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Priyanka Reddy(08321A0555)

Digital watermark

A Digital watermark is a digital signal or pattern inserted into a digital image.

Since this signal or pattern is present in each unaltered copy of the original image, the
digital watermark may also serve as digital signature for the copies.

Digital watermarking is also to be contrasted with public key encryption,

which also transforms original files into another form. Unlike encryption, digital
watermarking leaves the original digital data basically intact and recognizable. Digital
watermarks are designed to be persistence in viewing, printing or subsequent
retransmission or discrimination. Thus, watermarking does not prevent copying but it
deters illegal copying by providing a means for establishing the original ownership of a
redistributed copy.

Watermarking data for copyright protection is an accepted technique

adopted for digital information. This subject has been quite exhaustively researched and
several techniques have been established for protecting copyright for still images, audio
and video files.

The main aim of this project is to propose a possible new technique for
watermarking on images.

Digital Watermarking is a robust and efficient digital image water marking algorithm
using the Fast Hadamard Transform is proposed for the copyright protection of digital
images. This algorithm can embed or hide an entire image or pattern as a watermark such
as a company’s logo or trademark into the original image. The performance of the
proposed algorithm is evaluated using the Stirmark, which consists of 90 different types
of image attacks. Results show that the proposed algorithm is very robust and can survive
most of the stirmark attacks.

Digital Watermark is an invisible mark inserted into the digital

multimedia data so that it can be detected in the later stage of evidence of rightful
ownership. A great deal of research efforts has been focused on digital watermark in
recent years. The techniques proposed so far can be divided into two main groups of
according to the embedding domain of the container image.

1) Spatial Domain Approach:

One group is SPATIAL domain approach .The earliest watermarking

techniques are mainly this kind and the simplest example is to embed the watermark into
least significant bits(LSB) of the image pixels. However, this technique has relatively low
information hiding capacity and can be easily erased by lossy image compression.

2) Frequency Domain Approach:

The other group is FREQUENCY domain approach. This can embed

more information bits and is relatively robust to attacks. They embedded a Guassian
distributed sequence into the perceptually most significant frequency components of
the container image. Another technique embedded an image watermark into
selectively modified middle frequency of discrete cosine transform (DCT)
coefficients. One more algorithm embedded watermark using Fourier transformations
that is invariant to image manipulations or attacks due to rotation scaling and
translation. Still several methods used to hide the data to the frequency domain such
as HVS, JND.

The major problem with many of these watermarking schemas is that

they are not very robust against different types of image manipulations or attacks
such as ones found in Stirmark. Moreover, some of these techniques are quite
complicated to implement in real-time.


Due to above mentioned failures a new technique has been proposed so

that to cover and maintain the drawbacks prevailed in the previous system and hence
a technique called Fast Hadamard Transformation proposed. This algorithm is often
referred as robust one because of its following properties and attributes that meets the

Fast Hadamard Transform (FHT) is a watermarking approach proposed in

a conference paper developed by Datamark Technologies Pvt Ltd, Singapore. In this
paper we propose a fast Hadamard transform based watermarking approach that
embeds a gray scale image as a watermark. The watermark gray scale image is
decomposed into Hadamard coefficients for embedding.

To increase the invisibility of he water mark a visual model based on the

original image characteristics, such as edges and textures are incorporated to
determine the watermarking strength factor. This factor is used to scale the watermark
coefficients in a similar range to the coefficients from Hadamard coefficients of the
sub blocks of the container image.

The FHT embedding algorithm was found to provide a robust and

efficient approach to perform digital watermarking of digital image data for copyright
protection and proof of rightful ownership. The simplicity of FHT offers a significant
advantage in shorter processing time and ease of hardware implementation than most
orthogonal transform techniques such as DCT and DWT.

The Hadamard transform has more useful middle and high frequency
bands than several high gain transforms, such as DCT. When compared with the
DCT, it found to be more robust against various attacks .It also offers a significant
advantage in term of a shorter processing time and the ease of hardware
implementation than many common transformation techniques.
1. Watermark Insertion

2. Watermark Extraction

Requirement Specifications: -

• Processor -------- PIII, 600MHz
• RAM Capacity -------- 128MB or above
• Hard Disk -------- 20GB or above

• Operating System -------- Windows 2000 or later

• Software -------- Java

• Tool -------- JDK1.4.2


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