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# INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD-ANALYTICAL METHOD

Considering two-pole
two pole machine with three phase windings on the stator.
stator

Resultant
R lt t MMF wave att any point
i t in
i the
th air
i gap, defined
d fi d by
b an angle
l θm .
The origin of the angle θm can be chosen to be the axis of phase u. At any
instant of time, all three phases contribute to the air gap mmf along the path
defined by θm. The mmf along θm is
F ( m )  Fu ( m )  Fv ( m )  Fw ( m )
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD-ANALYTICAL METHOD

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## Where N is the effective number of turns in phase U,

U and iu is current in phase U
Fu ( m )  N  iu  cos( m )
Because the phase axes are shifted from each other by 120 electrical degrees,
degrees
the contributions from phases V and W are, respectively

Fv ( m )  N  iv  cos( m  120º )
Fw ( m )  N  iw  cos( m  120º )

point θ is:

## F ( m , t )  N  iu t   cos( m )  N  iv t   cos( m  120 º )  N  iw t   cos( m  120 º )

Th currents
The t iu, iv, iw, are:
iu t   I m cos s t 
iv t   I m cos s t  120º 
iw t   I m cos s t  120º 
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD-ANALYTICAL METHOD
F ( m , t )  N  I m  cos( s  t )  cos( m )  N  I m  cos( s  t  120º )  cos( m  120 º )  N  I m  cos( s  t  120º )  cos( m  120 º )

cos A  B   cos A  B 
1 1
cos A  cos B 
2 2

3
F ( m , t )  N  I m  cos( s  t   m )
2

## In general for a P-pole machine,

machine that is 2p poles,
poles we have:
F ( m , t ) F ( m , t )
H  m , t   B m , t    0
3N
F ( m , t )   I m  cos( s  t  p  m )
2 p g g

Resultant mmf wave in the air-gap rotating at the constant angular velocity Ωs
3N
 s  t  p  m  0  F ( m , t )   Im
2 p
s d m  s
m  t  
p dt p
s  rad  2 f s 30 60 f s
s   s    ns r. p.m
p p  p
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD-ANALYTICAL METHOD

5
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## SYNCHRONOUS SPEED, ASYNCHRONOUS SPEED, AND SLIP SPEED

The speed of the magnetic rotating field is the synchronous speedspeed. For a
induction motor with P poles, the synchronous speed is given in r/min as:

 rev  120 f s 60 f s 60 f s
ns     
 min  P P p
2
where, fs is the stator frequency in Hertz, and ns is the synchronous speed in
r/min
r/min.
However, the rotor rotates at a speed slightly slower than the synchronous
speed. This difference between speeds is called the slip speed and it is given
as:
nslip  ns  nm

where,
h nm isi th
the mechanical
h i l speedd iin r/min
/ i off th
the rotor,
t andd ns is
i th
the slip
li speed
d
in r/min. Moreover, the slip speed can also be defined in a per unit system as
the slip, s, as given in:
ns  nm
s
ns
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
SYNCHRONOUS SPEED, ASYNCHRONOUS SPEED, AND SLIP SPEED

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## It also can be expressed as

s  rev 
 m n 
n s  nm  s   m p  min  m
s  
ns s s 

p  s m
So: s  2  f s
nm  1  s  ns  m  1  s   s

## Frequency of the rotor voltages and currents

s  m
s
s
s  m  s s

r 
P
 s   m   P s  s   s  P  s   s  s fr  s fs
2 2 2 
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## SYNCHRONOUS SPEED, ASYNCHRONOUS SPEED, AND SLIP SPEED

We have seen that the speed of the magnetic rotating field produced by a
currents of fs, respect to the reference system of the stator (fixed) is:
60 f s
ns 
p
On the other hand, the currents of the rotor of frequency sfs produces another
rotating
g magnetic
g field, which respect
p to the reference system
y attached to the
rotor turns at:
60 s f s
nsr   s ns
p
With the rotor revolving in the same direction of rotation as the stator field, the
rotor currents produce a rotating flux wave rotating at sns with respect to the
rotor in the forward direction.

With respect to the stator, the speed of the flux wave produced by the rotor
currents (with frequency sfs ) equals:

s ns  nm  s ns  ns 1  s   ns

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
TORQUE IN ROTOR
The N-S poles created by the stator sweeps to the right at synchronous speed
nS. The flux per pole is distributed sinusoidally
sinusoidally. The rotor is also moving to the
right at a speed nm
A voltage E=B·l·(s-m ) is induced in each conductor while it is being cut by
the mutual flux that crosses the air gap.
 The induced voltage immediately produces a current i, which flows down the
conductor undeaneath the pole-face
pole face, through the end bars,
bars and back through the
other conductors.
 Because the current-carrying conductor lies in the magnetic field of the
permanentt magnet,
t it experiences
i a mechanical
h i l fforce F=l·i·B;
F liB
 the force always acts in a direction to drag the conductor along with the
magnetic
g field.

10
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

TORQUE IN ROTOR

The inducted voltage E its in phase with the flux, but the current I lags an angle 
due to the RL load due to the bars. This lagging reduces the torque for the same
current.

11
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

TORQUE IN ROTOR

## Because the stator and rotor fields each rotate synchronously

synchronously, they are
stationary with respect to each other and produce a steady torque, thus
maintaining rotation of the rotor.
12
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
TORQUE IN ROTOR

Three-phase
p windings
g shifted 120eº

## A current flows through the rotor bars

 
Force applied on the rotor bars F  Il  B

## The rotor produces mechanical torque

The IM rotates 13
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
INDUCTION MOTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
The rotor currents, Ir produce additional air gap flux, which is 90º out of phase of
the magnetizing flux.
flux But the stator voltage,
voltage is applied externally and it is
proportional to and 90º out of phase of the air gap flux. Additional currents, will
flow in the stator windings in order to cancel the flux due to the rotor currents.
Per phase transformer-like equivalent circuit
circuit.

## Purely resistive conductors

14
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
INDUCTION MOTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

## Effect of Rotor Inductance on Torque:

C
Current t lags
l since
i peakk currentt occurs after
ft Iron losses are no taken into account,
stator pole passes by reducing the torque i.e. Ife=0

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
PER PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
TORQUE
1 s 
Pmi  3 Rr '   I r ' 
2

 s 
1 s  1 s 
 I r '   I r ' 3 r  I r '
3 Rr ' 
2
3 Rr ' 
2 R' 2
P
Ti  mi   s    s   s
m m  s 1  s  s

Ir ' 
U 1
f

2
 R '
 Rs  r    X s  X r '
2

 s 

3 r  I r '
R'
s
2 R'
3 r U 1f
s
 
2

Ti  
s  Rr ' 
2

 s  Rs     X s  X r ' 2

 s  
Rr ' f 2
3
s
U1  
Ti 
 Rr ' 
2

 s  Rs     X s  X r ' 2

 s  
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
Rs=0.2268; Rr’=0.12528; Xs=0.51252; Xr’=0.76878; Rfe=185.1; Xm=9.8554; U1L=230

160
Torque [Nm]
T [N ]
140 Output power [CV]
Current [A]
Efficiencyy [[%]]
120
Power Factor*100

100

80

60

40

20

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Speed, rpm

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
Rs=0.2268; Rr’=0.12528; Xs=0.51252; Xr’=0.76878; Rfe=185.1; Xm=9.8554; U1L=230

160
Torque [Nm]
Output power [CV]
140
Current [A]
Efficiency [%]
120 Power Factor *100

100

80

60

40

20

0
900 920 940 960 980 1000
Speed, rpm
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

Speed-torque curve
150

100

50
Torque [Nm]

0
T

-50

-100

-150
150
-1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Shaft speed [rpm]
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

In the brake region, the rotor rotates in the opposite direction to that of the air
gap flux so that s>1. This condition may arise if the stator supply phase
sequence is reversed when the rotor is moving.
In the regenerating region the motor as acts as a generator . The rotor runs
nm>n
> s ,in
i the
th same direction
di ti as the
th stator
t t field,
fi ld so s<0.
<0 The
Th negativeti slip
li
corresponds to negative Rr/s . The positive resistance consumes energy during
motoring, but the negative Rr/s generates energy and supply it to the source.

nm and
d ns opposite
it sign
i 0 ≤ nm < ns n m > ns
s>1 s  (0,1) s<0
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## SPEED CONTROL-VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES

1 s  1 s 
 I r '   I r ' 3 r  I r '
3 Rr ' 
2
3 Rr ' 
2 R'
U 
2
f
P
Ti  mi   s    s   s Ir '  1
m m  s 1  s  s  R '
2

 Rs  r    X s  X r '
2

 s 

Rr ' f 2
s
3  
U1
s 2
R'
3 r U 1f
s
  2

Ti  
 Rr ' 
2
 s 2
 Rr ' 
2

 s  Rs     X s  X r ' 2
  s  sR     X s  X r ' 2

 s    s  

Ti 
 
3 s Rr ' U 1f
2

3 U 1f  
s
2
3 U 1f
s
  2
3 p U 1f   2 For low slip, i.e.,

 s s Rs  Rr '  s 2  X s  X r '
2 2

 s Rr ' s
Rr ' 2 f s Rr '
s very close to rated
speed
speed.
p

Ti 
 
3 p U 1f
2

s
 
3 p U 1f f r

3 p U 1f 
2 2
3 p U1f 
2

2 Rr ' f s
  fr
2 Rr ' f s f s 2 Rr '  f s  Ti    fr
2 Rr '  f s 
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF CONSTANT TORQUE MODE
1 kW, 4 pole, 1740 rev/min
416 V, 3-phase, 60 Hz

## RATED OPERATING MODE

The frequency applied to the stator is 60 Hz, so synchronous speed is 1800
rev/min. The motor develops rated torque at 1740 rev/min, which corresponds to
a slip of (1800-1740)=60
(1800 1740)=60 rev/min.
rev/min
The rotor frequency is fr=sf=((1800-1740)/1800)*60 Hz =2 Hz
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF CONSTANT TORQUE MODE

OPERATION AT 6.1 HZ
The frequency applied to the stator is 6.1 Hz, so synchronous speed is 183
rev/min. In order to produce the same torque as before the current in rotor
bars must be exactly as it was before in magnitude, frequency and phase.
This is realized when the slip speed is 60 rev/min. Thus full-load torque is
produced when the rotor turns at 183-60= 123 rev/min.
The induced
ind ced voltage
oltage in the stator is now
no less than before because
beca se the flux
fl is only
onl
turning at 183 rev/min. The value is 240V/1800 rev/min*183 rev/min= 24.4 V ;
frequency 6.1 Hz 24
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF CONSTANT TORQUE MODE

MOTOR STOPPED
The frequency applied to the stator is 2 Hz, so synchronous speed is 60
rev/min. In order to produce the same torque the slip speed must be again 60
rev/min This means that n=0
rev/min. n 0.
The induced voltage in the stator is 240V/1800 rev/min*60 rev/min= 8 V ;
frequency 2 Hz 25
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF CONSTANT TORQUE MODE

## MOTOR OPERATING AS A BRAKE

The frequency applied to the stator is 0.5 Hz, so synchronous speed is 15
rev/min. In order to produce the same torque the slip speed must be again 60
rev/min This means (15-60)=-45
rev/min. (15 60) 45 rev/min
rev/min. The flux and rotor turn in opposite
directions.
The induced voltage in the stator is 2V ; frequency 0.5 Hz 26
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF CONSTANT TORQUE MODE

ROTOR EXCITED BY DC
The frequency applied to the stator is 0 Hz, so synchronous speed is 15
rev/min. Nevertheless, the rated torque can again be obtained provided the
relative speed is 60 rev/min
rev/min. This happens when the rotor turns at 60 rev/min in
either direction. Again the rotor acts as a brake.
The induced voltage in the stator is 0V ; frequency 0Hz 27
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF CONSTANT TORQUE MODE

## OPERATION ABOVE BASE SPEED

The frequency applied to the stator is 150 Hz, so synchronous speed is 4500
rev/min. In order to produce the same torque the slip speed must be again 60
rev/min.
/ i The
Th rotor
t isi turning
t i att 4440 rev/min.
/ i
The induced voltage in the stator is 240/1800*4500= 600V ; frequency 150 Hz
28
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## Induction motor torque-speed for variable frequency

400
Frequency increment: 4.6667 Hz
Base curve(solidline): 50 Hz
350

300

250
N-m
Torque, N

200

150

100

50

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Speed, rpm

29
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## 5.5 kW, 50 Hz, 1440 rev/min4-poles

30
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

31
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
SPEED CONTROL-VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES

From minimun
F i i t base
to b speedd where
h t
torque remains
i constant,
t t andd beyong
b b
based
d
speed where due to a constant power limitation torque decreases with frequency
increase. 33
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## THE REQUIREMENTS FOR STOPPING

DYNAMIC BRAKING

The next figure shows the change in the motor torque when the converter output frequency is
suddenly reduced from f0 to f1. The slip changes from being positive (motoring) to negative
(generating) and the direction of energy flow is reversed,
reversed kinetic energy is converted to electrical
energy in the motor, which is then transferred from the motor to the converter.

## Torque–speed characteristics of an induction motor when frequency is

reduced from f0 to f1 34
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## THE REQUIREMENTS FOR STOPPING

DYNAMIC BRAKING

On PWM converters, which use a diode rectifier bridge, the braking current is blocked from
returning to the mains power supply. Therefore, unless some mechanism is provided to absorb this
energy during braking,
braking the voltage on the DC bus will rise to destructive levels.
levels
With dynamic braking, the braking energy is dissipated in a braking resistor connected
across the DC bus of the converter. As described above, braking is achieved by reducing the
inverter output frequency to be less than the actual rotor speed. The slip can be optimized to give
as high a torque per ampere as for motoring.
motoring
Power flow is from the motor back through the inverter to the DC bus. The braking energy cannot
be returned to the mains supply because the input rectifier can only transfer power in one
direction. Instead, the energy is absorbed by the DC capacitor, whose voltage rises. To prevent the
DC bus voltage rising to a dangerously high level, level the capacitor needs to be periodically
discharged. This is done by means of a dynamic brake module shown in the next figure, consisting
of a power electronic switch, usually an IGBT or BJT, and a discharge resistor connected across
the DC link capacitor.

35
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

DYNAMIC BRAKING

## PWM AC converter with a DC link dynamic brake

36
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## THE REQUIREMENTS FOR STOPPING

DYNAMIC BRAKING

The IGBT or BJT is controlled by a hysteresis circuit to turn on when the capacitor voltage is too high
and turn off when the voltage drops below a certain level.
Alternatively the IGBT may be switched on and off at constant frequency
Alternatively, frequency,
with duty cycle varying linearly between 0% and 100% as bus voltage changes over
specific range.

## DC bus voltage with hysteresis control on a dynamic brake

37
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## THE REQUIREMENTS FOR STOPPING

DYNAMIC BRAKING

The switching level of the braking IGBT should be chosen to be higher than the mains supply when it
is operating at highest voltage tolerance, but below the maximum safe switching voltage of the
inverter components. In practice, for a converter connected to a 3 3-phase
phase 415 volt supply, with a
nominal DC peak voltage of 586 V, the switching level would have to be set at least 10% above this
at 650 V, but below 800 V, which is the maximum safe operating voltage of the DC bus. A practical
switch-on level is typically 750 V, with the hysteresis between the upper and lower level being 20 V
to
o 30 V lower.
o e

A 22 kW VSD and motor combination must provide 100% rated motor torque while braking. The
maximum braking duty is 3 seconds in every 10 seconds.
Assume that the bus voltage during braking is 650 V DC and the DC bus over-voltage
over voltage trip level is set
at 700 V DC. What braking resistor should be used for the application?

To achieve rated torque while braking, the resistor must absorb a full 22 kW when the motor is at full
speed. Therefore,
speed e e o e, the
e maximum
a u DC C bus cu
current
e will be roughly
oug y

38
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## THE REQUIREMENTS FOR STOPPING

DYNAMIC BRAKING

To absorb 34 amps when the bus voltage is at 650 V DC, the braking resistor will need to have a
resistance of 650/34 = 19 ohms. If braking only occurs for 3 sec in every 10 sec, then the duty will
be 30%. The power rating of the braking resistor will then be 30% of 22 kW, which is approximately
7 kW continuous. Care must be taken to allow adequate excess power rating when selecting a
braking resistor, as the instantaneous power is very high and hot spots can cause premature
failure.
Thee maximum
a u transistor
a s s o cu
current
e will occu
occur a
at the
e maximum
a u DC C bus voltage
o age

## Allowing a safety margin, a braking transistor rated at 50 amps would be selected.

39
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
Examples, Three-Phase non filtered diagram

This figure
g shows an
example of 3P non
filtered PWM circuit
created to control an
induction motor.
motor The
configuration shown has
triplicated the opam
circuit explained
p before,
there is one modulator
per phase but a
commom carrier.

Note that every phase uses two transistors (IGBT) per phase to generate the final
signal not four as show before
signal, before, called half
half-bridge
bridge configuration.
configuration

40
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
Examples, Three-Phase non filtered diagram
Output, Sinusoidal
waveform current
(lik a 3P AC
(like
Input, current source)
DC line.
Voltage
does not
varies
though
titime.

## Input, Output, motor

Three torque.
q Depends
p
sinusoidal on all Inputs.
signal
waveform
A) Frequency variation  Input, One triangular signal waveform generator
Output frequency variation
C) Frequency variation  Higher PWM signal resolution
B) Amplitude variation   Output signal with less noise, higher frequency noise. 
Output amplitude variation Smaller torque variations.

41
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
A) Examples, Frequency Variation
Resultant currents
(Intensity)

Voltage
g signals
g

Variation of
Modulator signals
in PWM generator
generator.
60 Hz signal 0,2s

## 90 Hz signal 0,2s 30 Hz signal 0,2s

42
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
B) Examples, Amplitude Variation
Resultant currents
(Intensity)

Voltage signals
(A*=0,9 V)
Variation of
Modulator signals (Voltage)
in PWM generator
generator.
Original Voltage Signal 0,2s *RMS values

## Half Amplitude (A*=0,45 V) 0,2s Double Amplitude (A*=1,8 V) 0,2s

43
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
C) Examples, Carrier frequency variation
! Transistors must
Variation of Carrier signals in
support higher
PWM generator
generator. switching
it hi ffrequency
Double carrier frequency

## Resultant currents ((A)) Resultant currents (A)

Carrier and A-Phase signal (V) Carrier and A-Phase signal (V)

1,5KHz 3KHz

## A-Phase PWM signal (V) A-Phase

Source PWM signal (V)
signals
(Frequency)

44
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
C) Examples, Carrier frequency variation
Variation of Carrier signals in
PWM generator
generator.
Half carrier frequency

## Resultant currents ((A)) Resultant currents (A)

Carrier and A-Phase signal (V) Carrier and A-Phase signal (V)

1,5KHz 750Hz

## A-Phase PWM signal (V) A-Phase PWM signal (V)

45
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL
C) Transistor Switching

VV

V V VV

## A,B,C A,nB,nC NA,nB,nC NA,B,C NA,nB,C

A AA No
No B BB No
C CC

V V

V V V V V

A B C A No B No C No A No B No C No A B C No A No B C

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## SPEED REGULATION- FREQUENCY-VOLTAGE CONTROL

This figure depicts three tension (3 phases) with s
frequency and Vs with a minimum value for near-zero
frequencies. Inputs are come from speed and it not requires
feedback.

## Open loop volts/Hz control with voltage-fed inverter

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

## SPEED REGULATION- FREQUENCY-VOLTAGE CONTROL

Cl
Closed
d loop
l control
t l with
ith volts/Hz
lt /H control
t l and
d slip
li regulation
l ti

48
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

49
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

50
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

51
INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

Example.
Load with constant torque.
q

## Minimum speed= 867 rev/min

Maximum speed= 2600 rev/min

15000
T  55 Nm
2
2600 
60

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

1. Case

## 2-poles motor ∆/Y 230/400

The maximum voltage supply is 380/400 V
Connected in Y, constant flux at 230V/50 Hz

## The maximum and minimum supply frequency is:

60  f
n
p
867 1
f min   14.45 Hz
60
2600 1
f max   43.3 Hz
60

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

to f min
1 1
T  55 Nm  M  55 Nm   70.51 Nm
u
Mn 0.78
to f max
1 1
T  55 Nm  M  55 Nm   57.3 Nm
u
Mn 0.96

Number
Si [[mm]]
Size poles

2
Pu (50 Hz )  70.51 Nm  3000  22.14 kW AM180 MO 2
60

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

2. Case

## 4-poles motor ∆/Y 230/400

The maximum voltage supply is 380/400 V
Connected in Y, constant flux at 230V/50 Hz

## The maximum and minimum supply frequency is:

60  f
n
p
867  2
f mini   28.9 Hz
60
2600  2
f max   86.67 Hz
60

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

to f min
1 1
T  55 Nm  M  55 Nm   64.7 Nm
u
Mn 0.85
to f max
1 1
T  55 Nm  M  55 Nm   112.24 Nm
u
Mn 0.49

Number
Size [mm] poles

2 AM180 MO 4
Pu (50 Hz )  112.24 Nm 1500  17.62 kW
60
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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

3. Case

## 4-poles motor ∆/Y 230/400

The maximum voltage supply is 380/400 V
Connected in ∆, constant flux at 400V/87 Hz

## The maximum and minimum supply frequency is:

60  f
n
p
867  2
f min   28.9 Hz
60
2600  2
f max   86.67 Hz
60

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INDUCTION MOTORS-SCALAR CONTROL

to f min
1 1
T  55 Nm  M  55 Nm   64.7 Nm
u
Mn 0.85
to f max
1 1
T  55 Nm  M  55 Nm   64.7 Nm
u
Mn 0.85

Number
Size [mm] poles

2 AM160 MO 4
Pu (50 Hz )  64.7 Nm 1500  10.16 kW
60
60