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DVB-T measurements with PROMAX TV EXPLORER II+ and analysis of DVB transport streams

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CONTENTS

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1. Summary………………………………………………………………………………….4

2. Preface…………………………………………………………………………………… 5

3. Abbreviations……………………………………………………………………………

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4. Introducing KaHo Sint-Lieven…………………………………………………………

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5. Project description……………………………………………………………………….10

6. Action Plan………………………………………………………………………………

7. Theoretical part………………………………………………………………………… 13

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7.1 Analog television……………………………………………………………….13

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7.2 Transport stream……………………………………………………………….15

7.2.1 Program Specific Information……………………………………………….18 PAT PMT CAT NIT

7.1.1 Description of a line in the PAL system…………………………

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7.3 Elementary Stream…………………………………………………………… 20

7.3.1 Descriptors…………………………………………………………

7.3.1

Image codification………………………………………………… Transformation Quantification Entropic codification

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7.3.2

Video codification…………………………………………………

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7.3.3

Audio codification…………………………………………………

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MPEG 2

7.4 standard……………………………………………………………

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7.4.1

Hierarchy……………………………………………………………. 25

7.4.2

Scalability…………………………………………………………… 26

7.4.3

Levels and profiles………………………………………………

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7.5 DVB-SI…………………………………………………………………………. 28

NIT

SDT

EIT

TDT

TOD

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BAT

ST

RST

DIT

SIT

7.6 Measurements on the digital signal………………………………………….30

7.7 Error-correcting algorithms……………………………………………………32 Viterbi algorithm Reed Solomon algorithm

7.8 System used in digital television…………………………………………… 33 COFDM QAM Constellation diagram

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8.1 Analog signal tests……………………………………………………………. 35 8.1.1 Test using the STB and an oscilloscope…………………35

8.1.2 Test using a vectorscope and a TV signal generator… 38

8. Practical part……………………………………………………………………………

8.2 Explanation of TsReader software…………………………………………

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8.2.1 Available graphs on light version of the TsReader……………

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8.2.1.1 Mux usage stacked area………………………………

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8.2.1.2 PID Usage………………………………………………

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8.2.1.3 Video Bit rate area chart…………………………….… 50

8.2.1.4 Active PIDs Chart…………………………….…………. 51

8.2.2 Parameters displayed on the TsReader………………………….52 TEI errors Continuity Errors CRC errors Section

Example PAT packet……………………………………. 55 Example PMT packet…………………………………….56

8.3 TV EXPLORER II+ of PROMAX…………………………………………… 63

8.3.1 Installation of the software………………………………………… 63

8.3.2 Available measurements in the TV Explorer II+ equipment…… 67 Channel Power C/N MER

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MER by carrier BER CBER VBER

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8.4 Graphs representations in TV Explorer II+………………………… 72 Constellation Diagram Spectogram Merogram 9. Final Conclusion………………………………………………………………………… 75 10. Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………. 76

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1. SUMMARY

In this project ways to study Digital Television (DTV) have been under scrutiny. DTV has been introduced in the whole world. Analog television has been changed for digital television because it gives better results. Digital television has a better quality of the image, the programs are sent using less bandwidth (permitting a bigger number of channels), etc.

Because of the analog switch off 3 rd of November of 2008, in Belgium Digital Terrestrial Television (DVB-T) has been introduced. The antennas only make it possible to receive DTV. Therefore it is of capital importance to understand its working principles and to take into full consideration its characteristics. Besides DVB has not just been implanted in Belgium but is a universal phenomenon. There are three types of Digital Television: ISDB-T (Japan and parts of South America), ATSC (USA) and DVB-T. DVB-T has been chosen for Europe, Russia, Oceania, Africa, etc. To transmit DVB also cable and satellite is used. Since our laboratory in Kaho Sint-Lieven Gent has only the possibility to receive DTV with an antenna, the focus of the present project will be on DVB-T.

Throughout the project, Transport Stream i.e. the way DTV data is transmitted, is defined. I try to explain how it works and which are its characteristics. There are many ways to analyze DTV. For the present project I used an apparatus from Promax, TV Explorer II+, and a computer program, TsReader.

The objective of my project is to show and explain how a Transport Stream is composed and how it can be analyzed.

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2. PREFACE

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First of all, I would like to thank all the people, who have helped me during my stay in Belgium.

I must thank my parents who gave me the support not only to live through the

Erasmus Experience and who – frankly- have given me careful attention a whole life long.

I have to thank also my mentors. My supervisor in Ghent, eng. Patrik Debbaut,

and my mentor in Catalonia, eng. Xavier Giró. They where the ones who have guided me during my entire project. Since the first day I arrived here in Ghent.

I also have to thank Erik Van Achter, who teaches Academic Writing at KaHo-

Sint Lieven, who was always willing to help me in writing my text in a decent English.

Finally I must remember all the people who work on the international relations areas, in Ghent and Barcelona and who have made this Erasmus programme possible and helped me in many aspects to adapt to a new country.

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3. ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviattion

Meaning

BAT

Bouquet Association Table

BER

Bit Error Ratio

CAT

Conditional Acces Table

CBER

BER before viterbi decoder

COFDM

Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

DAB

Digital Audio Broadcasting

DCT

Discrete Cosine Transform

DIT

Discontinuity Information Table

DPCM

Differential Pulse-Code Modulation

DTV

Digital Television

DTV

Digital Television

DVB

Digital Video Broadcasting

DVB-SI

Digital Video Broadcasting-Service Information

DVB-T

Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial

EIT

Event Information Table

ES

Elementary Stream

IRD

Integrated Receiver/decoder

MER

Modulation Error Ratio

MN

Noise Margin

MPEG

Moving Pictures Experts Group

NIT

Network Information Table

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

PAL

Phased Alternated Line

PAT

Program Association Table

PCR

Program Clock Reference

PMT

Program Map Table

PS

Program Stream

PSI

Program Specific information

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QEF

Quasi-Error-Free

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RLE

Run Length Encoding

RLE

Run-Length Encoding

RST

Running Status Table

SDT

Service Description Table

SIT

Selection Information Table

ST

Stuffing Table

STB

Set-Top Box

TDT

Time of Date Table

TEI

Transport Error Indicator

TOT

Time Offset Table

TS

Transport Stream

TVC

Televisió de Catalunya

UTC

Coordinated Universal Time

VBER

BER after viterbi decoder

VLC

Variable Length Code

VLC

Variable Length Coding

PID

Packet Identifier

TPS

Transmission parameters Signalling

VOL

Video Object Layer

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4. INTRODUCING KAHO SINT-LIEVEN

The Katholieke Hogeschool Sint-Lieven is a young higher education institution in the East of Flanders with about 4800 students and 500 employees. Although it is a young institution it has a rich tradition. The history of KaHo Sint- Lieven comes about in the histories of the 8 former higher education institutions, which have merged in 1995.

Since the merger, KaHo Sint-Lieven has reorganized and grouped into 3 campuses in 3 regions in Aalst, Gent and Sint-Niklaas. Each campus has its own traditions and can look back on a rich – be it shorter or longer – past. Some of the eight founding institutions were established in the 19 th century.

KaHo Sint-Lieven organizes bachelors, masters, posgraduates and short educations concerning the study-areas of biotechnology, health care, business studies, teacher training, industrial sciences and technology and nautical sciences. K.U Leuven association

K.U.Leuven association

In accordance with the ideas of the Sobonne (1999) and Bologna (2000) declarations about the restructuring of higher education in Europe, the Flemish Minister of Education in going through a process to reform the Flemish higher education system.

One of the first objectives in this information process is to stimulate co-operation between institutions of higher education. Therefore universities and hogescholen have drawn up agreements in order to create “associations”, linking both types of institutions togheter. KaHo Sint-Lieven has decided to associated with the Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Flanders’ largest and oldest university. On 11 th July 2002 the association agreement between the KU Leuven and KaHo Sint-Lieven was signed.

The below institutions constitute the “Association KU Leuven”:

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Katholieke Universiteit Brussel

Europese Hogeschool Brussel

Hogeschool Sint-Lukas Brussel

Hogeschool voor Wetenschap & Kunst

Katholieke Hogeschool Brugge-Oostende

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Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen

Katholieke Hogeschool Leuven

Katholieke Hogeschool Limburg

Katholieke Hogeschool Mechelen

Katholieke Hogeschool Zuid-Westvlaanderen

Lessius Hogeschool

Groep T

Katholieke Hogeschool Sint-Lieven

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5. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

The project is divided in three parts: a study of how DVB is transmitted, options to analyze TS with TsReader and uses and main functions of the PROMAX TV Explorer II/+ equipment.

Before I started to analyze Transport Streams, I studied the composition of it. This was the first part. It’s really necessary to know what information is needed and important to know how to interpret the results obtained. It also was essential to be able to explain the results, if they are right and why, and what they mean. At the beginning of the project I did some tests to know if we were able to receive DTV. The roof antenna is horizontally polarized, and the DTV in Ghent is transmitted vertically polarized. The signal is very strong, because the transmitter is close to the university. So we haven’t had any problems with the polarization. I tried to receive DTV with an indoor antenna (AVT100 antenna visiosat) and the results were good too.

The second part dealt with software capable of analysing TS. After testing some computer programs, we decided that the most appropriate for use in this project is the TsReader. It permits to see what is contained in a TS, the programs and data within a TS, showing errors, private data, etc. We decided to work with the light version because it gives enough functions and it’s for free on the net. It is not possible to record Transport Streams, but this function is available in the PROMAX equipment. I worked with Transport Streams from Philips and CISCO, that I received from my supervisor. With those TS, I could do some measurements with TsReader and check if it was a good tool to use to study DTV.

The last part of the project was to work with the equipment from Promax, the TV-Explorer II/+. This permits receiving DTV, record TS and perform the most important measurements. Another option of the equipment is to connect it to the PC and transfer the files recorded through a USB, providing us a lot of information. It allows watching the available channels, shows the constellation diagram, the BER, MER, … Definitely, it offers a good way to see all the characteristics of the DTV, permitting to choose some parameters.

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6. ACTION PLAN

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Step 1

Duration: one week

I tested the signal received; I made sure that we could receive DTV with the roof antenna.

I did it using the Set-Top Box. We could receive the radio and video programs.

Step 2

Duration: one week

In that step, the main objective was to record DTV. I was sure that in the lab it was possible to receive DTV, and because of that I tried to record it. I used an external hard disk, but there were some problems. Finally I used an USB stick to record.

Step 3

Duration: two weeks

Search information about Transport Stream and Digital Video Broadcasting. Understand with precision how it works and its composition.

Step 4

Duration: one week

I looked at some TS analyzers and I tried to choose the best. I Saw features of each one. I downloaded the TS analyzer and I did some test with TS to analyze.

Step 5

Duration: two weeks

I chose TsReader, the light version. It is not possible to record with that version. I tested the program with some Transport Streams from Cisco and Philips. I started to try to understand the results.

Step 6

Duration: one week

I worked with two USB STB for the computer to watch DTV in the computer. They

worked correctly. But, the format of the video, that these programs create, has a incompatible format with TsReader. We therefore couldn’t use this files to study TS, just to watch DTV in the computer.

I also did some test with an indoor antenna, putting it in different places in the lab to see the different results.

Step 7

Duration: one week

I studied Vertical Blanking Interval on DTV. How it works, if VBI exists in Digital TV. I also studied other parameters like SDT, TOT, …

I investigated DTV errors. TsReader gives information about errors. I looked for what these errors could possible mean.

I made some measurements with an oscilloscope of the output signal of the STB. To see if the analog signal meets the requirements of the PAL system.

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Step 9

Duration: 3 weeks

I

received the equipment from PROMAX. I started reading the manual of the PROMAX

equipment and to study the characteristics of the signal. Like e.g. Constellation, BER, MER, …

Step 10

Duration: 3 weeks

I

made some test with the equipment. After that, I tried to connect the equipment with

the PC to be able to download the files saved, the files that contain the information

about the measurements made of the signal received in the lab.

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7. THEORETICAL PART

7.1 ANALOG TELEVISION

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In what follows, a brief explanation will be given to understand better the information explained in the practical part about the output signal of a Set-Top box. In Europe, the analog colour system used is PAL. In this system, the luminance signal and the chrominance signal are sent separately, forming together a composite video baseband signal. The chrominance information is a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier.

The Video signal is made by a set of lines. These lines are grouped in frames. In their turn, these are divided in two fields.

in frames. In their turn, these are divided in two fields. figure 1: lines in one

figure 1: lines in one field

Amplitude signal is 1Vpp (between 0.7v and -0.3v). The part of the signal with information is above 0v and the part with sync information is below 0v.

The most important specifications of PAL are:

Aspect ratio: 4:3

Number of lines: 625

Active lines: 576

Active columns: 720

Erasing vertical: 25 H + 12 microseconds

Frame rate: 25 Hz

Field rate: 50 Hz

Line frequency: 15,625 Hz

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Subcarrier chrominance frequency: 4,4336 MHz

Line period: 64 microseconds

Active line period: 52 microseconds

7.1.1Description of a line in the PAL system

The sync pulse is sent to inform the receiver about the fact that a new line is started. A line with an opposite polarity to luminance is introduced, with an amplitude of 30% of the total level of the sign.

with an amplitude of 30% of the total level of the sign. figure 2: PAL line

figure 2: PAL line

There are three types of sync: of a line, of a field and the colour sync. The line sync indicates where a line begins and finishes. It is divided in the front porch, the back porch and the sync pulse. The burst signal is situated in the back porch; it has a duration of 2,27 milliseconds. The burst gives a reference of phase (tone colour) and amplitude (saturation colour) constants. The receiver uses this reference to demodulate correctly the information of colour that is modulated in the line.

The field sync indicates where the beginning and the end of each field are situated. They are made by: the pre-equalization pulses, sync pulses, post-equalization pulses and guard lines (where teletext and other services are sent).

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7.2 TRANSPORT STREAM

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The goal of the project is to analyze transport streams. Throughout the project it will be explained how this takes place, mentioning the composition and the characteristics of a transport stream. To be able to fully understand all the results and the management of the software and equipment a brief explanation is written. MPEG-2 and DVB specify the workings of Digital Television (in Europe). First MPEG 2 specification is explained.

To generate a TS, the point of departure are the Elementary Streams. A set of ES forms the program streams of the Transport Stream. The first step is to split the ES into packets. These packets are called PES packets. They are composed of the PES header and the payload. The length of the payload is variable, up to 64 kBytes, and depends on the application. The payload is composed of a variable number of data of one Elementary Stream and is written in the same order as the original ES.

In the PES header we can find the Stream_id to be able to know to which ES they belong. This is a unique number inside the program stream. With that number it is possible to reconstruct a determined ES. One of the objectives is to give the timing information and characteristics of the ES that ES is not capable of giving. Like e.g. the dimensions of the image, image frequency, level, profile, aspect ratio,

The second step in the generation of the TS, is to select the PES packets and insert them within small packets of 188 bytes. If there is less data than 188, because it is difficult to have all the time the exact data, it contains null data. However, these packets always have to contain data from only one PES packet.

In the header of the TS packet we can find the PID. The PID indicates to which Elementary Stream the TS Packet belongs. This number has to be unique for all the TS. In the header information about transport level and multiplexing is stored. Some of this information is transport priority, continuity counter and adaptation field control. The continuity counter is a number that increases each time TS packet is sent, to indicate

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the order of the packets with the same number. The adaptation field control indicates if an adaptation field is present.

field control indicates if an adaptation field is present. figure 3: TS Packet The adaptation field

figure 3: TS Packet

The adaptation field is an optional field with a variable length (from 2 bytes to the whole package). Its function is to provide more information about transport level, multiplexing and synchronization. Among others it contains the PCR, which transports important information to synchronize the decoder with the time of a selected program, and a field with variable size to fill a TS packet if this one doesn’t have the necessary size to do it with the data.

Finally TS packets from Elementary Streams are multiplexed and aligned to generate the TS. In that multiplexing process the TS packets that contain private or PSI data are combined. There are no defined restrictions of the order of the TS packets in multiplexing but the packets of one ES have to be in a sequential order. The bit rate of TS always has the same value. But the ES that are contained in it can vary.

Usually one Transport Stream will contain between four and seven programs (depending on the required quality of them), 2 or 3 audio channels and maybe other data such as teletext. In practice there is no equipment to generate TS with 20 audio and video inputs that will be contained in multiple programs.

To generate the TS, the system used can be divided in two stages. In the first stage different TS with a single program are generated. Whereas in the second a remultiplexing of the TS packets of the different Single TS generates a multiple TS.

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The first stage is composed of a set of encoders that digitize, compress and encode video and audio. And together with other data (like PSI data and PCR) forms the Single Transport Stream.

The second stage consists of connecting the single transport streams to inputs of a multiplexor, the function of it is remultiplexing all of the TS packets that belong to the single TS to generate the Transport Stream. Sometimes the multiplexor has to change the PCR, and some information in the PSI.

has to change the PCR, and some information in the PSI. figure 4: Transport Stream Numbers

figure 4: Transport Stream

Numbers of inputs are limited and if there are a lot of Programs, it is possible to use more than one multiplexor to form the TS.

Now the TS is adapted to the network (cable, terrestrial or satellite) and to the transmission channel. This is specified by DVB. The DVB defines error prevention techniques and the type of modulation necessary to transmit the signal through the network.

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7.2.1 Program Specific information

With the PSI, MPEG-2 provides a method to describe the contents of a transport stream with the aim of simplifying processes, guide demultiplexation and presentation of programs.

There are four PSI data:

Program Association Table (PAT) All TS have to contain a valid and complete PAT. It lists every program in a multiplex transport stream. Each entry in the PAT points to a PMT. TS packets that contain PAT information always have a PID of

0x0000.

The first entry in the PAT, program 0, is reserved for network data and contains the PID of Network Information Table (NIT) packets. Any change inside the transmitted programs has to be described in an updated PAT version. PAT is divided in 255 sections to minimize the data loss. Each section transports part of the totality of PAT. If one packet is lost or there are error bits in a small section of the PAT, we can decode the other sections.

Program Map Table (PMT) The PMT table lists elementary streams making up each program with its PID's. MPEG-2 requires at least, an identification of the program: program number, formats of streams, PID of the PCR, Elementary Streams and PID of the program. When more information is needed, it is possible to use descriptors. The PMT always is without encryption.

Conditional Access Table (CAT) CAT is a service that allows the broadcasters to restrict some contents and to prevent unauthorized use.

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It also denies the access of general users to private content, and provides the necessary protocols and systems to access users’ ability to play a program. For example, CAT is used in pay-per-view or interactive features. MPEG only establishes the data structure; the details will depend on the encrypted system used. In any TS with one or more encrypted ES, a detailed CAT table has to be within the TS.

CAT provides details of the scrambling system in use and provides the PID values of TS packets that contain the CA information. The PID 0x0001 is for TS packets that contain CAT information.

Network Information Table (NIT) Contents are private, specified by the broadcaster. NIT contains information about the physical network that carries the TS. Like maps of the services with TS identifiers, channel frequencies, features of the modulation, service name, etc. PID of the TS packets with NIT information is 0x0010. Also this table contains the private stream information too. For example, TeleText and subtitles.

Descriptors

If the information conveyed by the PSI tables is not enough descriptors are used. Descriptors are a set of syntactic structures transmitting the additional data. There are a lot of descriptors, each directed to one type of information. The location of them is always within one loop section, although it is used in private sections too.

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7.3 ELEMENTARY STREAM

7.3.1 Image codification

To make a video ES starts with the compression of images. Compression of data is defined as the reducing process of a quantity of necessary data to effectively represent information, in this case an image. This is based on the reduction of spatial redundancy and irrelevance of images. So, images have the common characteristic that the nearest pixels are correlated. There are three ways to reduce data: elimination of redundant code, elimination of redundant pixels and elimination of visual redundancy (information that no one can perceive). It is possible to compress with loss of data or without loss data. The first one gives a higher compression factor than the other.

Three steps form a typical schedule of compression:

Transformation Reduces redundancy of the input signal. The image is divided in some blocks trying to have a common content in each one and with the same size for all of them (normally 8x8 pixels). This signal is transformed into a DCT signal. DCT has the capacity to concentrate most of the information in a few transformed coefficients.

most of the information in a few transformed coefficients. figure 5: image divided in blocks ∑

figure 5: image divided in blocks

Quantification This step permits to reduce precision of DCT coefficients that are represented when DCT is converted into a whole representation. Here, the number of coefficients is reduced.

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The Bit rate is controlled by varying the steps of the quantification of the coefficients of the transformed image. The human eye is more sensitive to low frequencies than to high frequencies.

more sensitive to low frequencies than to high frequencies. figure 6: example of quantification ∑ Entropic

figure 6: example of quantification

Entropic codification This codification is used to codify quantified coefficients. It is calculated with the number of bits per used symbol and uses three kinds of codification:

Zig-zag reader + RLE, DPCM and VLC. The reading method used is zig-zag. This one reads the matrix symbols in a zig-zag manner. The zig-zag reading permits that consecutive zeros can be codified efficiently through Run Length Encoding (RLE).

be codified efficiently through Run Length Encoding (RLE). figure 7: zig zag reader RLE compression keeps

figure 7: zig zag reader

RLE compression keeps the symbol value and counts how many equal symbols there are consecutively. It generates a sequence of values where a number of symbols and symbols are contained.

Example:

Original sequence: (1,1,8,8,8,8,8,2,2,2,4,4,4,1,3) RLE codification: [(2,1),(5,8)(3,2)(3,4)(1,1)(1,3)]

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DPCM codifies the difference between a value and the previous one. The difference between both is minimum.

VLC assigns code words of variable length of bits for each symbol to their likelihood of appearing in the sequence to send. Symbols, which are more likely to appear, they are codified with less numbers of bits and vice verse.

7.3.2 Video codification

Video is a consecution of images. Images are commonly very similar to previous or next ones. Video sequences present a high temporal redundancy. Video algorithms of compression do difference operation to try to identify temporal redundancy to codify just the difference between images. A simple prediction of pixels to pixels doesn’t give a good result normally, because it is ineffective.

Therefore movement prediction is used, frame prediction of video sequence made through partitions of an image that contain several pixels. Estimation of pixels is based in level treatment of macroblocks.

To get the correct vector movement block matching is used. This gives the vector to apply to each macroblock of the image to find position that gives the minimum difference.

Predict movement implies that one macroblock in a predicted image is always referenced to another image.

Depending on the position of the reference image with a regard to the image to be encoded, there are three kinds of prediction:

Backward Prediction of each macroblock takes reference in the later frame.

Forward Prediction of each macroblock takes reference in the previous frame.

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Bidirectional Prediction of each macroblock is done using values of the previous and later frame.

If consecutive frames don’t have any temporal redundancy, the frame to encode is just processed like an image, looking for space redundancy.

Compression standards of video use type of images to compress data. Instead of coding each picture that form video, it is possible to codify an image totally and later codify differences between this one and next ones.

For example, in video sequence with a fixed plane, can be codified just the parts with movement, winning capacity of compression.

Frames of a sequence can be I, P or B, depending the kind of prediction used in each case.

Image I They are used to decode other images that compose video. Normally these need more space than the others. Just take profit of the space redundancy in its codification. Give random access inside the sequence. And can be used to predict P and B images.

Images P They are predicted referenced an image that can be I or P before in time. Needing previous decoding of the reference image. Accumulates errors.

Images B They are predicted with the reference of two images that can be I o P. Needing the previous decoding of both images.

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Example:

24 Anna Arias Example: figure 8: example of images I,P,B In the figure 8 is showed

figure 8: example of images I,P,B

In the figure 8 is showed an example of a sequence of images. Vectors below indicate predictive reference between them.

7.3.3 Audio codification

In the project, audio coding is not explained in detail because video is the more important part to be studied.

Audio codification is a means to translate analog into digital signals, voltage value into binary system. To get the digital signal, the analog signal has to be digitalized. The signal has to be quantified and the signal has to be converted into digits (zeros and ones).

the signal has to be converted into digits (zeros and ones). figure 9: audio codification The

figure 9: audio codification

The audio codification mode used in TVD is the so called component codification. This codification implies a process that digitalizes analog TV signals; using the division per components: luminance and chrominance (Y, R-Y, B-Y). This codification is compatible for all the television standards, using the same sample rate, digital quantification and codification.

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7.4 MPEG 2 STANDARD

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MPEG

2

standardizes

several

processes

related

with

encoding

image:

hierarchy, scalability and levels and profiles.

 

7.4.1 Hierarchy

Video elementary stream is organized in those hierarchies groups:

 

Sequence Is formed by one or more image groupe.

In its header

it

defines

dimension of images, image frequency, buffer size and ratio aspect of pixels.

Image Group Images that can be transmitted in different order than the order have to be showed. The first one always is an I image.

Picture

Picture is a unit that contains luminance and the two components of chrominance.

and

minimum of value of movement vectors and its position within the image group.

The header defines if

it is

an

image I, P

or B, the value

maxim

Slice

Slice is a basic resynchronization unit of the system, a point to recover against errors. The decoder can reject a corrupt slice and continue with the next one. The number of slices can vary between one per picture to one per macroblock, depending error protection against noise selected.

Macroblock Macroblock is the basic unit where movement compensation is made. The header gives information about the kind of codification used in the macroblock, scale of quantifier and vector movement.

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Block

Block is a codification unit on which DCT is done.

Block Block is a codification unit on which DCT is done. 7.4.2 Scalability figure 10: hierarchy

7.4.2 Scalability

figure 10: hierarchy

Scalability permits a representation by layers of the bit rate of one video source. The structure of the video is broken into different layers. Scalability give us the possibility to adapt bit rate to the needs of each application, the receiver may request the desired resolution. It is implemented using VOLs (Video Object Layer). These are base layer and enhancement layers.

The bit rate is divided in two layers, called partitions. The Base layer is transmitted with a higher level of priority data (extra error correction data and less error bits). This layer has to be has enough data to give a minimum quality. Enhancement layer has a lower level of priority with a higher probability of loss. This layer contains high frequency coefficients and other less important information.

MPEG 2 permits four basic methods of scalability of bit rate:

SNR scalability

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The different layers are coded at identical sample rates, but with different picture quality.

Spatial scalability This scalability is based on coding base layer in lower sampling dimensions than enhancement layers.

Temporal scalability Video is coded with a lower frame rate. The enhancement layers can do a reconstruction as prediction, to improve the quality of the video.

Data Partitioning This scalability consist of break the block of 64 quantized transform coefficient into two bit streams: The base layer, with the critical lower frequencies, and the enhancements layers, with the higher frequency data.

7.4.3 Levels and profiles

To provide a definition of a unique codification standard was impossible; the majority of the applications should use a little subset of offered possibilities by the standard. Because of that MPEG took the decision to make a standard of data transmission composed of a set of profiles and levels so as to satisfy the specific requirements of the applications.

The profile is basically the degree of complexity expected in the encoder. The level is a set of parameters, like the size of the image or the bit rate used in this profile. Levels indicate vertical and horizontal resolution of the image.

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28 Anna Arias figure 11: levels and profiles 7.5 DVB-SI Digital Video Broadcasting-Service Information is a

figure 11: levels and profiles

7.5 DVB-SI

Digital Video Broadcasting-Service Information is a normatively defined. It is a standard of data transmission in DTV emissions. This information service gives facilities about the navigation within DVB to the user. DVB-SI works on MPEG-2, complementing Program Specific Information. DVB adds information that helps to tune particular services or to show interesting programs. Necessary elements to develop Electronic Guide Program are given by DVB-SI.

DVB-SI basically consists of four information service tables and a set of additional tables. The next four ones are the principals:

NIT

The Network Information Table is specified by DVB. On MPEG 2, NIT was defined but the content was not specified. Necessary information is exposed in NIT to syntonize channels of a service provider.

SDT

The Service Description Table describes services that are part of a TS. There is always one SDT per TS. In the SDT, the parameters associated to every service are listed. Like e.g. name of the service, service identifier and service status.

EIT

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The Event Information Table gives information about the event; grouping all present and future events that will be contained in MPEG multiplex. EIT provides information like e.g. starting times.

TDT

The Time of date and table gives information about present time and

date.

TOT

The Time offset tables transmit the actual date and hour according to the UTC. It also transmits information about local time difference. The transmission of TOT is optional, but if it is transmitted it must happen at least every 30 seconds.

The following tables are the additional ones:

BAT

The Bouquet Association Table could be helpful for the IRD, to show the available services in a user friendly way.

ST

The Stuffing Table is used to invalidate non-existent sections.

RST

The Running Status Table permits to update the status of an event (if it is running or not) when there are unexpected problems in the programming.

DIT

The DIT is used when the bit stream is finite. It is inserted where the SI information could have discontinuities.

SIT

The Selection Information Table is just used when the bit streams are finite. It transports a summary of SI information required to describe the streams within finite bit streams.

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7.6 MEASUREMENTS ON THE DIGITAL SIGNAL

These measurements are used to measure the quality of the signal that arrives to the receiver.

BER

Bit Error Ratio is the main parameter describing transmission quality. It is defined as the ratio between the number of erroneous bits and the number of total bits transmitted.

CBER

BER before Reed Solomon decoder. The error bits of a TS packet would be estimated comparing errors bits before and after Reed Solomon decoding. If BER value is higher than 10 -3 , the measurement is no reliable. Quasi error free corresponds to the value before Viterbi decoder. BER of 7x10 -2 to 7x10 -3 , depending on the convolution code chosen.

VBER

BER after Viterbi decoder. This measure is made after Viterbi decoder. These errors must have a value between 7x10 -2 and 10 -5 . Outside these ranges the measurement has no reliability. QEF in Viterbi decoder output is 2x10-4.

MER

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Measurement done on the symbols of the modulations type QAM to check that the constellation diagram will have an acceptable form. This is really useful when it is impossible to show the diagram because it gives a value of the error number bits.

Graphically, MER can be defined as the difference between the ideal constellation and the constellation received.

N (Level Noise) The received noise power is the total interference power present in a system, when the information signal of the power is erased.

C (Power) To do the measure of the channel power, the bandwidth of the modulated signal has to be defined. The equipment, which measures the average received modulated carrier power, integrates the carrier in the whole bandwidth.

C/N

The carrier-to-noise ratio is the quotient between the C and the N. C/N ratio compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. High C/N ratios provide good quality of reception. The units of C and N are watts or volts squared.

provide good quality of reception. The units of C and N are watts or volts squared.

figure 12: Carrier to Noise Ratio

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7.7 ERROR-CORRECTING ALGORITHMS

Viterbi algorithm

Andrew Viterbi designed the Viterbi algorithm in 1967. The Viterbi algorithm is a technique to decode convolutional codes. The information is convoluted before it is transmitted by the channel. Because the messages are convoluted, the messages have redundant information into the transmitted signal. This redundant information helps correcting errors. The algorithm can find the most probable sequence of states in a Hidden Markov Model. From a sample, the algorithm obtains the optimal sequence that best explains the sequence of samples.

Reed Solomon algorithm

Reed Solomon algorithm is used to correct errors in digital transmissions. This code forms part of the Forward error codes. This means that the errors are corrected in the receiver. The algorithm uses redundancy bits to correct the errors. In DVB the algorithm introduces 16 bits in each packet of the transport stream (188,204). This permits to correct 8 error bits of each packet.

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The Reed Solomon algorithm can correct a specific number of errors “C”. That number depends on the difference between the total number of symbols (N) and the total number of unprotected symbols (K).

C = N

K

2

7.8 SYSTEM USED IN DIGITAL TELEVISION

COFDM

Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a type of modulation especially suitable for terrestrial broadcasting channels and DAB. The terrestrial environment is subject to fading, Doppler effect, etc. In order to transmit digital signals in these conditions is needed to implement OFDM modulation.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a transmission system that consists in sending a set of carriers of different frequencies. Whereby the transmitted information is modulated in QAM modulation. The symbol rate of each of these carriers is rather low. This is the cause of the fact that the length of the symbol is extended. It also gives a protection against echoes produced for the several paths that the signal crosses before reaching the receiver. Usually OFDM is made after having passed one channel encoder (to correct errors produced by the transmission). After that, this modulation is called COFDM. MPEG-2 signal passes through two systems of error correction. And after these systems, the signal passes an interleaving process. Then is multiplied by a pseudo random sequence to disperse the spectrum and reduce the interference effect.

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COFDM uses 1536 up to 6817 carriers, spaced depending on the type of the sent sign. That the information is distributed in a huge number of carriers helps is not losing much information if one carrier is lost. The modulated signal has a guard interval, in that period of time is one symbol constantly sent. The signals that arrive with less delay than this guard interval can be constructive signals to improve the received signal.

can be constructive signals to improve the received signal. figure 13: COFDM transmission In Europe DVB-T

figure 13: COFDM transmission

In Europe DVB-T 8k carriers are used. The modulated data are multiplexed in each carrier, which is modulated in 64 QAM.

QAM

QAM modulation is a scheme of multi-level modulation. Quadrature amplitude modulation is the combination of amplitude modulation and phase shift keying. The information is sent modulating the amplitude of two carrier signals. Both signals, sinusoids, are out of phase by 90° degrees . QAM modulation sends the information changing some aspects of the carrier information respecting a data signal.

The possible states of a particular configuration are showed using a constellation diagram. In this diagram, constellation points are organized in a squared grid, with equal horizontal and vertical spacing. The 64 is the number of points in DVB- T used.

Constellation Diagram

A constellation diagram is a graphic representation of a signal modulated by a digital modulation in a complex plane. The real axis normally is called I (In-phase), and imaginary axis is called Q (quadrature).

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A constellation diagram can be used to recognize the type of interference and distortion in the signal.

The figure 14 is an example of a constellation diagram of a 16 QAM modulation system.

of a constellation diagram of a 16 QAM modulation system. figure 14: example of 16 QAM

figure 14: example of 16 QAM constellation diagram

8. PRACTICAL PART

8.1 ANALOG SIGNAL TESTS

8.1.1 Test using the STB and an oscilloscope

Nowadays it is impossible to receive analog television with an antenna. Currently, in the cable television analog television is transmitted. But it is paid television. Therefore, to do analog measurements in the lab of the university, the only way is analyzing the output signal of the Set-Top Box.

the university, the only way is analyzing the output signal of the Set-Top Box. figure 15:

figure 15: Set-Top Box and a oscilloscope

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Before using the output signal of the STB (TVT200 DVB-Terrestrial receiver), as we can see in the figure, we had to be sure that the signal meets the PAL requirements.

Figure 16 presents how the output signal has to be part of a PAL line. This

picture shows the sync pulses (pre-equalization pulses, post-equalization pulses) and

the beginning of the odd field.

pulses) and the beginning of the odd field. figure 16: PAL line figure 17: PAL line

figure 16: PAL line

and the beginning of the odd field. figure 16: PAL line figure 17: PAL line Figure

figure 17: PAL line

Figure 18 shows how the output signal of the STB is like. A digital signal

received from the roof antenna.

of the STB is like. A digital signal received from the roof antenna. figure 18: signal

figure 18: signal displayed on the oscilloscope

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Between figure 17 and figure 18 there is consistency. Figure 17 shows clearly that in the output signal there are the pre-equalization pulses and the post- equalization pulses with the correct measures.

and the post- equalization pulses with the correct measures. figure 19: PAL line figure 20: signal

figure 19: PAL line

pulses with the correct measures. figure 19: PAL line figure 20: signal displayed on the oscilloscope

figure 20: signal displayed on the oscilloscope

In figure 20 the horizontal sync and the last teletext lines are contained. The total amplitude of the signal is 1v approximately and the amplitude of the horizontal sync is -0.3.

In figure 19 is shown how a line has to be. In the part of the horizontal sync is specified that the horizontal sync is inverted polarized, with an amplitude of the 30% of the signal.

Figure 20 and figure 19 follow the same standards.

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38 Anna Arias figure 21: signal displayed on the oscilloscope In figure 21 in the Vertical

figure 21: signal displayed on the oscilloscope

In figure 21 in the Vertical Blanking Interval, teletext lines are displayed. Like in figure 17 after the post-equalization pulses, the teletext lines are present.

After all these tests, the fact that the PAL analog signal and the output signal of the STB have the same parameters is confirmed.

This is necessary because the analog televisions need an analog signal to display the contents. Because of that the Vertical Blanking Interval also has to be present in the output signal.

VBI is the time between the last line of a frame or field and the beginning of the next. It is expressed as the number of scanned lines in this short period. During this time the data transmitted is not displayed on the screen (for example, teletext).

Another test made to confirm that the teletext can be displayed on the television by its own decoder. It was just trying to display the teletext signal with the command of the television. This is possible because a signal that meets PAL requirements is received. The teletext can be displayed in both ways, with the command of the STB or with the command of the television.

The image produced by the STB is weaker than the image made by the television. This signal is only sent in one field, this image is interlaced. The image produced by the television is harder without flickering, no interlaced.

8.1.2 Test using a vectorscope and a TV signal generator.

In the lab also there is also a vectorscope (it was received from VRT) and a TV

signal generator.

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EXPLORER II+ and analysis of DVB transport streams 39 39 figure 22: Vectorscope and TV signal

figure 22: Vectorscope and TV signal generator

A vectorscope is a measure instrument used in television to see and measure

the colour component of the video signal.

A vectorscope displays an X-Y plot of two signals. That is why it is used to

represent the chrominance of the video signal.

The chrominance has two parameters, the colour saturation and the hue. The Colour saturation is encoded as the subcarrier’s amplitude and the hue is encoded as the subcarrier's phase. The result is a vector, which has the origin in the centre of the screen. The module as the saturation and the hue as phase represent this vector.

On the other hand, a TV signal generator is used in this test. Different video signals are generated in this test. The colour bar is the signal used.

The colour bar is a test video signal used in TV production to check the state of the production systems, which are used to generate and transmit the TV signal.

which are used to generate and transmit the TV signal. figure 23: colour bar If the

figure 23: colour bar

If the TV signal generator is connected to the vectorscope the signal received is displayed in vectorscope as is shown in figure 24.

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40 Anna Arias figure 24: vectorscope displaying the colour bar. Figure 24 shows in the first

figure 24: vectorscope displaying the colour bar.

Figure 24 shows in the first screen of the vectorscope two PAL line. First, there is the colour burst, and then the colour bar with the rainbow colours. In the second screen, colour information is show. The X-axis represents the B-Y difference component and the Y-axis the R-Y difference component.

The colour burst is the colour reference. It is sent in each line, between 135 and 225 degrees. That is why colour representation is made two times, one above and one below the X-axis.

is made two times, one above and one below the X-axis. figure 25: vectorscope displaying the

figure 25: vectorscope displaying the green frames.

Figure 25 is interesting to see in an easy way how runs the vectorscope and how are transmitted the PAL lines.

The signal generated this time is continuously green lines. As it is shown in both screens of the vectorscope.

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In the first screen the whole line is only one colour sent, the green colour. And in the second screen there are just four vectors. The colour burst and the green colour.

8.2 EXPLANATION OF TSREADER SOFTWARE

In figure 26, the interface of TsReader is shown. The TS used to give the following examples is from The University of Diepenbeek. This TS contains 2 video programs, and 9 audio programs. In this picture is shown the easy way to see how a TS is structured and the values of a lot of parameters using TsReader. The general items shown are the list of the data contained (in the left part of the window), the descriptions of the data selected (in the white square showed in the top of the middle space), all the ES presents sorted by rate or PID (in the middle of the middle part) and a list of the programs included in the TS (in the right part). Finally, at the central part, at the bottom of it, there are the quantified results. Like errors and numbers of sections.

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42 Anna Arias figure 26: TsReader interface In figure 27, a radio program is selected. When

figure 26: TsReader interface

In figure 27, a radio program is selected. When a click is made above the PMT of it, the composition of it is shown, giving some information: program number, the PID of the PCR of this Program, PMT version, service name, format of the Streams that it contains and the PID of the ES contained. When a PMT is selected in the list by rate of the bit rate from ES contained in this program are selected (they take the blue colour).

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EXPLORER II+ and analysis of DVB transport streams 43 43 figure 27: radio program When you

figure 27: radio program

When you select a PS as is shown in figure 27. The ES contained are listed. The list shows that the PS contains one radio ES. In the white square next to the list, details of the PS are displayed. Like the program number, the PID of the PCR, service name, and descriptions of the ES presents in the PS.

service name, and descriptions of the ES presents in the PS. figure 28: video program 1

figure 28: video program

1

In figure 28 a video program stream is selected. Video ES, audio ES and Teletext/VBI are listed with their respective details. As is explained in the analog practical part. In DVB, within a TS has to be present the VBI, where teletext data is sent.

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When you select the NIT, it is displayed which is showed in figures 29 and 30.

NIT, it is displayed which is showed in figures 29 and 30. figure 29: NIT information

figure 29: NIT information

is showed in figures 29 and 30. figure 29: NIT information figure 30: NIT information These

figure 30: NIT information

These figures give information about the network. Like the network name, the network ID, the TS ID, etc. Services also are described.

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EXPLORER II+ and analysis of DVB transport streams 45 45 figure 31: NIT information figure 32:

figure 31: NIT information

DVB transport streams 45 45 figure 31: NIT information figure 32: SDT information In figures 31

figure 32: SDT information

In figures 31 and 32 are contained the information about SDT that the TsReader gives.

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46 Anna Arias figure 33: numeric results In figure 33, the number of TEI errors, CRC

figure 33: numeric results

In figure 33, the number of TEI errors, CRC errors, continuity errors and sections are showed. The red line warns about there is an ES with errors. These errors are explained later in another section (page 51, headland 8.3).

8.2.1 AVAILABLE GRAPHS ON LIGHT VERSION OF THE TSREADER.

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The possible graphs on TsReader can be found selecting View-> Chart-> “and the graph desired”. As it is shown on figure 34.

“and the graph desired”. As it is shown on figure 34. figure 34 : graph list

figure 34 : graph list

8.2.1.1 Mux usage stacked area

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If Mux usage stacked area is selected, figure 35 will appear. This graph indicates the percentage of each present program. The graph is a stacked area graph.

of each present program. The graph is a stacked area graph. figure 35: Mux Usage Area

figure 35: Mux Usage Area Chart

As in this case the graph evinces that the NULL packets are the packets with more presence in the TS. Also it is shown how a video program needs to use a bit rate higher than a radio program.

8.2.1.2 PID Usage

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The PID Usage (figure 36) is another option present on TsReader. This graph is really similar to the previous one. It shows how the transport stream is composed by percentages, also showing the PID number and the name service.

by percentages, also showing the PID number and the name service. figure 36: PID Usage 8.2.1.3

figure 36: PID Usage

8.2.1.3 Video Bit rate area chart

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Figure 37 is a chart just with the video programs. This graphs helps to see quickly which video has a higher bit rate. This parameter can help to know what contains the program. Normally if a higher bit rate is needed it is because the images need to have more definition. Like when transmitting a football match, where the movements are fast, and to have a good definition, a higher bit rate is needed.

and to have a good definition, a higher bit rate is needed. figure 37: Video Bitrate

figure 37: Video Bitrate Area Chart

8.2.1.4 Active PIDs Chart

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Figure 38 is a table where all the ES are listed, sort by rate.

38 is a table where all the ES are listed, sort by rate. figure 38: Active

figure 38: Active PIDs Chart

Specifically this graph gives information just taking a look to the figure. Large differences between bit rates of the ES are present. Also figure 38 shows how a video ES is bigger than any other kind of ES.

8.3

TSREADER

EXPLANATIONS

ABOUT

SOME

PARAMETERS

DISPLAYED

ON

THE

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TEI errors

The MPEG-2 only permits to correct 8 bits of a TS packet. If this number is exceeded, Reed Solomon decoder is not able to correct all the errors within one TS packet.

So the demodulator changes one bit in the TS header to alert the demultiplexor that this packet can’t be demultiplexed. This flag is the Transport Error Indicator.

Continuity Errors

Each transport stream packet with the same PID carries in the header the continuity counter, a field composed of four bits, with a range between 0 and 15. The decoder increases this counter each time one packet is sent, to indicate the order of the packets with the same PID. The counter continuously increases its number to reach 15. The objective of this counter is to ensure that none of the TS packets get lost and that the PES packet has all of his packets. If there is one packet lost, the discontinuity indicator, which is in the adaptation field, indicates it. If there are more than one or two errors per second there is a problem in the TS and there will be problems to reproduce it.

CRC errors

The Cyclic Redundancy Check is a function that receives a data stream and like an output originates a value with a fix length. The term is used to designate the function and its result. They can be used like a verification sum to detect data alterations during its transmission or storage.

CRC for Digital TV is used because it is really effective to detect errors caused by noise in the transmission channels. But this is not safe because if the data have been modified deliberately and not at random it can't be fully verified. Section

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PAT, PMT, CAT and NIT tables have to be serialized and segmented into

sections to insert them within TS packets, which have a fixed length and which provide

a bit stream. Hence sections are just segments of the bit stream.

PSI information is repeated periodically within the TS, so independently of the moment when the decoder synchronises the multiplex, the decoder will eventually see

it sooner or later. Without the PAT the demultiplexation is impossible and because of that, these packets are sent more frequently than others. PAT packets are sent every 0.5 seconds. Despite this, the PAT bit rate is smaller than the PMT bit rate.

The following graphs show bit rates for data tables, which belong to a transport stream of a Catalan channel, TVC. These graphs are from LABMU program from EXPERTIA Company. This program is used in the Campus Nord of Barcelona, which belongs to the UPC (Universitat Politècnica de Barcelona). Josep Ramon Casas (a professor in the UPC) sent me these graphs and these examples of PAT and PMT tables.

These are stacked area graph, so the bit rate of one element is accumulated in

the second one. The last curve is the total bit rate. To know how much the bit rate is, it

is needed to take into account only the distance between the two curves.

In figure 39 there are bit rates of PMT (yellow), PAT (red) and EIT (orange).

With figure 39 can be seen the bit rates of them:

PAT : 15 Kbit/s

PMT : 30-50 Kbit/s

EIT : 40 Kbit/s

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54 Anna Arias figure 39: LABMU graph In the figure 40 it is possible to see

figure 39: LABMU graph

In the figure 40 it is possible to see bit rates of PAT (red), PMT’s of the different programs that form the TS (green and yellow), EIT (orange), CAT, NIT, TDT-TOT, MIP. The last ones are bit rates really low because of that is difficult to see them. They are almost above the previous one.

rates really low because of that is difficult to see them. They are almost above the

figure 40: LABMU graph

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Example PAT packet

TS sub-decoding (1 packet(s) stored for PID 0x0000):

===================================================== TS contains Section

SI packet (length=32):

Program_number: 801

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PID: 0 (0x0000) [= assigned for: ISO 13818-1 Program Association Table (PAT)]

(0x0321)

reserved: 7 (0x07) Program_map_PID: 110

(0x006e)

Guess table from table id PAT-decoding

Program_number: 802

Table_ID: 0 (0x00) [= Program

(0x0322)

Association Table (PAT)] section_syntax_indicator: 1

reserved: 7 (0x07) Program_map_PID: 120

(0x01)

(0x0078)

(fixed): 0 (0x00) reserved_1: 3 (0x03)

(0x0061)

Program_number: 803

Section_length: 29 (0x001d)

(0x0323)

Transport_Stream_ID: 97

reserved: 7 (0x07) Program_map_PID: 130

reserved_2: 3 (0x03)

(0x0082)

Version_number: 4 (0x04) current_next_indicator: 1 (0x01)

Program_number: 804

[= valid now]

(0x0324)

Section_number: 0 (0x00) Last_Section_number: 0 (0x00)

reserved: 7 (0x07) Program_map_PID: 140

 

(0x008c)

Program_number: 0 (0x0000) reserved: 7 (0x07) Network_PID: 16 (0x0010)

CRC: 1573623104

(0x5dcb9540)

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Example PMT packet

TS sub-decoding (3 packet(s) stored for PID 0x006e):

=====================================================

TS contains Section SI packet (length=380):

Stream_type: 2 (0x02) [= ITU-T Rec. H.262 | ISO/IEC 13818-2 Video | ISO/IEC 11172-2 constr. parameter video stream] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 111

(0x006f)

PID: 110 (0x006e)

Guess table from table id PMT-decoding Table_ID: 2 (0x02) [= Program Map Table (PMT)] section_syntax_indicator: 1

(0x01)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 12 (0x000c)

(fixed '0'): 0 (0x00) reserved_1: 3 (0x03) Section_length: 377 (0x0179)

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 17 (0x11) [= STD_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

Program_number: 801 (0x0321)

(0x01)

reserved_2: 3 (0x03) Version_number: 24 (0x18)

reserved_1: 127 (0x7f) leak_valid_flag: 1 (0x01)

current_next_indicator: 1 (0x01) [= valid now] Section_number: 0 (0x00) Last_Section_number: 0 (0x00)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82 (0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

reserved_3: 7 (0x07)

(0x01)

PCR PID: 111 (0x006f)

component_tag: 11

reserved_4: 15 (0x0f) Program_info_length: 11

(0x0b)

(0x000b)

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 7

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 21

(0x07) [= target_background_grid_descriptor]

(0x04)

(0x15) [= deferred_association_tag_descriptor]

Association_tags_loop_length: 2

descriptor_length: 4

descriptor_length: 9 (0x09)

horizontal_size: 720 (0x02d0) [= pixel] vertical_size: 576

(0x0002)

(0x0240) [= pixel]

Association tag loop:

aspect_ratio_information:

Association_tag: 30

3 (0x03) [= 9:16]

(0x001e)

Transport_stream_ID: 97

(0x0061)

Stream_type: 3 (0x03) [=

(0x0070)

Program_number: 801

ISO/IEC 11172 Audio]

(0x0321)

reserved_1: 7 (0x07)

Original_network_ID: 8916 (0x22d4) [= Spanish Digital Terrestrial

Elementary_PID: 112

Television | Spanish Broadcasting Regulator]

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 9 (0x0009)

Stream_type loop:

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 10

(0x0a) [=

ISO_639_language_descriptor]

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descriptor_length: 4

(0x04)

ISO639_language_code: cat Audio_type: 0 (0x00) [=

undefined]

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82 (0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 10

(0x0a) [=

ISO_639_language_descriptor]

descriptor_length: 4

(0x04)

ISO639_language_code: ac3 Audio_type: 0 (0x00) [=

undefined]

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(0x01)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82

 

component_tag: 12

(0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor]

(0x0c)

descriptor_length: 1

Stream_type: 3 (0x03) [= ISO/IEC 11172 Audio] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 114

(0x01)

component_tag: 15 (0x0f)

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 5 (0x05) [= registration_descriptor] descriptor_length: 4

(0x0072)

(0x04)

 

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f)

format_identifier:

ES_info_length: 9 (0x0009)

1094921523 (0x41432d33) [= see:

 

SC29]

 

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 10

AC-3

(0x0a) [=

ISO_639_language_descriptor]

descriptor_length: 4

(0x04)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 106 (0x6a) [= AC3_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

 

(0x01)

ISO639_language_code: v.o

undefined]

component_type_flag: 0

Audio_type: 0 (0x00) [=

(0x00)

bsid_flag: 0 (0x00)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82 (0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

mainid_flag: 0 (0x00) asvc_flag: 0 (0x00) reserved: 0 (0x00)

(0x01)

component_tag: 14

(0x0e)

Stream_type: 6 (0x06) [= ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 | ISO/IEC 13818-1 PES packets containing private data] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 115

(0x0073)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 18 (0x0012)

Stream_type: 3 (0x03) [= ISO/IEC 11172 Audio] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 116

(0x0074)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 9 (0x0009)

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 10

(0x0a) [=

ISO_639_language_descriptor]

descriptor_length: 4

(0x04)

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Anna Arias

ISO639_language_code: ad. Audio_type: 0 (0x00) [=

undefined]

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82 (0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

(0x01)

component_tag: 16

(0x10)

Stream_type: 6 (0x06) [= ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 | ISO/IEC 13818-1 PES packets containing private data] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 801

(0x0321)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 10 (0x000a)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 89 (0x59) [= subtitling_descriptor] descriptor_length: 8

(0x08)

ISO639_language_code: cat Subtitling_type: 16 (0x10) [= DVB subtitles (normal) with no monitor aspect ratio critical] Composition_page_id:

1 (0x0001)

Ancillary_page_id: 1

(0x0001)

Stream_type: 6 (0x06) [= ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 | ISO/IEC 13818-1 PES packets containing private data] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 811

(0x032b)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 10 (0x000a)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 89 (0x59) [= subtitling_descriptor] descriptor_length: 8

(0x08)

ISO639_language_code: eng Subtitling_type: 16 (0x10) [= DVB subtitles (normal) with no monitor aspect ratio critical] Composition_page_id:

1 (0x0001)

Ancillary_page_id: 1

(0x0001)

Stream_type: 6 (0x06) [= ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 | ISO/IEC 13818-1 PES packets containing private data] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 812

(0x032c)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 10 (0x000a)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 89 (0x59) [= subtitling_descriptor] descriptor_length: 8

(0x08)

ISO639_language_code: spa Subtitling_type: 16 (0x10) [= DVB subtitles (normal) with no monitor aspect ratio critical] Composition_page_id:

1 (0x0001)

Ancillary_page_id: 1

(0x0001)

Stream_type: 6 (0x06) [= ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 | ISO/IEC 13818-1 PES packets containing private data] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 813

(0x032d)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 10 (0x000a)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 89 (0x59) [= subtitling_descriptor] descriptor_length: 8

(0x08)

ISO639_language_code: ara

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Subtitling_type: 16 (0x10) [= DVB subtitles (normal) with no monitor aspect ratio critical] Composition_page_id:

1 (0x0001)

Ancillary_page_id: 1

(0x0001)

Stream_type: 6 (0x06) [= ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 | ISO/IEC 13818-1 PES packets containing private data] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 113

(0x0071)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 45 (0x002d)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 86 (0x56) [= teletext_descriptor] descriptor_length: 10

(0x0a)

ISO639_language_code: cat Teletext_type: 1 (0x01) [= initial teletext page]

Teletext_magazine_number: 1 (0x01) Teletext_page_number:

0 (0x00)

ISO639_language_code: txt Teletext_type: 2 (0x02) [= teletext subtitle page]

Teletext_magazine_number: 0 (0x00) Teletext_page_number:

136 (0x88)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 69 (0x45) [= VBI_data_descriptor] descriptor_length: 31

(0x1f)

Data_service_id: 1 (0x01) [= EBU teletext]

Data_service_descriptor_length: 26

(0x1a)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 7 (0x07)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 8 (0x08)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 9 (0x09)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 10 (0x0a)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 11 (0x0b)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 12 (0x0c)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 13 (0x0d)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 14 (0x0e)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 15 (0x0f)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 19 (0x13)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 20 (0x14)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 21 (0x15)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 22 (0x16)

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Anna Arias

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 7 (0x07)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 8 (0x08)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 9 (0x09)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 10 (0x0a)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 11 (0x0b)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 12 (0x0c)

Data_service_id: 4 (0x04) [= VPS (Video Programming System)]

Data_service_descriptor_length: 1

(0x01)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 1 (0x01) line_offset: 16 (0x10)

Stream_type: 5 (0x05) [= ITU-T Rec. H.222.0 | ISO/IEC 13818-1 private sections] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 901

(0x0385)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 5 (0x0005)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 111

(0x6f) [= application_signalling_descriptor] descriptor_length: 3

reserved_1: 3 (0x03)

(0x03)

field_parity: 0 (0x00)

Application type: 1

line_offset: 13 (0x0d)

(0x0001)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 14 (0x0e)

reserved: 7 (0x07) AIT version nr.: 0 (0x00)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 15 (0x0f)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 19 (0x13)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 20 (0x14)

reserved_1: 3 (0x03) field_parity: 0 (0x00) line_offset: 21 (0x15)

Stream_type: 12 (0x0c) [= ISO/IEC 13818-6 Stream Descriptors] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 601

(0x0259)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 10 (0x000a)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82 (0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

(0x01)

component_tag: 31 (0x1f)

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 20 (0x14) [= association_tag_descriptor] descriptor_length: 5

reserved_1: 3 (0x03)

(0x05)

field_parity: 0 (0x00)

Association_tag: 31

line_offset: 22 (0x16)

(0x001f)

Use: 256 (0x0100)

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Selector_length: 0 (0x00)

(0x02be)

reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 702

61

Stream_type: 11 (0x0b) [= ISO/IEC 13818-6 DSM-CC U-N

(0x02bd)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 29 (0x001d)

Messages] reserved_1: 7 (0x07)

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 19

Elementary_PID: 701

(0x13) [= carousel_identifier_descriptor]

(0x05)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 29 (0x001d)

descriptor_length: 5

Carousel_id: 2

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 19

(0x00000002)

(0x13) [=

(0x05)

format_id: 0 (0x00)

carousel_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 5

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 20 (0x14) [= association_tag_descriptor]

Carousel_id: 1

descriptor_length: 13

(0x00000001)

(0x0d)

format_id: 0 (0x00)

Association_tag: 2

(0x0002)

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 20 (0x14) [= association_tag_descriptor] descriptor_length: 13

(0x0d)

Association_tag: 1

(0x0001)

Use: 0 (0x0000) Selector_length: 0 (0x00) Transaction_ID:

4294967295 (0xffffffff) Timeout: 4294967295

(0xffffffff)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82 (0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

(0x01)

component_tag: 1 (0x01)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 102

(0x66) [= data_broadcast_id_descriptor] descriptor_length: 2

(0x02)

Data_broadcast_ID: 7 (0x0007) [= Object Carousel]

Stream_type: 11 (0x0b) [= ISO/IEC 13818-6 DSM-CC U-N Messages]

Use: 0 (0x0000) Selector_length: 0 (0x00) Transaction_ID:

4294967295 (0xffffffff) Timeout: 4294967295

(0xffffffff)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82 (0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

(0x01)

component_tag: 2 (0x02)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 102

(0x66) [= data_broadcast_id_descriptor] descriptor_length: 2

(0x02)

Data_broadcast_ID: 7 (0x0007) [= Object Carousel]

Stream_type: 11 (0x0b) [= ISO/IEC 13818-6 DSM-CC U-N Messages] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 703

(0x02bf)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 29 (0x001d)

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Anna Arias

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 19

format_id: 0 (0x00)

(0x13) [= carousel_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 5

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 20 (0x14) [= association_tag_descriptor]

(0x05)

descriptor_length: 13

Carousel_id: 3

(0x0d)

(0x00000003)

Association_tag: 4

format_id: 0 (0x00)

(0x0004)

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 20 (0x14) [= association_tag_descriptor]

(0x0d)

Use: 0 (0x0000) Selector_length: 0 (0x00) Transaction_ID:

descriptor_length: 13

4294967295 (0xffffffff) Timeout: 4294967295

Association_tag: 3

(0xffffffff)

(0x0003)

Use: 0 (0x0000) Selector_length: 0 (0x00) Transaction_ID:

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82 (0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

4294967295 (0xffffffff) Timeout: 4294967295

(0xffffffff)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 82 (0x52) [= stream_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 1

(0x01)

component_tag: 3 (0x03)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 102

(0x66) [= data_broadcast_id_descriptor] descriptor_length: 2

(0x02)

Data_broadcast_ID: 7 (0x0007) [= Object Carousel]

Stream_type: 11 (0x0b) [= ISO/IEC 13818-6 DSM-CC U-N Messages] reserved_1: 7 (0x07) Elementary_PID: 704

(0x02c0)

reserved_2: 15 (0x0f) ES_info_length: 29 (0x001d)

MPEG-DescriptorTag: 19

(0x13) [= carousel_identifier_descriptor] descriptor_length: 5

(0x05)

(0x00000004)

Carousel_id: 4

(0x01)

component_tag: 4 (0x04)

DVB-DescriptorTag: 102

(0x66) [= data_broadcast_id_descriptor] descriptor_length: 2

(0x02)

Data_broadcast_ID: 7 (0x0007) [= Object Carousel]

CRC: 3464519067

(0xce805d9b)

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63

In this figure we can see results obtained with TsReader, analysing a TS obtained from Philips.

with TsReader, analysing a TS obtained from Philips. figure 41: bottom part of the central part

figure 41: bottom part of the central part of TsReader interface

After having shown all the examples and explanations of the analysis of TsReader, it is shown in figure 41 the results of an analysis of TsReader.

These results are normal. The higher number of PAT sections than PMT sections its normal because the PAT TS packets are sent more frequently (every 0,5 seconds). Although sections of those will be shorter than PMT sections because they have to carry less data, as is possible to see in the example of code of PMT and PAT.

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Anna Arias Fuentes

8.3 TV EXPLORER II+ OF PROMAX

8.3.1 Installation of the software

In the installation process some problems occurred because the computer used had the Vista Windows installed. The software for the computer obtained from PROMAX on the other hand was for Windows XP. I tried to download different files for the computer in the PROMAX website, but no of them resolved the problem. Finally I explained my problem to the customer services centre of PROMAX Company.

They sent me another setup, which you can find at:

http://home.promax.es/ftp/Zips/USB_driver_XP_VISTA.zip

This setup doesn’t install the program. It just unzips the files in a folder (you can choose the location of the folder). In this folder you will have all the necessary files to install the drivers. You have to click in the folder to see the files. Here you will see one folder called DISK1, click on this folder. Here, click on the setup file.

The installation is rather easy. Follow the steps, accept the terms of the license agreement and then indicate where you want the location of the folder with the files of the program.

The next step is to connect the TV Explorer II+ to the PC, using the USB cable. The computer asks you if you want to install the necessary driver software of the equipment. Select the option to do it automatically. Follow a few steps and the installation of the device will be completed.

After that part, Windows displays a new dialog box. Windows has found New Hardware, USB-Serial-Port. Select again the automatic option and follow the steps.

Now, choose My computer -> Configuratiescherm -> Apparaatbeheer, to see figure 42 on the screen.

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TV EXPLORER II+ and analysis of DVB transport streams 65 figure 42: apparaatbeheer PROMAX gave us

figure 42: apparaatbeheer

PROMAX gave us some files with the equipment. Where you can find some programs, PkTools and PkUpdate. The PkUpdate program is there to create channel tables or to modify tables of existent channels and to recover safe measurements in the Datalogger of the equipment. The PkUpdate is used to update the firmware.

used the

NetUpdate program. The setup of this program is not in the files obtained from PROMAX. You can find it at:

http://home.promax.es/ftp/Zips/Netupdate_2v23.zip

I didn’t use neither of

them. To get

the files, like print shoots,

I

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Anna Arias Fuentes

when it is done. The NetUpdate indicates that it has

recognised the equipment. And after that the program appears. In figure 43 the interface of the program is showed.

The setup is easy,

the interface of the program is showed. The setup is easy, figure 43: NetUpdate If you

figure 43: NetUpdate

If you select the option “Resource Updates” and click on update, figure 44 will appear.

Updates” and click on update, figure 44 will appear. figure 44: NetUpdate Here you can choose

figure 44: NetUpdate

Here you can choose between three possibilities: server, PC and equipment. The PC shows the files contained in the computer and the equipment shows the files

DVB-T measurements with PROMAX TV EXPLORER II+ and analysis of DVB transport streams

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contained in the TV Explorer II+. If you click in one of the folders, you will see the files contained therein, like it is shown in figure 45.

the files contained therein, like it is shown in figure 45. figure 45: NetUpdate If you

figure 45: NetUpdate

If you press on the folder called PrintScreen. You will see the print shoots made. If you want to see the video files (program streams) recorded, you can click on the video folder.

If you want to transfer a file between the computer and the equipment, you just have to drag the file, from the equipment to the PC, or vice verse.

In the bottom part, on the right, you can see two options, namely Binary and Text. This is for when you want to choose a file of another folder than PrintScreen. These folders contain data files (about diagram constellations, spectrums, etc.). If you want only to safe files you must take them selecting Binary. If on the other hand, you want to use them (in the extension file .csv), you can do it with some programs like Excel.

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Anna Arias Fuentes

8.3.2 Examples and explanations of available measurements in the TV Explorer II+ equipment

C (Channel power) The channel power is measured in the bandwidth of the measurements filter. Total power of the channel is estimated assuming spectral density is uniform in channel bandwidth.

assuming spectral density is uniform in channel bandwidth. figure 46: Power In figure 46 appears the

figure 46: Power

In figure 46 appears the value of the power. This measurement is expressed in dBµV, which is just a tradition as the installers are used of working with this measure. It is why traditionally the manufacturers of measure equipments continue using this measure like a measure of channel power, although it is not correct.

Anyway you can choose the measure used in the equipment. If you press the 8 key during 3 or 4 seconds, the “preferences menu” will appear. Here you can select the terrestrial measure. The possibilities are dBµ, dBm, dBmV.

C/N

With an average value detector, noise and power carrier values are quantified. In the figure 47 you can see the ratio between the video carrier and

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69

the noise level (C/N), the power of the video carrier, the selected channel frequency, etc. that the equipment displays.

channel frequency, etc. that the equipment displays. figure 47: C/N In the two following figures you

figure 47: C/N

In the two following figures you can see the spectrum of the HF-signal. They are from the spectrum analyzer. The spectrum analyzer permits to check present signs in frequency bandwidth.

In figures 48 and 49 there are different values. This happens because I changed the position of the roof antenna (the antenna permits to turn it). The figure 48 shows the worst result, and figure 49 the best. I could choose the best one and the worst one using an option of the equipment. The equipment emits a sound when this option is being used. The better the signal, the higher the frequency sound.

sound when this option is being used. The better the signal, the higher the frequency sound.

Figure 48: C/N

sound when this option is being used. The better the signal, the higher the frequency sound.

figure 49: C/N

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Anna Arias Fuentes

All the following results are with the antenna in the best position to receive the signal.

MER

The ratio between the power of the average DVB signal and the average power of the present noise in the constellation is represented by the MER measurement. MN (Noise Margin) is showed in the figure. It indicates the secure margin respects the value MER that the signal has. It is the margin to do not lose the QEF value of the signal.

It is the margin to do not lose the QEF value of the signal. figure 50:

figure 50: MER

In a 64 QAM system, a MR measurement has to be between 3 or 4 dB. In this test, it is 15.4 (correct value). The MER has to be higher than 23 dB, It is 30.1 dB. These measurements give information about the PS received. And they confirm a good received signal.

o MER by carrier This function analyzes the MER for each of the carriers that compose the selected channel and that is shown in a graph. In figure 51

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71

you can see also the standard deviation and the average of the MER by carrier.

standard deviation and the average of the MER by carrier. ∑ figure 51: MER BER Selection

figure 51: MER

BER

Selection of the parameters of the COFDM signal has to be done before looking at this parameter. In an absolute value and science notation BER is expressed. In a DVB-T reception system, two methods of error correction are applied. Because of that, different values will be after both methods.

o CBER

Error value, before the Reed Solomon correction method.

values will be after both methods. o CBER Error value, before the Reed Solomon correction method.

figure 52: CBER

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Anna Arias Fuentes

The showed CBER measurement is correct. The value is less than 10 -3th , the CBER measurement of the signal is 4x10 -4 . We have received a good signal.

o VBER

Error value, after the Viterbi correction method.

o VBER Error value, after the Viterbi correction method. figure 53: VBER The result shown and

figure 53: VBER

The result shown and obtained figure 49 of VBER measurement is 10 -7 .

To get a good quality of image, there must be less than an error of transmission per hour. In the VBER bar, the point with the 2x10 -4 value (2 error bits each 10,000 bits) is called Quasi-Error-Free. If the VBER value is on the left of this point, the result is acceptable. Therefore, the signal received by the equipment is good.

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8.4 Examples and explanations of graphs representations in TV Explorer II+

Constellation Diagram If there are no interferences and noise, in the constellation diagram, concentrated points will represent all the symbols.

When the constellation diagram function is selected in the equipment, the different impacts of the received symbols will appear in the screen of the equipment while there is a digital signal transmission. It is possible to change the channel frequency or the COFDM carrier. There is also the ZOOM option to see more accurately the diagram constellation.

The quality of the transmission is visualized through the colour of the points contained in a region of the constellation. Black, blue, yellow and red form the gradation of colours. Black is the colour for the worst result, and red the best.

the gradation of colours. Black is the colour for the worst result, and red the best.

figure 54: constellation diagram

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Anna Arias Fuentes

In figure 54 the results are good enough. The areas have almost all the points with red colour, and the points are not too separated.

Not always the constellations diagrams have 64 areas with points. For example, if 34 or 50 carrier is selected, figure 55 is displayed.

if 34 or 50 carrier is selected, figure 55 is displayed. figure 55: constellation diagram This

figure 55: constellation diagram

This constellation diagram is different because it carries TPS carriers. The Transmission parameters Signalling carriers are used to send parameters of the system:

Type of the modulation of the information carriers.

Information about hierarchy.

Guard interval.

Convolution codification used.

Transmission mode.

Cell identification.

The TPS carriers are transmitted in parallel. In 8k mode, into 68 carriers.

Spectrogram The spectrogram is a tool to detect anomalies in a frequency range. In the spectrogram a graphic representation of the signal level of the frequencies

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in the time function is made. Each colour represents a different level. In the Y- axis are the values of the frequency. In the X-axis are the values of time.

of the frequency. In the X-axis are the values of time. ∑ figure 56: constellation diagram

figure 56: constellation diagram

Merogram This function is designed to detect sporadic and eventual problems within a DVB-T channel. A graphic representation of the MER level of the carriers as function of the time is done by the Merogram. Every level is represented by a different colour. Carriers are on X-axis and the time variable are represented on the Y-axis.

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9. FINAL CONCLUSION

During my stay in Gent I could learn a lot about how television is transmitted. I did many tests with analog and digital signals. These tests help me understanding the learned knowledge.

To practice with the learned theory is really important. Because I could learn more, understand and reassert part of different subjects that I have studied during my college in Barcelona.

I also think that this was a good experience to see the differences in television system used in Belgium than Catalonia.

To transmit and receive television there are many specified standards. But all the countries have their characteristics. As in Belgium cable television is the system picket for the majority of the population. And the terrestrial is not much watched, it has just 3 channels.

In Catalonia analog signal is still transmitted. The next year the DVB will be launched and analog television will disappear. Nowadays it is possible to receive both, analog and digital television. With the STB it is possible to receive many DVB-T channels (tens). And the cable television is not really used for Catalan citizens.

With my project the study of DVB signals is started in KaHo-Sint Lieven. The next year surely will be another student continuing the study. Interesting things to study would be how to record transport stream. Because right now it is only possible to record program streams. And maybe try it through the signals received by the USB receiver is a good idea.

My final conclusion about the Erasmus in general is that I have learned in all the possible aspects. I studied a lot about important and interesting knowledge about my field, I knew people from the entire world, I learned how to live in a foreign country and I have improved my English and learned a little Dutch. I am really happy for all that I have lived in those months.

Anna Arias

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10. BIBLIOGRAPHY

WEBSITES

http://www.dvb.org/

http://www.sateliteinfos.com/actu/tp.asp/tp/16472/inicio-de-la-plataforma-

belga-telesat.html

http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;184006

http://www.bretl.com/mpeghtml/mpegpsi.HTM

http://www.tdtzone.com/el-ber-y-su-medida.html

http://www.etherguidesystems.com/Glossary/Default.aspx

http://2000newsarchive.broadcastengineering.com/ar/broadcasting_cond

itional_access/

http://www.etherguidesystems.com/Help/SDOs/MPEG/Syntax/Tablesecti

ons/cats.aspx

http://www.aero.org/publications/crosslink/winter2002/04.html

http://74.125.77.132/search?q=cache:W9CQbvAHPcoJ:cva.stanford.edu/

classes/ee482s/projects/group2_proposal.pdf+viterbi+algorithm+applicati

ons&cd=1&hl=ca&ct=clnk&client=firefox-a

http://www.bbc.co.uk/rd/pubs/papers/paper_15/paper_15.shtml

http://www.hdtvtotal.com/module-pagesetter-viewpub-tid-1-pid-954.html

DOCUMENTS

"Sistemas audiovisuales I. Televisión analógica y digital", Edicions UPC 2000

from Francesc Tarrés (UPC Barcelona).

Information technology — Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems from ISO/IEC 13818-1

DVB information from Rohde&Schwarz

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); DVB specification for data broadcasting from

78

Anna Arias Fuentes

ETSI

MPEG fundamentals and protocol analysis from Tektronix

AV communications documentation from Xavier Giró (UPC Terrassa- Barcelona).