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Types of Cell Division

• Cells in animals and plants divide in


one of the two ways described below:
1). Mitosis: that takes place in body cells
resulting in growth and development.
2). Meiosis: that takes place in gamete
producing cells resulting in gametes
that fuse forming zygote.
MITOSIS
• Mitos means Thread & Osis means State
• Cell division process was first described by
SCHLEIDEN.
• This process takes place in Body (Somatic)
Cells of organisms.
• The basic principle is “The Chromosome
number of cells is not altered (not changed)
in this process.” Its just duplication.
• It’s a complex process where mother / parent
somatic cell divides to form two identical
daughter cells.
Phases of Mitosis

1). Prophase (P)


2). Metaphase (M)
3). Anaphase (A)
4). Telophase (T)

(PMAT)
1). PROPHASE
- “Pro” means First
- Nucleus is visible with large,
shortened much like spring &
thickened Chromosomes.
- Nuclear Membrane &
Nucleolus disappear.
- Centrioles: two minute
bodies outside the nucleus
separates & forms spindle
fibres or astral rays &
attaches to centromere of
chromosomes.
- Most plant cells do not have
centrioles but still have a
spindle network.
As PROPHASE ends following
features are noticed
• Chromosomes: thick, clearly visible, each
chromosomes split into 2 chromatids & remain
in contact throughout at the centromere.
• Nucleolus & Nuclear Membrane starts
disappearing.
• Continuous spindle fibres join both centrioles.
• Chromosomes attach to spindle by
centromeres and start moving towards
equatorial position.
•KINETOCHORE is the site
of attachment of spindle
fibres.
•CENTROMERE is the
center of attachment of
the chromatids.
2). METAPHASE
- ”Meta” means After
- Short phase
- Chromosomes
becomes most distinct.
- Duplication of
Chromosomes occurs
before prophase, but
becomes more evident
during metaphase.
- Chromosomes arrange
themselves at the
equatorial plane.
3). ANAPHASE
- ’’Ana’’ means Back
- Very active phase of Mitosis.
Main features are
a). Homologous daughter
chromosomes (2 chromatids)
of metaphase now separate
and begin to move in the
opposite direction towards the
‘pole’ with the contraction of
spindle fibres.
b). Chromosomes bend around
the centromere showing as ‘V’
or ‘J’ or ‘L’ shaped structure
based on the length of its arms.
4). TELOPHASE
- ’Telo’ means End
- As soon as the
chromatids come
together at the ends
of the spindle
network, the
telophase begins.
The various changes observed during
TELOPHASE are:
1). Chromosomes reach opposite poles. Spindle
network disintegrates but centrioles remain.
2). Chromosomes uncoil, lengthen & thus becomes
thinner turning into a network of less distinct
chromatin threads.
3). Nuclear membrane & Nucleolus starts
forming around 2 sets of chromosomes in
both the newly formed daughter cells.
4). With the formation of nuclear membrane, 2 nuclei
are formed & the process of nuclear division or
KARYO-KINESIS is over. This is followed by
CYTO-KINESIS.
Cyto--Kinesis
Cyto
- At this point the
cytoplasm between the two
daughter nuclei constricts
i.e. a furrow starts forming
in the plasma membrane at
the middle.
- This deepens towards the
interior of the cell until the
cytoplasm is split into 2
similar daughter cells.
- In plant cells constriction
is not observed during
cytokinesis.
Importance of Mitosis
- Helpful in growth of tissues, organs
and thus organism.
- Used for repair of damaged tissues and
organs.
- It is the method by which lower animals
reproduce.
- Hereditary characters are maintained
by the replication of chromosomes.
Characteristics of Mitosis
- It takes place in Somatic / Body cells.
- It helps in tissue growth.
- 2 equal similar daughter cells are
formed.
- Chromosome number is preserved.
- Daughter cells are identical to parent
cell.
Difference in Plant and Animal Mitosis
Plant Mitosis Animal Mitosis
1. Centrioles are absent in 1. Centrioles are present in
Plant Mitosis. Animal Mitosis.
2. No contractile ring is 2. Formation of contractile
found. ring between 2 nuclei of the
3. No cell constriction is dividing cell
formed. 3. Cell constriction is formed
4. In Telophase there is a in the late Telophase for the
formation of Cell Plate for process of Cytokinesis.
the process of cytokinesis. 4. No cell plate is formed.
5. Nuclear and Cell division
5. Cells divide everywhere, all
are found in special
the time
regions called Meristems.