ~m~~ D
________________~f®~1______________~;.~ S'®I
(4.7.3) d d'
S ~f~>~ S'
Corollary (F i n i t e B e h a v i 0 r s ) : A behavior
m:B ~ <1+ ,0> is realizable by an automaton A = (S,d,l) with
"finite" state object SEE iff B is "finite", i.e. BEE
78
E:~Aut ~ ~
~=~
E(A)
I
(5.2.1) f I E( f)
t
E(A I)
~~
8 ' MM7(.A.,\)~~ <1+,0>
5.3 Theorem (M i n i m a I R e a l i z a t i o n ) :
The systematic l$~M~ = (~Aut,~,E) of automata in the closed
category (~,®) satisfies the Minimal Realization Principle
defined in 3.6.
More specifically we have a minimal realization functor
M*:~ ~ ~Aut defined by
1
M* : = (12 ~ (~Medv j <I+, 0» ~ ~Aut)
where J is the inclusion functor and M 1 the inverse
functor of M given in 4.5. Moreover M* satisfies
EoM* = IdB and for all automata A in ~Aut and all behav
iors m:B ~ <I+,O> in ~ satisfying E(A) ~ B there is a
unique ~Autmorphism f:A ~ M*(m) which belongs to the
class IS! in the case E(A) = B • The minimal realization
M*(m) is explicitly given by
85
s
I
I
I
I
fl E(A)
I/·~
I l
~
B ~~~
m <1+,0>
5.4 Definitions:
1. An automaton A is called observable (or ~minimal) if
the machine morphism M(A) belongs to the class ~ of
monomorphisms. Let K~ be the full subcategory of
KAut consisting of all observable automata then
~~~~ = (K~,J2.,E') is a subsystematic of ~~~~
= (KAut,J2.,E) where E' is the restriction of E to
K~·
2. According to 3.1 and 3.2 automata A and A' are called
eguivalent if E(A) =E(A'), an automata morphism
f:A ~ A' in KAut is called reduction if the Kmor
phism f:S ~ S' belongs to the class ~ of epimorphisms.
Finally A is called reduced if each reduction f:A ~ A'
is already an isomorphism of automata.
s __________~M~(A~)________~> <1+,0>
(5.5.1)
~~ E(A)
__________=f________~>~ A'
A
(5.5.2) eCA) ~
.. .

._. ........f'
.. .
._..,;;1"
R(A)
R:~Aut ~ ~Au\n
<S,S>®ev s
<s,s>®<s,s>®s ~~>~ <S,S>®S U®s
(5.6.1)
Construction (T r a n s i t i o n M0 n 0 i d ) :
Given a monoid automaton A = (M,S,d) we get a unique K
morphism t(A):M ~ <S,S> , called transition morphism of A,
such that diagram (5.6.2) is commutative:
__________~d~______~>~ S
M®S
(5.6.2)  t(A)®S
 __   _ IevS
""..
<S,S>®S
__________~t~(~A~)________~> <S,S>
M
T(A)
93
__________=f________~~~ 0
A
__________=f________~~~ 0
S®K
(6.2.2)
Now let us recall from the construction in 4.2 that the out
put morphism l:S®r ~ 0 leads to a family In:S®rn ~ 0
(nOn of Kmorphisms defined by
(6.3.1)
By assumption, s®r+ is a coproduct in K' with injections
S®in:S®r n ~ s®r+ (cf. 4.2) but this is also a coproduct in K
by the above lemma. Thus the extended output is the unique
Kmorphism l+:S®r+ ~ 0 in the following commutative dia
gram
In
~~~~ 0
 
..;?
(6.3.2)

(nE:N)
 1+
1+
~~~,. 0
(6.3.3)
,~~~
E(A)
The image m(A) :E(A) > <1+ ,PO> of M(A), or for short E(A),
is called behavior of A.
The only difference to the construction in 4.6 for automata
in closed categories is the fact that 0 is now replaced by
PO • But we will see in 6.4 that the important characteriza
tion theorem 4.5 of liAut using the machine morphisms does
not remain true in the pseudoclosed case.
(6.4.1)
Lo (M(A 5 )X1) (3,x) = L(M(A 5 ) (3) ,x) = M(A 5 ) (3) oLx = f3 0Lx = f3
Hence the above condition is not satisfied, but taking the
union f 1 uf 2 defined by (f 1Uf 2 ) (xn ) = f1 (xn )Uf 2 (xn ) we
get f 1Uf 2 = fy This motivates to modify the above condition.
Note that the union can be regarded as a function
(6.4.2)
defined by u(F) = U f for each FEP '<1+,1" 0> which is a
fEF
subset of all functions f:1+ ~ 1"0
The modified condition turns out to be (cf. 6.6.1)
(6.4.3) uop'M(A)od' =Lo(M(A)X1)
where d':Sx1 ~ p'S is the function associated with
d:sx1 ~ Sand p'M(A):P'S ~ 1"<1+,1"0> is the extension of
M(A) to subsets.
The construction of the union u and the condition (6.4.3)
can be generalized to automata in pseudoclosed categories,
this will be done in 6.5 and 6.6
+
v1®1
P<1+,PO>®1+ ;;.. <1+,PO>®1+
I
I
I tev
(6.5.1) u®1+ I PO
I
t tv
<1+,PO>®1+ ;;0. PO ;;.. 0
ev v
108
u(F) = 4 F(f).f
fE<I ,PO>
because (6.5.1) applied to (F,w)EP<I+,PO>XI+ and yEO
yields:
[(voev) 0 (uXI+)J (F,w) (y) = [(voev) (u(F) ,w)] (y) = u(F) (w) (y)
[(v o ev)o(v 1 XI+)J(F,W)(y)
D+ + (V 1 XI+)(F,w)(f,W').(v o ev)(f,w')(y)
(f,w' )E<I ,Po>xI
D+ v 1 (F)(f). (voev)(f,w)(y) = D+ F(f).f(w)(y)
fE<I ,PO> ___________
.::::.f~E<~IL!P~O~>
109
6.6 Theorem (c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n 0 f Ma _
chi n e m 0 r p h i s m s ) : A ~'morphism g:S~<I+,PO>
is the machine morphism of an automaton A, i. e. g = M(A)
(cf. (6.3.3)), iff there is a ~'morphism d':S®I ~ PS such
that the following diagram (6.6.1) is commutative in ~'
S®I
g0I
... <I+,PO>®I
I
I
(6.6.1 ) d'
I 1L
~
PS ~ P<I+ ,PO> ;;.. <1+ ,PO>
Pg u
(6.6.2)
PS ~ P<I+,PO>
Pg
(6.6.3)
which is equivalent to (6.6.1). This can be directly seen
using the diagram (6.6.5) below.
Similar to theorem 4.8 we obtain a behavior characterization
in 6.7 as a corollary of this theorem.
Proof: Let g = M(A) be the machine morphism of the automa
ton A= (S,d,l) . By (6.2.1) there is a unique K'morphism
d':S®1 ~ PS satisfying
(6.6.4) vSod' = d .
According to (6.2.2) the commutativity of (6.6.1) is equiv
alent to the condition that the diagram (6.6.1) tensored
with 1+ is equalized by the counit voev. But this condi
tion is satisfied because the diagram (6.6.5) below is commu
tative which follows from the corresponding references
(® means that the respective diagram is commutative because
the tensor product is a bifunctor, cf. 12.5).
S®I®I+~g®~1=®~1~+7:;.~ <1+,PO>®1®1+
<I+,PO>o1
<1+,PO>®1+
v S®1+ (6.6.2)
(6.6.5)
111
d:=(S®1~PS~S) and
(6.6.6) S®i +
1 := (S®1 \ . S®1+ g®1 ~ <1+,PO>®1+ ~ PO~O)
S®in + 1
    =  '  "     i...
;.. S®1
+ ~1+
  .....
E=_;a
+
....... <I , P0>01
+
voev
(6.6.8) •
112
and d(¢,W):= {~ W =¢
W,j,¢
(7.1.1) S
;y~ S ____ J ___ ;. S'
~~
Remarks: We have used the word "large cointersections" in
stead of "cointersections" because I is allowed to be a
proper class and not only a set. If we have cointersections
in ~' ,i.e. I is always a set, we also have large co
intersections provided that K' is cowellpowered in the
following sense:
For each object S in K' there is a set I and a family
of epimorphisms fi:S ~ Si (iEI) such that for each epi
morphism f:S ~ S' there is an ioEI and an isomorphism
120
(7.3.1)
Y=~
S ~ S
u(A)
(7.3.2)
123
e(A):S .... E(A) Ell has a coretraction c:E(A) .... S in~, Le.
e(A)oc = idE(A) . Then there is an observable automaton
125
Ac =(E(A),d,l)
c c defined by the diagram (7.4.1)
lc d
o ~ E(A)®I ___ .f.._....;. E(A)
(7.4.1)
o ...EE"""'l,.. S®I
d
~ S
(7.5.1)
But let us point out again that the condition (6.7.1) for
the behavior m(A):E(A) + <I+,PO> is not necessary in gen
eral unless e(A) has a coretraction in K. According to the
remark in 7.4 this is always the case for nondeterministic,
relational and stochastic but not for relational topological
automata in general.
E(A)
(7.6.5) f ~E(f)
A
__________=f________~>~ A'
__ .;;J'

f
A ~~>~ A1
... 
(7.7.2)
~
..._ f
1
R(A)
__________=f________~~~ S'
s ~
u1
So
132
d S
S®I ~
(7.8.1)
'(AlOll
E(A)®I
~ E(A)
S®I
d
.. S
/.
5. Each observable automaton is reduced. But a reduced auto
maton A is observable iff A satisfies the condition of
representatives.
6. Given a cardinality function in the sense of 3.7 an auto
maton A' with finite cardinality is observable iff we have
card(A')~card(A) for all automata A equivalent to A'.
134
S
1
1
I
I
I E(A)
I
(7.8.2) fl
1
I
I E(A I)
l~=~
S I :,M'"'"(...,A...,,""")>> <1+, PO>
(7.9.1)
(7.9.2) M(A)of=M(A)
which implies r. (f®I) = I such that it remains to show
do (f®I) = fod .
f®1
.j~
M(A)®1
~7.9.2)
PM(A)
(7.9.2)
S®1        : ; ; .
... <I+,PO>®1 (6.6.1) P<1+,PO>
M(A)®1 ~
(6.6.1) L ~ 1U
pS       ; ; . , . . . P<1+, PO> ::'>~ <1+, PO>
PM(A) U
•
140
8. Power Automata
0 oE:
1
S®I d ;;0. S
(8.2.1)
vi IVSOl IVs
PO ~ PS®I        PS
1: a
(8.2.2)
A' __________~f~______~~ A


........ ................
(8.3.1) ................
f' ........
 ........ ~
143
PS M(~A)
~~~~~
+
<I ,PO>
(8.3.2)
P<1+,PO>
S ~~~~~
(8.3.3) is1
PS
(8.3.4)
~=~
E(}SA)
PO l' d'
E S'®I ~ s'
\ f'.Il \,"1
I
(1) (2) f' I
1: d.
i
(8.3.5) PO E PS®I ~ PS
~(3) v 3. \ \
(4)
~
o E
1
S®I d
;;0 S
= voevo (M(A)®I+)
PS®I
+ MC~A)®r+
~vs®r+!'c~~2:..::...C4'3'2';;;~· <I
+
'F' +
s®r+ PO
PM(A)®r+
(6.6.2)
MCA)®r+l
(6.3.3)
tv
<r+,po>®r+ ~=~
voev 0
/ , ., + (6.5.1) rV'ev
(8.3.6)
(8.3.7)
147
(8.5.1)
9. Initial Automata
1 d a
o E S®I ;;;.. S E U
(9.2.1) !~I !f
0 E
I' S'®I d'  S' E
a'
U
1+
a®I+ S®I+ 0
I+=U®I+
"" ""
(9.2.3)
II
(9.2.1) !~I+ (7.6.3)
1+ =U®I+
a'®I+
;;. S'®I+
1'+ "" 0
__________~u~______~~;.. 1*
1*®1
8®1 d~~~;.. 8
0 E
b I+; I*®I u ... I* E
Uo
U
(9.3.10) (9.3.8)
1''0I (9.3.7)
1·· (9.3.6)
0 E
1
S®I d
... S E
a U
V(f~~:~) ~
V(A· ) f
~~~~ A1
(9.4.2)
__ II
V(A;)
''j
__________=a*~EI=_________~>~ S
1*
f .
(9.5.2) ...' M(A)
.'
~.
2.6 Theorem ( S t a t e s 0 f t h e B e h a v i o r
and Fin i t e R e a I i z a t i o n ) : For this
theorem we assume that (~,®) = (~' ,®) is closed, but the
constructions and results will be carried over to the pseu
doclosed case in 9.10
Given a behavior b:1+ + 0 in ~. the states S(b) of b
are defined as being the closure of b in <1+,0> under
left shift L, i.e. S(b) is the image of the unique
~Medvmorphism b:1* + <1+,0> in
(9.6.1)
1*®1 ~ 1+ _ _ _ _ _'b"_ _ _:>~ 0
""........
....__
b811
=
~
I
ev
1
<1+,O>®1
__________~a~*________~~~ S
I*
(9.7.1)
then we define
I:=(S®I m81I~S®I~O)
(9.7.2) u
a:=(U °)oI* e)o'S)
s ~~~~
mE'JJl S
I*
m~E~'JJl~~~~ S
satisfies (7.8.1).
(9.9.2)
I+ _ _ _ _=E=·'(>..:.A::..<.)_ _ _ _~:;;.. °
(9.11.2)
PO
(10.2.1)
(10.2.2)
M~A) <I+,PO>
S ~
(10.2.4)
n1 IU
PS' $10" PS :;. P<I+,PO>
Pm PM(A)
S __________~M~(~A~)~______~~. <1+,PO>
(10.3.1) IM(PAJ
PS' P~m~~ PS
(10.3.2) lIDOI
o "'EE~l 801 ;"d...;;;..;. S ...E::
a U
S M(A~
... <I+,PO>
Pm.! (10.4.3)
[I
PS' M(tlA(mzn) ) ~ <I+,PO>
Pm! (10.4.3)
II
PS M{tlA) ~ <I+,PO>
(10.3.3)
174
a®r+ 1+
r+ = u®r+ :;:. oor+ :;.. 0
1+
s®r+ ~~,..~ 0
(6.3.3)
(10.3.1)
vS,®r +
(6.6.2)
(10.4.6)
176
(10.5.1) PS
P2
iM(fSA)
S ~ <I+ ,PO>
M(A)
(10.5.2)
(1)
n
PS'
(10.6.1)
179
(10.6.2)
(10.6.3)
180
all h: G ... A in ~ 1 •
A3: Each morphism eE~ has a coretraction c in ~I, i.e.
eoc = id.
A4: Each morphism m:Si,'''' SE!IR has a "complement", Le.
there is an object (SSI) and a morphism m:(SSI) ... SE~
such that S is the coproduct of SI and (SSI) with
182
(10.7.1) PS
P2
idS
1P1 !M(PA)
S ;;. <I+,PO>
M(A)
(LS)
(10.7.2)
(10.7.3)
PS'
(10.7.4)
S'
m1 m1
S1 ~ S E (SS1)
t
I
(10.7.5)
~t In
~
(10.7.1)
7
(10.7.2)
e1
n E
> (LS) ~ L M(fSA)
c h
~
3
'
(10.7.3)
PS' Pm ~ PS
(10.8.3)
187
S
__________________~M~(~A~)________________~~~ <I+,PO>
m1
(SS 1) ''~,.. S
PS' ~P~m~~
(10.8.4)
G f ;.. pS'
1",k
(10.8.5)
g
s'
"
(2)
"
'~ L
(3)
~
P2
> PS
~lp1 lM(!lA)
S M(A) ~ <I+,PO>
Now we have
fo(do(eq®I» = (fod)o(eq®I) = (d'o(f®I»o(eq®I) =d'o((foeq)®I)
=d'o((goeq)®I) = (d'o(g®I)o(eq®I) = (god)o(eq®I)
= go (do (eq®I)
and hence by the universal property of the equalizer (Eq,eq)
there exists a unique d:Eq®I ~ Eq satisfying
eqoa=do(eq®I). Defining 1:=lo(eq®I), A=(Eq,d,l) be
comes an automaton and eq:Eq ~ S an automata morphism
from A to A. To prove the universal property of (A,eq)
in liAut let h:A = (S,d,!) ~ A be an automata morphism
with foh=goh. By the universal property of (Eq,eq) there
exists a unique k:S ~ Eq with eqok = h in (11.2.1) and k
is already an automata morphism from A to A.
o ! d
oE 001 == S
~ h®I
\ '\ k®I
'\ ~'k ~
\l:
Ii
0 oE
\~I
I
1 d
!e~I q
0 E:
1 S®I .. S
d
(11.2.1)
In fact we have
(11.3.1)
... Sj
Corollary: 11.2 and 11.3 together lead (under the given re
strictions) to the existence of arbitrary limits in ~Autv
and ~Aut, especially the existence of pullbacks and" hence
of intersections of subautomata, invers images of subauto
mata under automata morphisms and congruence relations gen
erated by automata relations.
For the case ~ = Set more details are given in [33].
o EO· 1
S ®I
d
> S
(11.4.1)
!
1 d
°
oE S®I ;;;. S
(11.5.1) I jk®I
Sk®I d;k.:;;:;..,. Sk
(11.5.2)
     d
~
(11.5.3)
dk
Sk~Hk > Sk
~ l1(S.®I.)
(1)
II d.
> 11 S.
i 1
YJk
t
. 1 1
1 i 1
1j~
(11.5.2)
~~®~~ and (2) J.S1 (11.5.4) ~~
(11.5.4)
(l1S.®I. )l1D
Uld,lJlt (\'Si l"
. 1 1
/
1
1
(11 .5.3)
S®I d > S
(11.5.5)
fO
UlO·)lLD=O
i J.
(11.5.8)
·~1
J1
11 0.
i J.
fS
(JlS.)JlD=S
i J.
(11.5.9)
·~1
J1
~Si
J.
203
So it remains to consider
.0
J2 fO
D > ( JlO . ) Jl D = 0 ~ 0' and
i ~
.S
J2 fS
D > (JlS.)JlD=S > S'
i ~
j(i,k,k 1 ,···,k ) j~
n ,.. D ....=....;,..,. C.lf.Si)JlD
~ I
S
d'
S '®I '®I ,n ________________~n~+~1______________~>_~ S'
(11.5.10)
fS
(ll S. ) II D = S =~
i l r
(11.5.12) J2.S
fO
I
(ll O. ) II D = 0 =
i "0
(11.5.13)
J21
D
205
S I I I q I\)
f .®fk®fk ® ••• ®f k ~ (11.5.3)
l 1 n o()'\
(5)
l "l S®I ;;.. S
d
1,"Of 1
(4)
S'®I' fS
S'®I,n+1
~"'5"') d~+1 ;;.
(11.5.14)
207
(11.7.1)
u(I,O,S)
1
V(F(I,O,S))
F(I,O,S)
l' d'
O'~ S'®I ~ S'
(11.7.2)
Moreover define
(11.7.3)
210
(11.7.4) j11
(11.7.5)
S®U
II
8
80 we have to consider
I
801+ j2 ~ 011(801+) = 0' o )0 0" and
I
8 .... 8"
Now 801*; 11 (8®1 n ) is a coproduct with injections
n~O
8®~
S®1n      .........:;;~~ 8®1* = 8'
(11.7.6)
fs"~l
8 "®1 lIn ,='l!'!Io~ 8"
~
211
1s
S® 1* = S' ':::.:~
(11.7.7)
(11.7.8)
S®~
~~~~ S®I*
(1 )
S®I*®I S®I+
~ ~ (11.7.2)
S '®I ;d,..,'~...~ S'
(11.7.9)
lISOII (2)
:ctn"'""3I..... s"
Remark (R e g u I a r E P i m 0 r phi s m s )
It seems to be more difficult to characterize all epimor
phisms in categories of automata. But we have a character
ization for regular epimorphisms. An epimorphism is called
regular i f it is the coequalizer of some pair, and we have
the following categorical theorem which is proved in [65J in
a more general context:
1
o oE S®I d
= S
'\ ~
o
"/
E
0
l'
1"
~~Il ),'., {)5"
S'®I
d'
d"
... S'
(11.9.1)
•
215
A f
> X
(12.2.1)
Y ~~~>~
g' B
g'
B
(12.2.2)
x f
> A
(12.4.1) (iEI)
!
F(K) _ _ _ _=.u,>..:(K::..;.):..._ _ _...... G( K)
__________~f~______~~~ TK
G
G ~g~~~~ G'
(12.7.2) U(G)!
tion SIT.
Remarks: 1. The functor S solving the universal problem
for T is uniquely determined up to natural equivalence.
Vice versa given S, the solution T of the couniversal
problem is also unique up to natural equivalence.
2. The universal problem for T is solvable with left ad
joint functor S iff the couniversal problem for S is
solvable with the right adjoint functor T.
(12.8.1 ) g' og
·1
K'
·,1
K"
223
x
I
(12.9.1) hI
t f ~
D B
d
g ~
(i,jEI)
(12.9.2)
(12.9.3) B
~(2)
u(G) u(G)
TS(G)
(12.10.1 )
227
Special Symbols
Categorical Symbols
~, b g categories 12.1 (~,®)
}monoidal category 1.9
Set 1.10 (~,®,U)
PD 1.13 ® tensor product 1.9
ModR 1.10 gof composition 12.1
Top 1.10 i~ identity 12.1
ND 1.10 A;B
!isomorPhism 12.3,12.6
ReI 1.13 A~B
Stoch 1.10 f 1 inverse morphism 3.2
229
References
[1J ALAGIC,S., Categorical Theory of Tree Processing,
in: [60J, 80  88
[2J ARBIB,M.A., Theories of Abstract Automata,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1969
[3J ARBIB,M.A. / GIVEON,Y., Algebra Automata I and II,
Inf. Contr. ~ (1968), 331  370
[4J ARBIB,M.A. / MANES,E.G., Machines in a Category: An Ex
posi tory Introduction, Techn. Rep. 71 C  6
COINS, Univ. of Mass. at Amherst (1972),
to appear in SIAM Review
[5J   Adjoint Machines, StateBehavior, and Duality,
Techn. Rep. 73 B1 COINS, Univ. of Mass. at
Amherst (1973), to appear in J. Pure Appl. Alg.
[ 6J Fuzzy Morphisms in Automata Theory, in: [60J,
98  105
[7J AS EN DORPF,J., Reduktion nichtdiskreter stochastischer
Automaten, Dipl.Arb. Univ. Kiel 1973
[8J BAINBRIDGE,E.S., A Unified Minimal Realization Theory,
with Duality for Machines in a Hyperdoctrine
(Announcement of Results), Techn. Rep., Comp.and
Comm. Sci. Dept., Univ. of Michigan (June 1972)
[9J Addressed Machines and Duality, in: [60],114121
[10J BAUER,H., Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie, Berlin 1968
[11] BENSON,D.B., An Abstract Machine Theory for Formal
Language Parsers, in: [60], 130  137
[12] BOHLING,K.H. / INDERMARK,K., Endliche Automaten I ,
Mannheim 1969 (B.I. 703)
[13] BOHLING,K.H. / SCHUTT,D., Endliche Automaten II ,
Mannheim 1970 (B.I. 704)
[14] BRAUER,W., Zu den Grundlagen einer Theorie topologi
scher sequentieller Systeme und Automaten,
Berichte der GMD Bonn Nr. 21 (1970)
[15]   Automates topologiques et ensembles
reconnaissables t Seminaire SCHUTZENBERGERLENTIN
NIVAT Annee 19b9/70 no 18
231
Subject Index
Mathematik Fortsetzung
Stummel/Hainer: Praktlsche Mathematik
299 Seiten. OM 26,80
Topsf21e: Informatlonstheorle
Eine Einfiihrung. 88 Seiten. OM 11,80
Witting: Mathematlsche Statlstlk
Eine Einfiihrung in die Theorie und Methoden
2. Aufl. 223 Seiten. OM 24, (LAMM)
Physik Elektrotechnik
Bourne/Kendall: Vektoranalysls
227 Seiten. OM 16,80
Daniel: 8eschleunlger
215 Seiten. OM 22,
GroBmann: Mathematfscher ElnfUhrungskurs fUr die Physik
264 Seiten. OM 22,80
Heber/Weber: Grundlagen der Quantenphyslk
Band 1: Ouantenmechanik. VI, 158 Seiten. OM 13,80
Band 2: Ouantenfeldtheorie. VI, 178 Seiten. OM 14,80
(Vertrieb nur in der BRO und WestBerlin)
KneubOhl: Repetltorlum der Physik
ca. 600 Seiten. OM 26,80
Lautz: Elektromagnetlsche Felder
Ein einfiihrendes Lehrbuch. 180 Seiten. OM 17,80
MayerKuckuck: Physik der Atomkeme
Eine Einfiihrung. 2. Aufl. 288 Seiten. OM 19,80
Walcher: Praktlkum der Physik
3. Aufl. 384 Seiten. OM 24,80
Mechanik
Becker: Technlsche Str6mungslehre
Eine Einfiihrung in die Grundlagen und technischen Anwendungen
der Stromungsmechanik. 3. Aufl. 144 Seiten. OM 11,80
Becker/Piltz: Obungen zur Technlschen Str6mungslehre
120 Seiten. OM 10,80
Magnus: Schwlngungen
Eine Einfiihrung in die theoretische Behandlung von Schwingungs
problemen. 2. Aufl. 251 Seiten. OM 18,80 (LAMM)
Magnus/MOiler: Grundlagen der Technlschen Mechanlk
300 Seiten. OM 24, (LAMM)
MOiler/Magnus: Obungen zur Technlschen Mechanlk
292 Seiten. OM 24, (LAMM)
Wieghardt: Theoretlsche Str6mungslehre
Eine Einfiihrung. 2. Aufl. 237 Seiten. OM 24, (LAMM)
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