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dormant or germinating for 48 hours on cellular respiration of lathyrus

odorous seeds seen in the form of CO2 Emissions (ppm) as measured by

Pasco’s CO2 sensor

Research question:

When dormant and germinating for 48 hours, lathyrus odorous seeds kept at 20co

room temperature, as well as germinating seeds at 10co are measured in terms of

CO2 emmisions (pmm) by Pasco’s CO2 sensor, what are the differences in the rate of

cellular respiration between the different conditions and temperatures of seeds?

Key Variables:

Independent Variables:

fridge will be 10co, the temperature for the germinating seeds in the dark cabinet

will be 20co and the dormant seeds will also be at 20co. It should also be kept

controlled.

The other two will have been germinating for 48 hours, one in the fridge and

the other in a dark space. All the areas will be dark for the seeds prefer

germinating in the dark.

Dependent Variables:

dependent on the temperature and condition of seeds (dormant or germinating).

They CO2 emissions help us see the rate of cellular respiration. They are measured

by Pasco’s CO2 sensor and the units are parts per million (ppm). The uncertainty is

+50ppm.

independent variable from influencing the dependant variable, we control for the

following variables:

CV1: Temperature: When the sample of seeds is taken from the pack,

they need to be maintained in the same temperature. By using ice to keep it

cool, or warm water to keep the room temperature, the temperature that the

seeds were experiencing beforehand during germination can be maintained.

This can be measured through the use of a thermometer. The uncertainty for

this would be +0.5co.

CV2: Stability of Data collection: The equipment works best when is in a

vertical position. In order to do this, we would use a clamp and a ring stand to

hold the data collection equipment in a vertical position.

CV3: Calibration: The CO2 sensor must be calibrated when taking data.

This must be done every time so that we get the data in the same way.

Odorous only, so that the data we get is comparable.

Hypothesis:

H0: There is no relationship between the temperature and the conditions of the

seeds whether dormant or germinated with the rate of cellular respiration/CO2

emissions.

HA: The relationship between temperature and the rate of cellular respiration/ CO2

emissions is expected to be a direct positive relationship. As the temperature

increases the rate of cellular respiration increases as well. The sample of seeds that

have been in the fridge will be at 10co and the other two samples will be at 20oc.

The importance of this is that every 10co increase in temperature doubles the

respiration rate. Therefore, when comparing the three samples of Latyrus Odorous

seeds, the increase in temperature will increase the rate of cellular respiration. This

is because when the temperature increases, there is more kinetic energy, therefore

more collisions and finally this leads to more reactions. This is why the rate of

cellular respiration is expected to increase as the temperature increases. There will

also be a direct relationship between the condition of the seeds and the seed

variation. There will be more CO2 emissions coming from the germinating seeds as

they are exposed to oxygen and aerobic respiration requires oxygen. However, the

dormant seeds are not exposed to oxygen and the rate of respiration will be slower,

therefore fewer CO2 emissions. Finally, it is also expected that the seeds

germinating at 20oc will do the most respiration, because as previously stated every

10oc increase in temperature will double the rate of reaction.

Data Collection and Processing:

Qualitative Data:

In this lab, my partners and I noticed an increase in the level of CO2 every trial in

which we performed.

Keeping a constant temperature was difficult, because as the ice melted the

temperature would fluctuate. This may have caused an error in our work. Another

thing we noticed was that the sensor would pick up a dropping CO2 level before it

started to go up.

Quantitative Data:

Table 1: Raw Data for the effect of seed condition and germination

temperature on CO 2 production in 10 minutes by Lathyrus odoratus seeds

measured by Pasco CO 2 sensor:

seed condition Trial initial CO2 final CO2

(D=dormant; concentration concentration

G=germinating) (ppm±50) (ppm±50) after 10

/temperature (°C±0.5) minutes

D/20.0 mean - -

D/20.0 s.d. - -

D/20.0 95% CI - -

G/20.0 mean - -

G/20.0 s.d. - -

G/20.0 95% CI - -

G/10.0 mean - -

G/10.0 s.d. - -

G/10.0 95% CI - -

Table 2: Processed Data for the effect of seed condition and

germination temperature on CO 2 production in 10 minutes by

Lathyrus odoratus seeds measured by Pasco CO 2 sensor:

seed condition trial initial CO2 Final CO2 ∆ CO2

(D=dormant; concentration concentration concentration

G=germinating) (ppm±50) (ppm±50) after 10 (ppm)

/temperature (°C±0.5) minutes

CI

CI

CI

We used standard deviation as a measure of variability in the data. The greater the

standard deviation the less reliable the data is. Referring to table 2, the standard

deviation varies between each temperature and seed condition. The largest

standard deviation and the smallest standard deviation are the two data values

G/20.0 (largest) and G/20.0(smallest). The smallest being 47.7 and the largest being

54.1 make the data less reliable. The large standard deviation shows that the data

is less reliable and the smaller standard deviation is still quite large, also showing

the data the less reliable.

germination temperature on CO 2 production in 10 minutes by

G=germinating) /temperature

(°C±0.5) (ppm/minute)

and 3 are a representation of this significance. The error bars are overlapping in

figure 1, so I conclude that the means are not significantly different. However, in

figure 2 the error bars do not overlap therefore the means are significantly

different. The highest 95% CI is +47.4 at G/20. The lowest 95% CI is +41.8 at G/10.

Table 4: T-test values for the effect of seed condition and germination

temperature on CO 2 production in 10 minutes by Lathyrus odoratus seeds

measured by Pasco CO 2 sensor:

Ho: G/20 = G/10 T-test= P= 0.108851853

We performed t-tests, a statistical test, on the data in order to see whether we can

accept or reject our null hypothesis. The smaller the P value, means the higher the

confidence is. We can accept our alternative hypothesis for the T-test between D/20

and G/20 because the p value is less than 0.05. However, for the T-test between

G/20 and G/10 the p value is higher than 0.05 therefore I will accept my null

hypothesis.

Conclusion and Evaluation:

Conclusion:

HA: The relationship between temperature and the rate of cellular respiration/ CO2

emissions is expected to be a direct positive relationship. As the temperature

increases the rate of cellular respiration increases as well. The sample of seeds that

have been in the fridge will be at 10co and the other two samples will be at 20oc.

The importance of this is that every 10co increase in temperature doubles the

respiration rate. Therefore, when comparing the three samples of Latyrus Odorous

seeds, the increase in temperature will increase the rate of cellular respiration. This

is because when the temperature increases, there is more kinetic energy, therefore

more collisions and finally this leads to more reactions. This is why the rate of

cellular respiration is expected to increase as the temperature increases. There will

also be a direct relationship between the condition of the seeds and the seed

variation. There will be more CO2 emissions coming from the germinating seeds as

they are exposed to oxygen and aerobic respiration requires oxygen. However, the

dormant seeds are not exposed to oxygen and the rate of respiration will be slower,

therefore fewer CO2 emissions. Finally, it is also expected that the seeds

germinating at 20oc will do the most respiration, because as previously stated every

10oc increase in temperature will double the rate of reaction.

Some of our results for the effect of temperature on carbon dioxide production by

germinating pea seeds supported our null hypothesis (t-test: reject HA:P=0.01).

However, table 1 and figure 1 supported our alternate hypothesis. For example,

Table 2 shows an increase in final and initial concentration in G/20 and G/10 every

time. Also, Figure 1 shows that as the temperature increases so does the rate of

decarboxylation. My hypothesis states that “that every 10co increase in

temperature doubles the respiration rate.” The reason we see this, and it is true, is

because the temperature increase leads to, more kinetic energy, therefore more

collisions and finally this leads to more reactions. However, the T-test, standard

deviations and error bars lead us to accept our null hypothesis over our alternate

hypothesis. The P value in the t-test over 0.05 therefore, we have to accept our null

hypothesis when looking at the t-test. Also, our standard deviations in table 2 are

very large, G/20= 54.1 and G/10= 47.4, this means that our data is less reliable.

Also, our error bars for G/10 and G/20 overlap on figure 1 making our means not

significantly different. Therefore we cannot accept our alternate hypothesis with

95% confidence. The similar study explained after table 5, also supports the fact

that our data is unreliable, because none of the rates from the literature values and

our values are even close.

The tables and graphs for the effect of seed condition on carbon dioxide production

by germinating pea seeds supported our alternate hypothesis (t-test: reject Ho:

P=0.00019). For example table 2, supports our data for a direct, positive

relationship between condition of seeds and the rate of decarboxylation. As we can

see, in table 2, in the majority of trials, there is an increase in CO2 concentration

from final to initial in both G/20 and D/20. Also, figure two supports our hypothesis

because we predicted that germinating seeds would have a faster rate than

dormant seeds. This is clearly shown in figure 2 and table 3, the rate of

decarboxylation table, where the rate of D/20 is 2.32 and the rate of G/20 is 21.72.

This is because there will be more CO2 emissions coming from the germinating

seeds as they are exposed to oxygen and water and aerobic respiration requires

oxygen and water. However, the dormant seeds are not exposed to oxygen and the

rate of respiration will be slower, therefore fewer CO2 emissions. The t-test is for this

data is below 0.05 at 0.00019 therefore it shows the data as more reliable and

supports our decision to accept our HA. The standard deviation is very large for

D/20, like it is for G/20. For D/20 it is 50.5 therefore the data is less reliable. Also,

when the rates are compared to literature values below table 5, the values are

different suggest that our data is less reliable. However, the error bars in figure two

do not overlap suggesting that we can accept our alternate hypothesis with 95%

confidence.

Table 5: Literary values for the effect of seed condition and germination

temperature on CO 2 production in 10 minutes by Lathyrus odoratus seeds

measured by Pasco CO 2 sensor

Germinating Peas/ 10°C 0.20

Dormant Peas 20°C -0.01

(http://www.biologyjunction.com/lab_5_ap_sample_3.htm , n.d.) our data is not

reliable, because we don’t have similar values. Their value for rate for Germinating

peas at 10 degrees is 0.20 O2/ML whereas, ours is 23.3 ppm/minute. Our rate of

respiration is smiliar to their rate of oxidation because they both represent the rate

of cellular respiration. However, ours is much faster. Another example of ours being

faster is, our rate for germinating peas at 20 degrees is 21.71 ppm/minute and

theirs is 0.70 O2/ML. Finally, their dormant peas have a negative rate, and our rate

is 2.32 ppm/minute. Therefore our data is unreliable. It doesn’t match theirs at all.

Evaluation:

Table 6: Error Analysis for the effect of seed condition and germination

temperature on CO 2 production in 10 minutes by Lathyrus odoratus seeds

measured by Pasco CO 2 sensor

Error Error Type Design or Performance?

collection

Sample size: We had a sample size of 5. For each, D/20, G/20 and G/10 we had 5

trials. I think that increasing the sample size would increase the reliability of the

data. The standard deviations shown in table 2 were quite large showing us that our

data wasn’t as reliable as we would want it. Perhaps by increasing the sample size

to 5 instead of 5 we would have much more accurate data.

when performing this lab. As the ice melts into the water, the water temperature

keeps dropping. This could have caused anomalies in the data; I am speaking for

both the 20 degrees and 10 degrees data for both seed conditions. We should have

one partner monitoring the thermometer at all times and adding hot water if

necessary to maintain an accurate temperature.

Timings: We were supposed to make sure to measure the CO2 concentration for 10

minutes of time. However, if you are not concentrating on the computer screen or a

timer, 10 minutes will pass by very quickly and you will find yourself at 15 minutes.

A person must be monitoring the time to make sure we do not go over.

Stability of data collection: The clamp and the ring stand were not effective in

holding the equipment straight. Our group tried two clamps and ring stands and

both didn’t work for us. This could have tampered with the data collection process.

Therefore I suggest that a group of three is necessary. One person to monitor the

temperature, another to monitor the time and finally one person to monitor the

equipment, making sure it stands upright either by holding it there or constantly

adjusting it. This is what my group ending up doing because we had the opportunity

to have three people in a group.

Seeds: Not all the seeds are the same. Some are bigger and some are smaller. In

order to perform this lab accurately all seeds would have to be identical. However,

this cannot be helped and is something that has to be overlooked.

Bibliography:

for Students. New York, New York: The College Board

Lab 5 ap sample 3. (n.d.). Retrived from

http://www.biologyjunction.com/lab_5_ap_sample_3.htm

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