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Transitional

Housing Haiti
Projects
Which NGOs doing what where?
Claims of progress, replacing Tent Cities with (microscopically) superior protection.
Alister William Macintyre research notes1
05/16/2011 (when last updated)

Version 3.6

Key Resources (1 May 16)


Bear in mind that T-shelters are Temporary “solutions” barely superior to tents and tarps,
not actually rebuilding Haiti back better. I believe that when an institution builds buildings
which kill people or place their lives at grave risk, or you approve doing so, you share a
fiduciary responsibility for their deaths, even though the Gov of Haiti might not hold you
accountable. I have contacts who do not share this opinion, who instead believe that in the
absence of any standards imposed by the government, anything goes. This difference of
opinion is the source of a lot of criticism for my research notes.
UN cluster primarily in charge of Transitional Housing solutions in Haiti:
https://sites.google.com/site/shelterhaiti2010/
For people who wish to propose housing solutions for use in Haiti, where does above
cluster want them to go, to offer their solutions?

1 I seek to give credit wherever possible to my sources of info, so anyone who wants to pursue any thread
further, has ample opportunity to fact check, and drill down deeper.

1 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


http://groups.google.com/group/haitisheltersolution
Plan Haiti is where people can design replacement housing transparently, in accordance with
international standards of building protection against earthquakes, hurricanes, and other
natural disasters.2
Haiti Reconstruction forum with links to World Bank, Haiti Government, Reconstruction
Commission, etc. etc. not individually listed here because the sites are down more often than
they are up.
This research notes document, at one time, was too large for HDRR3 so I put it on HR
Building Housing Communities Group 4 and Rebuild Haiti Better groups including Leogane.5
But now the size is much more reasonable, so it is also into HDRR.

Tags (1 Feb 19)


When uploading this document, where tags or keywords invited, here are suitable choices, to
indicate nature of content:
Challenges, Haiti, Housing, Land Tenure, NGOs, Rebuilding, Shelter, Transitional, UN,
USAID

Table of Contents
Key Resources (1 May 16).............................................................................................................. 1
Tags (1 Feb 19)............................................................................................................................ 2
Introduction (1 Mar 07) ...................................................................................................................... 5
Challenges blocking solutions (0 Sep 10)..................................................................................... 8
Land Tenure Real Estate Ownership (0 Sep 10) ............................................................... 8
Earthquake Rubble Debris (0 Sep 17)................................................................................. 9
Relevant Terminology (Glossary)..................................................................................................9
Collaborative Design (Nov 12) .......................................................................................................... 9
NGOs planning T-Shelters (0 Sep 10).............................................................................................. 9

2 Scribd has this 24 page report on Building Codes as of 2009: http://www.scribd.com/doc/30195995/The-


Building-Codes-Assistance-Project-Annual-Report-2009-Med-Quality
3 It started its life as several meg, due to imported charts, which have since been converted into simple text,

making overall size much smaller.


4 http://haitirewired.wired.com/group/buildinghousingcommunities/forum/topics/tracking-tshelters
5http://rebuildhaitibetter.ning.com/profile/AlisterWmMacintyre

http://rebuildhaitibetter.ning.com/groups
http://rebuildhaitibetter.ning.com/group/leogane

2 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Courtesy Reminder (0 Sep 10)............................................................................................ 10
Copying Tips (1 Feb 17)......................................................................................................10
Zone Maps (0 Sep 22) ..............................................................................................................11
Harbor Homes (0 Dec 12).......................................................................................................11
Organizations Count Where (Sep 25) ............................................................................................. 12
Progress on T-shelter completion (1 May 15)...........................................................................12
Inspector General USAID April 19 Audit (1 May 07) ........................................................12
2011 April IG expectations (1 May 16).............................................................................12
2011 April IG disagreements (1 May 16) ..........................................................................14
2011 April IG info problems (1 May 16) ..........................................................................16
2011 April IG Recommendations (1 May 07)..................................................................19
2011 April IG report (1 May 15)........................................................................................21
Progress thru 2011 March (1 Mar 07) ....................................................................................23
Progress thru 2011 February (1 Mar 08) ...............................................................................24
Progress thru 2011 January (1 May 07)..................................................................................25
Progress thru 2010 October (1 Mar 07) ................................................................................26
Progress thru 2010 September (1 May 07) ............................................................................29
Which NGOs in Transitional Plans (Nov 13)...........................................................................31
ACTED (Nov 26) ................................................................................................................31
Action Aid (1 Feb 17) ..........................................................................................................32
Integrated Land Reform (1 Jan 05) ........................................................................................34
ACTJH (1 Apr 27)................................................................................................................35
ADF........................................................................................................................................35
ADRA ....................................................................................................................................35
AMECON 2000 (1 Apr 27) ................................................................................................ 35
APY ........................................................................................................................................35
Architectes de L'Urence ......................................................................................................35
ARC (1 Apr 27).....................................................................................................................35
BRAC .....................................................................................................................................35
CAN DO (1 Jan 28) .............................................................................................................36

3 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


CARE .....................................................................................................................................36
CHF (1 Apr 27).....................................................................................................................36
Christian Aid .........................................................................................................................36
Concern..................................................................................................................................36
Cord Aid (1 Apr 27).............................................................................................................37
CRS (Dec 10) ........................................................................................................................37
CRWRC (1 Feb 17) ..............................................................................................................37
DPA (1 Apr 27) ....................................................................................................................38
FH...........................................................................................................................................38
Food for Poor (Sep 22) .......................................................................................................38
GOAL ....................................................................................................................................38
Good Neighbors...................................................................................................................38
Habitat for Humanity (1 Feb 17) .......................................................................................38
IOM........................................................................................................................................39
IOM Sri Lanka (1 Apr 27)...................................................................................................39
IRD.........................................................................................................................................39
Islamic Relief.........................................................................................................................39
Med Air (1 Feb 17)...............................................................................................................39
NICCO ..................................................................................................................................40
NRC (1 Apr 24) ....................................................................................................................40
Premier Urgence ...................................................................................................................40
Red X (1 Apr 27) ..................................................................................................................40
SA............................................................................................................................................41
Samaritan’s Purse..................................................................................................................41
SOS Children ........................................................................................................................41
Tear Fund .............................................................................................................................. 41
UNOPS..................................................................................................................................41
UN Techno Para Mi Pais (Nov 13) ...................................................................................41
World Vision .........................................................................................................................42
Transitional NGOs Correlation Chart (1 Feb 16)................................................................ 42

4 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Generic Plans (Sep 10).........................................................................................................45
Port au Prince (Sep 10) ........................................................................................................45
Carrefour (1 Feb 18) ............................................................................................................45
Delmas (Sep 10)....................................................................................................................46
Croix de Bouquets (Sep 10) ................................................................................................ 46
Camp Corail in Croix de Bouquets (1 May 13) ................................................................ 47
Tabarre (Sep 10) ...................................................................................................................47
Petionville (Sep 10)...............................................................................................................47
Carrefour (Sep 10) ................................................................................................................47
Kenscoff (Sep 10).................................................................................................................48
Gressier (Sep 10)...................................................................................................................48
Leogane (Sep 10) ..................................................................................................................48
Jacmel (Sep 10)......................................................................................................................48
Grand Goave (Sep 10).........................................................................................................49
Petit Goave (1 Apr 24) ........................................................................................................49
Cotes de Fer (Sep 10)...........................................................................................................49
Cap Haitien (Sep 10) ............................................................................................................49
May 17 Status 2010 Start..........................................................................................................50

Introduction (1 Mar 07)


This introduction is overdue, I know, for re-write to move some of the content to relevant
sub-topics, because it has grown excessively large.
Topic sub-titles end in a date signifying when that info was last updated, so by viewing table
of contents, we see where most recent input to these research notes, especially aiding people
with copy of an earlier version. Digit 1 in front of month means 2011.
Where “date” in parentheses is instead “Glossary” that means that whole section of content
has been moved to reference facts document “Glossary Housing Haiti” in preparation for
splitting this and other Housing documents into research by more focused sub-topics, in
which the glossary document will contain facts and definitions common to overall themes
of: Housing rights, Land & Tenure, Land and Housing; Land Tenure Security; Rubble
Debris disposal.

5 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Version numbers are incremented, with this document periodically uploaded various places
for convenience of other people who can then pick and choose which of my research efforts
they wish to download.
Users of my research hold Alister Wm. Macintyre harmless, and also the places I upload my
research to, and agree that my copyright is reserved and that the information is available for
the intended purpose of helping in the recovery of Haiti. Some of my research content is
direct quotes from other sources. I try to give credit every time I do this.
These notes began in a separate research document, which subsequently got split into related
topics, when they became too voluminous. If your interest is in Haiti housing recovery
challenges, perhaps you should start with my Glossary of Haiti Housing
challenges, which includes references to all my related research notes documents, and to
many external sources.
In another of my research documents,6 I address priorities for the many needs of Haiti,
pointing out that Haiti is struggling how to solve many problems, which could take them
months years or decades. Since hundreds of thousands of Haitian lives are at dire risk of
multiple hazards, while this is going on, they need to have intermediate solutions
implemented, while working on the better solutions, for the long term. The T-shelters are
part of an intermediate or short term solution, not a permanent one.
In early March, I went thru my 6 months collection of reports on T-shelters where they had
figures both on number of people protected by them and numbers built, to see how many
people per T-shelter. The #s vary from maybe two to around five.
This research document seeks to address a handful of key issues:
 Put an understanding of Haiti Transitional Housing into perspective or big picture.
 Include big picture of what Haiti may need, long term. For example, it is generally
agreed that Haiti earthquakes were not "The Big One" but only precursors. Will
rebuilt Haiti just 'look-like' there was never an earthquake, or is it internally truly
ready to endure the next one when it comes?
 Identify major players or actors in the implementation of these projects, to facilitate
or aid people in the architecture, engineering, and construction industries to make
contact with those who may be in need of help getting the job done.
 Provide links to major sources of info to aid other people pursuing this issue, beyond
my research so far.

6 Making sense of Haiti Land Tenure, Real Estate Ownership Documentation, and how the mess can be fixed.
This document is also slated to be split into separate research notes by each of several issues now combined
into what has become excessively large.

6 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


In discussions with several groups of people regarding Haiti, the issue has often come up:
which NGOs etc. are supposedly building how many Transitional Shelters where, and do
they meet international standards of protection against earthquakes, hurricanes, and
hazards now met by people in the tent cities such as raiders in the nights for rape,
muggings, or surprise evictions?

For more info about risks of weather intensities see my research notes document
“Weather Science Haiti” and the Science Maps section of my directory of
“Haiti Map” sources.

Nathan Proper commented on one of my Haiti Rewired posts, where I was speculating
about alleged building standards of NGOs, as follows:
QUOTE
Alister,
any small wood-frame structure will be 100% safe for earthquakes if they are safe for
winds. Because they are lightweight, and because earthquake loads are dependant on
the weight of the building, wind loads will 'govern' for all small wood-frame structure
design... especially when talking about hurricane level winds.

Nathan Proper
UNQUOTE

There's several groups of people interested in answers to the above speculations.

1. People in the Engineering Construction Architectural etc. businesses who claim to


have the expertise to build quality shelters, either as pro bono volunteers, or in the
business of making a profit. They want to know where they can "get in on"
playing a role in getting the job done, because they have high degrees of self-
confidence that they can do a quality job of getting it done right, and
economically. So for that audience, I looked up UN documents identifying NGOs
allegedly promising to do these better than tent city shelters, then looked up via
Internet, what are their home HQ offices, so interested contractors and volunteers
could make contact.
2. There's a great deal of suspicion out there, that NGOs are accepting massive
donations, but not spending money on Haitians in need, in a quality way, so there
are people in need of fact checking pathways to matching what the NGOs say
they are doing with what can be proven. This topic is addressed in more detail
within our “Accountability” research. See my directory of Haiti documents which
I have found, and look up under Accountability. Also look up related concepts
such as Accessibility (for disabled), Gender sensitivity (protecting women from
violence), and Human Rights, in general.
3. For many people interested in Haiti, there’s a great deal of nervousness regarding
risks to over 1 million earthquake survivors in the tent cities vs. risk of hurricanes
hitting Haiti. Although we have no reliable assurances of the quality of the T-
shelters, we all believe they are superior to tents, and are anxious to find what
progress is being made getting the tent city occupants into something better.

7 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Hopefully my research effort will get the info needed by all interests. I tentatively plan to
further split my larger research documents.
1. re-write sections where imported images and other structures are eating
excess space … instead copy those images to separate references with clear
naming, referenced by the main research document
2. break the main topic into companion topics, each with their own separate
document, and brevity of reference in each pointing at the others
3. review whether each broke-out sub-document now in need of re-write to be
more coherent

Initial targets for this: “Haiti Land Own” then “Haiti T-Shelter” maybe split into:
 Contact Courtesy Reminders
 Haiti Life Quality Statistics (reference facts, crying out for explanation)
 Housing Policy Glossary (summary explanations and terminology, common across the
companion research documents – initially combined from “Haiti Land Own” and “Haiti T-
Shelter”)
 Land Tenure Security
 Land Own Proof
 Quake Rubble Debris
 Relocation Geography
 T-Shelter by NGO (what is known about the O and quality of their construction)
 T-Shelter overall statistics (completions and 3% population this level protection)

Challenges blocking solutions (0 Sep 10)


Earlier research effort had multiple topics relating to Haiti Housing challenges in one
document, but many people interest tended to focus on individual areas, which I am now
splitting into those areas, and may refer to here in summary. This document replaces one
which previously included both the next housing effort (a moving target) and Land Tenure
Real Estate Ownership challenges, which will be getting its own independent research
document.

Land Tenure Real Estate Ownership (0 Sep 10)


This issue is now being addressed in an independent research document, since it is quite
complex, without any resolution consensus:
 What are all the dimensions of this mess;
 Should it be solved (there are Haitians who allegedly do not want it solved);
 how it should be solved;
 priorities wise and practical in the absence of solving the mess.

8 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Copies of that other document will get uploaded same kind of place where I am posting this
one.7 In my opinion, if the land tenure ownership documentation challenge is not solved,
then millions of Haitians are doomed to a precarious existence in Tent Cities, leading
inevitably to additional disasters8 with astronomical death tolls.

Earthquake Rubble Debris (0 Sep 17)


The Haiti Earthquake created a volume of debris which is astronomical compared to many
previous disasters. I have a UN report with statistics from past disasters, listing challenges
facing Haitian recovery,9 but it is apparent to me that a major part of the problem is the
failure of UN, Gov-of-Haiti, and NGOs, to coordinate crafting a coherent solution, then
jointly implement it. The very first Blog which I posted to Haiti Rewired listed suggested
priorities for dealing with this. As of eight months after the Jan 10 earthquake, approx 2%
of the debris from the demolished buildings has been disposed of. At this rate, the task will
take 33 years to complete. There cannot be replacement housing until this rubble has been
removed from potential rebuilding sites. This topic is also addressed in more detail in the
companion research document on issues of Land Tenure and Real Estate
Ownership Documentation.

Relevant Terminology (Glossary)


Al Mac now has a separate “Glossary Housing Haiti” research notes document
containing info common to multiple related Haiti Housing topics, such as links to additional
major info sources, instead of repeating pretty much same core facts in each of those
companion Haiti Housing research documents.

Collaborative Design (Nov 12)


Harold Florentino is representing BAIN as a juror to a "call for Collaborative Design" at
www.Haiti-Habitat.com to help the victims of the earthquake in Haiti get new homes.
Help spread the announcement to architects, engineers, disaster relief specialists, designers,
etc.

NGOs planning T-Shelters (0 Sep 10)


My information is as of when I did a research effort from UN cluster documents. Later I intend to
revisit my source sites, seeking more current documents, then what new info may be there, which
was not known earlier.

7 Until then, an earlier write-up is available on my Haiti Rewired Explanation (with other person illumination
comments) Land Tenure - Understanding Haiti Real Estate, in Architecture for Haiti Group.
8 Hurricanes, Civil Unrest, continued Rape Epidemic, Medical Epidemics due to poor sanitation.
9 Debris fact sheet 2010 June (PDF) from UNDP.

9 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Courtesy Reminder (0 Sep 10)
We should refrain from using the contact information in UN NGO reports, and those I
share below in this document, to actually contact people who are working in Haiti, unless we
have something specific to help them with that is ready to be implemented RIGHT NOW.
If our solution cannot be implemented, because of some need, such as transportation,
money, whatever, we should say so up front.

When we cross post these reports to some public or semi-public site, we should either cut
out all such contact information, and/or include a reminder to people about this courtesy
need. This includes forwarding of e-mail, or cut posting it to some web site.
Please chop out e-mail addresses of the participants, do not invite them to get spam.

Relief workers on the ground are working 20+ hour days under frenetic conditions. To
interrupt them, with anything other than direct assistance, in my opinion, is treason to their
relief effort. If we are careless about not pointing this out any place we share the info, then
there is a risk we are accessories to other people not being courteous, and this kind of
information may become even more difficult to access in the future.

In addition to the ethics of not disrupting the workers on the ground by contacting them,
there are also ethics that we should do nothing that might put them at additional risk. They
are already conducting their affairs in a manner that places themselves at risk of kidnapping,
ambush, theft, and other serious events. I am still mentally grappling with whether there is
anything I can do about that. Please just give some thought to such issues, when selecting
what info to share in a public forum.

Copying Tips (1 Feb 17)


In case there's info that you think is vital to share, but the document is READ only, and
there's confidential info that ethics dictate should not be posted in a public manner.
Before using Relief Web maps, check out their permission page.10

When inside some document, Control A normally copies the entire thing to clipboard.
If you then paste that info to same kind of document, it is often (not always) intelligible, and
the document that you created can be edited by you to remove the data that we think should
not be shared. It probably would be smart to insert a brief statement about what you have
done, including identification of original organization for anyone who has a need to see a
copy of the entire original.

Many of the latest documents have a mixture of English and French.

10http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/hlp.nsf/db900ByKey/map_permission?OpenDocument include this text:


(Source: OCHA/Relief Web) where appropriate.

10 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


For those of us not fluent in languages containing useful info, I use Google Translate
http://translate.google.com/#en|ht|

Adjust the selection from language to language


Cut and paste into the top what you want translated
Then you have in bottom a translation you can cut & paste what you want to use

The process is not Star Trek Universal Translator, the quality is flawed, the results
sometimes makes the speaker sound like a brain dead two year old, but it is intelligible.

If the result is totally unintelligible, it probably means we guessed wrong on what 2 languages
to translate between.
I know people in the professional translation business, so let me know if you need those
contacts.

Zone Maps (0 Sep 22)


Early September I noticed Zone Maps being issued by the Shelter Cluster through Relief
Web. I had not previously noticed maps labeled as Zone Maps, so I checked them out.
These are for individual cities or communities showing which organizations are building
shelters where. No numbers are given. Just the actual builder organizations, and the
funding or coordinating agencies.

Harbor Homes (0 Dec 12)


One of the LI-HEDR11 members12 posted the following Haiti news:13
PermaShelter S.A., a subsidiary of Harbor Homes, currently has excess t-shelter
manufacturing capacity.

Harbor Homes is a leading supplier of disaster relief housing to FEMA and DHS, and we
have been in Haiti for the past six months or so and are currently under contract with
several NGOs to build a couple thousand t-shelters. We currently have excess
manufacturing capacity that could be used to accelerate the rate of construction in Haiti.
Specifically, we have a dedicated ship sailing between 15 January and 30 January, and
we currently have enough space for an additional 2,000 t-shelters. We prefer to
manufacture a 16x16 steel frame with hardiboard (cement board) exterior and metal roof.

I am currently in-country through 19 or 20 December. Feel free to call me at 509 3661


2641 if you would like to discuss. I would be delighted to visit your work site.

I know that we are all a bit on edge regarding the one-year anniversary, and the media is

11 http://www.linkedin.com/groups?mostPopular=&gid=2659304
12 Matt Williams http://www.linkedin.com/in/matthewarthurwilliams
13 Al Mac cross-posted it a few places.

11 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


going to be taking us all to task on why more structures have not been built. If your
organization has some flexibility with respect to design, we can help get structures
erected very quickly.

Organizations Count Where (Sep 25)


I transcribed (cut paste effort) the info identifying NGOs doing what where from the
document: Map Transitional Shelter PDF 2010 Apr 26. This identified 40 NGOs which planned
to implement Transitional Shelter in Haiti, but were going very slowly due to challenges such as
those I summarize above. Then as I saw new updates, I added to the numbers and organizations
here, except some I believed to be fraudulent. That mapping document was developed by the
IASC (UN’s Inter-Agency Standing Committee). Subsequently, the Shelter cluster added revised lists
and directories of the relevant information, also revising their structure of links, so if I point people
directly to where a document is, it soon will no longer have that url. Start at main home site of
Shelter Cluster, then explore from there. Also see Shelter One Response.
At the time I started exploring this data, there were 13 sites by Haiti Government for the
construction work, not identified clearly in any one source that I had seen. Then a trickle of
additional sites alluded to by various subsequent situation reports, without good specificity either.
In UN Overall situation report dated May 5, 2010: 10 Transitional Shelter Sites have been
identified by the Mayor’s office in Leogane.

Progress on T-shelter completion (1 May 15)


In this “chapter” I share progress reports in reverse date order, so on top we can see the
latest news, then work downwards to see net change rate of improvement.

Inspector General USAID April 19 Audit (1 May 07)


USAID was audited by the IG (Inspector General), publishing two reports, which I have
downloaded, using the following naming:
 Accountability Audit USAID Inspector General 2010 Sep 24 Cash for Work 25 pages
 Accountability Audit USAID Inspector General 2011 April 19 Housing 35 pages
I shared extensive notes on the implications of the 2010 Sep audit soon after it came out.
See my “Glossary of Housing and other Challenges in Haiti,” where I reviewed
the 2010 Sep IG report. Here is summary info from the 2011 April IG report.

2011 April IG expectations (1 May 16)


Since, in my remarks, the IG has fallen short of much of what I expect of an IG, it should be
appropriate for me to share what that is, that I expect.
We have some organization, in this case USAID which has some mission, some guidelines
how to conduct the mission, is trying to implement the mission.
The IG needs to evaluate: (in my opinion)

12 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


 The guidelines – are they appropriate to doing the mission, or are there flaws there,
comparable to what ISO does in the business world. World Class organizations do
certain things, which are not in your guidelines. You need to have certain auditing
standards, and if you are going to work in certain fields, then you need to meet
standards of those fields. It seems to me, that the only thing IG did in this area was
the issue of medical non-treatment of humans, and the IG effort was half-assed.
 Organizational infrastructure – where relevant, there may need to be review of
adequacy of accounting, cyber security, communications, personnel security.
 Implementation of the guidelines – is the organization actually doing the mission?
This was the primary focus of the IG report on the transitional housing.
 The big picture. Is the organization conducting itself in a responsible manner with
respect to a spectrum of civilized standards?
 What are the missions, as provided by Congress, State Dept, or whatever? Is the
organization addressing them all in a coherent way?
This evaluation may require several investigations. There should be correlation of info from
different investigations, so they are not totally independent stove pipes, where many past
history investigations of USAID doing similar work in Haiti and other nations are totally
ignored.
Alan Scouten comments on Derek Xava's group "Architecture for Haiti" on Haiti Rewired
included:14
For all its flaws, the IG Report addresses what-went-wrong, if not what right-might-look-like.
But then, that is not the inspector's job. It is the builders'.
"First do no harm."
.....................................................................................................................
"Perhaps the most amazing part of the report is that when given the seven recommendations
by the inspector general, USAID/OFDA disagreed with six of the seven and did not
comment on the other. Rather than try to constructively improve the provision of housing in
Haiti, or to try and fix these problems, USAID/OFDA’s overwhelming response was 'we
did nothing wrong.' " (CEPR)
.....................................................................................................................
My friend Bob Speth observed:15

14

http://haitirewired.wired.com/group/architectureforhaiti
15 Thanks for feedback identifying areas where my writings have lacked clarity of what I think the problems are.

13 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


“Rescuers, by and large, do not know building code standards. Nor should they.
Their job is to rescue. Plus the percentage of those who know building code
standards, of any sort, are likely a very small percentage of the rescuers.
Being so few means that the majority of construction will be done without
any standards in mind.”
I agree in principle that organizations engaged in search and rescue, food kitchens,
protecting people from the elements (such as hypothermia in Japan), etc. only need to know
how-to for the work to be done. But large NGOs are in transition to a host of transitional
services beyond immediate rescue and relief for the people rescued.

They set up medical clinics, where massive amputations are done of people injured in the
quake, then the patients are sent off bandaged, with no after-care, no access to artificial
limbs, there's no mental health follow-up, forget about any pain medication refills.

They use their funding mechanisms to bring in tens of thousands of pre-fabricated buildings,
get them assembled. Many NGOs are getting into areas where they have no experience.
They are constructing buildings not designed for the tropics, not designed for Haiti needs.
Bob Speth observed:
“That millions of Haitians are at the risk of death, major tropical storm or otherwise, is a fact of living in
Haiti.”
Millions of Haitians are at severe risk when tropical storms arrive, today, this year, last year.
Is this a fact of living which has always been the case, or is it the consequence of
infrastructure destroyed by past disasters and never replaced? Where does the responsibility
lie for doing the replacing? I believe it is shared:
 Gov of Haiti should be getting reports on what the NGOs, visiting govs, UN, etc.
doing, in a form which has clarity to see progress done, progress needed ahead.
 UN clusters also should be getting such reports, on what’s needed overall in
rebuilding, what’s got done, where the priorities should be.

2011 April IG disagreements (1 May 16)


Many people of good will have disagreements regarding what the USAID is doing, what the
IG audit is saying, my analysis, what is needed instead. Unfortunately many just reprint what
IG says, do not dig deeper into the implications of what the IG missed, or correlate lessons
from these two IG audits, vs. extremely high volume of other critical audits via NGOs, the
UN, and independent bodies.
It is unfortunate that UN links to building codes from around the world, for how best to
protect against earthquakes hurricanes etc. of various intensities in different climates, are

14 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


now broken. I have friends who claim that because Haiti has no building codes, it is not the
responsibility of builders there to build to any standards. I disagree. If you build something
which will kill people, you are responsible, although you might not be accountable.
Al Sem blogs in Rebuild Haiti Back Better16 says this audit “represents the first real attempt
at accountability in the failure to adequately provide housing for those displaced by the
earthquake.” I disagree, it is only the latest in dozens I have seen, and I am very
disappointed in IG inattention to the importance of quality building codes, and not knowing
what to do when faced with someone near death. I suggested to the RHBB group that they
are perhaps among the best qualified to address what should be building codes by outsiders
operating in Haiti. Prof. Anil Laul, 17from India, is familiar with structures built following the
2004 Asian Tsunami in climates similar to Haiti, shares building code standards which
worked there, using waste materials from that disaster, which are going to waste in the Haiti
disaster.18
Alan Scouten comments on Derek Xava's group "Architecture for Haiti" on Haiti Rewired
included:19
“USAID/OFDA Did Not Standardize Shelter Design”
(actually it did....just that SPHERE standards are so low, and unsupported by performance-
criteria, that their "designs" as posted in their literature are open to all kinds of
interpretation. Standardization is the problem, not the solution. Enrichment, according to
performance-proof, insures the variety of solutions that are needed to meet the vast need.
Single-sourcing and mass-purchasing sure fly in the face of USAID's championed-
competition and even more so in the face of my suggested-diversity)
According to the various grant agreements, grantees should construct their shelters
according to Sphere standards. (It is such grant-prejudice that kills diversity)

Developed in 1997 by various nongovernmental organizations to ensure a humane response


to disaster,
(and in the intervening 14 years never questioned at the highest-levels, but only here On-the-
Wire. SPHERE standardizes where it should outline, and outlines where it should define-
performance)

SPHERE "standards" for shelter provide flexibility in materials and design but "outline" the
need to meet basic requirements for space, ventilation, thermal comfort, security, and
privacy. Additional guidance appears in the USAID/OFDA Field Operating Guide for

16 http://rebuildhaitibetter.net/profiles/blogs/inspector-general-slams-usaid?xg_source=msg_mes_network
17 http://rebuildhaitibetter.net/profile/profanillaul
18 www.anangpur.org
19

http://haitirewired.wired.com/group/architectureforhaiti?commentId=4920407%3AComment%3A41519&xg
_source=msg_com_group

15 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Disaster Assessment and Response (Field Operating Guide), which includes a strong
recommendation to include rainwater collection devices.
(rainwater collection is working fine...it all collects in the middle of the house) .
Then there is what happened in UN Shelter Cluster.

In the examples I have seen, the dissolving-plywood walls sit on a flat slab, just inside the
perimeter insuring that water will flow down the walls and directly into the interior space.
Plywood, even splash-guarded and flashed is no defense against ground water.
(4 feet of masonry before wood OR waterproof materials to grade or below?)

Despite its experience constructing transitional shelters after major disasters for the past 7
years, USAID/OFDA did not provide direction to grantees on a standard shelter design.
Instead, it left the 11 grantees to design their own transitional shelters.
(what qualifications did The Gang of Eleven have to design such shelters, and to what
performance-criteria?)

The main partners include the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
Societies, U.N. offices and programs, and nongovernmental organizations such as OXFAM
and Care International.
(NONE of these organizations have any experience in building permanent housing, and
most no experience in Shelter of any kind. Oxfam has been the most consistent critic of the
Shelter Cluster performance over the last year, if, unfortunately not contributing much in the
way of alternatives...)

The Emergency Shelter Cluster is one of many clusters—in Haiti, clusters deal with logistics;
health; food; shelter and nonfood items; and water, sanitation, and hygiene—formed by the
international humanitarian community to improve the effectiveness of humanitarian
response. For more information, see www.humanitarianreform.org/
(to me, a CLUSTER is just another Stockade, behind which the same old B.I.G.s
(Banking/money - Industry/ M.I.C. - Government/ GOH, NGOs, UN, USAID) prosper
while locking-out creative solutions. What does it take to "tear down these walls"?

2011 April IG info problems (1 May 16)


I have several serious problems with the info communicated by the 2011 April IG report.
Some of these concerns are new, and some we have been repeating in response to prior
evaluations like this.

16 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


 The international community engages in lots of finger pointing, instead of using
widely available solutions, or working with Haitian partners to develop solutions.
This report shows that IG, USAID, and its grantees, are part of that philosophy.
 When there is an operation ONLY in the USA, audited by some USA organization,
then it makes sense to only use USA entities to evaluate the results, but when a
report is on what is happening in Haiti, or some other nation outside of the USA,
shouldn’t partners in that nation be included in the evaluation, to identify any
statements being made which are fantasyland by the reality of people familiar with
that nation?20
 As I reported in my “1 year UN” review, one of the problems is that aid workers
are sent into a disaster area, who are totally ignorant about conditions on the ground
there, and thus they have to consume some of the precious aid, which was sent for
Haiti victims. This included UN officials, tasked with coordination of aid, who took
several months to get their own house in order on the ground so they could even do
their job properly. The IG audit team suffers from the same problem. Their total
ignorance of Haiti, before arrival, impaired their ability to do a competent job.
 If the purpose of this effort is to help Haiti, then preference should be given to Haiti
organizations, instead of using a policy which prohibits their participation.
 USAID asked for rainwater collection systems. None of the T-shelters funded by
USAID actually had that, but some beneficiaries added their own systems. Haiti’s
climate is suited to such a system and it could have proved a source of safe
water at minimal additional cost when the cholera epidemic started in October
2010.
 Lump sum logic used, so actual expenditures can only be estimated. This breeds
inefficiencies, corruption.
 USAID/OFDA used three standard shelter performance indicators to monitor the
achievement of planned results:
o (1) number of households receiving shelter,
o (2) percent of affected population receiving shelter,21 and
o (3) amount or percent of project budget spent in the local community.
 While all the grantees were reporting on the first USAID indicator, 8 grantees
either had not set target goals for, or had not reported on, the second and third
indicators.

20 The IG had a fiduciary responsibility, which it ignored, to be aware of Haiti organizations capable of
evaluating the truth of allegations made by IG and all that it was auditing, then have them review the findings
to identify assertions showing that the spokespersons have serious ignorance with what is needed to solve
Haitian problems.
21 Meaning of “affected population” varied, depending on who the IG spoke with. There was no consistent

understanding, usage, or application, of this effectively meaningless terminology.

17 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


 Rubble removal from T-shelter building sites, was not included in the budget. This
meant 24% reduction in volume of T-shelters buildable, and unable to build in time
before hurricane season.
 Assumption that the T-shelters even protect Haitians from hurricanes.
 Page 7, of IG report, has photos of T-shelters with descriptions of construction
materials, such as:
o plastic sheet walls, no solid doors, no windows, and no foundation;
o plywood walls, doors, windows, and a concrete foundation.

 Page 10, of IG report, has photo of a T-shelter perched precariously on a hill side,
vulnerable to local conditions like mud slides in the rainy season.
 Sphere standards state that shelter solutions should ensure the security, health,
safety, and well-being of the affected population. Haitian beneficiaries
complained to grantees that they feared for their safety while living in shelters
with no doors and plastic-sheeted walls, which could easily be cut with a
knife. Some of the plastic sheeting provided was so thin that at night the
inhabitants within were visible from outside the shelter. In addition, over time the
plastic sheeting (shown on page 9 of IG report) began to wear and was unlikely
to last the 3 years that USAID/OFDA required, and paid for.
 Shelters constructed with plastic sheeting, particularly those with no windows,
doors, or vents, were so hot during the day that auditors were unable to conduct
site visit interviews inside them.22

o IG shares USAID view that Sphere standards, and-or UN shelter cluster NGO
concensus designs, are appropriate substitutions for building code standards. 23 I
suggest the US Army Corps of Engineers be tasked with a review of what USAID is
calling “international building standards” to include considerations for:
o The Caribbean gets regular hurricanes. Haiti has no wet lands to soak them
up, before they approach a people with inadequate warning systems, and
inadequate capacity of severe weather shelters.
o The people of Haiti have security needs much higher than in the USA and
most of the world. This includes reducing the openings where rapists and
other muggers can get in, using as a key either knife or machete.
o Haiti is a tropical island, with unique impact on design needs – construction
materials, how concrete mixed, environmental impact on construction

22 I do not see, in the IG report, if the Haitian occupants were inside these “shelters” during the day, like
Katrina victims living in FEMA trailers with no air conditioning, and lots of opportunities to breathe in
noxious poisonous chemicals, because the trailers were not designed for the climate to which they were
delivered.
23 I believe not a single building, in the civilized world, has been built according to Sphere standards, except

perhaps the FEMA trailers after Katrina. In 2010 I had a wonderful link from UNESCO, which is now
broken, showing building code standards from all over the world. Here is a good link working in 2011:
http://www.iccsafe.org/Pages/default.aspx

18 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


materials (buildings built in Haiti, to standards in temperate climates, are
likely to soon fall down.)
o Water and Sanitation for buildings which have no local infrastructure hook-
ups.
 If the Army Engineers find USAID standards are deficient in Haiti, then it should be
tasked with also checking what standards USAID is using in other nations around
the world, because this might be a reason why the rest of the world uses the phrase
“The Ugly American.”
 I suggest that there be testimony to Congress, which includes in the rotunda, one of
these T-shelters funded by our tax dollars, with sun lamps above to simulate Haiti
heat, and thermometer inside to show what the temperature gets to in Haiti in these
shelters. Include a sign beside the shelter showing USAID budget for this, its
purpose, and which Congress persons voted to approve USAID being allowed to
disregard IG recommendations.24

2011 April IG Recommendations (1 May 07)


USAID is real good at reading IG audit, then finding reasons to disagree with everything. It
is also skilled at being non-responsive to clear requests for help from its grantees, which in
turn are good at not helping Haitians. Our tax dollars at work. USAID made specific
requests of IG to make editorial changes in the phraseology where USAID disagreed over
the facts and implications. IG just added additional details, in support of IG position.
I am beginning to suspect the IG is like the UN World Courts, and OAS humanitarian court.
They make nice advice, to organizations which are totally free to disregard the rulings.
There were 7 recommendations made by the IG to the USAID.
1. Evaluate and adopt as best practices the shelter designs and construction processes
which deliver shelters at the lowest cost while best meeting requirements for space,
ventilation, thermal comfort, security, and privacy (page 8).
USAID disagrees with this. Their reasons are that providing standardized shelter designs
to grantees would:
(1) stifle the ability of grantees to design and construct transitional shelters which are
most appropriate to the local context at the neighborhood or community level;
(2) generate waste and discourage use of local materials;25 and
(3) undermine community action supported by Gov of Haiti.

2. Incorporate into its operational guidance the option to use competitive or set-aside
awards to involve local organizations or firms in transitional shelter construction (page
8). IG review of USAID responses concludes that this has now been solved, however

24 I suggest this because a picture is worth thousands of words. Our elected officials do not have time to read
these reports, but seeing the problem is needed.
25 If they really believe this, then how come they allowed grantees to bring in materials which would get stuck

in customs?

19 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


USAID disagrees with this, because they claim it can take over a year to locate qualified
organizations in Haiti.26

3. Incorporate into its planning documents the need for ongoing liaison with customs
officials to avoid delays when dealing with future disasters (page 9).27 The IG says
USAID had a responsibility to help its clients with this challenge. USAID disagrees with
this, passing the buck of responsibility to the grantees not asking for help, or not knowing
who to ask for help.28
8 of the 11 USAID/OFDA grantees reported customs delays ranging from 6 weeks to 5
months. One grantee, American Refugee Committee (ARC), had shelter materials held
in customs beginning in July 2010, and by the end of November 2010, it had not
received its materials nor built a single shelter.29

4. Fund mechanized rubble removal (page 11). IG review of USAID responses


concludes that this has now been solved, however USAID disagreed with this. The
problem is with the phraseology.

5. Develop, implement, and monitor performance indicators that provide consistent and
useful information regarding the program’s status and impact (page 12). USAID
disagreed with this. There is a discussion on page 21, regarding the ADS standard,
which requires that data be reliable. I was unable to find what ADS means.

6. Either realign or develop a strategy to fund and achieve its current house repair goal
(page 13).30 USAID disagreed with this.

7. Develop and implement procedures to identify available humanitarian resources so


that vulnerable beneficiaries can be referred to medical services on a timely basis (page
14).31

26 Remember Bill Clinton got the job after the PREVIOUS disaster, to get THE IDENTICAL JOB done, so
he already had a directory of qualified organizations in Haiti. Another example of the left hand of government
being totally ignorant of what the right hand is doing, and what resources are available.
27 In theory, any organization, participating in the UN logistics cluster, is informed on all the needs of customs

officials forms and liaison. I believe USAID does participate there. IG had a responsibility to check on this
regarding organizations importing materials for T-shelter construction. This is an example of the philosophy
of using generic finger pointing instead of identifying specific problems to the proper authorities, and getting
them fixed.
28 If USAID was requiring a competent system of progress reports, which included identification of causes for

delays, then USAID would not have gone 6 months in total ignorance that this problem existed. However, the
evidence found by the IG was that the grantees supplied USAID with all the info needed to get the customs
problems resolved, while USAID was non-responsive to these requests for assistance.
29 I believe that had these organizations chosen to participate in the UN logistics cluster (and been allowed to

participate there), their delays would have been reduced to maybe 2 weeks at most.
30 As explained in the IG report, and by reading between the lines, we see there are problems with a lack of

cooperation between agencies of government of US, Haiti, UN agencies and clusters, NGOs and private
enterprises. Instead of working in team effort to solve the problems, there is a philosophy of lots of finger
pointing, which the IG also participates in.
31
The audit team encountered a resident who was dying of breast cancer. The woman’s entire right breast was
an open wound, and she was suffering great pain. Concerned for the welfare of this person, the audit team
alerted grantee officials that the woman needed immediate medical help. The audit team members asked
whether the grantee could use their knowledge of local community resources to seek help. However, the

20 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


2011 April IG report (1 May 15)
Here is summary info from the 2011 April IG report.
Between January and June 2010, USAID/OFDA-funded 16 grants which included
significant support for transitional shelters. These 16 grants totaled $138.6 million, all of
which had been obligated, with disbursements of $64.8 million, as of January 1, 2011.32

Eleven of these grants contained funds for the construction of transitional shelters. The
portion of these 11 grants allotted for shelter totaled $71.3 million, all of which had been
obligated, with an estimated $37.8 million disbursed,33 as of January 1, 2011.
USAID/OFDA grantee proposals included initial estimates to provide 38,764 transitional
shelters; however, USAID/OFDA’s established goal was for construction of 47,500
transitional shelters, subsequently adjusted to 33,125 transitional shelters and 14,375
repaired homes.34
USAID/OFDA required the shelters to be built in accordance with international Sphere
standards.35
While USAID/OFDA did not formally set a target date for completion of the shelters, it
strongly encouraged its grantees to complete a substantial portion of the transitional
shelters by June 1,2010, before Haiti’s hurricane season; 6 of the 11 grants were to end
by November 30, 2010.
The Office of Inspector General (OIG) conducted this audit to determine whether efforts
by USAID/OFDA to provide shelter in Haiti were achieving their intended results.

The IG audit found that USAID/OFDA had in fact met their standards36 and goals,
however because of poor planning and various delays, grantees did not meet their goal
of substantial shelter construction prior to the 2010 hurricane season.

By June 30, 2010, grantees had completed 1,883 shelters, about 6 percent of
USAID/OFDA’s target; as of November 15, 2010, grantees had built 7,179 transitional
shelters, 22 percent of the USAID/OFDA’s target. The completed shelters varied greatly
in terms of quality and price, and some shelters did not fully comply with Sphere
standards.

auditors were told that many people were sick in Haiti, and that helping one person would lead to others asking
for help.
After audit fieldwork, grantee informed audit team that the woman had sought medical help repeatedly and
been sent home by doctors who said there was nothing they could do for her in Haiti. We also learned that the
woman was hospitalized for one night on January 3, 2011, and given pain medication and that she died on
January 6, 2011.
See Appendix III of IG report for further detail on the grants and grantees. It has to be
32

one of these 13 outfits responsible for the woman in the last of the IG recommendations.
33
Because implementers are not required to report costs by project component, IG
estimated shelter component disbursements as a relative percentage of each grant’s
disbursements.
34
The 33,125 shelters to be constructed represent 25 percent of the overall donor goal to
provide 133,000 transitional shelters to Haiti.
35 IG apparently shares USAID/OFDA ignorance that Sphere standards have to do with treating beneficiaries
with dignity, as opposed to applying reasonable building code standards.
36 Standards, which many people consider to be rather inadequate.

21 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


USAID/OFDA is unlikely to meet its target goal of constructing 33,125 transitional
shelters without the infusion of more funds. Because of rising costs and unrealistic initial
cost estimates, grantees have reduced the number of shelters to be constructed under
their grants. The total number of shelters that grantees expected to build under these
USAID/OFDA grants fell by 24 percent, from 38,764 to 29,555, falling short of
USAID/OFDA’s revised goal to build 33,125 shelters. USAID/OFDA officials predicted
that at least $10 million in additional funding would be needed to achieve the revised
target of 33,125 transitional shelters.

USAID/OFDA has a projected shortfall of 65% in meeting its goal to repair 14,375
homes minimally damaged in the earthquake. The shortfall, in completed repairs and
commitments from its grantees, makes it unlikely that USAID/OFDA will meet its repair
goal without additional funding.

The following problem areas accounted in large part for the shortfalls:

 USAID/OFDA did not provide standardized shelter designs which could have reduced
costs, prevented delays in implementation, and ensured that the shelters met
international standards37 for security, privacy, and comfort (page 4).38

 USAID/OFDA did not provide timely assistance in resolving problems related to


importing building materials. Delays in clearing shelter materials through customs
prevented many grantees from achieving their shelter goals before the hurricane season
(page 8).39

 USAID/OFDA’s grants did not include requirements for mechanized rubble removal.
Up to 11 months after the earthquake, only about 5 percent of the estimated 20 to 33
million cubic yards of rubble had been removed. Rubble has impeded the progress of
shelter construction (page 10).
 USAID/OFDA did not monitor performance on two indicators. Eight of 11 grantees
either did not set target goals for or did not report on two of three standard indicators
(page 11).
 USAID/OFDA was not on track to meet its goal for house repairs (page 12).

The audit team noted a matter which does not directly affect the overall goals of the
program, but merits attention. USAID/OFDA and its grantee did not take appropriate
action to alleviate the pain and suffering of a critically ill beneficiary who resided in a
USAID/OFDA­funded shelter (page 14).

April 2010, USAID/OFDA provided additional guidance to its grantees, reiterating


standards and requiring that shelters have a life of 3 years or more and indicating that
unit costs for shelters should range between $1,000 and $1,500, including transportation
and labor.

37 As stated earlier, IG and USAID “international standards” are Sphere, not sane building codes.
38 Discussions in Haiti Rewired, and other places, have revealed that Haiti has higher needs for security than in
other nations, such that shelters which meet international standards do not meet Haiti standards.
39 Discussions in Haiti Rewired, and other places, have been highly critical of the use of construction materials

which are a poor fit to Haiti tropical climate.

22 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


USAID/OFDA reviewed and approved initial proposals with projected costs for shelter
materials ranging from $400 to $1,727, even though the Agency required the same
product from each grantee.
o Medair’s shelter materials, which included plastic sheeting for walls, a solid wood
door, two windows, and a concrete floor, totaled $1,347.
o International Relief and Development (IRD) shelters, included the same basic
design elements, as Medair, but replaced the plastic walls with more sturdy
plywood walls, cost $1,169.
o ADRA was able to construct shelters which, though slightly smaller, offered the
same amenities as IRD’s with a materials cost of only $678.
o Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development (ACTED) plastic-walled
shelters had material costs of $1,250, with labor and transportation totaling
$2,141.
o Premiere Urgence solid wood walls and concrete floors shelters had material
costs of about $1,850, with labor and transportation totaling $5,778.
Initial estimates for shelters were sometimes considerably lower than the actual costs,
and several grantees reduced the number of shelters they intended to build to stay
within the grant budget. The cumulative number of shelters that grantees expected to
build with USAID/OFDA grants fell by 25 percent, from the original 39,864 proposed to
29,555.

Progress thru 2011 March (1 Mar 07)


Britain’s Disasters Emergency Committee40 published a report: Urban Disasters, Lessons
from Haiti.41 I downloaded it, and called my copy42 Accountability DEC 2011 Mar 07.
On pages 29-30 we learn that Concern’s T-shelters are made from Fire resistant materials,
and have anchors so they don’t blow away in a storm. Does this mean the other INGOs are
not doing this?

USAID Haiti Quake Fact Sheet # 11 Fiscal Year 2011 dated 2011 Mar 05 is available
here:
Title - Haiti ? Earthquake Fact Sheet #11, Fiscal Year (FY) 2011
Source - US Agency for International Development
Date - 05 Mar 2011
URL Address (for the summary) from OCHA Relief Web -
http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/MCOI-8ENKKV?OpenDocument
Full detail 41k 3 page PDF

40 http://www.dec.org.uk/
41 http://www.dec.org.uk/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=494
42 Info to help other people, in case they desire a copy but can’t get at it, so then I can find among my other

750+ downloads.

23 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2011.nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/MCOI-
8ENKKV-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf
As usual, there are many continuing concerns, some noted in this report, some not.
Key developments:
 Shelter Cluster members had completed 48,518 transitional shelters (t-shelters) as of
February 21, an increase of more than 9,000 t-shelters since mid-January. Of the
total t-shelters completed by the humanitarian community to date,
o 28% are located in Léogâne, West Department, and
o 31% are located in Port-au-Prince and Carrefour, which have 8,050 and
7,374 completed t-shelters, respectively.

Progress thru 2011 February (1 Mar 08)


In late 2011 Feb, we found Sitrep 2011 Feb 1 year URD. I have a mini-review of some of
their content in with my 1 year ICVA and URD notes.43
 OCHA-Relief Web Summary access to PDF44 1.3 meg 36 pages
 Source Groupe Urgence - Réhabilitation - Développement45
 This is a French Humanitarian magazine special Feb 2011 issue on the
challenges of Haiti recovery, with a wealth of info on Haiti history. It
includes several articles on what particular NGOs have been doing.

On page 23, they talk about T-shelters and SWS Severe Weather Shelters, an effort which
has been held up a lot for many reasons. About 1/3 of the 110,000 planned T-
shelters have now been built. The SWS shelters are also to be sturdy enough to
withstand earthquakes. Supply of materials and implementation has been held up by:
 Lessons learned in past disasters, are not applied to new disasters;
 Foreign sourcing of pre-fabricated parts;
 Border crossing hassles;
 Production of rarely modular designs;
 Training people to do the assembly;
 Poor integration with Haiti traditional housing preferences;

43 I subsequently renamed this as 1 year NGO cooperation-not.


44 http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/JARR-8EEKEK/$File/full_report.pdf
45 French web site http://www.urd.org/

24 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


 Humanitarian actors often lack architecture engineering know how, and other urban
technical skills;
 Absence of Haitian legal frameworks or enforcement for land ownership, building
codes, zoning, environmental pollution;
 Lack of land ownership documentation or permissions contracts.

USAID Haiti Quake Fact Sheet # 10 Fiscal Year 2011 dated 2011 Feb 04 reports:46
 As of February 3, USAID/OFDA grantees had constructed 15,151 transitional
shelters (t-shelters), an increase of nearly 1,500 t-shelters since January 6. In addition,
USAID/OFDA grantees had completed repairs to structures deemed “yellow” by
habitability assessments—or safe for habitation following minor repairs—to
accommodate 2,389 households.
 As of January 26, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) had completed 1,972 t-shelters with
USAID/OFDA funding, with materials in country for construction of an additional
2,020 t-shelters in the coming weeks.
 With USAID/OFDA funding, the Center for International Studies and Cooperation
(CECI) is constructing several hurricane evacuation shelters in at-risk areas
of Artibonite Department through CFW activities. USAID/OFDA staff visited a
hurricane shelter under construction several kilometers from Grand Saline, a
hurricane-prone town on the coast. CECI is building the shelter at a location not
prone to flooding. The shelter will provide sufficient space for more than 100
families.

Progress thru 2011 January (1 May 07)


Sitrep 2011 Jan NPR 1 year Scribd report on unspent money 4 page PDF dated 2011 Jan
11 reports:
 As of 1 year after the earthquake, over 1 million people in Port au Prince are living in
47
make shift shelters.
 One of the Haitians, with a Red Cross job, shows people how to wash their hands with
48
soap, to prevent the spread of Cholera.
 Critics were quoted, then leaders of the effort say the criticism is simplistic.
49
 NPR needed to include some of the other 1 year reviews, which I have found, which
cross that bridge between the simplistic label and meaningful criticism.
 Reading between the lines, cooperation between UN, Gov of Haiti, the large NGOs, it is
still an oxymoron, in the statements and examples in the NPR report.

46 Relief Web Summary here


http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/MUMA-8DS2CK?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti with link to full
PDF report: http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/MUMA-8DS2CK/$File/full_report.pdf
(Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
47 NPR is lumping together the tent-tarp situation and the wooden-shack reality.
48 In my opinion, preventing the spread of Cholera involves a lot more sanitation work than this.
49 http://www.haiti.prizm.org/ has some of them.

25 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


USAID 1 year overview report on shelters and settlements dated 2011 Jan 11 reports:50

 As of January 10, international humanitarian agencies had constructed


39,219 t-shelters, including 13,662 completed by USAID/OFDA grantees.
USAID/OFDA-funded t-shelters represent approximately 35% of the total.
Further, the January 10 USAID/OFDA total was 18% greater than the
December 15 grantee total of 11,570 t-shelters, indicating an ability to provide
assistance even while confronting such significant obstacles as poor weather,
the recent cholera outbreak, post-election unrest, and delays in customs
clearances. USAID/OFDA grantees plan to continue to produce needed t-
shelters at a high level of output in the coming weeks and months.

USAID Haiti Quake Fact Sheet # 6 Fiscal Year 2011 dated 2010 Nov-1951 reports:

 As of November 16, Shelter Cluster members had completed more than 19,000
transitional shelters (t-shelters), sufficient to house nearly 96,000 individuals.
USAID/OFDA grantees had completed 9,274 t-shelters, more than 48 percent of
the total.
o My math says approx 5 people per T-shelter.
By November 15, 2010, grantees had built 7,179 transitional shelters, 22 percent of
the USAID/OFDA’s target, as reported in April 19, 2011 IG report (see above by date).

Progress thru 2010 October (1 Mar 07)


USAID Haiti Quake Fact Sheet # 4 Fiscal Year 2011 dated 2010 Oct-2352 reports:

 As of October 21, USAID/OFDA grantees had reported constructing 7,552 transitional


shelters (t-shelters), representing an increase of 108 t-shelters over last week’s total of
7,444.
USAID Haiti Quake Fact Sheet # 3 Fiscal Year 2011 dated 2010 Oct-1553 reports:

 As of October 12, international humanitarian agencies had constructed


nearly 17,400 transitional shelters (t-shelters), including 7,444 completed

50 Relief Web Summary here


http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/JARD-
8D33LV?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti with link to full PDF report:
http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/JARD-8D33LV/$File/full_report.pdf
(Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
For more information on USAID/OFDA shelter and settlements sector activities, please visit:
http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/sectors/shelter.html
51 Relief Web Summary here from United States Agency for International Development (USAID) with link
to Full_Report PDF. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
52 Relief Web Summary and Detail PDF. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
53 Relief Web full detail PDF. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)

26 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


by USAID/OFDA grantees, representing nearly 43 percent of the total
completed t-shelters.

According to OCHA54 Oct 12 Humanitarian Bulletin:55

 In Léogane and Gressier, to date 3,208 (2,507 in Léogane and 701 in Gressier) t-
shelters have been built out of over 28,000 planned.
 Overall in Haiti, as of 11 October Shelter/NFI Cluster agencies have completed
17,194 transitional shelters, providing shelter assistance to over 80,000 individuals.
o My math says 4-5 people per T-shelter.
 An additional 15,448 transitional shelters are in-country ready to be constructed. The
number of reported shelters completed remains far from the 135,000 projected
for the end of August 2011, but despite challenges with debris removal and
land tenure progress continues. Transitional shelters remain one part of the larger
solution for shelter assistance. Other initiatives such as support to host families,
home repairs and debris conversion are being pursued in parallel.
USAID Haiti Quake Fact Sheet # 2 Fiscal Year 2011 dated 2010 Oct-856 reports:

 From latest Oct-8 report info, note Sep 27 is earlier than Sep 29 found in Oct-1
report below. This can contribute to figuring out what is the latest information
available. From Sep 29 to Oct 7, USAID-OFDA grantees contribution was 72 more
t-shelters.
 As of September 27, international humanitarian agencies had constructed nearly
16,000 transitional shelters (tshelters) in earthquake-affected areas of Haiti. In
addition, as of October 7, USAID/OFDA grantees had reported completing 6,858 t-
shelters—nearly 43 percent of the international total—and an additional 676
USAID/OFDAfunded t-shelters are currently under construction.
 Teams of engineers from the habitability assessment project funded by
USAID/OFDA, the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO),
and the World Bank continue to assess buildings throughout earthquake-affected
areas. As of October 5, teams from the Government of Haiti (GoH) Ministry of
Public Works, Transport, and Communication; the U.N. Office for Project Services;
and USAID/OFDA grantee the Pan-American Development Foundation (PADF),
working with Miyamoto International, had assessed 278,854 buildings out of an
estimated 350,000 to 400,000 total buildings that require habitability assessments.

54 United Nations Office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs.


55 Summary and Full PDF. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
56 Relief Web summary, with link to full detail PDF. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)

27 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Teams of engineers are currently assessing more than 2,000 structures per day, and
Miyamoto International projects that engineers will complete the habitability
assessment by the end of November.
 Assessment figures indicated that 51 percent of houses are “green,” or safe for
habitation, with another 26 percent classified as “yellow,” indicating that houses
could be made safe with repairs, and the remaining 23 percent deemed “red,” or
unsafe for habitation and requiring major repairs or demolition; 1 percent remained
in process.
 During a September 30 meeting, Miyamoto International reported plans to begin
repairs to yellow-marked houses during the coming week. With support from
Miyamoto International, PADF has trained 250 engineers and 150 masons to carry
out yellow house repairs. PADF also has conducted more than 2,000 repair
assessments to identify structural damage and appropriate repair methods.
 Miyamoto International estimated the cost of repairing a structure deemed yellow at
between $1,000 and $2,000 and noted that repair teams can render a structure
habitable in one day. Initial field assessments indicate that up to three families
occupy each structure.

USAID Haiti Quake Fact Sheet # 1 Fiscal Year 2011 dated 2010 Oct-157 reports:

 As of September 29, USAID/OFDA grantees had reported completing 6,786


transitional shelters (t-shelters)—an increase of 931 t-shelters over last week's
total—and an additional 735 USAID/OFDA-funded t-shelters are under
construction.
 Statistics on the overall effort in Haiti were not included in this USAID installment.
 58
On September 28, the CCCM Cluster reported the completion of a returns and
relocation strategy, drafted and reviewed by key clusters. The strategy includes three
options, which comprise, in order of preference: returns to areas of origin, moves outside
of Port-au-Prince or with host families, and resettlement to planned sites. The CCCM
Cluster is awaiting finalization of registration information prior to defining returns
packages.
 The humanitarian response to the storm, led by the U.N. Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), represents the first practical application of the international
59
humanitarian plan for disaster response coordination in Haiti. Although not formally
named as such, it tested the concept of the EJOINT—the humanitarian coordination

57 Relief Web summary, with link to full detail PDF. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
58 CCCM = Camps Cluster.
59 This plan has to do with the NGOs continuing to be able to do their job productively. It does not yet have

any provision for helping the Haitian people get out of being at ground zero for a series of severe storms,
which will destroy many of the emergency shelter tents & tarps supplied to over a million Haitians at ground
zero. This cluster coordination is a great improvement in the humanitarian state of art. Hopefully it can be
communicated to other disaster aid workers around the world, such as with Pakistan flooding.

28 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


hub—in which cluster leads from all sectors convene to synchronize assessments and
response. From September 24 to 29, a USAID/OFDA field officer was embedded in the
coordination cell to assist with information sharing and coordination

Nigel Fisher, coordinator of UN humanitarian action in Haiti, announced Sep 30 that by 31


December 2010, some 50,000 transitional shelters will be built to accommodate about
250.000 victims of the earthquake.60 Many other people doubt this, unless serious progress is
made resolving issues61 like debris removal, tenure security, land ownership documentation,
government mandate enforcement, rule of law instead of thug-gangs.
My math = 5 people per T-shelter in this report.
There was a weather disturbance Sep-24 in Haiti which distracted many UN NGOs GoH
from normal efforts for about a week afterwards. This probably also disrupted sharing
progress reports in other areas. Less meetings and communications to report what is getting
done, can also mean getting more work done.
JOTC Situation Report dated 2010 Oct-0662 reports:

 t-shelters are designed for resistance to Category One hurricane-force winds, seismic
risks, and heavy rainfall.63

 As of 20 September, international relief agencies had constructed nearly 13,500 t-


shelters for approximately 67,000 beneficiaries.
o My math says just under 5 people per T-shelter.

Progress thru 2010 September (1 May 07)


USAID Fact Sheet # 73 dated 2010 Sep-2464 reports:
 As of September 20, USAID/OFDA grantees had reported completing 5,855
transitional shelters (t-shelters), approximately 45 percent of the 13,500 t-
shelters built by international relief agencies and sufficient to house nearly
30,000 individuals.
o My math says just over 2 people per T-shelter.
o My math vs. previous report indicates average rate of 500 a week, and expects slow down
in immediate aftermath of Sep-24 storm which the UN is labeling a “total surprise.”

USAID Fact Sheet # 72 dated 2010 Sep-1765 reports:

60 Haiti Libre Oct 1.


61 These issues are explored in other Al Mac research documents.
62 JOTC archives for October, which I placing here because data content vintage is Sep-20.
63 Al Mac suspects JOTC and other actors, repeat the assertions of each other, without cross-checking claims.
64 Relief Web summary, with link to full detail PDF. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
65 Relief Web summary, with link to full Detail PDF. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)

29 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


 As of September 13, international relief agencies, including USAID/OFDA grantees,
had constructed more than 13,000 transitional shelters (t-shelters), approximately
60 percent of the projected total output the Shelter Cluster plans to complete by the
end of September and sufficient to house an estimated 65,000 people. By the end
of September, the Shelter Cluster plans to complete shelter to house approximately
110,000 people. Shelter Cluster members continue to scale up t-shelter construction
as rubble removal and disposal efforts increase and additional land becomes
available.

Bri Kouri Nouvel Gaye reports from Haiti Sep-13 that so far 3% of the Haiti population,
in need, has Transitional Shelters.

USAID Fact Sheet # 71 dated 2010 Sep-1066 reports:

 As of September 9, USAID/OFDA grantees had completed 5,535 transitional


shelters (t-shelters), with an additional 675 t-shelters under construction. Shelter
Cluster members, including USAID/OFDA grantees, continue to scale up t-shelter
construction as rubble removal and disposal efforts increase and additional land
becomes available. The Shelter Cluster reports a projected total output of more than
22,000 t-shelters by the end of September—representing a nearly 60 percent increase
in the number of completed t-shelters in Haiti.
 USAID/OFDA expects to provide shelter solutions to approximately 47,500
earthquake-affected households through t-shelter provision, yellow house repairs,
support to hosted internally displaced persons (IDPs), and rubble removal to
increase land availability for shelter construction. As of September 9,
USAID/OFDA had provided shelter solutions to nearly 17 percent of targeted
households.
The UN organization in overall command of humanitarian relief into Haiti is OCHA 67 which
comes out with periodic progress reports, by cut & pasting from the various cluster reports,
and which may not include all areas of activity of interest to us. Here are the last ones seen
by Al Mac (more due out soon):
Humanitarian Bulletin OCHA 2010 Aug 17 (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
 Summary
 Detail PDF-9 100 k 9 pages

That Aug 17 OCHA bulletin reported: 8,069 transitional shelters completed, an additional
16,790 transitional shelters are already in country and ready for construction (awaiting a legal
place for building them) and 34,835 in the pipeline.

66 Summary on Relief Web, with link to full Detail PDF. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
67
OCHA = UN Office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs

30 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


My math = 59,700 approximate goal … Note 2011 Feb-March close to that total.
By June 30, 2010, grantees had completed 1,883 shelters, about 6 percent of
USAID/OFDA’s target, as reported in April 19, 2011 IG report (see above by date).

Which NGOs in Transitional Plans (Nov 13)


Number after name of NGO is number of Transitional Shelters they plan to build in Haiti,
or finance the building of, through some sub-contractor group.

ACTED (Nov 26)


ACTED Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development 4.2 k HQ Paris France
http://www.acted.org
Björn Schranz - Country Director, ACTED Port au Prince
Port au Prince, Haiti
Phone: +509 249 1042
Email: port-au-prince@acted.org
ACTED update 2010 Nov 25.

ACTED has built the first transitional shelters in K-Chandel which is a small locality of
Leogane, hard hit by the quake. Surrounded by luxurious vegetation, its tall trees provide a
refreshing shadow to the small houses cracked by the seism. Makeshift shelters made of
tarpaulins are everywhere since the tragedy and are a constant reminder of the harshness of
daily life.

ACTED update 2010 Sep 20.


They now plan to construct transitional shelters for 4,200 families of Port-au-Prince and
Leogane. The previous estimate was 3,300.
The standards they are adhering to, for these shelters include:
 They must be weather-resistant and resist level 1 storms. (I assume that means
category one hurricanes.) (I do not see any earthquake protection.)
 They are composed of a basic wood-frame with tarpaulins and metal sheet roofs.
(This means they are not resistant to rapists using a knife to unlock access in middle
of night.) (I assume this means all the building materials are imported from French
suppliers.)
 Cash for Work is used to hire Haitian laborers to do much of the construction.
Over a million Haitians are now living in maybe 1400 camps (estimates vary). Tarpaulins
and shelter kits (with construction tools, rope, and other basic materials) have been issued to
reinforce the shelters that had been built up in haste and to help make them weather-
resistant, to cope with the scorching sun but first and foremost with the rain showers that
have hit the island for some weeks. Other UN reports have shown that many of these are

31 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


not designed for Tropical weather, so they have a useful life of maybe 3-4 months, so they
needed to be delivered 3 times for the first 9 months since the quake. Overall, over 2
million tarpaulins have been given out by NGOs which are in the UN shelter cluster,
including ACTED which distributed 20,000.

Donations for ACTED:


http://members.alertnet.org/thefacts/reliefresources/126348412436.htm

Action Aid (1 Feb 17)

Action Aid 100 British http://www.actionaid.org/


http://www.actionaid.org.uk/102266/our_response_in_haiti.html

ActionAid interviewed those trying to provide homes to identify hidden


obstacles significantly hindering progress.68 Here I summarize from their
report – read it for the whole story of what they found.
 Little or no thought is being given to the need for permanent low-cost
housing for the poorest.
 Port au Prince is a city gradually overwhelmed by hundreds of unplanned,
unserviced encampments and shanty towns run by slum landlords and
prone to gang warfare.
 A series of vast soulless government settlements are being thrown up
outside the city, full of unemployed marginalised people.
 There is a lack of a strategic plan around shelter and rubble clearance.
 The system of land tenure was failing before the earthquake, and has
since been torn apart.
 Between 1.3 and 1.7 million people still live in 1,300 camps around the
capital, eking out an existence in progressively more ragged tents or in
shacks made from tarpaulins, rusting corrugated iron sheets and salvaged
building materials.
 Lack of action and political will is entrenching even further the gross inequalities that
were present before January 2010.

Haitians should not have to put up with a half hearted response. Nor should they
put up with an approach that washes its hands of responsibility for meeting the
needs of the poorest and most vulnerable.

To put this into context, Indonesia took five years to replace 139,000 houses
destroyed in Aceh by the 2004 tsunami. In the developed world, six years after
the 1995 earthquake that hit the Japanese city of Kobe, some people were still

68Summary = http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/VVOS-8CSMN8?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti
Full Report = http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/VVOS-8CSMN8/$File/full_report.pdf which Al
Mac downloaded a copy of (some relief web links cannot be found months later) with name “Shelter
ActionAid 2011 Jan 4”. (Source: OCHA/Relief Web)

32 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


living in temporary accommodation because property claims had not been
settled. Even today, in New Orleans, the United States struggles with the
consequences of Hurricane Katrina. Haiti, which as reported in the Washington
Post, is fragmented, disorganised and far poorer has lost and suffered more.

ActionAid Issues

ActionAid speaks to many topics we have often heard before, some of it with new
twists.

100,000 damaged buildings are habitable and an additional 60,000 could easily
be repaired. But the majority cannot afford the rents and sometimes housing
remains empty because of ownership disputes.

Haiti has no history of social housing.


In a developing world context ActionAid defines social housing as either houses
that are let at low rents and on a secure basis to people in housing need and
generally provided by local authorities and registered landlords or housing built or
owned by poor people on land allocated to them by the state.

The majority of campsites are situated on disputed land, 70% private land.
Fear of eviction is rife and there are rumours of an increasing number of evictions
and threats of eviction by armed gangs as well as by the Haitian police force.

Land plots have multiple claimants, many people have lost deeds and others
never held official titles despite land being in their families for generations.
Documents are often forged. Private and national records seldom match up.
Even the state does not know how much land it owns.

Most rubble clearance is being done by hand using wheelbarrows. Debris from
buildings could consequently take many years to clear despite the urgent
necessity to free up land for rebuilding. Total debris is astronomical compared to
all other recent disasters, except for Katrina.

Haiti land owners are refusing permission for their land to be used for better
housing.

ActionAid recommendations:

The government of Haiti and its principal donors must tackle the housing and jobs crisis
with a clear sense of urgency. The blockages that are currently holding up rebuilding and
reconstruction should be addressed without delay. These include land disputes, slow
progress on rubble clearance, poor record keeping, no clear strategy on housing the
homeless and lack of accountability within major institutions tasked with leading the aid
effort.

33 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


The earthquake precipitated a national disaster which requires a comprehensive, inclusive
national response that is well publicized and accessible to Haitian civil society organizations.
This should include a strategy for ensuring that those worst affected – the poor and the
dispossessed – are actively involved in and able to influence the decisions which will impact
their lives.

The government must formulate a housing strategy that is rooted in local realities and should
not impose big top-down housing projects as suggested in the National Action Plan.

The government must invest in a system of integrated land reform taking into account urban
circumstances in Port-au-Prince and other large towns and cities as well as agricultural
reform in rural areas.

Integrated Land Reform (1 Jan 05)


Al Mac shared the above Action Aid info on a Haiti Rewired thread, to which Alan Scouten
responded with a meaningful comment.69
INTEGRATED LAND REFORM? (ActionAid)
FROM OLD DOMINION to NEW REPUBLIC?

The controlling thought from IHRC, USAID and Shelter Cluster appears to be-
"If we can't find land to put our T-Shelters on, what does a P-Shelter matter?"
If they are only to be torn down in evictions or NIMBY, what does permanence mean? I
hear lots of discussion about the virtues of Private Domain vs. Public Domain, and some of
Eminent Domain, but very little of Temporary Domain? (i.e. "squatting")

Fear is a terribly disabling thing. With a sense of Security & Dignity that come from being
not-under-threat, might the Haitian voices begin to be heard? "Full-timer" gives the
American Vagabond dignity. "Squatter" sounds as un-dignified as its visual image.
What COULD be done in Haiti if the Government took Temporary Domain over lands
under rubble, under-utilized and over priced? There will never be a New Haitian
Infrastructure of any kind (even the wrong one) unless some kind of cooperation between
Inhabitants, Government and Landowners is reached. The present stalemate is just a weak
excuse for inaction.

Chances are that a temporary takeover of land by the government, for the people, might
eventually return that land to the privateers at a profit? (worked for GM and

69This whole thread (Action Aid analysis, and our analysis of it) may belong in a different housing research
document, but initially I need to put it somewhere. I expect that multiple NGOs may have very similar reports,
with varying suggestions. Perhaps those reports should be downloaded, uploaded, linked directory, and
summarized in a reference document just on such sources.

34 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


CITICORP...and at UDC in NY's 1960s, I saw Public Investment profit The Public and
Private Industry alike. So much for the fears of "Government Competition will ruin my
business!") In Haiti the Median Strips and Golf Courses are already occupied to capacity.
(Here in the US, the cloverleafs of interstates will soon be too small for their growing
communities, and the NO SITTING OR LYING laws will continue to proliferate?)
Even a trucker on the Interstates, has a place to park? His Temporary Domain. As does a
bear in Yosemite. Just a thought.....

ACTJH (1 Apr 27)


Here are T-shelter designs as of Feb 2010.70 ACJH’s are on page two.

ADF
ADF Americas development Foundation 900 http://www.adfusa.org/

ADRA
ADRA Adventist Development and Relief Agency 4.8 k
http://www.adra.org/site/PageServer

AMECON 2000 (1 Apr 27)


Here are T-shelter designs as of Feb 2010.71 AMECON’s are on page twelve.

APY
APY 800 (non-obvious)

Architectes de L'Urence
Architectes de L'Urence 500 http://www.archi-urgent.com/

ARC (1 Apr 27)


ARC American Refugee Committee 2.5 k
http://www.arcrelief.org/site/PageServer?pagename=haiti_media
ARC could also mean American Red Cross
Here are T-shelter designs as of Feb 2010.72 ARC’s are on page three, and fifteen

BRAC
BRAC 5 k http://www.brac.net/

70 https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/haiti/Crisis%20Documents/Shelter%20Cluster/22-02-transitionalshelter-
design-compilation.pdf
71 https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/haiti/Crisis%20Documents/Shelter%20Cluster/22-02-transitionalshelter-

design-compilation.pdf
72 https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/haiti/Crisis%20Documents/Shelter%20Cluster/22-02-transitionalshelter-

design-compilation.pdf

35 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


CAN DO (1 Jan 28)
CAN-DO.org (Compassion into Action Network - Direct Outcome Organization)
http://www.can-do.org/
They have opened a factory whose first fiberglass domes output has been placed in Port-Au-
Prince and the surrounding areas. The structures, which have a life expectancy of more than
25 years and are resistant to fire, rain and winds up to 130 miles per hour, are manufactured
in Haiti by Composites Karayib, using local labor to produce, transport and erect the domes
on-site.73 These sound closer to permanent shelters than transitional.

CARE
CARE 3 k http://www.care.org/vft/haiti/

CHF (1 Apr 27)


CHF 5.6 k http://www.chfinternational.org/haiti
Here are T-shelter designs as of Feb 2010.74 CHF’s are on page four.
Sep 24 there was the latest in a series of summer storms in Haiti which did serious damage
to the tent cities. In the aftermath of this storm, USAID toured the transitional shelters to
see how they had fared. CHF had build 3k so far, and they were all fine. View photos of
CHF-constructed shelters on USAID's Flickr page, and here.75 One year after the Jan 2010
quake, CHF has completed 4,500 transitional shelters in Port-au-Prince, Leogane and
Cabaret, delivering housing to more than 22,500 Haitians.
CHF’s timber frame shelters are designed to withstand storms, rain, and earthquakes, and are
designed to last three to four years, though in some cases have been used far longer. CHF
uses imported wood, recycled local steel roofs, and special plastic to insulate and protect the
inhabitants, as well as have mosquito shielded ventilation. Each shelter costs around $1,000
to construct.

Christian Aid
Christian Aid 500 British http://www.christianaid.org.uk/emergencies/current/haiti-
earthquake-appeal/index.aspx

Concern
Concern 2 k http://www.concern.net/category/country/haiti and maybe
http://worldconcern.org also see PCI http://www.projectconcern.org
http://concernusa.org

73 http://www.prweb.com/releases/HaitiDomesProjectLaunch/Jan2011/prweb5000444.htm
74 https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/haiti/Crisis%20Documents/Shelter%20Cluster/22-02-transitionalshelter-
design-compilation.pdf
75 http://chfinternational.org/node/34838 (Thanks to Greg Higgins for locating this link.)

36 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Cord Aid (1 Apr 27)
Cord Aid 12 k Netherlands-based Catholic aid organization
http://www.cordaid.nl
Here are T-shelter designs as of Feb 2010.76 Cord Aid’s are on page ten.

CRS (Dec 10)


CRS (Catholic Relief Services) http://crs.org/haiti/ Caritac 8 k
For more information, visit www.crs.org or www.crsespanol.org.

Thru Nov 2010, CRS has provided some 1,200 transitional shelters and is building another 120
to 150 every week. The transitional shelters are crafted at a timber yard in Port-au-Prince.
CRS currently employs 12 skilled carpenters in addition to many Cash-for-Work
beneficiaries at the shelter pre-fabrication yard. The pre-fabrication work crew is divided into
teams for carrying and stacking lumber, pre-cutting lumber, laying out frames on the
production tables and nailing together the completed frames. These transitional homes are
made to be easily and quickly assembled by people with little construction experience,
although CRS also employs and trains additional crew for on-site help.

CRWRC (1 Feb 17)


CRWRC 500 Christian Reformed Church World Relief http://crwrc.org
http://www.crcna.org/pages/crwrc_ir_haiti.cfm More Info
http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/AZHU-85JK2T?OpenDocument&rc=2
(Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
Someone with CRWRC replied to one of my Haiti Rewired posts with some extremely
relevant and useful information:

Reply by Nathan Proper


I was in Haiti with CRWRC (stands for Christian Reformed World Relief
Committee), contact info
Main Web Site:
http://www.crwrc.org/pages/crwrc.cfm

Web Site Center for Haiti:


http://www.crwrc.org/news.cfm?newsid=1930&section=23

They are working in an area east of the city of Leogane, in several small communities
called Masson, Macombe, Luitor, Icta and Flon. I could show the locations of these
communities on Google Earth if you're getting that detailed.
I also know that they are expanding the numbers of shelters supplied based on how
much funding they have -- and I believe the number is around 1500 temporary /

76 https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/haiti/Crisis%20Documents/Shelter%20Cluster/22-02-transitionalshelter-
design-compilation.pdf

37 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


transitional shelters already.

The shelters were sourced from a company called Cordaid (I believe), who had a
designed and detailed shelter ready to be ordered. The shelters are wood based and
can have exterior wall materials. They can be built with relatively unskilled labor and
hand tools, as they come as a kit.

DPA (1 Apr 27)


Danish People's Aid 500
Here are T-shelter designs as of Feb 2010.77 DPA’s are on page five.

FH
FH Food for Hungry 3.2 k http://fh.org
http://fhrelief.wordpress.com/2008/10/20/launch-of-fh-haiti/

FH PCI 4.8 k http://www.interaction.org/crisis-list/earthquake-haiti


Project Concern International http://www.projectconcern.org also see
Concern above

Food for Poor (Sep 22)


Food for Poor http://www.foodforthepoor.org/ is not on the UN radar
screen mapping shown above, perhaps because they building 5 k better
than transitional housing, but here’s a Relief Web story on their efforts.

GOAL
GOAL 4 k from Ireland http://www.goal.ie/

Good Neighbors
Good Neighbors 2 k http://www.goodneighbors.org/our-publications

Habitat for Humanity (1 Feb 17)


Habitat for Humanity 900 http://www.habitat.org

Relief Web reports:78

Habitat for Humanity has made steady progress toward its goal to serve 50,000 Haitian
families over the next five years. 79

77 https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/haiti/Crisis%20Documents/Shelter%20Cluster/22-02-transitionalshelter-
design-compilation.pdf
78 http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/MCOI-8CKJ4V?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti

(Source: OCHA/Relief Web)

38 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


As part of its strategy to provide families with pathways to permanent housing, the
organization has constructed more than 1,000 recyclable transitional shelters or
upgradeable shelters and expects to have constructed 2,000 by the end of January.

Transitional shelters are constructed so they can be dismantled easily and relocated.
Upgradable shelters can be turned into permanent homes. For the long term, Habitat
remains committed to building hurricane and earthquake-resistant cement-block houses.

IOM
IOM International Organization for Migration (UN agency) 7,860
http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/haiti

IOM Sri Lanka (1 Apr 27)


Here are T-shelter designs as of Feb 2010.80 IOM-SL’s are on page six.

IRD
IRD 2.5 k International Relief and Development http://www.ird-dc.org/

Islamic Relief
Islamic Relief 1 k http://irw.org

Med Air (1 Feb 17)


Med Air 2,077 http://www.medair.org/
Sep-24 there was a storm in Haiti which tore roofs off some T-shelters, but we were not told
which NGOs had built them.
Early in November, Hurricane category I Tomas passed Haiti to the west. After the storm
cleared, Med Air did a random inspection of their T-shelters, and found they all had
withstood the storm without incident.
By that point, Med Air had constructed 1,427 shelters, housing 8,562 people.81
Nov-26 Med Air reports they have so far constructed 1,695 transitional shelter,
housing approx 10,170 people in Jacmel and Haiti's South-East District.82
The shelters are durably constructed, with metal roofs, timber frames, and concrete
foundations. Medair is building an additional 60 transitional shelters every week (on average)

79 My math = 10,000 per year.


80 https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/haiti/Crisis%20Documents/Shelter%20Cluster/22-02-transitionalshelter-
design-compilation.pdf
81 http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/FGAI-8AZPZX?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti

(Source: OCHA/Relief Web)


82 http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/MDCS-8BKGN2?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti

(Source: OCHA/Relief Web)

39 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


for people who were left homeless or forced to live in unsafe shelters because of the January
earthquake.83
While Medair's main focus is on urgent housing needs, the Medair team is working in close
coordination with local authorities and other NGOs in relation to the cholera outbreak in
Haiti. With cases of cholera now confirmed in the South-East Department, Medair is
providing tents for decentralised cholera treatment units in Jacmel and across the region. 84

NICCO
NICCO 1.6 k http://www.kyoto-nicco.org/english/project/support/

NRC (1 Apr 24)


The Norwegian Red Cross in Petit Goave, are building 700 t-shelter in
cluster zones 10, 11 & 12 and planning to install rain water collection system for our shelters.

Premier Urgence
Premier Urgence 350

Red X (1 Apr 27)


Red Cross 30 k

Red Cross Video on rebuilding Haiti, challenges and progress.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bsjoADopKKA

They claim 2,500 T-shelters completed by Red X, 30,000 planned by Red X, and 1 million
Haiti families received emergency shelters (tents and tarps) from Red X.85
Here are T-shelter designs as of Feb 2010.86 Red Cross’s are on page nine.

A report from New Zealand Red Cross on progress being made.


(Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/MUMA-
8CD48S?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti

83 http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/MDCS-8BKGN2?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti
(Source: OCHA/Relief Web)
84 http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/MDCS-8BKGN2?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti

(Source: OCHA/Relief Web)


85 In case someone questions the large proportion of total quake survivors (approx 3 million people) apparently

served by Red X, remember that the tents and tarps only last 3-4 months, so they need regular replacement.
Thus, in 2010, the people needed 12 million sets of emergency shelters (3 million people times 4 sets, due to
the high wear out type being supplied).
86 https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/haiti/Crisis%20Documents/Shelter%20Cluster/22-02-transitionalshelter-

design-compilation.pdf

40 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


see RFA shared multiple places end April 2010.
http://haitirewired.wired.com/group/architectureforhaiti/forum/topics/red-
cross-offers-30-million
Here’s what they have built, a quality many people are not pleased with.
http://openarchitecturenetwork.org/sites/default/files/active/21/100917_transitional_to_w
hat.pdf

SA
Salvation Army 1,190 http://sawso.org 1-800-SAL-ARMY
The Salvation Army World Service Office
International Disaster Relief Fund P.O. Box 630728
Baltimore, MD, 21263-0728
United States
We have a HEDR contact Joe Gautier, who is working with SA in Haiti.

Samaritan’s Purse
Samaritan’s Purse 5 k http://www.samaritanspurse.org/

SOS Children
SOS Children's Village in Santo have selected transitional shelters that are
appropriate for small family units and are in the process of deploying enough to house
roughly six hundred children, Croix-des-Bouquets, Santo 19, #5.

Tear Fund
Tear Fund 1,739

UNOPS
UNOPS United Nations Office for Project Service 6,990
Here are T-shelter designs as of Feb 2010.87 UNOPS’s are on page seven.

UN Techno Para Mi Pais (Nov 13)


UN Techno Para Mi Pais 2 k from Argentina. The Santiago de Chile-based NGO aims to
complete 1,000 shelters before year-end and has plans to build 1,000 units more in January
2011 in Haiti.

87 https://www.cimicweb.org/cmo/haiti/Crisis%20Documents/Shelter%20Cluster/22-02-transitionalshelter-
design-compilation.pdf

41 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Here’s a story about them in the Blog of the Inter-American Development Bank.
The Republic of Korea, through the Korean Fund for Poverty Reduction administered by
the Inter-American Development Bank, has made a donation to pay for 150 of these
transitional shelters.

World Vision
World Vision 7,554 http://www.worldvision.org
World Vision U.S.
34834 Weyerhaeuser Way South P.O. Box 9716
Federal Way, WA, 98063
United States

We have a contact, Karen Lewis, who is working with World Vision.

Transitional NGOs Correlation Chart (1 Feb 16)


I used a separate Excel called “Transitional NGOs” to try to organize this data. This info is
combined from the detailed city break downs below, transcribed from UN cluster maps.
This info is prior to Feb 2011 Carrefour update.
Hopefully if in my transcription process, if I have missed any critical ingredients, one of my pals
will inform me. When I say INSIDE COAST I am referring to the edge of that huge bay, which
has Port au Prince in the middle.

Count, Organization (sort alpha), Community (NA = Not Applicable identification yet)
Count Organization Community

600 ACTED Port au Prince


800 ACTED Gressier
1,900 ACTED Leogane
100 Action Aid Carrefour, PaP
900 ADF Petit Goave
1,300 ADRA Petit Goave
3,500 ADRA Carrefour, PaP
800 APY NA
500 Architectes de L'Urence Gressier
500 ARC NA
2,000 ARC Delmas PaP

42 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


2,500 BRAC NA
2,500 BRAC Leogane
1,500 CARE Carrefour, PaP
1,500 CARE Leogane
1,600 CHF Cap Haitien
1,000 CHF Leogane
1,000 CHF Petit Goave
500 CHF Delmas PaP
500 CHF Croix de Bouquets, Pap
500 CHF Tabarre, PaP
500 CHF Petionville, PaP
500 Christian Aid NA
875 Concern Port au Prince
1,125 Concern Delmas PaP
8,000 Cord Aid NA
2,000 Cord Aid Leogane
2,000 Cord Aid Grand Goave
8,000 CRS Caritas NA
500 CRWRC Leogane
500 Danish People's Aid Carrefour, PaP
1,600 FH Kenscoff
1,600 FH Petionville, PaP
1,600 FH PCI Petionville, PaP
1,600 FH PCI Delmas PaP
1,600 FH PCI Tabarre, PaP
2,000 GOAL Port au Prince
2,000 GOAL Gressier
1,000 Good Neighbors NA
1,000 Good Neighbors Leogane
460 Habitat for Humanity Leogane

43 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


440 Habitat for Humanity Cabaret
200 Handicap International Petit Goave
1,060 IOM Croix de Bouquets, Pap
3,000 IOM Port au Prince
1,100 IOM Jacmel
1,100 IOM Grand Goave
1,100 IOM Petit Goave
500 IOM Leogane
2,500 IRD Leogane
1,000 Islamic Relief NA
1,117 Med Air Jacmel
960 Med Air Cotes de Fer
1,600 NICCO Petionville, PaP
350 Premier Urgence Port au Prince
11,650 Red Cross NA
5,750 Red Cross Leogane
4,800 Red Cross Jacmel
1,000 Red Cross Croix de Bouquets, Pap
310 Red Cross Gressier
250 Red Cross Carrefour, PaP
340 Salvation Army NA
850 Salvation Army Jacmel
5,000 Samaritan's Purse Port au Prince
882 Tearfund Gressier
857 Tearfund Leogane
5,500 UNOPS Jacmel
1,490 UNOPS Croix de Bouquets, Pap
2,000 UN Techno Para Mi Pais Grand Goave
6,000 World Vision NA
1,554 World Vision Croix de Bouquets, Pap

44 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Generic Plans (Sep 10)
Organization / Count … the following not yet specified WHERE.

Port au Prince (Sep 10)


Port au Prince (main city center) map showing approximate areas where different NGOs to
do their thing.
Microscopic print … use plus sign to make it readable.

Carrefour (1 Feb 18)


Carrefour is in PaP metropolis, South of city center.
Footnote allegedly links to 2011 Jan 19 map of T shelter coordination and implementation
in Carrefour.88 These totals were not in my earlier correlation charts.
NGO – pledged – completed – projected when
Total 9,500 5,541 58%
Action Aid 100 Zero
ADRA 2,500 2,144 85%
CARE 1,200 535 45% 2011 March

88Summary from OCHA-Relief-Web, mislabeled. The actual map shown is Mexico. Corrected Detail from
OCHA-Relief-Web.
http://reliefweb.int/rw/fullmaps_am.nsf/luFullMap/4B84121D88FF84828525783B006C32A7/$File/map.pd
f?OpenElement

45 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Cordaid 1,500 8 2011 July
CRS/ 750 550 73% 2011 June
/Divine Ministries
Danish 1,100 720 65% 2011 May
People’s Aid
Islamic Relief 850 220 26% 2911 June
MOFKA 500 500 100%
NICCO 100 55 55%
Premier 200 190 95%
Urgence
Samaritan’s 700 619 88% 2011 March
Purse
NGO – pledged – completed – projected when

Delmas (Sep 10)


Delmas is in PaP metropolis, NE of city center

Croix de Bouquets (Sep 10)


Croix de Bouquets, I am not quite sure of, I think on NE edge of PaP

46 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Camp Corail in Croix de Bouquets (1 May 13)
According to OCHA 2011 Apr May Situation Report,89 support for Camp Corail is being
transferred from NGOs to local authorities, as it transitions from relief to recovery. It, and
its 7,000 IDP90 inhabitants, joins the municipality of Croix de Bouquets. Corail was created in
April 2010 to host extremely vulnerable IDPs from other camps.

A Corail Task Force has been established to ensure a smooth transition period. The Task Force,
operational since 1 April 2011, is composed of IDP representatives, local authorities, officials from
the Direction de la protection civile (DPC), the Haitian National Police (PNH), the UN Police and
key humanitarian organizations, such as IOM, World Vision, Oxfam and Plan.

Tabarre (Sep 10)


Tabarre, I think that is East edge of PaP

Above Total cannot be right.

Petionville (Sep 10)


Petionville, is SE edge of PaP

Carrefour (Sep 10)


Carrefour, is SW edge of PaP, on the inside coast

89 I have downloaded a copy of this SitRep in case someone needs a copy, but cannot find thru official sources.
90 IDP = Internally Displaced Persons.

47 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Kenscoff (Sep 10)
Kenscoff is a separate community, I think, South of Pap

Gressier (Sep 10)


Gressier is a separate city, between PaP and Leogane, on the inside south coast.

Leogane (Sep 10)


Leogane is a separate city, WSW of PaP on the inside coast.

Jacmel (Sep 10)


Jacmel map of approx where the different NGOs to be building Transitional Shelters
Jacmel is almost due south of Leogane, on the South Outside Coast of Haiti.

48 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


Grand Goave (Sep 10)
Grand Goave is west of Leogane and Jacmel.

Petit Goave (1 Apr 24)


Petit Goave is west of Grand Goave
More info added to earlier totals.

The Norwegian Red Cross in Petit Goave, are building 700 t-shelter in
cluster zones 10, 11 & 12 and planning to install rain water collection system for our shelters.

Cotes de Fer (Sep 10)


Cotes de Fer is south of Petit Goave

Outside the map focus.

Cap Haitien (Sep 10)


Cap Haitien is far north outside coast of Haiti.

49 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


May 17 Status 2010 Start
Here’s situation regarding this research document, as of 2010 May 17.
Over 40 NGOs in Haiti have begun to work on Transitional Shelters, intended to protect Haitians
from Earthquakes, Tropical Cyclone Hurricanes, Nite Rapes, Surprise Evictions, and other
Hazards. I am not impressed with many of the plans that I have seen, which look like a cross
between an Outhouse and Tool Shed. Many of the NGOs are inexperienced at Home Building,
without good understanding of Building Standards, and risks endemic to Haiti. They obviously
could use some help from professionals in the Disaster Relief Home Building, and other
professions.
Situation Report 2010 April 27 IOM (International Organization for Migration) PDF says there are
13 sites, so far, designated for Transitional Shelters, talks about some of them, and is a bit vague
on the issues. I went thru the MAP of WHERE the various NGOs reportedly will be doing their
thing, looked up the Acronyms commonly used to identify the NGOs, then tried to locate their HQ
address or url, so that professionals, in the home building industries, who are interested in
helping get a quality job of implementation, can follow through if they are so inclined.

Situation reports in early May indicate additional sites were added quite rapidly in
communities SW of PaP, thanks to involvement of Mayors and other local officials, but
thousands of shelters are still in UN warehouses awaiting land tenure resolution. So I added
a section to my document trying to explain that mess.

50 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects


51 Haiti Transitional Shelter Projects