– Electrostatic Force
1. Frictional Electricity
2. Properties of Electric Charges
3. Coulomb’s Law
4. Coulomb’s Law in Vector Form
5. Units of Charge
6. Relative Permittivity or Dielectric Constant
7. Continuous Charge Distribution
i) Linear Charge Density
ii) Surface Charge Density
iii) Volume Charge Density
Frictional Electricity:
Frictional electricity is the electricity produced by rubbing two suitable bodies
and transfer of electrons from one body to other.
+ ++
.   
+ 
+ ++  
+  Ebonite
++  
++ Glass
+
++ + Flannel
Silk +
++ +
++
Electrons in glass are loosely bound in it than the electrons in silk. So, when
glass and silk are rubbed together, the comparatively loosely bound electrons
from glass get transferred to silk.
As a result, glass becomes positively charged and silk becomes negatively
charged.
Electrons in fur are loosely bound in it than the electrons in ebonite. So, when
ebonite and fur are rubbed together, the comparatively loosely bound electrons
from fur get transferred to ebonite.
As a result, ebonite becomes negatively charged and fur becomes positively
charged.
It is very important to note that the electrification of the body (whether
positive or negative) is due to transfer of electrons from one body to another.
i.e. If the electrons are transferred from a body, then the deficiency of
electrons makes the body positive.
If the electrons are gained by a body, then the excess of electrons makes the
body negative.
If the two bodies from the following list are rubbed, then the body appearing
early in the list is positively charges whereas the latter is negatively charged.
Fur, Glass, Silk, Human body, Cotton, Wood, Sealing wax, Amber, Resin,
Sulphur, Rubber, Ebonite.
Glass Silk
Ebonite Polythene
q1 q2
F α q1 q2
F α 1 / r2 r
1 q1 q2
In vacuum, F =
4πε0 r2
1 q1 q2
In medium, F =
4πε0εr r2
1 1
= 8.9875 x 109 N m2 C2 or = 9 x 109 N m2 C2
4πε0 4πε0
Coulomb’s Law in Vector Form:
F12 r F21
1 q1 q2
F12 = r21
4πε0 r2 q1q2 > 0
1 q1 q2
F21 = r12  q1  q2
4πε0 r2 r12
F12 r F21
q1q2 > 0
1 abcoulomb = 10 coulomb
q dq
λ= or λ= dq
l dl ++++++++++++
dl
Total charge on line l, q = ∫ λ dl
l
(ii) Surface Charge Density ( σ ):
If the charge is distributed over a surface area, then the distribution is called
‘surface charge distribution’.
Surface charge density is the charge per unit area. Its SI unit is C / m2.
q dq
σ= or σ= + + + + + + +dq+ + + + +
S dS ++++++++++++
++++++++++++
Total charge on surface S, q = ∫ σ dS + + + + + + +dS+++++
S
(iii) Volume Charge Density ( ρ ):
If the charge is distributed over a volume, then the distribution is called
‘volume charge distribution’.
Volume charge density is the charge per unit volume. Its SI unit is C / m3.
q dq
ρ= or ρ=
ז dז dq
F F
1 q
Lt F F or E= r
E= or E= r2
∆q → 0 ∆q q0 4πε0
1 q
E (r) = ( xi + y j + z k )
4πε0 ( x2 + y2 + z2 ) 3/2
F14
Superposition Principle:
The electrostatic force experienced by a  q5
charge due to other charges is the vector + q1
+ q2
sum of electrostatic forces due to these F15
other charges as if they are existing
individually.
F12
F13
F1 = F12 + F13 + F14 + F15 + q4  q3
N
1 ra  rb
Fa (ra) = ∑ qa qb F12
4πε0 F1
b=1 │ ra  rb │3
b≠a
F15
In the present example, a = 1 and b = 2 to 5. F13
If the force is to be found on 2nd charge, F14
then a = 2 and b = 1 and 3 to 5.
Note:
The interactions must be on the charge which is to be studied due to other
charges.
The charge on which the influence due to other charges is to be found is
assumed to be floating charge and others are rigidly fixed.
For eg. 1st charge (floating) is repelled away by q2 and q4 and attracted towards
q3 and q5.
The interactions between the other charges (among themselves) must be
ignored. i.e. F23, F24, F25, F34, F35 and F45 are ignored.
Superposition principle holds good for electric field also.
E
Electric Lines of Force
1. Electric Lines of Force due to a Point Charge:
a) Representation
of electric field
in terms of
field vectors:
The size of the
arrow
represents the
strength of
electric field.
q>0 q<0
b) Representation
of electric field
in terms of
field lines
(Easy way of
drawing)
2. Electric Lines of Force due to a 3. Electric Lines of Force due to a
pair of Equal and Unlike Charges: pair of Equal and Like Charges:
(Dipole)
+q P +q
E
.N
+q
q
E E
+ 
+  
+ Solid or hollow + 
 +
+ conductor  (Electrostatic Shielding)
 +
+  No Field 
+ 
+
+ 
Note:
An ideal dipole is the dipole in which the charge becomes larger and larger
and the separation becomes smaller and smaller.
Electric Field Intensity due to an Electric Dipole:
i) At a point on the axial line:
EP = EB  EA
Resultant electric field intensity
at the point P is A B EA EB
EP = EA + EB
q O +q P
p
The vectors EA and EB are
collinear and opposite. l l
x
│EP │ = │EB│  │EA│
1 2px
1 q │EP │ =
EA = i 4πε0 (x2 – l2)2
4πε0 (x + l)2
q 1 2px
1 EP = i
EB = i 4πε0
4πε0 (x  l)2 (x2 – l2)2
1 q q 2p
│EP │ =
4πε0
[ (x  l) 2

(x + l)2
] If l << x, then
EP ≈
4πε0 x3
The direction of electric field intensity
1 2 (q . 2l) x at a point on the axial line due to a
│EP │ = dipole is always along the direction of
4πε0 (x2 – l2)2
the dipole moment.
ii) At a point on the equatorial line:
Resultant electric field intensity EB
at the point Q is
EB EB sin θ
EQ = EA + EB θ
EQ Q EB cos θ θ
The vectors EA and EB are θ Q
EQ
acting at an angle 2θ. EA EA cos θ θ
q y EA sin θ
1 EA
EA = i
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 ) A θ θ B
q O +q
1 q p
EB = i
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 )
l l
The vectors EA sin θ and EB sin θ q
are opposite to each other and 2 l
EQ =
hence cancel out. 4πε0 ( x2 + l2 ) ( x2 + l2 )½
The vectors EA cos θ and EB cos θ 1 q . 2l
are acting along the same direction EQ =
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 )3/2
and hence add up.
1 p
EQ = EA cos θ + EB cos θ EQ =
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 )3/2
1 p
EQ = ( i )
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 )3/2
If l << y, then
p
EQ ≈
4πε0 y3
The direction of electric field intensity at a point on the equatorial line due to a
dipole is parallel and opposite to the direction of the dipole moment.
If the observation point is far away or when the dipole is very short, then the
electric field intensity at a point on the axial line is double the electric field
intensity at a point on the equatorial line.
Note: Potential Energy can be taken zero arbitrarily at any position of the
dipole.
Case i: If θ = 0°, then U =  pE (Stable Equilibrium)
Case ii: If θ = 90°, then U = 0
Case iii: If θ = 180°, then U = pE (Unstable Equilibrium)
ELECTROSTATICS  III
 Electrostatic Potential and Gauss’s Theorem
1. Line Integral of Electric Field
2. Electric Potential and Potential Difference
3. Electric Potential due to a Single Point Charge
4. Electric Potential due to a Group of Charges
5. Electric Potential due to an Electric Dipole
6. Equipotential Surfaces and their Properties
7. Electrostatic Potential Energy
8. Area Vector, Solid Angle, Electric Flux
9. Gauss’s Theorem and its Proof
10. Coulomb’s Law from Gauss’s Theorem
11. Applications of Gauss’s Theorem:
Electric Field Intensity due to Line Charge, Plane
Sheet of Charge and Spherical Shell
Line Integral of Electric Field (Work Done by Electric Field):
Negative Line Integral of Electric Field represents the work done by the electric
field on a unit positive charge in moving it from one point to another in the
electric field. B
Y
WAB = dW =  E . dl
A F
Let q0 be the test charge in place of the unit A
positive charge. rA +q0
r B
The force F = +q0E acts on the test charge rB
due to the source charge +q. +q
O X
It is radially outward and tends to accelerate
the test charge. To prevent this
acceleration, equal and opposite force –q0E Z
has to be applied on the test charge.
Total work done by the electric field on the test charge in moving it from A to B
in the electric field is
B
qq0 1 1
WAB = dW =  E . dl =
4πε0
[r B

rA
]
A
B
qq0 1 1
WAB = dW =  E . dl =
4πε0
[r
B

rA
]
A
1. The equation shows that the work done in moving a test charge q0 from
point A to another point B along any path AB in an electric field due to +q
charge depends only on the positions of these points and is independent of
the actual path followed between A and B.
2. That is, the line integral of electric field is path independent.
3. Therefore, electric field is ‘conservative field’.
4. Line integral of electric field over a closed path is zero. This is another
condition satisfied by conservative field.
B
E . dl = 0
A
Note:
Line integral of only static electric field is independent of the path followed.
However, line integral of the field due to a moving charge is not independent
of the path because the field varies with time.
Electric Potential:
Electric potential is a physical quantity which determines the flow of charges
from one body to another.
It is a physical quantity that determines the degree of electrification of a body.
Electric Potential at a point in the electric field is defined as the work done in
moving (without any acceleration) a unit positive charge from infinity to that
point against the electrostatic force irrespective of the path followed.
B
qq0 1 1 WAB q 1 1
WAB =  E . dl =
4πε0
[rB

rA
] or
q0 = 4πε0
[rB

rA
]
A
According to definition, rA = ∞ and rB = r
(where r is the distance from the source charge
and the point of consideration)
W∞B q W∞B
=V V=
q0 = 4πε0 r q0
WAB q 1 q 1
 = VB  VA
q0 = 4πε0 rB 4πε0 rA
WAB
VB  VA = ∆V =
q0
To prevent this acceleration, equal and opposite force –q0E has to be applied
on the test charge.
Work done to move q0 from P to Q through ‘dx’ against q0E is
1 q
VP =
q+
4πε0 (x – l)
A B +1 C
1 q
VP = q O +q P
q
4πε0 (x + l) p
l l
VP = VP + VP x
q+ q
q 1 1
VP =
4πε0 [ (x – l)

(x + l)
]
1 q . 2l
VP =
4πε0 (x2 – l2)
1 p
VP =
4πε0 (x2 – l2)
ii) At a point on the equatorial line:
1 q
VQ =
q+ 4πε0 BQ Q
1 q
VQ =
q
4πε0 AQ y
A θ θ B
VQ = VP + VP q O +q
q+ q
p
q 1 1 l l
VQ =
4πε0 [ BQ

AQ
]
VQ = 0 BQ = AQ
The net electrostatic potential at a point in the electric field due to an electric
dipole at any point on the equatorial line is zero.
Equipotential Surfaces:
A surface at every point of which the potential due to charge distribution is
the same is called equipotential surface.
i) For a uniform electric field:
V1 V2 V3
E
W=qV
n qi qj
U=
1
2
[ 1
4πε0
∑ ∑
i=1
n
j=1 │ rj  ri │
]
i≠j
Area Vector: n
Small area of a surface can be represented by a vector. dS
dS = dS n
dS
Electric Flux: S
Electric flux linked with any surface is defined as the total number of electric
lines of force that normally pass through that surface.
Electric flux dΦ through a small area dS dS
element dS due to an electric field E at an 90°
θ
angle θ with dS is
dS
dΦ = E . dS = E dS cos θ
dS
Total electric flux Φ over the whole θ E
surface S due to an electric field E is S
Φ= E . dS = E S cos θ = E . S
S
Electric flux is a scalar quantity. But it is a θ
property of vector field. dS
Solid Angle:
Solid angle is the threedimensional equivalent of an ordinary two
dimensional plane angle.
SI unit of solid angle is steradian.
Solid angle subtended by area element dS at the r
centre O of a sphere of radius r is
dS cos θ θ n
dΩ = dS
r2
r
dS cos θ
Ω = dΩ = = 4π steradian dΩ
r2
S S
Gauss’s Theorem:
The surface integral of the electric field intensity over any closed hypothetical
surface (called Gaussian surface) in free space is equal to 1 / ε0 times the net
charge enclosed within the surface.
1 n
ΦE = E . dS = ∑ qi
ε0 i=1
S
Proof of Gauss’s Theorem for Spherically Symmetric Surfaces:
1 q
dΦ = E . dS = r . dS n E
4πε0 r2
1 q dS
dΦ = r . n r dS
4πε0 r2
O•
+q r
Here, r . n = 1 x 1 cos 0°= 1
1 q dS
dΦ =
4πε0 r2
1 q 1 q q
ΦE = dΦ = dS = 4π r2 =
4πε0 r2 4πε0 r2 ε0
S S
Proof of Gauss’s Theorem for a Closed Surface of any Shape:
1 q E
dΦ = E . dS = r . dS n
4πε0 r2
r
1 q dS θ n
dΦ = r . n dS
4πε0 r2
r
Here, r . n = 1 x 1 cos θ
dΩ
= cos θ
+q •
q dS cos θ
dΦ =
4πε0 r2
q q q
ΦE = dΦ = dΩ = 4π =
4πε0 4πε0 ε0
S S
Deduction of Coulomb’s Law from Gauss’s Theorem:
From Gauss’s law,
q
ΦE = E . dS = ε0 E
S
C
r
∞ B A +∞
dS dS
Gaussian surface is a
From Gauss’s law,
E l E closed surface,
q around a charge
ΦE = E . dS = ε0 distribution, such
S that the electric field
intensity has a single
E . dS = E . dS + E . dS + E . dS fixed value at every
point on the surface.
S A B C
λl
Ex2πrl= ε0
1 λ
or E=
2 πε0 r
or 1 2λ
E=
4 πε0 r
1 2λ
In vector form, E (r) = r
4 πε0 r
The direction of the electric field intensity is radially outward from the positive
line charge. For negative line charge, it will be radially inward.
Note:
The electric field intensity is independent of the size of the Gaussian surface
constructed. It depends only on the distance of point of consideration. i.e. the
Gaussian surface should contain the point of consideration.
2. Electric Field Intensity due to an Infinitely Long, Thin Plane Sheet of
Charge:
σ
dS
l
E
E dS r C E
A
B dS
σ π r2
2Exπ r2 =
ε0
σ σ
or E= In vector form,
2 ε0 E (l) = l
2 ε0
The direction of the electric field intensity is normal to the plane and away
from the positive charge distribution. For negative charge distribution, it will
be towards the plane.
Note:
The electric field intensity is independent of the size of the Gaussian surface
constructed. It neither depends on the distance of point of consideration nor
the radius of the cylindrical surface.
If the plane sheet is thick, then the charge distribution will be available on
both the sides. So, the charge enclosed within the Gaussian surface will be
twice as before. Therefore, the field will be twice.
σ
E=
ε0
3. Electric Field Intensity due to Two Parallel, Infinitely Long, Thin
Plane Sheet of Charge:
Case 1: σ1 > σ2
σ1 σ2
E1 E1 E1
E E E
( σ1 > σ2 )
E2 E2 E2
E = E1 + E2 E = E1  E2 E = E1 + E2
σ1 + σ2 σ1  σ2 σ1 + σ2
E= E= E=
2 ε0 2 ε0 2 ε0
Case 2: + σ1 &  σ2
σ1 σ2
E1 E1 E1
E E E
( σ1 > σ2 )
( σ1 > σ2 )
E2 E2 E2
E = E1  E2 E = E1 + E2 E = E1  E2
σ1  σ2 σ1 + σ2 σ1  σ2
E= E= E=
2 ε0 2 ε0 2 ε0
Case 3: + σ &  σ
σ1 σ2
E1 E1 E1
E2 E2 E2
E = E1  E2 E = E1 + E2 E = E1  E2
σ1  σ2 σ1 + σ2 σ σ1  σ2
E= =0 E= = E= =0
2 ε0 2 ε0 ε0 2 ε0
4. Electric Field Intensity due to a Uniformed Charged This Spherical
Shell:
E
i) At a point P outside the shell: dS
r
From Gauss’s law, •P
q
ΦE = E . dS = ε0
S q O• R
Since E and dS are in the same direction,
HOLLOW
q
ΦE = E dS = ε0
S
q
or ΦE = E dS = ……… Gaussian Surface
ε0
S
q q Electric field due to a uniformly
E x 4π r2 = or E= charged thin spherical shell at
ε0 4πε0 r2
a point outside the shell is
Since q = σ x 4π R2, such as if the whole charge
σ R2 were concentrated at the
E=
ε0 r2 centre of the shell.
ii) At a point A on the surface of the shell:
From Gauss’s law, E
q dS
ΦE = E . dS = ε0
S •
A
Since E and dS are in the same direction,
q O• R
q
ΦE = E dS = ε0 HOLLOW
S
q
or ΦE = E dS =
ε0
S
q q
E x 4π R2 = or E=
ε0 4πε0 R2
E=0
O
R r
This property E = 0 inside a cavity is
used for electrostatic shielding.
ELECTROSTATICS  IV
 Capacitance and Van de Graaff Generator
1. Behaviour of Conductors in Electrostatic Field
2. Electrical Capacitance
3. Principle of Capacitance
4. Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor
5. Series and Parallel Combination of Capacitors
6. Energy Stored in a Capacitor and Energy Density
7. Energy Stored in Series and Parallel Combination of Capacitors
8. Loss of Energy on Sharing Charges Between Two Capacitors
9. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
10. Polarization of a Dielectric
11. Polarizing Vector and Dielectric Strength
12. Parallel Plate Capacitor with a Dielectric Slab
13. Van de Graaff Generator
Behaviour of Conductors in the Electrostatic Field:
1. Net electric field intensity in the interior of a
E0
conductor is zero.
When a conductor is placed in an
electrostatic field, the charges (free EP
electrons) drift towards the positive plate
leaving the + ve core behind. At an
equilibrium, the electric field due to the
polarisation becomes equal to the applied Enet = 0
field. So, the net electrostatic field inside
the conductor is zero.
2. Electric field just outside the charged
conductor is perpendicular to the surface of
the conductor.
E cos θ E
Suppose the electric field is acting at an
angle other than 90°, then there will be a θL E
component E cos θ acting along the tangent SIB
O S n
at that point to the surface which will tend to
T P •+ q
accelerate the charge on the surface leading NO
to ‘surface current’. But there is no surface
current in electrostatics. So, θ = 90°and
cos 90°= 0.
3. Net charge in the interior of a conductor is zero.
The charges are temporarily separated. The total
charge of the system is zero.
q
ΦE = E . dS = ε
0
S
Since E = 0 in the interior of the conductor,
therefore q = 0.
4. Charge always resides on the surface of a
conductor.
Suppose a conductor is given some excess
charge q. Construct a Gaussian surface just q q
inside the conductor.
Since E = 0 in the interior of the conductor,
therefore q = 0 inside the conductor. q=0
C = 4πε0 r
If the space between the plates is filled with dielectric medium of relative
permittivity εr, then
A ε0 εr
C=
d
Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is
(i) directly proportional to the area of the plates and
(ii) inversely proportional to the distance of separation between them.
Series Combination of Capacitors:
C1 C2 C3
In series combination,
q q q
i) Charge is same in each capacitor
ii) Potential is distributed in inverse V1 V2 V3
proportion to capacitances
i.e. V = V1 + V2 + V3 V
q q q q
But V = , V1 = , V2 = and V3 =
C C1 C2 C3
q q q q (where C is the equivalent capacitance or
= + + effective capacitance or net capacitance or
C C1 C2 C3
total capacitance)
1 1 1 1 n 1
1
or = + + = ∑
C C1 C2 C3 C i=1 Ci
The reciprocal of the effective capacitance is the sum of the reciprocals of the
individual capacitances.
Note: The effective capacitance in series combination is less than the least of
all the individual capacitances.
Parallel Combination of Capacitors: C1
In parallel combination, V q1
i.e. q = q1 + q2 + q3
But q1 = C1 V , q2 = C2 V , q3 = C3 V and q = C V C3
V q3
n
or C = C1 + C2 + C3 V
C = ∑ Ci
i=1
1 q2 1 1 1 1 1
U= U=
2
q2 [ C1
+
C2
+
C3
+ ………. +
Cn
]
2 C
U = U1 + U2 + U3 + ………. + Un
The total energy stored in the system is the sum of energy stored in the
individual capacitors.
Energy Stored in a Parallel Combination of Capacitors:
C = C1 + C2 + C3 + ……….. + Cn
1 1
U= C V2 U= V2 ( C1 + C2 + C3 + ……….. + Cn )
2 2
U = U1 + U2 + U3 + ………. + Un
The total energy stored in the system is the sum of energy stored in the
individual capacitors.
(C1 + C2) V = C1 V1 + C2 V2
C1 V1 + C2 V2
V=
C1 + C2
The total energy before sharing is
1 1
C1 V1 2 C2 V22
Ui = +
2 2
The total energy after sharing is
1
Uf = (C1 + C2) V2
2
C1 C2 (V1 – V2)2
Ui– Uf =
2 (C1 + C2)
Ui – Uf > 0 or Ui > Uf
Therefore, there is some loss of energy when two charged capacitors are
connected together.
The loss of energy appears as heat and the wire connecting the two capacitors
may become hot.
Polar Molecules:
A molecule in which the centre of positive charges does O
not coincide with the centre of negative charges is called
a polar molecule.
105°
Polar molecule does not have symmetrical shape. p
H H
Eg. H Cl, H2 O, N H3, C O2, alcohol, etc.
Effect of Electric Field on Polar Molecules:
E=0 E
p=0 p
In the absence of external electric When electric field is applied, the
field, the permanent dipoles of the dipoles orient themselves in a
molecules orient in random regular fashion and hence dipole
directions and hence the net dipole moment is induced. Complete
moment is zero. allignment is not possible due to
thermal agitation.
Non  polar Molecules:
A molecule in which the centre of positive charges coincides with the centre of
negative charges is called a nonpolar molecule.
Nonpolar molecule has symmetrical shape.
Eg. N2 , C H4, O2, C6 H6, etc.
p=0 p
In the absence of external When electric field is applied, the positive
electric field, the effective charges are pushed in the direction of electric
positive and negative centres field and the electrons are pulled in the
coincide and hence dipole is direction opposite to the electric field. Due to
not formed. separation of effective centres of positive and
negative charges, dipole is formed.
Dielectrics:
Generally, a nonconducting medium or insulator is called a ‘dielectric’.
Precisely, the nonconducting materials in which induced charges are produced
on their faces on the application of electric fields are called dielectrics.
Eg. Air, H2, glass, mica, paraffin wax, transformer oil, etc.
Polarization of Dielectrics:
When a nonpolar dielectric slab is
subjected to an electric field, dipoles
are induced due to separation of
effective positive and negative centres.
E0 is the applied field and Ep is the
induced field in the dielectric.
The net field is EN = E0 – Ep EE=0 0 Ep
i.e. the field is reduced when a
dielectric slab is introduced.
The dielectric constant is given by
E0
K=
E0  Ep
Polarization Vector:
The polarization vector measures the degree of polarization of the dielectric. It
is defined as the dipole moment of the unit volume of the polarized dielectric.
If n is the number of atoms or molecules per unit volume of the dielectric, then
polarization vector is
P=np
SI unit of polarization vector is C m2.
V = E0 (d – t) + EN t
E0 E0
K= or EN =
EN K E0 Ep t d
EN = E0  Ep
E0
V = E0 (d – t) + t
K
t
V = E0 [ (d – t) + K
]
A ε0
σ qA or C=
But E0 = = t
ε0 ε0 d 1– [ d
(1  t
) ]
q K
and C=
V C0
or C=
A ε0 t
C= [1 – d
(1  t
) ]
t K
[ (d – t) + K
] C > C0. i.e. Capacitance increases with
introduction of dielectric slab.
If the dielectric slab occupies the whole space between the plates, i.e. t = d,
then
C = K C0
C
Dielectric Constant K=
C0
P2
C2
S – Large Copper sphere D
C1, C2 – Combs with sharp points
P1, P2 – Pulleys to run belt
HVR – High Voltage Rectifier
M – Motor
T
IS – Insulating Stand
C1 I S
D – Gas Discharge Tube
T  Target
HVR
P1
M
Principle:
Therefore air surrounding these conductors get ionized and the like
charges are repelled by the charged pointed conductors causing
discharging action known as Corona Discharge or Action of Points. The
sprayed charges moving with high speed cause electric wind.
A belt made of insulating fabric (silk, rubber, etc.) is made to run over
the pulleys (P1, P2 ) operated by an electric motor (M) such that it ascends
on the side of the combs.
Comb (C1) near the lower pulley is connected to High Voltage Rectifier
(HVR) whose other end is earthed. Comb (C2) near the upper pulley is
connected to the sphere S through a conducting rod.
A tube (T) with the charged particles to be accelerated at its top and
the target at the bottom is placed as shown in the figure. The bottom end
of the tube is earthed for maintaining lower potential.
The comb (C2) is induced with the negative charges which are
carried by conduction to inner surface of the collecting sphere
(dome) S through a metallic wire which in turn induces positive
charges on the outer surface of the dome.
Contd..
The process continues for a longer time to store more and more
charges on the sphere and the potential of the sphere increases
considerably. When the charge on the sphere is very high, the
leakage of charges due to ionization of surrounding air also
increases.