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POSTER PAPER

International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 5, May 2009

Superconductor Ceramics and Silicone Composite Dc Engine

N.R. Kamalakannan 1 , S. Naren Dhass 2

1 Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, India Email: kamalkannan53@gmail.com 2 Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, India Email : narendhass@tce.edu

Abstract

This paper gives a new approach to the use of composite

materials in dc engines for efficient power development. Composite materials are manufactured from two or more materials with different properties. By means of examining the property of superconductor, it is found that they are perfect diamagnetic repellers and they are capable of producing work. Such superconducting property can be achieved in the composite materials consisting of superconductor ceramics and metal or metal oxide or halogen element. The advantage of using composite material is because it provides high efficiency and low loss. The work is derived from the piston which

is a diamagnet, by means of crank.

I. Construction

A. Alignment of Engine

This engine consists of a superconductor composite cylindrical bar at the top of the cylinder. In the cylinder, the piston is placed and it is connected to the crank by means of the connecting rod. The piston itself is

a soft magnetic composite material. Two brushes are

available at the top of the cylinder. These brushes may be made up of carbon or any other conducting material. The circuit connections are given in such a way that the materials are energized only when the piston is at the top

of

the cylinder.

B.

Circuit connection One of the terminals of the battery is connected

to

brush1. The windings are wound on the soft magnetic

material. The coil is wound in such a way that when the piston comes to the top dead centre, the coil connects brush1 and brush2. Brush2 is also connected to the superconductor ceramic material. Another terminal of the battery is connected to brush2. Thus the circuit gets closed when the piston is at the top dead centre.

II. Working

A. Principle

Consider the piston at the top of the cylinder. The circuit gets closed so that the superconductor composite and the soft magnetic composite material gets energized. Since the distance between the superconductor composite and the piston material is very small, the

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repulsive force is very large. Thus the piston is pushed down by means of repulsing force produced by the superconductor composite bar. Then the piston reaches the bottom dead centre of the cylinder. Once the piston leaves the top dead centre, the circuit becomes open and the soft composite material losses its magnetic property. After that due to inertia force the piston starts to move upwards. Thus the piston reciprocates and one revolution gets completed in the crank. As soon as the piston reaches the top dead centre, it gets energized again and the circuit gets closed. Thus the piston continuously reciprocates. The engine can be started by giving the initial motion either by the manual kicking or the electric starters.

either by the manual kicking or the electric starters. Figure 1. Connection diagram III. Manufacturing A.

Figure 1. Connection diagram

III. Manufacturing

A. Raw materials

A raw material composition for superconductor tape produced on a conveyor line includes: a superconductor ceramic powder YBa 2 Cu 3 O7—93.5 weight parts;organo-silicate elastomer or silicone rubber HO—[—Si(CH 3 ) 2 O—]—H—5 weight parts; silver powder—1.5 weight parts; all in a toluene solution.

B. Manufacturing method

A method of producing a superconductor composite material, comprising the steps of providing superconductor ceramics and silicone material; and treating the superconductor ceramics and silicone material so as to produce sintering products of interaction

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and treating the superconductor ceramics and silicone material so as to produce sint ering products of

POSTER PAPER

International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 5, May 2009

of the superconductor ceramics with residuals of the burnt silicone material. Then compression has to be carried out with the said silicone rubber. Further comprising using at least one dope or additive element selected from the group consisting of metal elements, Ag, Au, Pt, Cs, and Ni, alkaline earth elements, Ca, Sr, metal oxide compounds, Al 2 O 3 , halogen elements, Br, rare earth elements and sintering products of interaction of said dope elements or compounds with said superconductor ceramics, silicone and its burnt residuals in an amount of 0.1%-30% weight of total material weight. Comprising mixing said superconductor ceramics and dope or additive in a silicone emulsion in toluene or acetone solvent resulting in a workable homogeneous suspension or slurry. Further comprising condensing said suspension into a ceramic-plastic mass to extrude or provide injection molding of an element selected from the group consisting of a long bulk-shaped structure, a rod, a beam, a tube, and a rail.

IV. Properties

A. General Properties of composite material

Silicone additive provides formability of superconductor material composition helping intermixture homogenization and working as a plastic binder. The silicone binder also help adhesion and protects coating layer or a film or a shape of the bulk product in a stable form up to the time of the polymerization and sintering processes that provide final hardening and shaping of the products. Silicone residuals and products of their high temperature reactions and metal dopes play the role of such especially useful impurities, which actually are additives. The silicone component in the raw material suspension can be presented in an amount of 0.1%-12% weights of the superconductor ceramics while the most workable range is 1%-6%.weight percentages of dope-content residuals and compounds in sintered SCC materials can be in the range 0.01%-30%

B. Superconductor composite material properties

A superconductor composite material consists of sintering products of interaction of superconductor ceramics with silicone material. The superconductor composite material can also include at least one metal, metal oxide or halogen element dope that interacts with superconductor ceramics and silicone residuals at sintering high temperature. The suspension or slurry of superconductor ceramics, silicone and dope powders can be used for coating of the particular substrate.

C. Electrical and mechanical properties

Superconductor composite material with significantly improved and increased electrical-magnetic and structural properties, such as strain tolerance and ductility, which has practical acceptable reliability and durability in the air and in working conditions at temperatures about 77 K. Silicone residuals and products

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of their reactions with HTS ceramics inhibit degradation of superconductor properties of the superconductor composite material under impact of the natural atmospheric CO 2 and H 2 O gases and nitrogen or oxygen coolants. The high temperature superconductor composite material is a material which works at liquid nitrogen and higher temperatures K>77 with critical current density J c >10 4 A/cm 2 and value of critical magnetic field H c within the range of 0.1-30 Tesla. In particular, it can work with the critical current density J c of 10 3 A/cm 2 -10 6 A/cm 2 . The specific impact strength is within the range of 0.5-2 kg.cm/cm 2 , and it is having a long-time durability compatible with a conventional metal.

D. Soft magnetic material (piston) Soft magnetic composites (SMC) are being developed to provide materials with competitive magnetic properties (good relative permeability and magnetic saturation) but with high electrical resistivity. The high resistivity achieved is a major factor in making these materials attractive in low loss applications, particularly at high frequencies

Table 1 Relation between resistivity and temperature

Table 1 Relation between resistivity and temperature The above graph shows the relation between the temperature

The above graph shows the relation between the temperature and resistance of the superconductor composite. At 77k the resistance suddenly decreases to 0k and the material starts to conduct heavily. The value of the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) is calculated from a linear temperature dependence of resistivity above superconducting transition temperature. Moreover in the superconductivity state, the particle of silver is greater than the ybco particles. Thus as the silver content increases, the conductivity also increases. On the other hand, the fine YBCO particles tend to surround the silver particle and form a three-dimensional dense network. This explains well both superconducting and mechanical properties in the YBCO-Ag composite system. The present results also provided the idea that the poor mechanical property inherent in ceramic superconductors can be substantially improved by forming composites with silver powders, while keeping or even improving superconducting properties required for practical application. Further efforts should be made to optimize the size and shape of silver particles and its

for practical application. Further efforts should be made to optimize the size and shape of silver

POSTER PAPER

International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 5, May 2009

volume ratio relative to YBCO powders, in order to attain the best superconducting and mechanical properties.

E. Force produced by the composite superconductor The following graph shows the relation between the force produced by the superconductor composite and the distance between the superconductor composite and the piston.

Table 2

the superconductor composite and the piston . Table 2 This graph is noted at the value

This graph is noted at the value of 0.28T. The two curves in the graph represent the force produced by the composite superconductor when the piston moves towards the composite superconductor and leaves it. Since in the engine, when the piston closes the circuit, the distance between the superconductor composite and the piston material is very negligible, thus the composite superconductor produces the very large amount of repulsive force at a small moment of time. From the graph, it is found that the force produced by the superconductor composite at the distance of 0.1mm is approximately 3.5Kgf. This force is enough to drive the piston.

V. Efficiency

The force produced by the superconductor composite is

F

Z

= 2π

a

0 b

b

d

ρρ

dzJ

(ρ,

Z

)

B

PM

ρ

(ρ,

Z

)

(1)

Where, a= radius of the superconductor composite in m b= distance traveled by the soft magnetic composite in m B=magnetic field, z= axis of the distance traveled by the piston, f= force produced by the superconductor composite The power produced by the superconductor composite is equal to the brake power developed by the engine BP=brake power

BHP

=

Fz

×

A

×

L

×

N

60

(2)

Where, BHP=brake horse power, A=area of the piston

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L=stroke length, N=no of rotation per minute

Fz=force produced by the composite in

Since force produced by the superconductor composite is equal to the brake power

N m
N
m

2

output

input

output

efficiency =

(3)

efficiency =

(4)

output

+

losses

Various losses that can occur in the engine are eddy current losses, unaccounted mechanical losses, frictional losses, heat dissipation from the superconductor composite. Hysteresis losses are absent because of the use of direct current. Eddy current losses are negligible because of the use the composite material. Moreover the soft magnetic composite produces some amount of energy. This force is not taken in to consideration because of the various losses.

2

NT

π

output

=

60

2

NT

π

efficiency =

2

NT

π

+

(

U

+

W

+

F

)60

(5)

(6)

Where U=unaccounted mechanical losses. W=heat dissipation from the superconductor composite F=frictional losses between the superconductor and the cylinder. T=torque applied to the engine.

W

=

rr

E J

.

(7)

Where, E=applied electric field, J=current density

F = µ × Fz × 2 × π × r

× t

(8)

Where, µ=coefficient of friction between the piston and the cylinder, r=radius of the superconductor composite

t=thickness of the superconductor composite.

REFERENCES

[1].Rokhvarger,Topchiashvili, United States Patent , patent no;6617284, “superconductor composite”(2003) [2]. Anantharaman M R and Keer H V 1994 Magnetism: Rocks

to superconductors, memoir 29 (Bangalore: Geological Society of India) pp 243–251” [3].C. Ishihara, K. Asaka and R. Urao: J. Jpn. Soc. Powder Powder Metallurgy, Vol. 49 (2002) [4].F. Hellman, E. M. Gyorgy, D. W. Johnson, Jr. H. M. O.Bryan, and R. C. Sherwood, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 447 (1988).

507

[5].F. C. Moon, P. 2. Chang, H. Hojaji, A. Barkatt, and A. N. Thorpe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1257 (1990). [6].Bayramli, E., Gölgelioğlu, Ö. and Ertan, H.B., "Powder metal development for electrical motor applications," Journal of Mechanical Working Technology, Vol. 161, No. 1-2 (10 April

2005).

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electrical motor applications," Journal of Mechanical Working Technology , Vol. 161, No. 1-2 (10 April 2005).