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GERUNDS

10.1. The Simple Gerund


A gerund is the -ing form of the verb used as a noun. It is always a noun and can function in any
noun position.
Swimming is a good exercise (subject)
My favorite sport is swimming. (Subjective complement )
Joe and Patrice enjoy dancing. (direct object)
I am tired of camping. (object of a preposition)
Joe’s favorite sport, fishing, is becoming expensive (appositive)

10.2. The Gerund Phrase

Gerund may have adjective modifiers like a noun (usually before it). It may also have adverbial
modifiers like a verb (usually after it). If a noun or pronoun precedes a gerund, it must be in the
possessive, or adjectival form. Wishon and Burks (1980)
Subject of the verb Your singing is beautiful.
Her cleaning the house everyday is not necessary.
Object of verb Everyone admires Patrjce’s expert dancing.
Her husband appreciates her cleaning the house every
day.
In prepositional object Joe was grateful for Patrice’s attending his graduation.
Her husband insists on her cleaning the house every
day
In adverbial phrase By cleaning the house every day, she is pleasing her
husband.
Subjective complement What her husband insists on is her cleaning the house
every day.
Objective complement Her husband insists on one thing, her cleaning the
house every day.

Gerund can also have an object

1. Making model airplanes is good hobby for young children.

2. Learning English is not too difficult

3. Gerund can be the object of another gerund.

1. Practicing diving is a favorite Past time of many swimmers.

2. Loving cheating is not good for the students


10.3. Verbs Frequently Followed by Gerunds

Admit delay forgive postpone risk

Appreciate deny imagine practice suggest

Avoid detest keep (continue) prevent stop

Consider enjoy mind quit try

Continue escape miss resent understand

Defer finish notice resist

Exercises 1

Rewrite the following sentences using the correct form of the words in parentheses.
I don’t remember ( he, lock ) the door.
I don’t remember his locking the door.
1. Do you mind (we, visit) you so often?
2. Can you imagine (he, pass ) the exam?
3. We cannot imagine (she, look ) so cheerful.
4. I objected to ( he, arrive ) early for dinner, but I enjoyed (he, tell ) so many funny stories.
5. I don’t mind (she, miss ) the class if they know the lesson.
6. Did you notice ( she, play ) at the concert?
7. Do you mind ( I, wait ) here ?
8. I object to ( you, make ) so much noise.
9. The shopkeeper doesn’t like ( we, look ) without ( buy ).
10. It is difficult to imagine ( they, arrive ) on time.

Exercise 2
Use an appropriate gerund or gerund phrase in each of the following blanks. Then indicate
its function in the sentence.
A favorite pastime of mine is………………….. (subjective complement ).
1. …………………..for leisure activities is quite difficult.
2. However, I think that…………………more than forty hours a week is unwise.
3. Sometimes I cannot avoid …………………..too many hours , but I resist…….
……………….work home with me.
4. At home I enjoy……………..,…………….., and ……………….. I resent …………. to
work home.
5. In the evening, my leisure activities, …………………….. concerts, …………, and
relaxing was to end the day.
6. Weekends are needed for, ……………….., ………………….., and………….
7. Sometimes there is a good reason for………………… on weekends.
8. A person must find some time for…………………… what is happening in the world by
………………
9. One may admit really……………… to work, though some people won’t believe it.
10. Even if one love………………. more than………………. one will profit from
…………………. to enjoy a wide variety of activities.
Exercise 3
Combine the following pairs of sentences, changing the highlighted words into gerunds.
Underline the gerunds and indicate the function of each.

Children play with animals


They usually enjoy it.
Children usually playing with animals

1. Students of psychology read book by Freud and Jung. They enjoy it.
2. The Girl Scouts go on camping trips. It is one of their favorite activities.
3. One must not hunt for alligators. The law prohibits it.
4. Last year Jerry’s father killed a deer when it was not legal. He admitted it.
5. I file papers every day. I am bored of it.
6. The Santana’s summer vacation required little planning. They were at the beach.
7. Part of a vacation is the plan. It’s the best part.
8. Emma looks for seashells. This is something she does every morning.
9. I used to think about travelling all the time. I have stop that now
10. Marine biologists study sea life. They are interested in this study.

Exercise 4

Combine the following pairs of sentences in such away as to make a gerund from the
highlighted word
A man named Broley studied the eagles from Florida. It was a serious hobby for him.
Studying the eagles from Florida was a serious hobby for a man named Broley.
1. The Audubon society protects birds. That is its main interest.
2. The Audubon society studied eagles throughout the country. Its work began in the 1960s.
3. The fish and Wildlife Service tried to diagnose the problem of the Florida eagles. It
began its work promptly.
4. The problem was traced to pollution of waterways. It was not very difficult.
5. The Service found that specific chemicals were responsible for the problem. Many
people were disturbed at this.
6. Insecticides were dumped into waterways .This cause contamination of the algae in the
water.
7. Fish ate contaminated algae. This cause the tissue of the fish to contain poison.

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