Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

134 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- CursDefBeton_BarbutaMarinela
- OpenSeesExamplesPrimer.pdf
- CHANGES in AISC’s SEISMIC PROVISIONS: AISC 341-05 to AISC 341-10
- DESIGN OF COLD FORMED STEEL STRUCTURES
- Steel Silo Design
- Master Thesis on Steel Chimneys
- S.K Mondal SOM Notes and Previous Year Papers Solutions Topicwise
- Cosmos Works Tutorial
- imp note
- Master Link Catalogue
- Mechanical Damage Characterization in Pipelines
- Week 10 - Nonlinear Structural Analysis - Lecture Presentation
- Mse101 Syllabus 1t 2014
- Module Descriptor
- Steelwise_ Seismic Fuses[1]
- 26_418
- Interfacial properties of modeled recycled aggregate concrete modified by carbonation.pdf
- 125760133 Buckling of Thin Metal Shells 287
- Week 10 - Nonlinear Structural Analysis - Lecture Presentation
- Zekria_Mohammad.pdf

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

Discussion of “Nonlinear Uniaxial Material with respect to reinforcing smooth steel bars; this type of bar

Model for Reinforcing Steel Bars” by Sashi characterizes many existing RC-framed structures that have been

K. Kunnath, YeongAe Heo, and Jon F. designed without seismic provisions, and they are now located in

Mohle high seismic zones. The model proposed by the authors is herein

applied to reinforcing smooth steel bars characterized by specific

April 2009, Vol. 135, No. 4, pp. 335–343.

L/D ratios corresponding to absence of buckling 共i.e., L / D = 5兲,

DOI: 10.1061/共ASCE兲0733-9445共2009兲135:4共335兲

buckling occurring between yielding and hardening strain 共i.e.,

L / D = 11兲, and buckling occurring close to yielding practically

Edoardo Cosenza1; Fiorenzo De Cicco, Ph.D.2; and with no hardening 共i.e., L / D = 15兲.

Andrea Prota3 The case of L / D = 5 is first discussed comparing 关Fig. 1共a兲兴 the

1

Full Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Univ. of Naples model outcomes to the mean experimental behavior of smooth

“Federico II”, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy. E-mail: cosenza@

bars 共Prota et al. 2009兲. The comparison depicted in Fig. 1共a兲

unina.it

2

Dept. of Structural Engineering, Univ. of Naples “Federico II”, Via Clau-

allows observing that the main discrepancy seems to be due to the

dio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy. E-mail: fiorenzo.decicco@unina.it curvatures of half cycles; therefore, the model proposed by the

3

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Univ. of Naples authors could be modified by replacing the curvature parameter

“Federico II”, Italy. E-mail: aprota@unia.it given by Chang and Mander 共1994兲 with that proposed by Mene-

gotto and Pinto 共1973兲. The cyclic curve given by the so modified

model is compared to that experimental in Fig. 1共b兲 in which the

The discussers commend the authors for presenting a stimulating Menegotto and Pinto curvature parameter has been determined

paper on the stress-strain model describing the behavior of rein- using R0 = 20, A1 = 18.5, and A2 = 0.001. Based on the aforemen-

forcing ribbed steel bars that affects the postyield response of tioned comparison, it seems appropriate to suggest that, if no

reinforced concrete 共RC兲 elements. The formulation presented in buckling occurs, the cyclic behavior of smooth reinforcing bars

the paper is based on the Chang and Mander 共1994兲 model in could be simulated by using the model proposed by authors in

which buckling is introduced by adopting the Dhakal and which the Menegotto and Pinto curvature parameter is adopted in

Maekawa 共2002兲 model. The discussers, however, believe that it lieu of that given by Chang and Mander.

1.5 1.5

!"#$ &' ()**+,- #, +$ !"#$ &' ()**+,- #, +$

./0#123#*,+$ ./0#123#*,+$

1.0 1.0

0.5 0.5

0.0 0.0

-0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 -0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04

-0.5 -0.5

-1.0 -1.0

45678 456788

(a) (a)

-1.5 -1.5

1.5 1.5

!"#$ &' (!)#*+, #- ,$ !"#$ &' ()**+,- #, +$

./0#123#*-,$ ./0#123#*,+$

1.0 1.0

0.5 0.5

0.0 0.0

-0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 -0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04

-0.5 -0.5

-1.0 -1.0

45678 456789

(b) (b)

-1.5 -1.5

Fig. 1. Comparison for smooth bars with L / D = 5: 共a兲 model pro- Fig. 2. Model proposed by authors versus experimental curves for

posed by authors; 共b兲 model proposed by Cosenza and Prota 共2006兲 smooth bars: 共a兲 L / D = 11; 共b兲 L / D = 15

Downloaded 03 May 2011 to 137.222.188.34. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. Visithttp://www.ascelibrary.org

1.5

!"#$ &' (!)#*+, #- ,$

./0#123#*-,$

modeling of smooth steel bars under compression.” J. Earthquake

1.0 Eng., 10共3兲, 313–329.

Dhakal, R., and Maekawa, K. 共2002兲. “Modeling for postyield buckling

0.5 of reinforcement.” J. Struct. Eng., 128共9兲, 1139–1147.

Menegotto, M., and Pinto, P. E. 共1973兲. “Method of analysis for cycli-

0.0 cally loaded reinforced concrete frames including changes in geom-

-0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 etry and non-elastic behavior of elements under combined normal

-0.5

forces and bending moment.” IASBE Proc., Lisbon.

Prota, A., De Cicco, F., and Cosenza, E. 共2009兲. “Cyclic behavior of

smooth steel reinforcing bars: Experimental analysis and modeling

-1.0

456788 issues.” J. Earthquake Eng., 13共4兲, 500–519.

(a)

-1.5

1.5

!"#$ &' (!)#*+, #- ,$

./0#123#*-,$ Closure to “Nonlinear Uniaxial Material

1.0

Model for Reinforcing Steel Bars” by Sashi

0.5 K. Kunnath, YeongAe Heo, and Jon F.

Mohle

0.0

-0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 April 2009, Vol. 135, No. 4, pp. 335–343.

DOI: 10.1061/共ASCE兲0733-9445共2009兲135:4共335兲

-0.5

1

456789 Professor, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: skkunnath@

(b) ucdavis.edu

-1.5 2

Graduate Student Researcher, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Fig. 3. Model proposed by Cosenza and Prota 共2006兲 versus experi- E-mail: yaheo@ucdavis.edu

mental curves for smooth steel bars: 共a兲 L / D = 11; 共b兲 L / D = 15

The writers thank the discussers for their interest in our work. In

the following closure, in addition to addressing the particular

issue raised by the discussers of applying the model to simulate

The typical behavior of smooth reinforcing bars in which

the cyclic response of smooth reinforcing bars, the writers also

buckling occurs between yielding and hardening strain or close to

take this opportunity to clarify an additional issue related to the

yielding with no hardening are then discussed with respect to the

use of natural stress-strain coordinates in developing the proposed

cases of L / D = 11 and L / D = 15, respectively. It is recalled that, in

model.

addition to curvature parameter, for the analyzed cases buckling

plays an important role; the proposed model takes it into account

by adopting the Dhakal and Maekawa model. It is also high- Influence of Buckling Model on Cyclic Response

lighted that, as L/D ratio increases, the cyclic behavior tends to

become nonsymmetrical 共Prota et al. 2009兲. The predictions pro- The discussers apply the proposed model to simulate the response

vided by the model proposed by the authors are compared to the of smooth reinforcing bars and show that the initiation of buck-

experimental curves 共Prota et al. 2009兲 in Fig. 2; these compari- ling and the resulting shape of the stress-strain curve on the com-

sons point out that, when buckling occurs, the extension of the pression side are not effectively simulated. This is attributed to

proposed model to smooth reinforcing bars could require some two factors: the parameter that controls the curvature of the

modification not only concerning curvatures but also strength of stress-strain curve in the peak compression region; and the

the compressive branches. Therefore, the following modifications strength of the compressive branch for larger L/d ratios. Hence

are proposed to extend the model proposed by authors to smooth the discussers recommend 共a兲 using calibrated curvature param-

reinforcing bars subjected to buckling, and the outcomes of the so

modified model are compared to the experimental curves in Fig.

3:

1. Predict the compressive envelop curve by replacing the

Dhakal and Maekawa model with that developed for smooth

reinforcing bars by Cosenza and Prota 共2006兲; and

2. Compute the curvature parameters of tensile and compres-

sive branches by means of Chang and Mander, and Mene-

gotto and Pinto relationships, respectively.

References

analysis of bridge columns: Part I—Evaluation of seismic capacity.”

Fig. 1. Effect of curvature parameter on cyclic response without

NCEER Technical Rep. No. 94–0006, Buffalo, N.Y.

Cosenza, E., and Prota, A. 共2006兲. “Experimental behavior and numerical buckling

Downloaded 03 May 2011 to 137.222.188.34. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. Visithttp://www.ascelibrary.org

Fig. 2. Effect of curvature parameter on cyclic response with buck-

Fig. 4. Variation of tangent modulus in postyield phase

ling

eters in the model developed by Menegotto and Pinto 共1973兲 on curve-fitting and therefore also contains parameters to control the

the compression side and possibly retaining the relationships of shape and curvature of the stress-strain response as described

the Chang and Mander 共1994兲 model on the tension side; and 共b兲 above. It should further be mentioned that the curvature param-

replacing the model of Dhakal and Maekawa 共2002兲 with the eter provides a means to incorporate the well-known “Bausch-

model proposed by Cosenza and Prota 共2006兲 for the case of inger effect”—a feature of steel stress-strain response that was

smooth bars. shown by Restrepo-Posada et al. 共1994兲 to be dependent on the

The writers acknowledge that the details of the curvature pa- carbon content of the steel alloy.

rameters were not specifically described in the paper since com- The writers agree that the strength in compression is influ-

plete information is reported in the work of Chang and Mander enced by the initiation of buckling which in turn is affected by the

共1994兲. It appears that the discussers used the default parameters previous strain history of the bar particularly yielding in tension.

given by Chang and Mander to produce the stress-strain responses These observations are confirmed in tests reported both by Dhakal

whereas the model implemented in OpenSees 共2009兲 contains a and Maekawa 共2002兲 and Prota et al. 共2009兲, the former for the

user-definable parameter R which is composed of three variables case of deformed bars and the latter for smooth bars. The writers

R1, R2, and R3 as follows further agree that the Dhakal–Maekawa model may not be ad-

equate to simulate the buckling response of smooth bars where

R = R2共1.0 − R3t兲Ry 1 共1兲

strength loss due to softening appears to be less significant than in

where t denotes the total half cycle strain amplitude; and y the case of deformed bars. Likewise the model proposed by the

denotes the strain at yield stress. discussers may not be appropriate to simulate the cyclic response

The resulting parameter R provides greater flexibility in con- of deformed bars. Nevertheless, the writers contend that the

trolling the curvature as a function of the strain amplitude. In all Dhakal–Maekawa model is appropriate for general application

the simulations reported in the paper, default parameters 共R1 since it reasonably represents the buckling behavior of deformed

= 0.333, R2 = 18, and R3 = 4兲 were used. The effect of the curvature bars and can be conservative when applied to smooth bars. More-

parameter R2 is illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. In Fig. 1, we plot a set over, the objective of the paper was to develop a general phenom-

of arbitrary cyclic responses changing the default value of R2 enological model with essential features that characterize the

from 18 to 35. In this case, buckling parameters are not specified. cyclic behavior of reinforcing bars. As indicated in the concluding

The same cyclic responses are replotted in Fig. 2 with the change remarks of the original paper, further enhancements to the buck-

that buckling behavior corresponding to L / d = 11 is incorpo- ling model are still needed to represent more completely the range

rated. of possible responses due to a variety of factors including but not

Hence, the main discrepancy between the prediction using the limited to: the effect of tensile strains on buckling initiation and

proposed model and the smooth bar experimental response is not the role of confining reinforcement in controlling the effective L/d

necessarily due to the curvature parameter. The Chang–Mander ratio of longitudinal bars in reinforced concrete 共RC兲 elements.

model is essentially based on the Menegotto–Pinto approach for The response of individual bars provides only part of the infor-

mation necessary to develop and calibrate cyclic response models

for reinforcing bars in RC structures.

The writers also wish to use this opportunity to clarify the repre-

sentative bounding stress-strain curves shown in Fig. 1 of the

paper. The figure shows the slope of the curve in natural coordi-

nates to remain positive while softening 共due to necking兲 is ob-

served in the tensile response in engineering coordinates.

Likewise, softening due to buckling is shown in the compression

envelope in engineering space while a positive slope is retained in

natural coordinates. One of the readers asked for clarification of

this behavior 共Restrepo, personal communication, 2009兲.

Fig. 3. Representative stress-strain responses First, the writers wish to make clear that the conceptual repre-

Downloaded 03 May 2011 to 137.222.188.34. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. Visithttp://www.ascelibrary.org

sentation in Fig. 1 was meant to illustrate basic concepts without that the “engineering” stiffness drops below zero at a strain of

attempting to demonstrate a “true” transformation of the engineer- approximately 0.011 while the stiffness in natural space remains

ing to natural coordinate system. The apparent discontinuity in the positive up to a strain of approximately 0.014.

slopes of the curves at the peak points is misleading. This particu- In the OpenSees implementation of the proposed model, a

lar “conceptual” feature was introduced to indicate that true stress positive postpeak stiffness is used because softening behavior is

and strain are unlikely to exhibit softening though an examination observed only in engineering measures of stress and strain. In an

of the material behavior at the microscopic scale is beyond the effort to replace unrealistic softening behavior at the material

scope of this paper. The actual transformation is shown herein in level in compression, the Dhakal–Maekawa model is incorporated

Fig. 3 where Eqs. 共1兲–共2兲 of the original paper have been applied to represent combined material-geometric effects at the reinforced

to the stress and strain values. As shown in the figure, the stress- concrete section level.

strain curves in the natural coordinate system are symmetric and

the observed softening in the engineering response is also repro-

duced in the natural system. Again it is emphasized that the ap- References

plication of Eqs. 共1兲 and 共2兲 is simply based on preservation of the

volume of the material and not to be interpreted as an exact rep- Chang, G., and Mander, J. 共1994兲. “Seismic energy-based fatigue damage

resentation of behavior in the postpeak range. The postpeak soft- analysis of bridge columns: Part I—Evaluation of seismic capacity.”

ening response is typically observed in a tension test due to NCEER Technical Rep. No. 94-0006, Multi-Disciplinary Center for

Earthquake Engineering Research, State University of New York,

necking, which is a localized behavior, while softening in com-

Buffalo, N.Y.

pression can occur only due to buckling 共which is a geometric

Cosenza, E., and Prota, A. 共2006兲. “Experimental behavior and numerical

effect兲. The equations that transform engineering to natural coor- modeling of smooth steel bars under compression.” J. Earthquake

dinates are strictly valid only up to the point where the material is Eng., 10共3兲, 313–329.

not influenced by the effects of localized damage 共such as necking Dhakal, R., and Maekawa, K. 共2002兲. “Modeling for postyield buckling

in tension and buckling in compression兲. Hence, the true material of reinforcement.” J. Struct. Eng., 128共9兲, 1139–1147.

behavior following nonuniform local deformation needs to be es- Menegotto, M., and Pinto, P. E. 共1973兲. “Method of analysis of cyclically

tablished through different approaches. loaded RC plane frames including changes in geometry and nonelastic

The strain-strain data used in the simulation is from an actual behavior of elements under normal forces and bending.” Preliminary

tensile test of a #11 reinforcing bar. It should also be pointed out Rep. No. 13, IABSE, Zurich, Switzerland, 15–22.

that the stiffness of the tensile stress-strain response in natural OpenSees. 共2009兲. “Open system for earthquake engineering simulation.”

Open source software, 具http://opensees.berkeley.edu典.

coordinates is marginally higher but the inflection point from

Prota, A., de Cicco, F., and Cosenza, E. 共2009兲. “Cyclic behavior of

hardening to softening lags behind the corresponding stiffness in smooth steel reinforcing bars: Experimental analysis and modeling

engineering coordinates. The reverse is true for the compressive issues.” J. Earthquake Eng., 13共4兲, 500–519.

stress-strain response. Fig. 4 displays the change in instantaneous Restrepo-Posada, J. I., Dodd, L. L., Park, R., and Cooke, N. 共1994兲.

tensile stiffness 共tangent stiffness Et normalized with respect to “Variables affecting the cyclic behavior of reinforcing steel.” J. Struct.

the initial stiffness兲 as a function of the applied strain. It is evident Eng., 120共11兲, 3178–3196.

Downloaded 03 May 2011 to 137.222.188.34. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. Visithttp://www.ascelibrary.org

- CursDefBeton_BarbutaMarinelaHochgeladen vonvictorrbg
- OpenSeesExamplesPrimer.pdfHochgeladen vonrezas_12
- CHANGES in AISC’s SEISMIC PROVISIONS: AISC 341-05 to AISC 341-10Hochgeladen vonAnonymous 7MdZQn1
- DESIGN OF COLD FORMED STEEL STRUCTURESHochgeladen vonrobersasmita
- Steel Silo DesignHochgeladen vonlahlou_d9216
- Master Thesis on Steel ChimneysHochgeladen vonxufafruitjuice
- S.K Mondal SOM Notes and Previous Year Papers Solutions TopicwiseHochgeladen vonAnuj Sali
- Cosmos Works TutorialHochgeladen vonJC R
- imp noteHochgeladen vonJasminPamnani
- Master Link CatalogueHochgeladen vonHafizi HZnumismatic
- Mechanical Damage Characterization in PipelinesHochgeladen vonArif Febrianto
- Week 10 - Nonlinear Structural Analysis - Lecture PresentationHochgeladen vonNejib Ghazouani
- Mse101 Syllabus 1t 2014Hochgeladen vonRhine Esperanzate
- Module DescriptorHochgeladen vonSRUTHE
- Steelwise_ Seismic Fuses[1]Hochgeladen vonamachmouchi
- 26_418Hochgeladen vonari_pras
- Interfacial properties of modeled recycled aggregate concrete modified by carbonation.pdfHochgeladen vonsoulmateforeverforu
- 125760133 Buckling of Thin Metal Shells 287Hochgeladen vonpawkom
- Week 10 - Nonlinear Structural Analysis - Lecture PresentationHochgeladen vonchavico113
- Zekria_Mohammad.pdfHochgeladen vonHectoreRodriguezl
- Torsion PaperHochgeladen vonJoseAngelFernandezOrtega
- g481 1 3 4 springs and materialsHochgeladen vonapi-236179294
- 85137027408Hochgeladen vonRanier Pablico
- Stress, Strain, And Properties of Materials, By EPI IncHochgeladen vonEduardo Bittencourt
- Unit 1 Forces on MaterialsHochgeladen vonayam
- 3rd ICEEDM-45Hochgeladen vonMangisi Haryanto Parapat
- LabReport1.docHochgeladen vonkoraydndar
- Kuwabara TUBE 0Hochgeladen vonNgoc-Trung Nguyen
- WCEE2012_1659Hochgeladen von...?
- 2004 CST Cyclic Deformation of in Situ Al Al3Ti TiB2 Al2O3Hochgeladen vonyaswanth1992

- Chapter 3cHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Homework+Ch+1.pdfHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Chapter_1.pdfHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- 26 Year Old SpecimenHochgeladen vondebabrata dutta
- macr.2010.62.6.405Hochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Corrosion of Steel in ConcreteHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Is536 Types and Causes of Concrete DeteriorationHochgeladen vonAnonymous 5VwQ0KC3
- PEER CorrodedBridgeCols Ostertag Web20170905Hochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Ductility of Plain and Confined Concrete Under Different Strain RatesHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Jalayer Et Al-2009-Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics-2Hochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- OpenSees IntroductionHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Chloride-induced corrosion of steel.pdfHochgeladen voneid elsayed
- 13th World Conference on EArthquake Engineering-Full PapersHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Perry Robertson FormulaeHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- ElechElechtrochemistry of Corrosiontrochemistry of CorrosionHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Cell PotCell PotentialsentialsHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- PredictionPrediction of Reinforcement Tension Produced by Arch Action in RC Beams of Reinforcement Tension Produced by Arch Action in RC BeamsHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Behavior of Corroded Bar AnchoragesHochgeladen vonhkdkdiklk
- A Multi-fiber Approach for Modeling Corroded Reinforced Concrete StructuresHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- A New Object-Oriented Finite Element Analysis Program ArchitectureHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Virtual Earthquake Engineering Laboratory Capturing Nonlinear Shear, Localized Damage and Progressive Buckling of BarHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- A model for prediction of time from corrosion initiation to corrosion crackingHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani
- Nonlinear Equations MatlabHochgeladen vonRamakrishna_Ch_7716
- flexural strength of concrete beams with corroding reinforcementHochgeladen vonMehdi Kashani

- Sara Torres. poema. KamchatkaHochgeladen vonyunlector
- Agarose Gel ElectrophoresisHochgeladen vonJerome Sadudaquil
- Drugs Containing TanninsHochgeladen vonharishkumar kakrani
- Handbook - ABB Flowmeters (9!9!05)Hochgeladen vonRubén Jimenez Castro
- Shop ManualD65 12Hochgeladen vonanggie
- 3_Fajrin et al_2Hochgeladen vonQalis'Lingka Rifadly
- UNIT2_CGHochgeladen vonMalleesvari Senthil Kumar
- WCDMA RNO RF Optimization.pdfHochgeladen vonsoufiane
- C&IHochgeladen vonAdnan Akhtar
- Deepwater HorizonHochgeladen vonVincent J. Cataldi
- Subframe Number, SFN and HFNHochgeladen vonparmesh
- Alkali Silica ReactionHochgeladen vonAztec Mayan
- Caries Activity Test 1Hochgeladen vonKrishna Sigdel
- Final SafetyHochgeladen vonRamasamy
- Missing and Isometric Views PptHochgeladen vonChaithanya Chatrathi
- RawtherapeeHochgeladen vonsplaash
- M.B.a Business Administration 2015Hochgeladen vonNisho Bitha
- Paul in EcstasyHochgeladen vonmalcrowe
- Greedy Genetic AlgorithmHochgeladen vonZiaul Arif
- Eye and Face Protection_Safety GlassesHochgeladen vonguitarbrain
- Pocket_Guide_ENG_ldHochgeladen vonbata88
- Channel Estimation for OFDM Systems Based on Comb-type Pilot Arrangement in Frequency Selective Fading ChannelsHochgeladen vonidhoy
- 2 ocakHochgeladen voncceydacat
- 1425325504_1Hochgeladen vonbashirsba
- research paperHochgeladen vonapi-463177870
- human impact rewviewpacketHochgeladen vonapi-235160519
- Pipe Welding 6G SMAW CertificationHochgeladen vonsijeshclt
- Components of the Comprehensive History and Pe Write UpHochgeladen vonnewbie2k
- va interest rate reductionHochgeladen vonapi-196037134
- 13923644 Zero Point Power of the GodsHochgeladen vonJ Izabella Bardocz