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EM Gun

A Compelling Vision
Why EM? Why Now?
Increased Lethality Advances in Component
Improved Deployability Technology
& Sustainment Significant Joint Interest
Enhanced Survivability and Potential
International Interest
Synergies with Emerging
Power & Energy Thrust
Leadership Endorsement
of an Evolutionary
Strategy

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How is EM Gun Different?
EM Railgun Basics
EM Gun System Block Diagram
Pulsed Power Supply (PPS)

Prime Pulsed Rail Launch Muzzle


Fuel Generator Rectifier Inverter Motor
Power Alternator Launcher Package Energy

Switches

EM guns are fundamentally different


than conventional guns - accelerating
force (F) is provided by EM forces not
rapid expansion of gases as with Launch Package

energetic propellant.

Rail Launcher

Pulsed Power Supply


(PPS)

3 Prime Power
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Why EM?
Lethality Efficiency & Growth Potential
Energy as a function of
90
velocity for a given mass EM Gun technology enables
80
70 hypervelocity launch. Hypervelocity
Energy (MJ)

2 kg
60
4 kg
50
6 kg is important for two fundamental
40
8 kg
30
20
10 kg reasons:
10
0 Increased Energy:
1 2 3 4
Velocity (km/s) Energy is directly proportional to the
Penetration Efficiency as a function square of the velocity (E=1/2mv2).
of velocity for a given mass
3
(Penetration / Length)

Penetration Efficiency:
Penetration Efficiency

2.5

2
1 L/D
For any given energy, Increasing
1.5 5 L/D
13 L/D velocity increases penetration
1

0.5 efficiency, particularly in novel


0
1 2 3 4
penetrator designs.
Velocity (km/s)
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Why EM?
Deployability & Sustainment
Single ILP Packaged ILPs Resupply Payoffs
EM Gun Launch
Package is much
smaller than a EM round
conventional round.
1/8th the
volume*
1/10th the
weight*
156 ILPs can be
packaged in same
120mm M829

space as 16 M829s.
Smaller Integrated
Launch Package
payoff is in resupply.
Fuel and Launch
package can be
shipped together –
on same palette.
Although the small size of the EM ILPs has clear advantages in
resupply, payoffs in stowed rounds onboard a fighting vehicle
are not as significant. The smaller ILP is offset by the additional
volume required for the onboard Pulsed Power Supply.
*based on anti-armor application
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Why EM?
Survivability
EM Gun EM Gun w/
Less likely to be hit LOSAT M1A1
Bare Muzzle Muzzle Shunt
due to reduced
Launch Signature
>1000x reduction in Launch Signatures
visual and IR
signature.
10x reduction in
acoustic signature.
More likely to
survive a hit due to
less energy onboard
released over a
longer period of
time.
M829A2 E Gun Rotor
9x less stored
energy onboard
compared EM gun
weapon than M1A1
Stored Energy

8.6 kg JA2 925 kg


Recent ARL tests 106 J/g
show rotor difficult Propellant
~ 5000J/g 2 on-board rotors
to destroy and
disintegrates 42 on-board rounds 196 MJ energy
gracefully (5-10 1,800MJ energy onboard
milliseconds) onboard

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State of Technology
Pulsed Power Supply
STO is
building state Un-cooled, twin machine, synchronized generation of power
of the art consistent with 5MJ muzzle energy.
subsystem

State-of-the-art Results of component level testing formed the basis


subsystem for current design which meets requirements of
design current STO program.

Solid Split Ring


State Composite
State-of-the-art Switch Ring Component level tests enable improved
component Stack energy density.
testing

1st Gen 2nd Gen 3nd Gen


Previous Demonstrated fundamental
Generation principles of using rotating
Subsystem 1986 1993 1996
machines to deliver pulsed
power.
Builds

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State of Technology
Railgun Launcher
STO is
building state Lightweight, cantilevered gun with integrated muzzle shunt &
active cooling. Launcher life of 200 rounds.
of the art
subsystem

State-of-the-art Results of component level testing formed the basis for


subsystem current design which meets requirements of current
design STO program.

State-of-the-art Component level tests enable extended


launcher life and reduced size and weight.
component Muzzle shunts reduce launch signature and
testing improve efficiency.

HV Gouging 1m launcher section

Previous
Generation Demonstrated fundamental
Subsystem principles of large caliber railguns.
Builds
1st Gen 1991 2nd Gen 1993 3rd Gen 1994

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State of Technology
Integrated Launch Package (ILP)
STO is
Demonstrate full scale terminal ballistics of at least three designs
building state
to demonstrate capability to defeat BMP and complex heavy armor,
of the art and one multipurpose design.
subsystem

State-of-the-art Results of component testing formed the basis for current


subsystem projectile designs which meet requirements of current
design STO program.

State-of-the-art Component level tests enabled novel, high-


component efficiency ILP and hypervelocity defeat of
testing other targets.

Previous
Generation Demonstrated fundamental
principles of EM launch of
Subsystem monolithic rods to defeat heavy
Builds armor.

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TRADOC HQ
Capabilities Desired
General Requirements
One Vehicle
19 Ton / C-130 Envelope
72 hour ops self
sustaining
Enhanced survivability
(reduction in secondary
explosion hazard)
Reduced logistics /
increased stowed kills
(elimination of propellant
charge)

Max Range 2km 10km slant 12km 16km 40km(FCS) 40km slant
300km (UE)

Engagement LOS Air Defense NLOS LOS/BLOS NLOS Air Defense


Lethality (Objectives)

Mode Unguided (Inner Tier) Unguided Unguided + (Outer Tier)


Unguided
Guided Guided Guided
+ Guided + Guided

Targets Buildings Rockets & LAV Buildings Artillery Helicopters


Bunkers Artillery Bunkers LAVs UAVs
Personnel
LAVs LAVs Personnel
Tanks Tanks
Personnel Personnel

Requirements derived from JROC approved FCS ORD, objective requirements; UE White Paper, & Air Defense Concept (Draft)
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Evolutionary Strategy
Balancing Technical Difficulty With Military Utility
and Growth Potential Over Time
General Requirements
Army Capabilities Desired One Vehicle
General
19 Ton
Requirements
One/ Vehicle
C-130
Envelope
19 Ton / C-130
72 hour ops self
Envelope
EM Launch for Naval Surface Fire Support
sustaining
72 hour ops self
Enhanced
sustaining
survivability
Enhanced
(reduction in Hypervelocity Electromagnetic Minimizes Susceptibility to
survivability
secondary explosion Launch (MACH 7.5) Ballistic Differential GPS Jamming & Simplifies
(reduction in
hazard) Trajectory GPS GNC Deconfliction
secondary explosion
Reduced logistics /
Diverse Mission Requirements

85 nm
hazard)
increased stowed Above Sensible
killsReduced logistics
(elimination of / Atmosphere
increased
propellant stowed
charge) Low Cost
kills (elimination of Precision
propellant charge) Strike

Max Range 2km 10km slant 12km 16km 40km(FCS) 40km slant In-Direct Fire
300km (UE) 200+ nm in 6 minutes
Max Range 2km 10km slant 12km 16km 40km(FCS) 40km slant
300km (UE) Opportunities for Collaboration Direct Fire
Horizon in 6 seconds
Fixed Targets
at Long Range
Engagement LOS Air Defense LOS/BLOS NLOS Air Defense
Lethality (Objectives)

NLOS (MACH 5.0+ Impact)


Mode (Inner Tier) (Outer Tier)
Engagement Unguided
LOS Air Defense Unguided Unguided
LOS/BLOS Unguided
NLOS + Air Defense
Lethality (Objectives)

NLOS
Mode Unguided
Guided
(Inner Tier)
Guided
+ Guided
Unguided + Guided
Unguided
+ Guided
Guided
Unguided +
Guided
Guided
(Outer Tier)
Guided • Information Exchange • Deep Magazines Area Targets
Volume Fires • Long Range
+ Guided • No Propellants • Time Critical
• No Explosive Warheads • Persistent
Targets
Targets
Buildings
Bunkers
Buildings
Rockets &
Artillery
Rockets &
LAV
Personnel
LAV
Buildings
Bunkers
Buildings
Artillery
LAVsArtillery
Helicopters
UAVs
Helicopters
• Enabling Technologies • Reduced Ship Vulnerability
• Simplified Logistics
Relocatable Targets
Low Latency • All Weather (24/7)
LAVs Artillery LAVs Personnel • No UEX Issues
Bunkers Personnel Bunkers LAVs UAVs
Tanks
LAVs Tanks
LAVs Personnel
Personnel
Tanks
Personnel
Personnel
Tanks
Personnel
• Test Facilities

PPS: 2-5MJ
Within
WithinState
Stateofofthe
theArt
Art Launch Package: Unguided

PPS: < 10 MJ
Near
NearState
Stateofofthe
theArt
Art PPS: >> 10 MJ
Launch Package: Guided
Launch Package: Guided.

PPS: > 10 MJ
Army’s Beyond
BeyondState
Stateofofthe
theArt
Art Prime Power: Advanced Prime Power Pack
Evolutionary Launch Package: Unguided & Guided

Strategy PPS: >> 10 MJ


Starts Well
WellBeyond
BeyondState
StateofofArt
Art Launch Package: Guided
Here Hypervelocity

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Special ASARC endorsed evolutionary strategy outlined here
6/16/04
Army Program
First EM Technology Spiral
FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13

STO ATD
S IPR
A
Special ASARC 1 POM 08 2 3 4 5
Subsystem System
Full Scale Lethality Launcher Life Energy Density Risk
Thermal Integration
vs Complex Targets Risk Reduced Reduced
Management Risk Risk
Risk Reduced
Reduced Reduced

6.2 designs
2-5MJ, 5000 kg, uncooled, unruggedized

Proposed rectangular bore (60 – 90 mm equiv) fully cantilevered


Subsystem
Designs Subsystem
Models unguided multipurpose & unguided KE rounds.
unguided KE, terminal ballistics vs. tank @ > 10 MJ ME level
Full caliber
tests
2-5MJ, 5000 kg, 2-5MJ muzzle energy LOS
cooled, EM Gun system
ruggedized
< 19 ton
platform fires
burst,
Perforates BMP
Full firing chain @ 2-5MJ. Burst firing chain. Integrated
@ 2km
Single Shot Externally supplied prime power. Lethality vs.
prime power BMPs, bunkers, buildings, Multi-burst
personnel, and other. operation

6.3 ($M) 18.9 19.3 19.4 - - - - - - -


6.2 ($M) 5.1 5.1 4.9 - - - - - - -
6.1 ($M) 5.7 5.6 5.9 - - - - - - -

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Special ASARC approved this ATD approach
6/16/04
Collaboration Opportunities
Cooperative
Organization Work Focus
Mechanism

Congressionally mandated
EM launch for Naval Surface Fire Support
US Navy – ONR and
Requirements – Parallel Navy technology program
NAVSEA
FY04-09.

MOA
Monitor technology development efforts via ONR &
USMC Marine Corps Warfighting Lab. Participate in Army
reviews.

DARPA Proposed EM Tactical Mortar Program.

DOE – Sandia National


Coil Guns. Capacitor based pulsed power. MIPR(s) from DARPA
Labs

DOE – Oak Ridge Power conditioning, power management, switching,


MIPR from ARDEC
National Labs energy storage. Rail materials.

DOE - Pacific Northwest Heavy metal penetrators.


MIPR from ARDEC
National Labs

UK lead in test of launchers and launch packages at


Kirkcudbright. Full caliber novel penetrator PA DOD-MOD-A-01-
United Kingdom
functionality test FY05/FY06 –use their test facility at 0087
no cost to US.
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Summary

EM Gun is a technology opportunity that could


revolutionize firepower.
Technical barriers are falling and elements of
strategic environment are converging.
STO initiated to demonstrate meaningful
technical progress at subsystem level.
Follow-on ATD and long term evolutionary
approach approved, providing program focus
and stability.

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