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Synchrotron Radiation for

Materials Science Applications


David Attwood
University of California, Berkeley
and
Center for X-Ray Optics
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

(http://www.coe.berkeley.edu/AST/srms)

David Attwood Lecture 1 Intro to Sychrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007


Synchrotron Radiation for Materials Science Applications
(www.coe.berkeley.edu/AST/srms)
• Instructor: Prof. David T. Attwood Email: attwood@berkeley.edu
• Co-listed at UC Berkeley as EE290F and AST290S
• Spring semester, January 16 to May 8, 2007, Tu & Th 2:10–3:30 PM
2007 Class Schedule
• Starting 1/16/2007, this class will be broadcast live over the Internet (Berkeley Webcast)
and electronically archived for later viewing
• New paperback textbook:
Soft X-Rays and
Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation:
Principles and Applications
Cambridge University Press or or ASUC bookstore

• Table of contents
• Errata

If not yet available through Cambridge University Press (Feb. 1, 2007), a smaller paperback version
can be obtained through the UC Berkeley ASUC bookstore website, http://ucberkeley.bkstr.com
Click on: Find your textbooks and follow prompts to book required for EE290F.
• Lecture material used in class:
1. Intro. to Synchrotron Radiation
• Homework problems:
Chapter 1
Etc.
Intro_Webpage2007
Spring 2007 Class Schedule for Synchrotron
Radiation for Materials Science Applications
1. Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation (16 Jan 2007) 15. Advanced Spectroscopy for Atomic and Molecular Physics;
2. X-Ray Interaction with Matter: Absorption, Scattering, given by Prof. Anders Nilsson, Stanford University
Refraction (18 Jan 2007) (6 March 2007)
3. Probing Matter: Diffraction, Spectroscopy, Photoemission; 16. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: XAFS, NEXAFS, XANES,
given by Prof. Anders Nilsson, Stanford University EXAFS; given by Dr. Tony VanBuuren, LLNL/UC Merced
(23 Jan 2007) (8 March 2007)
4. Radiation by an Accelerated Charge: Scattering by Free 17. X-Ray Diffraction for Materials Analysis; given by
and Bound Electrons (25 Jan 2007) Dr. Simon Clark, ALS/LBNL (13 March 2007)
5. Multi-Electron Atom, Atomic Scattering Factors: Wave 18. Photoemission and Photoemission Spectroscopy; given
Propagation and Refractive Index (30 Jan 2007) by Dr. Zahid Hussain, ALS/LBNL (20 March 2007)
6. Refraction and Reflection, Total Internal Reflection, 19. Angle Resolved Photoemission and Nano-ARPES; given
Brewster's Angle, Kramers-Kronig (1 Feb 2007) by Dr. Eli Rotenberg, ALS/LBNL (22 March 2007)
7. Multilayer Interference Coatings, Scattering, Diffraction, 20. Photo-Emission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); given by
Reflectivity and Applications (6 Feb 2007) Dr. Andreas Scholl, ALS/LBNL (3 April 2007)
8. Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation, Bending Magnet 21. X-Rays and Magnetism; given by Prof. Jochim Stöhr,
Radiation (8 Feb 2007) Stanford University (5 April 2007)
9. Bending Magnet Critical Photon Energy; Undulator 22. XMCD; Out-of-Plane Bending Magnetic Radiation;
Central Radiation Cone (13 Feb 2007) given by Brooke Mesler, UC Berkeley (10 April 2007)
10. Undulator Equation and Radiated Power (15 Feb 2007) 23. Zone Plate Microscopy and Applications (12 April 2007)
11. Spectral Brightness of Undulator Radiation, Harmonics, 24. Nanoscale Magnetic Imaging; given by Dr. Peter Fisher,
Wiggler Radiation (20 Feb 2007) CXRO/LBNL (17 April 2007)
12. Spatial and Temporal Coherence; Coherent Undulator 25. Nanotomography for the Life Sciences; given by
Radiation (22 Feb 2007) Prof. Carolyn Larabell, UCSF, and Dr. Mark LeGros, LBNL
13. Applications of Coherent Undulator Radiation (19 April 2007)
(27 Feb 2007) 26. X-Ray Microtomography for Material Studies; given by
14. Visit the Advanced Light Source, Berkeley (ALS) Dr. Alastair MacDowell, ALS/LBNL (24 April 2007)
(1 March 2007) 27. Coherent Soft X-Ray Scattering for Studying Nanoscale
Materials; given by Prof. Stephen Kevan, U. Oregon, Eugene
(26 April 2007)
28. Student Projects (oral reports on related material)
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Synchrotron Radiation for Materials Science Applications SpringClassSchedule.ai
The Short Wavelength Region
of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Wavelength
1 µm 100 nm 10 nm 1 nm 0.1 nm = 1Å
CuKα
IR VUV Soft X-rays 2a0

UV Extreme Ultraviolet Hard X-rays


SiL CK OK SiK CuK

1 eV 10 eV 100 eV 1 keV 10 keV


Photon energy

• See smaller features


• Write smaller patterns
• Elemental and chemical sensitivity

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch01_F01VG.ai
Characteristic Absorption Edges for
Almost All Elements in this Spectral Region

Photoelectron
e–
Photon
(ω)
+Ze
K
L

M
Kinetic energy
(positive)

Ekinetic =  – EK, abs


0 n=∞
N n=4
M n=3
EL, abs
Lα Lβ
Binding energy

L n=2
(negative)

 EK, abs

K n=1
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch01_F02a_F10_Tb1.ai
Energy Levels, Quantum Numbers, and
Allowed Transitions for the Copper Atom
n  j Absorption edges
N for copper (Z = 29):
4 3 7/2 . VII 4f7/2
.
4. 3. 5/2
.
.. .. .. N N
.. IV 4d3/2
4 0 1/2 NI 4s EN1, abs = 7.7 eV
Mα1

3 2 5/2 MV 3d5/2 .
3 2 3/2 MIV 3d3/2 .
3 1 3/2 M MIII 3p3/2 EM3, abs = 75 eV
3 1 1/2 MII 3p1/2 .
3 0 1/2 MI 3s EM1, abs = 123 eV
Lα1 Lα2 Lβ2

2 1 3/2 LIII 2p3/2 EL3, abs = 933 eV


2 1 1/2 L LII 2p1/2 EL2, abs = 952 eV
2 0 1/2 LI 2s EL1, abs = 1,097 eV
Kβ1 Kβ3 Kγ
3
Kα1 Kα2

1 0 1/2 K K 1s EK, abs = 8,979 eV


(1.381Å)
Cu Kα1 = 8,048 eV (1.541Å) Cu Lα1 = 930 eV
Cu Kα2 = 8,028 eV (1.544Å) Cu Lα2 = 930 eV
Cu Kβ1 = 8,905 eV Cu Lβ1 = 950 eV
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch01_F11VG_rev.6.05.ai
Electron Binding Energies, in Electron Volts
(eV), for the elements in their Natural Forms

www.cxro.LBL.gov

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 ApxB_1_47_Jan07.ai
Broadly Tunable Radiation is Needed to Probe
the Primary Resonances of the Elements
Group
IA VIII
1 1.0079
1 Key 2 4.003
1

H Atomic number Atomic weight He


1s1 1s2
Hydrogen IIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB
14 28.09 Oxidation states Helium
Solid
Density (g/cm3)
3 6.941
4 9.012 4 (Bold most stable)
5 10.81
6 12.011
7 14.007
8 16
9 19.00
10 20.180

Si
1 2 2.33 3 4,2 3,5,4,2 –2 –1
Concentration (1022atoms/cm3) 4.99 Gas

Li Be B C N O F Ne
0.53 1.85 2.47 2.27
4.63 12.3 2.35 Symbol 13.7 11.4
2.23 Nearest neighbor (Å) [Ne]3s23p2 Liquid 1.78 1.42
1s2 2s1 1s2 2s2 Silicon 1s2 2s2 2p1 1s2 2s2 2p2 1s2 2s2 2p3 1s2 2s2 2p4 1s2 2s2 2p5 1s2 2s2 2p6
Electron Synthetically
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
configuration prepared
Name
11 22.990
1 12 24.31
2 13 26.98
3 14 28.09
4 15 30.974
3,5,4 16 32.066
2,4,6 17 35.453
1,3,5,7 18 39.948
1,3,5,7

Na Mg References: International Tables for X-ray Crystallography (Reidel, London, 1983) (Ref. 44)
Al Si P S Cl Ar
0.97 1.74 2.70 2.33 1.82 2.09
2.53 4.30 6.02 4.99 3.54 3.92
3.20 and J.R. De Laeter and K.G. Heumann (Ref. 46, 1991). 2.86 2.35
[Ne]3s1 [Ne]3s2 [Ne]3s23p1 [Ne]3s23p2 [Ne]3s23p3 [Ne]3s23p4 [Ne]3s23p5 [Ne]3s23p6
Sodium Magnesium IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA IB IIB Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon

19 39.098
1 20 40.08
2 21 44.96
3 22 47.88
4,3 23 50.94
5,4,3,2 24 52.00
6,3,2 25 7,6,4,2,3
54.94
26 55.85
2,3 27 58.93
2,3 28 58.69
2,3 29 63.55
2,1 30 65.39
2 31 69.72
3 32 72.61
4 33 74.92
3,5 34 78.96
–2,4,6 35 79.904
1,5 36 83.80

K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
0.86 1.53 2.99 4.51 6.09 7.19 7.47 7.87 8.82 8.91 8.93 7.13 5.91 5.32 5.78 4.81 3.12
1.33 2.30 4.01 5.67 7.20 8.33 8.19 8.49 9.01 9.14 8.47 6.57 5.10 4.42 4.64 3.67 2.35
3.95 3.25 2.89 2.62 2.50 2.48 2.50 2.49 2.56 2.67 2.44 2.45 2.51 2.32
[Ar]4s1 [Ar]4s2 [Ar]3d14s2 [Ar]3d24s2 [Ar]3d34s2 [Ar]3d54s1 [Ar]3d54s2 [Ar]3d64s2 [Ar]3d74s2 [Ar]3d84s2 [Ar]3d104s1 [Ar]3d104s2 [Ar]3d104s24p1 [Ar]3d104s24p2 [Ar]3d104s24p3 [Ar]3d104s24p4 [Ar]3d104s24p5 [Ar]3d104s24p6
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton

37 85.47
1 38 87.62
2 39 88.91
3 40 91.22
4 41 92.91
5,3 42 95.94
6,3,2 43 7
(98)
44 2,3,4,6,8
101.1
45 102.91
2,3,4 46 106.4
2,4 47 107.87
1 48 112.41
2 49 114.82
3 50 118.71
4,2 51 121.76
3,5 52 127.60
–2,4,6 53 126.90
1,5,7 54 131.29

Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
1.53 2.58 4.48 6.51 8.58 10.2 11.5 12.4 12.4 12.0 10.5 8.65 7.29 7.29 6.69 6.25 4.95
1.08 1.78 3.03 4.30 5.56 6.42 7.07 7.36 7.27 6.79 5.86 4.63 3.82 3.70 3.31 2.95 2.35
4.30 3.55 3.18 2.86 2.73 2.70 2.65 2.69 2.75 2.89 2.98 3.25 3.02 2.90 2.86
[Kr]5s1 [Kr]5s2 [Kr]4d15s2 [Kr]4d25s2 [Kr]4d45s1 [Kr]4d55s1 [Kr]4d55s2 [Kr]4d75s1 [Kr]4d85s1 [Kr]4d10 [Kr]4d105s1 [Kr]4d105s2 [Kr]4d105s25p1 [Kr]4d105s25p2 [Kr]4d105s25p3 [Kr]4d105s25p4 [Kr]4d105s25p5 [Kr]4d105s25p6
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon

55 132.91
1 56 137.33
2 57 138.91
3 72 178.49
4 73 180.95
5 74 6,5,4,3,2
183.85
75 7,6,4,2,–1
186.21
76 2,3,4,6,8
190.2
77 192.2
2,3,4,6 78 195.08
2,4 79 197.0
3,1 80 200.59
2,1 81 204.38
3,1 82 207.2
4,2 83 208.98
3,5 84 (209)
4,2 85 (210)
1,3,5,7 86 (222)

Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
1.90 3.59 6.17 13.3 16.7 19.3 21.0 22.6 22.6 21.4 19.3 11.9 11.3 9.80 9.27
0.86 1.58 2.68 4.48 5.55 6.31 6.80 7.15 7.07 6.62 5.89 3.50 3.30 2.82 2.67
4.35 3.73 3.13 2.86 2.74 2.74 2.68 2.71 2.78 2.88 3.41 3.50 3.11 3.35
[Xe]6s1 [Xe]6s2 [Xe]5d16s2 [Xe]4f145d26s2 [Xe]4f145d36s2 [Xe]4f145d46s2 [Xe]4f145d56s2 [Xe]4f145d66s2 [Xe]4f145d76s2 [Xe]4f145d96s1 [Xe]4f145d106s1 [Xe]4f145d106s2 [Xe]4f145d106s26p1 [Xe]4f145d106s26p2 [Xe]4f145d106s26p3 [Xe]4f145d106s26p4 [Xe]4f145d106s26p5 [Xe]4f145d106s26p6
Cesium Barium Lanthanum Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon

87 (223)
1 88 (226)
2 89 (227)
3 104 (261)
105 (262)
106 (266)
107 (264)
108 (277)
109 (268)
110 (271)
111 (272)
112 (283)
114 (287)

Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt
10.1
2.67
3.76
[Rn]7s1 [Rn]7s2 [Rn]6d17s2 [Rn]5f146d27s2 [Rn]5f146d37s2 [Rn]5f146d47s2 [Rn]5f146d57s2 [Rn]5f146d67s2 [Rn]5f146d77s2
Francium Radium Actinium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium

58 140.12
3,4 59 140.91
3,4 60 144.24
3 61 (145)
3 62 150.36
3,2 63 152.0
3,2 64 157.25
3 65 158.93
3,4 66 162.50
3 67 164.93
3 68 167.26
3 69 168.93
3,2 70 173.04
3,2 71 174.97
3

Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
6.77 6.78 7.00 7.54 5.25 7.87 8.27 8.53 8.80 9.04 9.33 6.97 9.84
Lanthanide series 2.91
3.65
2.90
3.64
2.92
3.63
3.02
3.59
2.08
3.97
3.01
3.58
3.13
3.53
3.16
3.51
3.21
3.49
3.26
3.47
3.32
3.45
2.42
3.88
3.39
3.43
[Xe]4f15d16s2 [Xe]4f36s2 [Xe]4f46s2 [Xe]4f56s2 [Xe]4f66s2 [Xe]4f76s2 [Xe]4f75d16s2 [Xe]4f96s2 [Xe]4f106s2 [Xe]4f116s2 [Xe]4f126s2 [Xe]4f136s2 [Xe]4f146s2 [Xe]4f145d16s2
Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium

90 232.05
4 91 231.04
5,4 92 238.03
6,5,4,3 93 (237)
6,5,4,3 94 (244)
6,5,4,3 95 (243)
6,5,4,3 96 3
(247)
97 (247)
4,3 98 (251)
3 99 (252)
100 (257)
101 (258)
102 (259)
103 (262)

Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
11.7 15.4 19.1 20.5 19.8 11.9
Actinide series 3.04
3.60
4.01
3.21
4.82
2.75
5.20 4.89 2.94
3.61
[Rn]6d27s2 [Rn]5f26d17s2 [Rn]5f36d17s2 [Rn]5f46d17s2 [Rn]5f67s2 [Rn]5f77s2 [Rn]5f76d17s2 [Rn]5f97s2 [Rn]5f107s2 [Rn]5f117s2 [Rn]5f127s2 [Rn]5f137s2 [Rn]5f147s2 [Rn]5f146d17s2
Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Periodic_Tb_clr_May2007.ai
Typical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

• Surface science
• Magnetic materials
• Materials chemistry
• Environmental sciences
• Protein crystallogrphy
• Biomicroscopy
• Chemical dynamics

David Attwood Lecture 1 Intro to Sychrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007


Bright and Powerful X-Rays
from Relativistic Electrons

e– S
ψ N
e–
θ S
N
N
S
N
S

Synchrotron radiation Undulator radiation

• 1010 brighter than the • Lasers exist for the IR, visible,
most powerful (compact) UV, VUV, and EUV
laboratory source
• Undulator radiation is quasi-
• An x-ray “light bulb” in monochromatic and highly
that it radiates all “colors” directional, approximating
(wavelengths, photons energies) many of the desired properties
of an x-ray laser

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 BrightPowrfulXRs.ai
Synchrotron Radiation from Relativistic Electrons

v << c v <c
~

λ′ v λx

λ′

Note: Angle-dependent doppler shift

λ = λ′ (1 – vc cosθ) λ = λ′ γ (1 – vc cosθ) —
~ λ′ (1 + γ2θ2)

1
γ=
v2
1– 2
c
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F09VG_Jan07.ai
Synchrotron Radiation in a Narrow Forward Cone

Frame moving with electron Laboratory frame of reference

a′ sin2Θ′
Θ′
1
θ~
– γ
2

(5.1)

(5.2)

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F11VG.ai
Relativistic Electrons Radiate
in a Narrow Forward Cone

Dipole radiation

a′ sin2Θ′
Θ′
1
θ γ
2

Frame of reference Laboratory frame of reference


moving with electrons

k′ Lorentz k
k′x transformation kx = k′x
θ′ θ
k′z
kz = 2γk′z(Relativistic Doppler shift)
k′ = 2π/λ′
x k k′ tanθ′ 1
θ k  x = 
z 2γk′z 2γ 2γ

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F11modif_VG.ai
Some Useful Formulas for Synchrotron Radiation

1 1 v 1
γ= = ; β= c ; (1 – β)  2
2
1 – v2

1 – β2
c
Ee = γmc2, p = γmv
Ee
γ= = 1957 Ee(GeV)
mc2
ω  λ = 1239.842 eV  nm

Bending Magnet: ,

Undulator: ;

where

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_UsefulFormulas.ai
Three Forms of Synchrotron Radiation

1
γ
λ
F Bending magnet
radiation
e–
ω
1
>>
γ

e– F Wiggler radiation

λ
ω

1
γ N
e– F Undulator radiation
λ

ω

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F01_03.ai
Third Generation Facilities, Like Electtra,
Have Many Straight Sections and a Small
Electron Beam

Modern Synchrotron
Radiation Facility

Photons • Many straight sections for


undulators and wigglers
e–

• Many straight • Brighter radiation for


X-ray
sections containing spatially resolved studies
periodic magnetic
structures
(smaller beam more
suitable for microscopies)
UV • Tightly controlled
electron beam
• Interesting coherence properties
at very short wavelengths

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 3rdGenFacilities_Jan06.ai
Third Generation Synchrotron Facilities
ESRF 6 GeV France
ALS 1.9 GeV USA
APS 7 GeV USA
BESSY II 1.7 GeV Germany
ELETTRA 2.0 GeV Italy
SPring-8 8 GeV Japan
MAX II 1.5 GeV Sweden
SLS 2.4 GeV Switzerland
PLS 2 GeV Korea
SRRC 1.4 GeV Taiwan
SSRL 3 GeV USA
CLS 2.9 GeV Canada
Soleil 2.5 GeV France
Diamond 3 GeV UK
Facilities Under Construction
Australian 3 GeV Australia
Light Source
Others are in the design stage or planning an upgrade to third generation.
Courtesy of Herman Winick, SSRL, Stanford
www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/SR_SOURCES.HTML
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 3rdGenSynchFacil_Jan07.ai
Synchrotron Radiation
Photons

e–
• Many straight
sections containing X-ray
periodic magnetic
(5.80)
structures
UV • Tightly controlled
(5.82)
electron beam

(5.85)

2 ns
Ne 70 ps

S
t
N
S e–
N
Undulator N
radiation S
N
S λu

λ
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F00VG_Jan06.ai
Bending Magnet Radiation Covers a Broad
Region of the Spectrum, Including the
Primary Absorption Edges of Most Elements
e–
ψ
Ee = 1.9 GeV
θ ALS Ι = 400 mA
1014
B = 1.27 T
ωc = 3.05 keV

Photon flux (ph/sec)


1013

(5.7a) 1012
50% 50%
(5.7b) ∆θ = 1mrad Ec
1011 ∆ω/ω = 0.1% 4Ec
(5.8)
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Advantages: • covers broad spectral range Photon energy (keV)
• least expensive
• most accessable
Disadvantages: • limited coverage of
hard x-rays
• not as bright as undulator
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F07_revJune05.ai
Undulator Radiation from a Small Electron Beam
Radiating into a Narrow Forward Cone is Very Bright

Magnetic undulator λu
~ λu
(N periods) λ–
λ 2γ2
1
θcen ~

γ N

Relativistic ∆λ  = 1
electron beam,  λ cen N
Ee = γmc2

photon flux
Brightness =
(∆A) (∆Ω)

photon flux
Spectral Brightness =
(∆A) (∆Ω) (∆λ/λ)

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F08_Jan07.ai
An Undulator Up Close

ALS U5 undulator, beamline 7.0, N = 89, λu = 50 mm

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Undulator_Close_Jan07.ai
Undulator Radiation

Laboratory Frame Frame of Frame of Following


of Reference Moving e– Observer Monochromator
λu sin2Θ θ ~
1
– 2γ θcen
N S N S e–
e–
S N S N

E = γmc2 e– radiates at the Doppler shortened For ∆λ ~



1
λ N
Lorentz contracted wavelength on axis:
1 wavelength: 1
γ= λ = λ′γ(1 – βcosθ) θcen ~
– γ
v2 λ N
1–
c2 λ′ = γu
λu typically
N = # periods λ= (1 + γ2θ2)
Bandwidth: 2γ2 θcen ~
– 40 rad
λ′ ~
– N Accounting for transverse
∆λ′ motion due to the periodic
magnetic field:
λu K2 γ 2 2
λ= (1 + + θ )
2γ 2 2

where K = eB0λu /2πmc


Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_LG186.ai
The Equation of Motion in an Undulator

Magnetic fields in the periodic undulator cause the electrons to oscillate and thus
radiate. These magnetic fields also slow the electrons axial (z) velocity somewhat,
reducing both the Lorentz contraction and the Doppler shift, so that the observed
radiation wavelength is not quite so short. The force equation for an electron is
dp y
= –e(E + v × B) (5.16)
dt By = Bo cos 2πz
λu
where p = γmv is the momentum. The
x
radiated fields are relatively weak so that
dp
 –e(v × B) v
dt
e– z

Taking to first order v  vz, motion in the x-direction is

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F15_Eq16_19.top.ai
Calculating Power in the Central Radiation Cone: Using
the well known “dipole radiation” formula by transforming
to the frame of reference moving with the electrons

x, z, t laboratory frame of reference x′, z′, t′ frame of reference moving with the
average velocity of the electron

e– e–
γ* z λu
λu′ =
γ*
λu N periods Lorentz
transformation x′, z′, t′ motion
Determine x, z, t motion: a′(t′) acceleration
dp
= –e (E + v × B) Dipole radiation:
dt
dP′ e2 a′2 sin2 Θ′
dv dz 2πz =
mγ x = e B0 cos dΩ′ 16π20c3
dt dt λu

vx(t); ax(t) = . . . dP′ e2 cγ2 K2 2 2 2


= 2 2 2 (1–sin θ′ cos φ′) cos ω′ut′
dΩ′ 40λu (1 + K /2)
vz(t); az(t) = . . .
x x′
1 sin2Θ′
θcen = Lorentz transformation
γ* N Θ′
θ′
λ z z′
=N
∆λ
λ′
=N
∆λ′

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_T4_topVG.ai
Power in the Central Cone

N periods
λu
K2 γ 2 2 e–
λx = (1 + + θ )
2 γ 2 2

πeγ 2I K2
Pcen = 2 f(K)
0λu (1 + K )2 λu
2
1
1 θcen = ∗1 γ∗
θcen = γ N
γ∗ N
2.00
ALS, 1.9 GeV
∆λ 1 400 mA Tuning
=
 λ  cen N 1.50 λu = 8 cm curve
N = 55
Pcen (W)

K = 0.5-4.0
eB0λu 1.00
K=
2πm0c λ
=N
0.50 ∆λ
2
γ∗ = γ / 1 + K
2 0
0 100 200 300 400
Photon energy (eV)

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_LG189_Jan06.ai
Power in the Central Radiation Cone
For Three Soft X-Ray Undulators
2.5
ALS
1
2 γ = 3720 θcen =
n=1 γ* N
λu = 50 mm
1.5 N = 89 ∆λ = 1
Pcen (W) λ = 89 Ι = 400 mA  λ 1 N
1 ∆λ θcen = 35 µr
∆λ = 1
0.5 λ = 270 n=3  λ 3 3N
∆λ
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
1.0 BESSY II
γ = 3330
0.8 n=1 λu = 49 mm
N = 84
Pcen (W) 0.6 λ = 84 Ι = 200 mA
0.4 ∆λ
θcen = 35 µr
0.2 λ = 250
n=3
∆λ
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
1
MAX II
n=1 γ = 2940
λu = 52 mm
N = 49
Pcen (W) 0.5 Ι = 250 mA
n=3 θcen = 59 µr

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Photon Energy (eV)
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 PwrCenRadCnALSbessyMAX.ai
Power in the Central Radiation Cone
For Three Hard X-Ray Undulators

15
ESRF 1
θcen =
n=1 γ = 11,800 γ* N
10 λu = 42 mm
N = 38 ∆λ = 1
Pcen (W) λ = 38  λ 1 N
∆λ Ι = 200 mA
5 θcen = 17 µr
∆λ = 1
λ = 120 n=3  λ 3 3N
∆λ
0
0 5 10 15 20 25

15
APS
n=1 γ = 13,700
10 λu = 33 mm
Pcen (W) N = 72
Ι = 100 mA
5 n=3
θcen = 11 µr

0
0 10 20 30 40

20
SPring-8
γ = 15,700
15
λu = 32 mm
N = 140
n=1
Pcen (W) 10 Ι = 100 mA
θcen = 6.6 µr
5 n=3

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Photon Energy (keV)

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_PwrCenRadCone3.ai
Brightness and Spectral Brightness

Brightness is defined as radiated power per unit


area and per unit solid angle at the source:
∆Ωs ∆Ωi
∆As
θs θi
(5.57) ds ∆Ai

Brightness is a conserved quantity in perfect η


optical systems, and thus is useful in designing
beamlines and synchrotron radiation experiments Perfect optical system:
which involve focusing to small areas. ∆As  ∆Ωs = ∆Ai  ∆Ωi ; η = 100%

Spectral brightness is that portion of the brightness lying within a relative spectral bandwidth ∆ω/ω:

(5.58) ∆ω
B
ω

ω

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_Eq57_58VG_Jan2006.ai
Spectral Brightness is Useful for Experiments
that Involve Spatially Resolved Studies

• Brightness is conserved
12 nm 1.2 nm 0.12 nm
1020 (in lossless optical systems)
6-8 GeV θsource
1019 θoptic
Undulators dsource
1-2 GeV
Spectral brightness

1018 Undulators dfocus

1017

dsource  θsource = dfocus  θoptic


10 16 Wigglers

1015
Smaller Large in a
Bending after focus focusing optic
magnets
1014
10 eV 100 eV 1 keV 10 keV 100 keV • Starting with many photons in a
Photon energy small source area and solid angle,
permits high photon flux in an
even smaller area

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F24VG_Feb04.ai
Coherence at Short Wavelengths

d λ
lcoh = λ2/2∆λ {temporal (longitudinal) coherence} (8.3)
θ
d  θ = λ/2π {spatial (transverse) coherence} (8.5)

or d  2θFWHM = 0.44 λ (8.5*)

e–

λu

λ
(λ/2π)2
Pcoh,N = P (8.6)
(dxθx)(dyθy) cen

eλuIη(∆λ/λ)N2  ω 
Pcoh,λ/∆λ =  1– ƒ(K) (8.9)
8π0dxdy  ω0
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch08_F00_Jan07.ai
Spatial and Spectral Filtering to Produce
Coherent Radiation

Courtesy of A. Schawlow, Stanford


David Attwood Lecture 1 Intro to Sychrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007
Spatially Coherent Undulator Radiation

λ = 13.4 nm λ = 2.5 nm

1 µmD pinhole
25 mm wide CCD at 410 mm

λ
d?θ=

Courtesy of Patrick Naulleau, LBNL / Kris Rosfjord, UCB and LBNL


David Attwood Lecture 1 Intro to Sychrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007
Coherent Power at the ALS

U5
2.5

2.0
1.9 GeV, 400 mA
n=1
λu = 50 mm, N = 89
Pcen (W)

1.5 0.5 ≤ K ≤ 4.0


1.0 σx = 260 µm, σx′ = 23 µr
n=3 σy = 16 µm, σy′ = 3.9 µr
0.5
ηeuv = 10%, ηsxr = 2%
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Photon Energy (eV)
50
400 80
40

Pcoh, n = 3 (µW)
Pcoh, λ/∆λ (µW)
Pcoh, N (mW)

300 n=1 60
30
λ = 89 n=1 λ = 103
200 40
20 ∆λ ∆λ
n=3
10 100 λ = 103 20
n=3 ∆λ
0 0 0
102 103 102 103
Photon Energy (eV) Photon Energy (eV)
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch09_U5cohPwrALS_Feb06.ai
Coherent Power at BESSY II

1.0
1.7 GeV, 200 mA
0.8 λu = 49 mm, N = 84
Pcen (W)

0.6 n=1 0 ≤ K ≤ 2.5


0.4
σx = 314 µm, σx′ = 18 µr
σy = 24 µm, σy′ = 2 µr
0.2 n=3 ηeuv = 10% ; ηsxr = 2%
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Photon Energy (eV)
150 30
15

Pcoh, n = 3 (µW)
Pcoh, λ/∆λ (µW)
Pcoh, N (mW)

100 20
n=1
10
λ = 84 λ = 103
n=1 50 10
∆λ ∆λ
5
λ = 103 n=3
n=3 ∆λ
0 0 0
102 103 102 103
Photon Energy (eV) Photon Energy (eV)

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch08_BESSYII_Feb06.ai
Spatially Coherent Soft X-Rays With Pinhole
Spatial Filtering: Airy Patterns at 600 eV

λ = 2.48 nm (600 eV)


d = 2.5 µm
t = 200 msec
ALS beamline 12.0.2
λu = 80 mm, N = 55, n = 3

Courtesy of Kristine Rosfjord, UC Berkeley and LBNL


Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 AiryPattrn600eV.ai
S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W.F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt & J. Stöhr / Nature, 16 Dec 2004
David Attwood Lecture 1 Intro to Sychrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007
The Transition from Undulator Radiation (K ≤ 1)
to Wiggler Radiation (K >> 1)
λu = 5 cm, N = 89
Undulator radiation (K <
~ 1) dP
K=1 α≠0
Spectral brightness

dΩ
• Narrow spectral lines
• High spectral brightness

1.5 GeV
• Partial coherence
400 mA
λu  K2 γ2 2 
→0 λ= 1 + + θ 
∆θ → 0 2γ2  2

eBoλu 1/N
K=
K=2 2πmc
Spectral brightness

f1 f3 … fn fn + 2
Frequency (f)

1016

Photon flux (photons/sec · 0.1% BW)


Elettra
2 GeV
0.4 A
Wiggler radiation (K >> 1) λu = 6.0 cm
K=4 1015 N = 72
Spectral brightness

• Higher photon energies K = 3.7


• Spectral continuum nc = 22
• Higher photon flux (2N)
1014
3 γ2eBo
ωc =
2 m

3K  K2 
nc = 1 +
0 1 2 3 4 4  2  1013 1
Photon energy (KeV) 10 102 103 104
(Courtesy of K.-J. Kim) Photon energy (eV)
(Courtesy of R.P. Walker and B. Diviacco)

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F30_32VG.ai
Wiggler Radiation
At very high K >> 1, the radiated energy appears in very high harmonics, and at rather large
horizontal angles θ  ±K/γ (eq. 5.21). Because the emission angles are large, one tends to
use larger collection angles, which tends to spectrally merge nearby harmonics. The result
is a continuum at very high photon energies, similar to that of bending magnet radiation,
but increased by 2N (the number of magnet pole pieces).

; (5.7a & 82)

104
Photon flux per unit solid angle

Wiggler
Radiation
per 0.1% bandwidth

103
(relative units)

2N
102 ωc

Bending
10 Magnet
Radiation
1
10 102 103 104
Photon energy (relative units)

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_Eq82_87_F33rev3.02.ai
Stanford Permanent Magnet Wiggler

LBNL/EXXON/SSRL (1982), SSRL Beamline VI


55 pole (N = 27.5), λw = 7 cm
Professor David Attwood
Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 StanfordWiggler.ai
Typical Parameters for
Synchrotron Radiation

Facility ALS BESSY II ESRF SP-8


Electron energy 1.90 GeV 1.70 GeV 6.04 GeV 8.00 GeV
γ 3720 3330 11,800 15,700
Current (mA) 400 200 200 100
Circumference (m) 197 240 884 1440
RF frequency (MHz) 500 500 352 509
Pulse duration (FWHM) (ps) 35-70 20-50 70 120

Bending Magnet Radiation:


Bending magnet field (T) 1.27 1.30 0.806 0.679
Critical photon energy (keV) 3.05 2.50 19.6 28.9
Critical photon wavelength 0.407 nm 0.50 nm 0.634 Å 0.429 Å
Bending magnet sources 24 32 32 23

Undulator Radiation:
Number of straight sections 12 16 32 48
Undulator period (typical) (cm) 5.00 4.90 4.20 3.20
Number of periods 89 84 38 140
Photon energy (K = 1, n = 1) 457 eV 373 eV 5.50 keV 12.7 keV
Photon wavelength (K = 1, n = 1) 2.71 nm 3.32 nm 0.225 nm 0.979 Å
Tuning range (n = 1) 230-620 eV 140-500 eV 2.6-7.3 keV 4.7-19 keV
Tuning range (n = 3) 690-1800 eV 410-1100 eV 7.7-22 keV 16-51 keV
Central cone half-angle (K = 1) 35 µrad 33 µrad 17 µrad 6.6 µrad
Power in central cone (K = 1, n = 1) (W) 2.3 0.95 14 16
Flux in central cone (photons/s) 3.1 × 1016 1.6 × 1016 1.6 × 1016 7.9 × 1015
σx, σy (µm) 260, 16 314, 24 395, 9.9 380, 6.8
σx, σy (µrad) 23, 3.9 18, 12 11, 3.9 16, 1.8
Brightness (K = 1, n = 1)a
[(photons/s)/mm2  mrad2  (0.1%BW)] 2.3 × 1019 4.6 × 1018 5.1 × 1018 1.8 × 1020
Total power (K = 1, all n, all θ) (W) 83 32 480 2,000
Other undulator periods (cm) 3.65, 8.00, 10.0 4.1, 5.6, 12.5 2.3, 3.2, 5.2, 8.5 2.4, 10.0, 3.7, 12.0

Wiggler Radiation:
Wiggler period (typical) (cm) 16.0 12.5 8.0 12.0
Number of periods 19 32 20 37
Magnetic field (maximum) (T) 2.1 1.15 0.81 1.0
K (maximum) 32 12.8 6.0 11
Critical photon energy (keV) 5.1 2.11 20 43
Critical photon wavelength 0.24 nm 0.59 nm 0.62 Å 0.29 Å
Total power (max. K) (kW) 13 1.8 4.8 18
aUsing Eq. (5.65). See comments following Eq. (5.64) for the case where σx, y  θcen.

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 TypicalParametersSynchRad.ai
Beamlines are Used to Transport Photons to
the Sample, and Take a Desired Spectral Slice

Observe at sample:
Photon Photon
flux flux
• Absorption spectra
• Photoelectron spectra
ω ω • Diffraction

e– Exit
Grating Sample
slit
or crystal Curved Focusing
focusing lens (pair
Monochromator mirror of curved
(glancing mirrors,
incidence zone plate
reflection) lens, etc.)

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_F01b_BLtransport.ai
A Typical Beamline:
Monochromator Plus Focusing Optics
to Deliver Radiation to the Sample

Bending M1 (spherical)
Magnet

e– M2 (spherical)

Plane VLS
gratings
G3
Detector
G2
G1
Scan
Fixed
exit Sample
slit
Courtesy of James Underwood (EUV Technology Inc.)

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 XBD9509-04496_Jan04.ai
High Spectral Resolution (meV) Beamline

Horizontial
deflection/
Sample focusing Horizontal
mirror focusing
mirror

Translating Spherical
exit slit grating
Vertical Translating
focusing entrance
mirror slit
Vertical
focusing
mirror Elliptically
Polarizing
Undulator

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 meVresBL.ai
Beamline 7.0 at Berkeley’s Advanced Light Source

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 BL7.0.ai
Variable Polarization Undulator Radiation

Crossed planar 0°
undulators

π/2
e–
Aperture and π
monochromator
Variable phase delay –π/2
y (electron path length modulator)
x

1 2 z

(Courtesy of Kwang-Je Kim)

(a) (b)

e– e–

y x
λu
(Following S. Sasaki) z

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_VariablePolar.ai
A Single Storage Ring Serves
Many Scientific User Groups

David Attwood Lecture 1 Intro to Sychrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007


References

1) D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation


(Cambridge, UK, 2000).
2) P. Duke, Synchrotron Radiation (Oxford, UK, 2000).
3) J. Als-Nielsen and D. McMorrow, Elements of Modern X-ray Physics
(Wiley, New York, 2001).
4) J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1999).
Third edition.
5) A. Hofmann, Synchrotron Radiation (Cambridge, UK, 2004).
6) J. Samson and D. Ederer, Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy I and II
(Academic Press, San Diego, 1998). Paperback available.

Professor David Attwood


Univ. California, Berkeley Intro to Synchrotron Radiation, EE290F, 16 Jan 2007 Ch05_References.ai