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NASA SP-105

VACUUM

TECHNOLOGY

AND

SPACE

SIMULATION

Donald J. Santeler

David H. Holkeboer

Donald W. Jones

Frank Pagano

Prepared

under

contract

NASw-680

by

Aero

Vac

Corporation

Scientific and Technical Information Division

 

1-9

6

6

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS

AND

SPACE

ADMINISTRATION

 

Washington,

D.C.

For

Sale

by the

Superintendent

of Documents,

 

U.S.

Government

Printing

Office,

Washington,

D. C. 20402

Library

of Congress

Catalog

Card

Number

66.60047

\

Foreword

LTHOUGH

SPACE

VEHICLES

encounter

many

environments

 

during

their

various

missions,

vacuum

is

the

most

persistent

con-

dition

affecting

design

and

operation.

The

study

of vacuum

effects

on

materials,

components,

or systems,

alone

or

in

combination

with

other

environments,

has

grown

into

a

distinct

technology

during

the

past

several

years

to the

point

where

vacuum

test

chambers

of many

shapes,

sizes,

and

capabilities

are

now

in

use.

The

research

and

development

activities

carried

out

in such

vacuum

facilities

are

highly

important

to

progress

in

the

space

exploration

program.

As

this

program

advances,

the

sophistication

and

number

of

vacuum

systems

in

our

Nation's

laboratories steadily increase and more and more individuals are exposed

to the

subject

of vacuum,

as designers,

operators,

or experimenters.

As the utilization

of vacuum

technology

has

increased,

so has

the

need

for

an

authoritative

technical

manual

which

will

introduce

interested

personnel

to the

subject,

allow

an engineer

or scientist

skilled in vacuum

to probe

the

field in depth,

or furnish

the technician

with

information

on

equipment characteristics

and

practical

vacuum

techniques.

 

Although

there

are

many

excellent

reference

books,

reports,

and

papers

dealing

with

the

vacuum

field,

no

specific

text

is

available

which

combines

material

on

space

vacuum

simulation,

technology,

and

the

related

problem

of pressure

measurement

in space

chambers.

 

Therefore,

to fill

this

information

gap,

the

National

Aeronautics

and

Space Administration has had a comprehensive vacuum manual prepared

under

between

technical

contract.

the

Its

content

and

format

are

the

result

of

consultation

by NASA

authors

and NASA

personnel

and review

staff

members

at

Headquarters

and

at

several

Research

Centers.

This

final document

should

serve

as a useful

reference

volume

on the

state-of-

the-art

of vacuum

technology

applied

to space

simulation.

 
 

Mac

C. Adams

Associate

Administrator

.for Advanced

Research

and Technology

 

National

Aeronautics

and Space Administration

iii

PACE-SIMULATION

Prelace

FACILITIES

have

proven

their

worth

in

several

technological

areas:

basic

research,

development,

and

engineering.

Countless

hours

of testing

have

been

and

will

be

under-

taken to advance our knowledge of environmental effects on space vehicle systems and components. As our space flight capabilities increase, our needs for more definitive preflight and post flight test information will also grow. Both preflight and postflight studies in vehicle and compo-

nent reliability, vacuum heat transfer effects, materials degradation, and bearing and metal fatigue can be performed, under simulated conditions, in the laboratory.

The

special

facilities

and

vacuum

levels

required

for

these

studies

created

a host

of new

technical

problems

in

a variety

of scientific

and

engineering

areas.

 

To

solve

the

difficulties

which

arose

in vacuum

tech-

nology,

new

and

ingenious

solutions

were

developed.

Many

of these

developments

have

reached

the

general

scientific

community

through

technical

papers,

delivered

at

symposia

and

published

in

journals,

dealing

with

space

simulation

versus

space

environment

duplication,

level

of

vacuum

required,

test

procedures,

and

evaluation

techniques.

However,

there

 

is

no

single

source

which

 

consolidates

 

the

numerous

interacting

vacuum

techniques

required

for

space

simulation.

 

Since

1960,

a

number

of

authoritative

books

have

been

published

which update the published state of the art of vacuum

technology

and

which cover a wide range of interests. For example, Dushman discusses

the scientific aspects of vacuum, while Guthrie proves useful for the

training of vacuum-laboratory

technicians.

Still

another

volume, Pirani

and

Yarwood,

is concerned

primarily

with

the

engineer.

However,

the

range

of information

covered

in most

texts

tends

toward

a general,

rather

than a specific, interest.

Therefore,

any

author

will

provide

descriptions

of various

types

of vacuum

gages,

but

the

specific

problem

of pressure

measurement

in

space

chambers

is rarely

discussed.

It

is the

intention

of the

following

chapters,

therefore,

to

examine

to

_ reasonable

extent

the

essential

specifics

of vacuum

technology.

As

a

result,

many

general

aspects

of vacuum

technology

have

been

omitted,

and

the

reader

is

referenced

to

texts

which

treat

these

aspects.

An

attempt has been made to present new material treatment of the subject.

on each

topic,

or

a new

In conclusion,

the

engineer

who needs

to

purchase,

operate,

maintain,

or

otherwise

use

vacuum-space-simulation

equipment

and

who

must

have a thorough understanding of the principles of vacuum technology, as related to space simulation, will find "Vacuum Technology and Space Simulation" specifically designed for his particular requirements.

Contents

chapter

page

1 VACUUM

NOMENCLATURE

1

 

_

 

Molecular

Fundamentals

 

2

Gas

Flow

6

Directional

Effects

 

7

Glossary

8

Symbols

15

2 PRESSURE

 

19

 

Definitions

of Pressure

 

19

Kinetic

Theory

of Gases

23

Molecular

Kinetics

 

28

Application

to Space

Simulation

 

33

3 PRESSURE

MEASUREMENT

41

 

Types

of Gages

41

Ionization-Gage

Characteristics

 

52

Vacuum-Gage

Calibration

 

55

Space-Simulation

Gages

63

4 PUMPING

SPEED

71

 

Steady-State

Case

 

71

Transient

Case,

Pumpdown,

 

and

Repressurization

 

77

5 GAS

FLOW

IN COMPONENTS

AND

SYSTEMS

83

Molecular Flow Through

an

Orifice

 

84

Molecular

Flow

Through

a

Tube

of Circular

 

Cross

Section

85

Laminar

Viscous

Flow

in

a

Long

Circular

Tube

88

Flow

Characteristics

of Complex

Shapes--Molecular

 

Flow

94

Flow

Characteristics

of Complex

Shapes---Transition

 

Flow

105

Flow

Characteristics

of Complex

Shapes--Laminar

 

Viscous

Flow

 

.:

105

Flow

Characteristics

of Complex

Shapes--Choked

or

Critical

Flow

 

106

Flow

of Gas

Through

Cylindrical

Tubes

108

Traps

and

Baffles

116

 

vii

CONTENTS

chapter

 

page

6

PUMPING SYSTEMS

 

123

 

Rotary

Oil-Sealed

Pumps

124

Positive Displacement

Blowers

 

134

Diffusion Pumps

135

Sputter Ion Pumps

142

Sorption Pumping

143

7

CRYOGENIC PUMPING

151

Perfect Cryogenic Pumping Surfaces

151

Extended Cryogenic Pumping Surfaces

154

Liquid Nitrogen Traps

166

8

GAS

LOAD

173

 

Definition of QL, Gas Load on Systems

173

Sources

of the Gas Load

175

9

OUTGASSING OF MATERIALS

 

197

Metals

197

 

Cleaning

Chemicals

208

High-Temperature

Degas

 

210

Low Temperature

213

Exposure

213

Polymers

213

10

SYSTEMS

Systems

 

223

Space Simulation

223

Types of VacuUm

229

 

High-Vacuum Systems--General Considerations

234

System Design

248

Troubleshooting Diffusion-Pumped Systems

267

11

LEAK DETECTION

 

275

Gas Flow Through Leaks

277

Basic Equations of Steady-State

Leak Detection

279

 

Basic Equations of Transient Leak Detection

283

Other Aspects of Leak Detection

 

288

Vacuum-Gage

Methods OfLeak Detection

291

Leak-Detection Techniques for Systems

300

°°o

Vlll

1

Vacuum

Nomenclature

INTRODUCTION

HE

FIRST

STEPS

into

any

new

venture

generally

require

a guide

to

insure

that

the

correct

path

is being

followed.

Thus,

an engineer

assuming

new

responsibilities

in activities

concerned

with

vacuum

tech-

nology

and

space

simulation

will

need

aid

in

becoming

acclimatized

to

the

language,

terminology,

and

units

peculiar

to

vacuum.

 

It

is the

intent

of chapter

1

to

serve

as

a

map

to the

charted

courses

of vacuum

technology.

Terms

and

units

defined

 

in this

chapter

will

be

elaborated

descriptions

upon

and

in

later

chapters.

units

have

been

All

symbols

alphabetically

used

listed

in

the

at the

text,

conclusion

their

cf this

chapter.

Since

popular

usage

has established

atmospheric

pressure

as the upper

limit

standard atmospheric pressure.

of vacuum,

a vacuum

may

be regarded

as any

pressure

less than

When scientists first •became interested

in

vacuum-level

measurements,

a

value

of

28

or

29

mm

Hg

below

atmospheric pressure was considered a respectable vacuum. As research

to convert to an absolute

equations, in much the same manner

the tradi-

improved

vacuum

levels,

it

became

necessary

•scale

to give

meaning

to engineering

as an absolute

scale is used in temperature

calculations.

Under

tional

millimeters of mercury; that is, 760 mm Hg equals atmospheric pressure.

measurement

system,

normal

atmospheric

pressure

is expressed

in

In

recent

years

the

traditional

pressure

units

have

given

way

to the

torr

which

is defined

as

1/760

of

a

standard

atmosphere,

and

is now

the

measure

of vacuum

level

accepted

by

those

working

with

vacuum.

It

should

be noted,

however,

that

the

standard

atmosphere

is not

quite

760 mm

Hg.

There

is a discrepancy

of approximately

1 part

in 7 million

between

mm

Hg

and

the

torr;

but,

for

practical

considerations,

the

terms

"torr"

and

"mm

Hg"

may

be interchanged.

The

following

table

lists

the

conversion

factors

between

the

torr

and

other

pressure

units

popularly

used today:

 
 

I1 mm Hg

108microns

 

| 1.33X l0s microbars

 
 

1 torr equals_l.33

X 108dyn/cm 2

|133 newton/m 2 |1/760 std. atm

[0.01934lb/in3

1

2 VACUUM

TECHNOLOGY

AND

SPACE

SIMULATION

The

indicate

following

divisions

of

the

generally

accepted

Low

vacuum

Medium

vacuum

the

region

below

atmospheric

degrees

of vacuum:

760

25 tort

torr to

to

25 torr

104 torr

pressure

High

vacuum

10-8 torr

to

104 tort

Very

high

vacuum

10-6 torr

to

10-° torr

Ultrahigh

vacuum

10-° torr

and

beyond

to

provide a foundation for some basic nomenclature. However, the basic

The

following

sections

will

introduce

several

concepts

in

order

equations

of pressure

and

the

ideal

gas

laws,

which

have

been

derived

from

kinetic

theory,

will

be considered

further

in

chapter

2.

MOLECULAR

FUNDAMENTALS

 

At

conditions

of

standard

atmospheric

pressure

and

temperature,

there

are

approximately

2.5 x 10_

molecules/cmL

Each

molecule

will

have

an average

mean

free

path,

X, of

em

between

collisions.

Equations

the

(1.1)

and

molecular

density

(1.2)

and

6.6 x 10.6 effect path.

point

the mean

out the

free

of decreased

density,

The

pressure

in units

on

of

molecules/cm

3, decreases

by

 

n--9.656

X 10 I'P

 

(1.1)

while

the mean free path,

cm, increases

as

X=2.331

 

× 10- _°-TT p$_

 

(1.2)

where

P

is

the

pressure

in

torr,

T

is

the

absolute

temperature

in

°K,

and

_

is

the

molecular

diameter

in

cm.

Molecular

density

depends

on

the gas temperature

and

pressure,

while

the

mean

free path

also depends

on the gas type.

Table

1.1 lists

values

of

n

and

X for different

values

of air

pressure

at

25 °

C;

table

1.2

gives

various

molecular

properties

 

for

different

gases

at

25 °

C

and

10-8 torr.

The

extremely

small

size

of

molecules

may

be

seen

from

a comparison

of

molecular

density

and

mean free path.

That

is,

there

are

over

3×106

moleeules/cm

8

at

a

pressure of 10- _° torr; yet a molecule 483 kilometers between collisions.

will

travel,

on the

average,

over

The

concept

of

mean

free

path

is

extremely

important

in

vacuum

engineering

in

that

it

defines

the

boundaries

of two

different

types

of

gaseous

flow.

At

atmospheric-pressure

or

low-vacuum

conditions,

the

mean

free

path

is

exceedingly

small.

Hence,

the

molecules

 

are

in

a

constant

state

of

intercollision,

transferring

energy,

or

momentum,

VACUUM

NOMENCLATURE

3

through

the

gas.

The

momentum

transfer

from

molecule

to

molecule

leads

to the

concept

of gas

viscosity,

and

the

flow itself

is called

viscous

flow.

When

dealing

with

the gaseous

flow in a tube

which

is long

relative

to

its diameter,

the

viscous

flow is

governed

by

the

Poiseuille

equation.

Chapter

5,

which

discusses

the

various

flow

regimes,

shows

that

Poiseuille

flow is seldom

encountered

in vacuum

systems.

 

As the

pressure

decreases

to the

high-

and

very-high-vacuum

regions,

the

mean

free

path

becomes

much

longer

than

the

dimensions

of

the

confining chamber,

with

the

result

that

the

molecules

will

collide

more

frequently

with

the

walls

of the

chamber

than

with

each other.

Gas flow

in

such

a

molecular

flow regime

is

no

longer

dependent

on

momentum

transfer

between

molecules,

but

now

depends

only

on

the

statistical

motion

of the

independently

moving

molecules.

 

There

is

a

third

region

of gas flow which

ranges

between

the

viscous

and

molecular

regions.

The

molecules

in the

intermediate

region

make

an

appreciable

number

of collisions,

both

with

each

other

and

with

the

confining walls.

First

identified

with

limitations

of

the

viscous

flow

region,

this

region

became

known

as

slip

flow.

It

is

known

also

as

Knudsen

flow

after

the

man

who

first

established

the

mathematical

relationship

for the

apparent

changes

in viscosity

as pressure decreases.

The

conventional

equations

of Knudsen

flow

do

not

apply

to

many

vacuum

systems

due

to

the

limitations

on the

ratio

of chamber

length

to

diameter.

Therefore,

it

is

more

appropriate

to

use

the

generalized

term

of transition

flow to

cover

the

flow region

between

viscous

and

molecular.

Figure

1.1

illustrates

the

relationship

between pressure,

chamber

dimensions,

and

flow regimes

for nitrogen

gas

at

25 °

C.

That

molecular

flow is molecular

the

walls. Another commonly used term in vacuum technology is molecular

for molecu-

system

interactions;

is, at high pressure (low vacuum)

the

flow will

(high

statistics

be viscous

the

with

with

while

at low pressure

by the

vacuum)

in nature

and is governed

of interaction

incidence or impingement rate. A mathematical relationship

lar incidence, defined as the rate at which molecules strike a unit area

of surface, molecules/era 2 sec, can

be derived

from kinetic

theory.

That

is

_=3.513x

1022P_

(MT)

 

(1.3)

Langmuir used a modification

of equation

{1.3)

to

deduce

equilibrium

vapor pressure (evaporation

rate

equals

incidence

rate)

from

the

rate

of evaporation.

a clean surface in an ultra-high-vacuum environment can be determined

from the molecular incidence rate, qb.

In addition, the length of time required to contaminate

Various

of materials

cules.

experimenters

such

have

and

and

observed

glass

other

that

the

a high

unsaturated

affinity

may

surfaces

gas

mole-

as metal

oxygen,

have

for

Nitrogen,

permanent

gases

be physically

4 VACUUM TECHNOLOGY AND SPACE SIMULATION 107 10s Q) 0 .E 103 - Viscous -_
4 VACUUM
TECHNOLOGY
AND
SPACE
SIMULATION
107
10s
Q)
0
.E
103
-
Viscous
-_
102
(f)
10 4
.e_
a
161
c-
O
(lJ
id2
153
id 4
165
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I0
7
I0
6
t(_ 5
I(_ 4
IC)3
IC)2
IC)I
I
I0
102
I0 3
Pressure,
torr
FICURE
1.1.--llelatlonship
between
pressure,
chamber
dimensions,
and
flow
regimes
fo=
nitrogen
gas
at
25
°
C.

or chemically

adsorbed

in

an

amount

approaching

one

complete

molec-

ular

layer.

(See

chapter

8.)

A freshly

cleaved

surface,

or one which

has

just

taminating

undergone

a high-temperature

As molecules

gases.

bakeout,

the

is free initially region

of such

with

from

vacuum

collide

con-

the

surface

according

to equation

(1.3)

for

molecular

incidence,

they

are

taken

up

by

the

surface

and

begin

to

form

a

contaminating

layer.

To

obtain

the

time

required

to form

a particular

molecular

coverage,

divide

the

molecular

coverage

by

the

molecular

incidence

rate

and

the

proba-

bility

of adsorption

upon

collision

with

the

wall.

Of course,

the

proba-

bility

of

adhering

or

sticking

will

depend

on

the

amount

of

coverage

VACUUM NOMENCLATURE

5

which

already

exists.

Assuming

that

every

molecule

striking

the

surface

will

adhere,

table

1.1

lists

values

of

the

molecular

incidence

rate

and

time

to form

a monolayer

for

air

at

25 o C.

 

TABLE1.1.---Molecular Incidence

Rate

and Time To Form a Monolayer ]or Air at 25 ° C

I

 

Molecular

 

Time

to

I

Pressure,

Molecular

density,

 

Mean

free

incidence

form 1

 

path,

rate, ¢,

 

monolayer,

 

torr

n, molecule/cm

a

X,cm

molecule/cm

 

2 see

t, sec

 

760

2.46 X

1@9

6.69 X

I0-+

3.14 X

10_

 

2.63 X

10

1

3.24 X 1016

5.09 X

lff a

4.13 X 102°

2.00 X 10-+

 

3.24 X 10=

5.09 X 10°

 

4.13 X 1017

I

2.00 X 10-a

 

10-+

3.24 X 10_°

5.09 X 108

4.13 X

10u

 

2.00 X

10°

10-°

3.24 X 107

5.09 X 10_

4.13 X 10_1

 

2.00 X 10_

10-=

3.24 X

10'

5.09 X

l0s

!

4.13 X 108

,

2.00 X 106

10-_

324 X

101

5.09 X

10=

: 4.13 X

10_

2.00 X

109

 

I

 

Table

1.2

gives

similar

data

for

different

gases